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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 434-444, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to increase worldwide. Multiple factors, including diet, loss of the intestinal barrier function, and imbalance of the immune system can cause IBD. A balanced diet is important for maintaining a healthy bowel and preventing IBD from occurring. The effects of probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri-fermented Maillard reaction products (MRPs) prepared by reacting whey protein with galactose on anti-inflammation and intestinal homeostasis were investigated in this study, which compared MPRs and probiotics separately. RESULTS: In an animal colitis model induced by 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), FWG administration alleviated colon length loss and maintained intestinal immune system homeostasis as reflected by down-regulated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α output, and metallopeptidase-9, and epithelial barrier balance as reflected by up-regulated occludin, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1 production in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of splenic cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 was up-regulated in the FWG-treated mice in a comparable amount to the control group to ensure the balance of immune responses. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the use of FWG protects the intestines from colitis caused by DSS and maintains immune balance. FWG increased antioxidant enzyme activity, increased intestinal permeability, and regulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the intestines and spleen. Continued intake of FWG can alleviate IBD symptoms through the preservation of mucosal immune responses, epithelial junction and homeostasis through the regulated splenic cytokines. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus gasseri/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Galactose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Junções Íntimas/genética , Junções Íntimas/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 263-277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807446

RESUMO

There is growing interest in the use of intestinal mucosal products and peptones (partial protein hydrolysates) to enhance the food intake, growth, development, and health of animals. The mucosa of the small intestine consists of the epithelium, the lamina propria, and the muscularis mucosa. The diverse population of cells (epithelial, immune, endocrine, neuronal, vascular, and elastic cells) in the intestinal mucosa contains not only high-quality food protein (e.g., collagen) but also a wide array of low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight functional molecules with enormous nutritional, physiological, and immunological importance. Available evidence shows that intestinal mucosal products and peptones provide functional substances, including growth factors, enzymes, hormones, large peptides, small peptides, antimicrobials, cytokines, bioamines, regulators of nutrient metabolism, unique amino acids (e.g., taurine and 4-hydroxyproline), and other bioactive substances (e.g., creatine and glutathione). Therefore, dietary supplementation with intestinal mucosal products and peptones can cost-effectively improve feed intake, immunity, health (the intestine and the whole body), well-being, wound healing, growth performance, and feed efficiency in livestock, poultry, fish, and crustaceans. In feeding practices, an inclusion level of an intestinal mucosal product or a mucosal peptone product at up to 5% (as-fed basis) is appropriate in the diets of these animals, as well as companion and zoo animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peptonas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Mucosa Intestinal , Intestinos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13034-13044, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723501

RESUMO

Dietary ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn) has been reported to have several health benefits; however, its functional role during colon pathophysiology remains elusive. The present study investigated the anticolitis effect of dietary ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EtnGpls) with high PlsEtn from ascidian muscle (86.2 mol %) and low PlsEtn from porcine liver (7.7 mol %) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Dietary EtnGpls lowered myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proinflammatory cytokines and proapoptosis-related protein levels in colon mucosa after 16 days of DSS treatment, with ascidian muscle (0.1% EtnGpl in diet) showing higher suppression than porcine liver (0.1% EtnGpl in diet). Moreover, dietary EtnGpls suppressed DSS symptoms after 38 days of DSS treatment as evidenced by increased body weight, colon length, and ameliorated colon mucosa integrity. Additionally, dietary EtnGpls elevated short-chain fatty acid production in DSS-treated mice. Altogether, these results indicate the potential of utilizing diets with abundant PlsEtn for the prevention of colon inflammation-related disorders.


Assuntos
Colite , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/genética , Colo/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/metabolismo , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Plasmalogênios , Suínos , Compostos de Vinila
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(40): 6750-6756, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790005

RESUMO

The significance of plasma ascorbic acid (AA) is underscored by its enzymatic and antioxidant properties as well as involvement in many aspects of health including the synthesis of biomolecules during acute illness, trauma and chronic health conditions. Dietary intake supports maintenance of optimal levels with supplementation at higher doses more likely pursued. Transient increased intestinal paracellular permeability following high dose AA may be utilised to enhance delivery of other micronutrients across the intestinal lumen. The potential mechanism following dietary intake however needs further study but may provide an avenue to increase small intestinal nutrient co transport and absorption, including in acute and chronic illness.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Lactulose , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Lactulose/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Permeabilidade
5.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(Supplement_2): S25-S32, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) undergo frequent endoscopic procedures, with visualization of the gastrointestinal mucosa central to treatment decision-making. Subsequently, a noninvasive alternative to optical colonoscopy (OC) would be welcomed. One such technology is capsule endoscopy, including the PillCam COLON 2 (PCC2), though research validating its use in ileocolonic CD is limited. This study aims to compare PCC2 with ileocolonoscopy (OC) in assessing mucosal CD through use of a standardized scoring system. METHODS: At an Australian tertiary hospital, same-day PCC2 and ileocolonoscopy results of 47 CD patients, with known nonstricturing disease, were prospectively collected and analyzed for correlation and agreement. Deidentified recordings were reported by a single expert gastroenterologist. Mucosal disease was quantified using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). The SES-CD results of paired endoscopic modalities were compared in total per bowel segment and per SES-CD variable. RESULTS: Of 47 PCC2 recordings, 68% were complete, fully assessing terminal ileum to rectum, and OC was complete in 89%. Correlation (r) between total SES-CD scores was strongest in the terminal ileum (r = 0.77, P < .001), with the SES-CD variable of "ulcer detection" showing the strongest agreement. The PCC2 (vs OC) identified additional ulcers in the terminal ileum; ascending, transverse, and descending colon; and rectum; scores were 5 (1), 5 (3), 1 (1), 2 (1), and 2 (2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PCC2 shows promise in assessing ileocolonic mucosa, especially in proximal bowel segments, with greater reach of visualization in the small bowel. Given the resource and safety considerations raised by the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, capsule endoscopy has particular significance.This article aims to contribute to the limited body of research surrounding the validity of capsule endoscopy technology in assessing ileocolonic mucosa in Crohn's Disease patients. In doing so, an alternative option for patients enduring frequent endoscopies is given potential.


Assuntos
Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonoscopia/métodos , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Úlcera/diagnóstico por imagem , Cicatrização , Austrália , COVID-19 , Cápsulas Endoscópicas , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768787

RESUMO

The intestinal barrier plays an extremely important role in maintaining the immune homeostasis of the gut and the entire body. It is made up of an intricate system of cells, mucus and intestinal microbiota. A complex system of proteins allows the selective permeability of elements that are safe and necessary for the proper nutrition of the body. Disturbances in the tightness of this barrier result in the penetration of toxins and other harmful antigens into the system. Such events lead to various digestive tract dysfunctions, systemic infections, food intolerances and autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic and probiotic bacteria, and the compounds they secrete, undoubtedly affect the properties of the intestinal barrier. The discovery of zonulin, a protein with tight junction regulatory activity in the epithelia, sheds new light on the understanding of the role of the gut barrier in promoting health, as well as the formation of diseases. Coincidentally, there is an increasing number of reports on treatment methods that target gut microbiota, which suggests that the prevention of gut-barrier defects may be a viable approach for improving the condition of COVID-19 patients. Various bacteria-intestinal barrier interactions are the subject of this review, aiming to show the current state of knowledge on this topic and its potential therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(11): 3000605211059936, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786994

RESUMO

Sulphur-containing compounds have been linked to colorectal cancer by factors such as the presence of methyl mercaptan in intestinal gas and long-term dietary intake associated with sulphur-metabolizing microbiota. Therefore, this current case report hypothesized that active sulphur metabolism in colorectal cancer results in the formation of sulphur compounds in the intestine and, thus, examined sulphur metabolites possibly associated with sulphur respiration in colon cancer tissues. The patient was a 73-year-old female that underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer. During the surgery, colon cancer tissues and normal intestinal mucosa samples were collected. After optimizing the sample concentrations for homogenization (pre-treatment), the samples were stabilized using a hydroxyphenyl-containing derivative and the relevant metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that cysteine persulfide and cysteine trisulfide levels were higher in colon cancer tissues than in normal mucosal tissues. Thus, sulphur metabolism, possibly sulphur respiration, is enhanced in colon cancer tissues.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Enxofre , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 740662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790587

RESUMO

Human parechovirus (PeV-A), one of the species within the Picornaviridae family, is known to cause disease in humans. The most commonly detected genotypes are PeV-A1, associated with mild gastrointestinal disease in young children, and PeV-A3, linked to severe disease with neurological symptoms in neonates. As PeV-A are detectable in stool and nasopharyngeal samples, entry is speculated to occur via the respiratory and gastro-intestinal routes. In this study, we characterized PeV-A1 and PeV-A3 replication and tropism in the intestinal epithelium using a primary 2D model based on human fetal enteroids. This model was permissive to infection with lab-adapted strains and clinical isolates of PeV-A1, but for PeV-A3, infection could only be established with clinical isolates. Replication was highest with infection established from the basolateral side with apical shedding for both genotypes. Compared to PeV-A1, replication kinetics of PeV-A3 were slower. Interestingly, there was a difference in cell tropism with PeV-A1 infecting both Paneth cells and enterocytes, while PeV-A3 infected mainly goblet cells. This difference in cell tropism may explain the difference in replication kinetics and associated disease in humans.


Assuntos
Parechovirus , Infecções por Picornaviridae , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Parechovirus/genética
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706849, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722327

RESUMO

Growing evidence has demonstrated that stress triggers gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. This study aimed to investigate how the acute cold water-immersion restraint (CWIR) stress affects intestinal injury and gut microbiota (GM) distribution. Male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a CWIR animal model. Hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining were performed to assess intestinal histopathological changes. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and immune cell infiltration in the intestinal tissues. The gut permeability and intestinal occludin protein expression were determined through fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran detection and western blot, respectively. GM profiles were analyzed via high-throughput sequencing of the fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that CWIR induced more severe intestinal mucosal injury compared to the control, leading to a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α expression, but no infiltration of neutrophil and T cells. CWIR also resulted in GI disruption and increased the permeability of the intestinal mucosa. GM profiles showed that CWIR reduced GM diversity of mice compared with the control group. Specifically, aerobic and gram-negative bacteria significantly increased after CWIR, which was associated with the severity of gut injury under stress. Therefore, acute CWIR leads to severe intestinal damage with inflammation and disrupts the GM homeostasis, contributing to decreased GM diversity. Our findings provide the theoretical basis for the further treatment of intestinal disorders induced by CWIR.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Imersão , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água
10.
Science ; 374(6568): eabe6723, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735226

RESUMO

A diverse group of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) helps protect the mammalian intestine from varied microbial challenges. We show that small proline-rich protein 2A (SPRR2A) is an intestinal antibacterial protein that is phylogenetically unrelated to previously discovered mammalian AMPs. In this study, SPRR2A was expressed in Paneth cells and goblet cells and selectively killed Gram-positive bacteria by disrupting their membranes. SPRR2A shaped intestinal microbiota composition, restricted bacterial association with the intestinal surface, and protected against Listeria monocytogenes infection. SPRR2A differed from other intestinal AMPs in that it was induced by type 2 cytokines produced during helminth infection. Moreover, SPRR2A protected against helminth-induced bacterial invasion of intestinal tissue. Thus, SPRR2A is a distinctive AMP triggered by type 2 immunity that protects the intestinal barrier during helminth infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ricas em Prolina do Estrato Córneo/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Nematospiroides dubius , Infecções por Strongylida/imunologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proteínas Ricas em Prolina do Estrato Córneo/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Camundongos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Celulas de Paneth/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , Infecções por Strongylida/metabolismo , Infecções por Strongylida/microbiologia
11.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(9): 1110-1115, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible mechanism of ultrasound therapy in the rat model of sepsis. METHODS: Seventy-eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Sham group (n = 12), septic model group (n = 22), ultrasound treatment group (n = 22), methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA) combined with ultrasound treatment group (n = 22). In the Sham group, only the abdomen was opened, the cecum was found to be free, without cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In the septic model group, CLP was used to replicate the septic rat model. After operation, each group of rats were subcutaneously injected with preheated 37 centigrade normal saline. The rats in the ultrasound treatment group were treated with ultrasound [Philips IU22 L9-3 ultrasound instrument and 9 MHz probe were used to break the sequence in the spleen area once every 6 seconds, with 1 second for each time, the mechanical index (MI) was 0.72, and the treatment time was 10 minutes]. In the MLA combined with ultrasound treatment group, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) specific blocker MLA 4 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 30 minutes before operation, and ultrasound treatment was performed 2 hours after operation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1ß, IL-6) in serum of each group were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 24 hours after operation. The 10-day survival rate of each group was recorded, and the symptoms of each group were evaluated by clinical disease score (CDS). The histopathological changes of lung and colon were observed under light microscope. RESULTS: Compared with the Sham group, the 10-day survival rate of rats in the septic model group was decreased significantly [40% (4/10) vs. 100% (6/6)], the CDS was (10.73±2.19 vs. 6.17±0.58) and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß were increased significantly at 24 hours after operation [TNF-α (ng/L): 42.00±8.92 vs. 13.16±3.19, IL-6 (ng/L): 129.37±25.04 vs. 63.99±12.92, IL-1ß (ng/L): 254.98±67.27 vs. 76.83±25.39, all P < 0.01]. Compared with the septic model group, the survival rate in the ultrasound treatment group was improved [70% (7/10) vs. 40% (4/10)], but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). The CDS (7.64±2.68 vs. 10.73±2.19) and the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß were significantly reduced at 24 hours after operation [TNF-α (ng/L): 16.93±6.02 vs. 42.00±8.92, IL-6 (ng/L): 73.65±24.38 vs. 129.37±25.04, IL-1ß (ng/L): 111.86±14.08 vs. 254.98±67.27, all P < 0.01]. Compared with the ultrasound treatment group, the survival rate in the MLA combined with ultrasound treatment group was reduced [60% (6/10) vs. 70% (7/10)], but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CDS was significantly increased (9.55±2.72 vs. 7.64±2.68), and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß were significantly increased at 24 hours after operation [TNF-α (ng/L): 34.61±7.89 vs. 16.93±6.02, IL-6 (ng/L): 112.92±10.42 vs. 73.65±24.38, IL-1ß (ng/L): 212.57±32.16 vs. 111.86±14.08, all P < 0.01]. Microscopically, in the septic model group, the alveolar septum was thickened, a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated, normal pulmonary reticular structure disappeared, and pulmonary interstitium showed obvious hemorrhage and edema, meanwhile, the structure of colonic villi was obviously abnormal, with cells were edema and inflammatory cell infiltration, and the arrangement was disordered, so that the subepithelial space and the top of it fell off. After ultrasound treatment, the thickness of the alveolar interval in rats was similar to that in Sham group, without obvious inflammatory cell infiltration, and the pulmonary reticular structure was relatively intact. At the same time, the morphology of colonic villi was basically normal and orderly, the edema of cell was not obvious, and subcutaneous space and tip fall off were not obvious. After being antagonized by MLA, the rat lung tissue showed thickened alveolar septum, inflammatory cell infiltration, incomplete pulmonary network structure, hemorrhage and edema in the interstitium. The villi structure of the colon was faintly visible, with obvious cell edema and inflammatory cell infiltration, and the arrangement was abnormal. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound treatment improves the prognosis of septic rats, MLA can reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of ultrasound therapy by antagonizing α7nAChR, suggesting that the protective mechanism of ultrasound in sepsis may be related to activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by α7nAChR.


Assuntos
Sepse , Animais , Ceco , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/terapia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
Croat Med J ; 62(5): 435-445, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730883

RESUMO

AIM: To determine which flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) channel best visualizes colon mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) and to compare FICE imaging with standard imaging. METHODS: The study enrolled patients with ulcerative colitis in remission who had inflammatory bowel disease for at least 8 years. All patients underwent screening colonoscopy. The entire colon, especially the suspicious areas in terms of dysplasia, were imaged with standard endoscopy and FICE. Random and target biopsies were obtained. Histopathological diagnosis was made and image patterns were evaluated. Seven endoscopists evaluated normal, colitis, and polyp images obtained with FICE. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-three colon segments were evaluated and 1831 images were obtained from 18 patients. A total of 1652 images were FICE and 179 were standard images. Separate FICE images were obtained for normal colon mucosa, polypoid lesions, and colitis areas. Normal colon mucosa was best visualized using the second, sixth, and ninth FICE channel; polyps using the third, seventh, and ninth channel; and colitis using the second, third, and ninth channel. When all images were analyzed, the second and ninth channel were significantly better than the other channels. A total of 584 biopsies were obtained, including 492 (84.2%) random biopsies and 92 (15.7%) target biopsies. Random biopsies detected no dysplasia, but target biopsies detected low-grade dysplasia in three diminutive polyps. CONCLUSION: FICE was not significantly better at dysplasia screening than the standard procedure, but it effectively detected diminutive polyps and evaluated surface patterns without using magnification. FICE might contribute to the assessment of inflammation severity in patients with UC in clinical remission. However, more extensive studies are necessary to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonoscopia , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(12): 101462, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731734

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of zinc (Zn) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal development and intestinal barrier function in Pekin ducks. A total of 480, one-day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into 6 groups with 8 replicates: 0 mg/kg Zn, 0 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 30 mg/kg Zn, 30 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg LPS, 120 mg/kg Zn, 120 mg/kg Zn +0.5 mg/kg LPS. The duck primary intestinal epithelial cells (DIECs) were divided into 6 groups: D-Zn (Zinc deficiency, treated with 2 µmol/L zinc Chelator TPEN), A-Zn (Adequate Zinc, basal medium), H-Zn (High level of Zn, supplemented with 20 µmol/L Zn), D-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS, A-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS, H-Zn + 20 µg/mL LPS. The results were as follows: in vivo, with Zn supplementation of 120 mg/kg reduced LPS-induced decrease of growth performance and intestine damage (P < 0.05), and increased intestinal digestive enzyme activity of Pekin ducks (P < 0.05). In addition, Zn supplementation also attenuated LPS-induced intestinal epithelium permeability (P < 0.05), inhibited LPS-induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.05), as well as reduced LPS-induced the intestinal stem cells mobilization of Pekin ducks (P < 0.05). In vitro, 20 µmol/L Zn inhibited LPS-induced expression of inflammatory factors and apoptosis-related genes (P < 0.05), promoted the expression of cytoprotection-related genes, and attenuated LPS-induced intestinal epithelium permeability in DIECs (P < 0.05). Mechanistically, 20 µmol/L Zn enhanced tight junction protein markers including CLDN-1, OCLD, and ZO-1 both at protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05), and also increased the level of phosphorylation of TOR protein (P < 0.05) and activated the TOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, Zn improves growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and intestinal barrier function of Pekin ducks. Importantly, Zn also reverses LPS-induced intestinal barrier damage via enhancing the expression of tight junction proteins and activating the TOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Patos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Zinco
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1127-34, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury and expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice at different time points. METHODS: A total of 51 C57BL/6N mice were randomized into a 7-day control group (n=8), a 7-day model group (n=7), a 7-day moxibustion group (n=7), a 14-day control group (n=6), a 14-day model group (n=14) and a 14-day moxibustion group (n=9). In the model groups and the moxibustion groups, 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was given for 7-day free drinking to establish the UC model. Three days into modeling, moxibustion was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the 7-day moxibustion group and the 14-day moxibustion group, once a day, 10 min a time for 5 days and 12 days respectively. HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colonic tissue, the percentages of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury were calculated. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detected the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa. RESULTS: Mucosal injury can be observed in mice after modeling, displaying epithelial layer disappearance, abnormal crypt structure or crypt disappearance. Compared with the 7-day control group, colon length was shortened (P<0.001), percentages of overall, distal, middle colonic mucosal injury were increased (P<0.001), the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were increased (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.01) in the 7-day model group. Compared with the 7-day model group, the expressions of positive nerve fibers of middle and distal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were decreased in the 7-day moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the 14-day control group, the colon length was shortened (P<0.01), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was increased (P<0.001) in the 14-day model group. Compared with the 14-day model group, colon length was lengthened (P<0.05), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was decreased (P<0.05) in the 14-day moxibustion group. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) can reduce the expressions of positive nerve fibers of colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa, thus, improve the colonic mucosal injury.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Moxibustão , Animais , Calcitonina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Nervosas
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(10): 4789-4799, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study analysed threonine-phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3L-Thr) expression and investigated whether pSmad2/3L-Thr is related to the transition from human colorectal adenoma (CRA) to carcinoma (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunofluorescent staining was performed forß-catenin, p53, CDK4, Ki67, Sox9, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1, and pSmad2/3L-Thr. RESULTS: We analysed specimens of diffuse p53-positive CRCs arising from p53-negative CRAs. Percentage of p53, nuclear ß-catenin, Ki67, CDK4, and pSmad2/3L-Thr-positive cells at the site of CRCs was significantly higher than that at the site of CRAs. At the site of normal colorectal mucosae, few epithelial cells were stained positively for pSmad2/3L-Thr. At the site of CRCs, pSmad2/3L-Thr-positive cells showed co-localization with p53, nuclear ß-catenin, and ALDH1. At any site, pSmad2/3L-Thr-positive cells showed co-localization with CDK4. CONCLUSION: pSmad2/3L-Thr correlates with human CRC carcinogenesis, and pSmad2/3L-Thr-positive cells show human colorectal stem cell-like and cancer stem cell characteristics.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Fosforilação , Treonina/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639088

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and intestinal dysbiosis might contribute to its pathogenesis. The mucosal colon microbiome and C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) were investigated in 20 healthy controls (HC) and 20 CRC patients using 16S rRNA sequencing and immunoluminescent assay, respectively. A total of 10 HC subjects were classified as overweight/obese (OW/OB_HC) and 10 subjects were normal weight (NW_HC); 15 CRC patients were classified as OW/OB_CRC and 5 patients were NW_CRC. Results: Fusobacterium nucleatum and Escherichia coli were more abundant in OW/OB_HC than in NW_HC microbiomes. Globally, Streptococcus intermedius, Gemella haemolysans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli were significantly increased in CRC patient tumor/lesioned tissue (CRC_LT) and CRC patient unlesioned tissue (CRC_ULT) microbiomes compared to HC microbiomes. CCL2 circulating levels were associated with tumor presence and with the abundance of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis and Gemella haemolysans. Our data suggest that mucosal colon dysbiosis might contribute to CRC pathogenesis by inducing inflammation. Notably, Fusobacterium nucleatum, which was more abundant in the OW/OB_HC than in the NW_HC microbiomes, might represent a putative link between obesity and increased CRC risk.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639101

RESUMO

A well-functional intestinal mucosal barrier can be compromised as a result of various diseases, chemotherapy, radiation, and chemical exposures including surfactants. Currently, there are no approved drugs targeting a dysfunctional intestinal barrier, which emphasizes a significant medical need. One candidate drug reported to regulate intestinal mucosal permeability is melatonin. However, it is still unclear if its effect is primarily receptor mediated or antioxidative, and if it is associated with enteric neural pathways. The aim of this rat intestinal perfusion study was to investigate the mechanisms of melatonin and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the increase in intestinal mucosal clearance of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetate induced by 15 min luminal exposure to the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate. Our results show that melatonin abolished the surfactant-induced increase in intestinal permeability and that this effect was inhibited by luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist. In addition, mecamylamine, an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, reduced the surfactant-induced increase in mucosal permeability, using a signaling pathway not influenced by melatonin receptor activation. In conclusion, our results support melatonin as a potentially potent candidate for the oral treatment of a compromised intestinal mucosal barrier, and that its protective effect is primarily receptor-mediated.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Jejuno/prevenção & controle , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Receptores de Melatonina/metabolismo , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Doenças do Jejuno/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Jejuno/metabolismo , Doenças do Jejuno/patologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638730

RESUMO

Intestinal dysfunction of farm animals, such as intestinal inflammation and altered gut microbiota, is the critical problem affecting animal welfare, performance and farm profitability. China has prohibited the use of antibiotics to improve feed efficiency and growth performance for farm animals, including poultry, in 2020. With the advantages of maintaining gut homeostasis, enhancing digestion, and absorption and modulating gut microbiota, organic acids are regarded as promising antibiotic alternatives. Butyric and citric acids as presentative organic acids positively impact growth performance, welfare, and intestinal health of livestock mainly by reducing pathogenic bacteria and maintaining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH. This review summarizes the discovery of butyric acid (BA), citric acid (CA) and their salt forms, molecular structure and properties, metabolism, biological functions and their applications in poultry nutrition. The research findings about BA, CA and their salts on rats, pigs and humans are also briefly reviewed. Therefore, this review will fill the knowledge gaps of the scientific community and may be of great interest for poultry nutritionists, researchers and feed manufacturers about these two weak organic acids and their effects on intestinal health and gut microbiota community, with the hope of providing safe, healthy and nutrient-rich poultry products to consumers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais
19.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(9): 811-820, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645146

RESUMO

Objective: To establish an efficient human intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) recombinant expression and purification strategy and to observe the effect of recombinant human ITF (rhITF) on intestinal mucosal injury and repair in burned rats and to explore the mechanism. Methods: The experimental research method was applied. New yeast expression vector pGAPZαA and yeast X33 were used to express recombinant ITF. The protein was purified by metal chelation affinity chromatography and anion and cation exchange chromatography. The rhITF was identified by non-reductive sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western-blotting. The rhITF was mixed with pepsin solution and trypsin solution in a volume ratio of 1∶1, respectively. After mixed with pepsin solution for 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 h and trypsin solution for 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 h, the stability of rhITF was analyzed with non-reductive SDS-PAGE. One hundred and five male BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into sham injury group (n=30), burn alone group (n=45), and burn+rhITF group (n=30) according to the random number table. Mice in burn alone group and burn+rhITF group were inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness burn on the back, while mice in sham injury group were simulated with burn. After burn, mice in burn+rhITF group were intragastrically administered with rhITF of 1 mg/kg, while mice in the other two groups were given the same amount of normal saline. At post injury hour 24, 15 mice in burn alone group were collected to prepare burn serum, which was used in the cell experiment. On post injury day (PID) 3, 5, and 7, 10 mice in each group were sacrificed to collect the small intestinal tissue. The pathological changes of the intestinal mucosa were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the activities of diamine oxidase (DAO) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the intestinal tissue were determined by spectrophotometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Three batches of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were taken and divided into negative control group, 25 µg/mL rhITF group, 50 µg/mL rhITF group (n=3), normal control group, burn serum group, burn serum+rhITF group (n=3), and CK869 inhibitor group, CK666 inhibitor group, solvent control group (n=2), respectively, which were dealt with the corresponding treatment. After 12 h of culture, the migration of cells were observed by Transwell experiment. Another 2 batches of HT-29 cells were taken and each batch of cells were divided into normal control group, burn serum group, and burn serum+rhITF group (n=6). After 24 h of culture, the protein expressions of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), and actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, subunit 1B (ARPC1B) in the cells were detected by Western blotting, and the Rac1 activity of the cells was detected by activated magnetic bead pull-down test. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: Totally 82.35 mg rhITF was gathered from per litre of fermentation broth with protein purity up to 98%, and the rhITF had good antigenicity. The rhITF was stable in pepsin solution and trypsin solution, with 45% rhITF remained after 2.0 h in trypsin solution, and there was 90% rhITF remained after 4.0 h in pepsin solution. At each time point post injury, no hyperemia, or edema was observed in intestinal mucosa of mice in sham injury group, the main pathological manifestations of intestinal mucosa in mice of burn alone group were hyperemia, edema, erosion, and hemorrhage, and the main manifestations of intestinal mucosa of mice in burn+rhITF group were hyperemia and edema on PID 3 and 5, which were alleviated on PID 7. Compared with those of burn alone group, the activities of DAO and LDH in intestinal tissue of mice in sham injury group and burn+rhITF group were significantly increased on PID 3, 5, and 7 (P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). After 12 h of culture, the number of cell migration in 25 µg/mL rhITF group was 58±12, which was obviously more than 16±5 in negative control group (P<0.01) and obviously less than 123±9 in 50 µg/mL rhITF group (P<0.05). After 12 h of culture, the number of cell migration in burn serum group was 60±13, which was significantly less than 143±11 in normal control group and 138±8 in burn serum+rhITF group (P<0.05). After 12 h of culture, the number of cell migration in solvent control group was 155±9, which was significantly more than 33±5 in CK666 inhibitor group and 28±5 in CK869 inhibitor group (P<0.01). After 24 h of culture, the protein expressions of AMPK and Rac1 of cells in burn serum group were close to those of normal control group and burn serum+rhITF group (P˃0.05), the protein expression of p-AMPK of cells in burn serum group was significantly higher than that of normal control group and burn serum+rhITF group, respectively (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the protein expression of ARPC1B of cells in burn serum group was significantly lower than that of normal control group and burn serum+rhITF group (P<0.05). After 24 h of culture, the Rac1 activity of cells in burn serum group was significantly lower than that in normal control group and burn serum+rhITF group, respectively (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: The rhITF obtained in this study has high purity and super stability, which can resist extreme pH and hydrolysis of protease and can relieve intestinal mucosal damage in burned mice. The rhITF can promote the migration of intestinal epithelial cells and accelerate the repair of intestinal mucosa through inhibiting phosphorylation of AMPK to maintain Rac1-Arp2/3 activity.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Animais , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator Trefoil-3
20.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 37(9): 880-884, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645155

RESUMO

Severe burns can lead to persistent hypermetabolism. Studies have shown that early enteral nutrition therapy is related to improving the prognosis of severe burn patients, reducing the mortality rate, and reducing gastrointestinal complications and infectious complications. This article introduces the nutritional benefits and non-nutritive benefits of early enteral nutrition therapy for severe burn patients (maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa function and structure and promoting wound healing), the timing and pathways of nutritional intervention, ways of energy evaluation, and nutritional monitoring, etc., aiming to provide a reference for the clinical decision-making of early enteral nutrition therapy.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Nutrição Enteral , Queimaduras/terapia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Cicatrização
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