Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.972
Filtrar
1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 178: 107651, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306995

RESUMO

Uropeltidae is a clade of small fossorial snakes (ca. 64 extant species) endemic to peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Uropeltid taxonomy has been confusing, and the status of some species has not been revised for over a century. Attempts to revise uropeltid systematics and undertake evolutionary studies have been hampered by incompletely sampled and incompletely resolved phylogenies. To address this issue, we take advantage of historical museum collections, including type specimens, and apply genome-wide shotgun (GWS) sequencing, along with recent field sampling (using Sanger sequencing) to establish a near-complete multilocus species-level phylogeny (ca. 87% complete at species level). This results in a phylogeny that supports the monophyly of all genera (if Brachyophidium is considered a junior synonym of Teretrurus), and provides a firm platform for future taxonomic revision. Sri Lankan uropeltids are probably monophyletic, indicating a single colonisation event of this island from Indian ancestors. However, the position of Rhinophis goweri (endemic to Eastern Ghats, southern India) is unclear and warrants further investigation, and evidence that it may nest within the Sri Lankan radiation indicates a possible recolonisation event. DNA sequence data and morphology suggest that currently recognised uropeltid species diversity is substantially underestimated. Our study highlights the benefits of integrating museum collections in molecular genetic analyses and their role in understanding the systematics and evolutionary history of understudied organismal groups.


Assuntos
Museus , Serpentes , Animais , Filogenia , Serpentes/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sri Lanka
2.
Ann Anat ; 245: 152013, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The care of historical collections in anatomical museums is a highly specialized subject requiring advanced knowledge. When searching for practical information on this subject, the authors were not able to find appropriate literature based on scientific research. The absence of this literature is probably due to the specialized nature of the subject and the poorly defined classification of this type of museum. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review to identify (i) the current state of knowledge of anatomical museology and (ii) the nature and determinants of ongoing research on anatomical museum objects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the main electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus) was conducted to identify relevant studies. The records retrieved were categorized according to thematic similarity and scientific content. Based on these groupings, statistics were created based on the number of eligible papers in each particular group. RESULTS: 61 % of the papers retrieved addressed the history, social issues, or related aspects of contemporary museology; 8 % were technical papers; and 31 % research papers, of which only 8 % were focused on the museum object as the topic of the research. The paper retrieved showed a predominance of works in cultural studies, with surprisingly few applicable to museum practice. Furthermore, there was a lack of consensus in the literature regarding the classification of anatomical museums. CONCLUSIONS: Anatomical museology is a poorly defined concept in the scientific literature and it is a rare topic in contemporary work by anatomical practitioners. The literature review revealed that the debate about the fate of anatomical museums encompasses a broad spectrum of diverse, often disparate scientific fields as well as economic factors that influence the present status and future of these institutions. For these reasons, museum object research is problematic in design, may not be considered worthwhile, or is unattractive from an institutional perspective. The literature survey showed that there is a paucity of work in the available modern literature that provides significant support for museum anatomists.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Museus
3.
Anesthesiology ; 137(6): 666-672, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413785

RESUMO

Thomas Dent Mütter, a Philadelphia plastic surgeon in the 1840s, boldly championed anesthesia when few physicians were convinced of its virtues. He was an early advocate of handwashing and hygienic wound care and helped pioneer the concept of postoperative recovery units. A leader in education, Mütter used a highly interactive style of teaching and restructured medical school classes to raise the caliber of clinical training. He supplemented his lectures with a myriad of specimens that he amassed over 24 yr. In 1863, this vast collection would serve as the basis for the Mütter Museum, which remains active today. Mütter exemplified expertise by tirelessly pursuing new knowledge and methods for the benefit of his patients and students.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões , Masculino , Humanos , Museus , Philadelphia
4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E476-E481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415292

RESUMO

Over the centuries, the oldest universities have amassed an extraordinary patrimony of material and immaterial cultural assets, which have been created or acquired for the purposes of research or teaching. Now on display in museums, they testify to the evolution of knowledge and its diversification in various disciplines. In order to safeguard, conserve and study this precious heritage, we need to implement a cultural project that activates that "process of awareness" on which cataloging is based. This is a "reasoned awareness" that enables an object to be framed within a system of scientific knowledge and historical-critical relationships, which are essential to its conservation and, consequently, to its public exploitation. Through this process, we can uncover the history of an object, its characteristics and its uniqueness. This is the case, for example, of an optical microscope on display in the Museo di Strumentaria medica (Medical Equipment Museum), which is part of the Museum System of the University of Siena.


Assuntos
Museus , Vacinologia , Humanos , Museus/história , Higiene , Universidades
5.
Nature ; 611(7937): 657-659, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411338

Assuntos
Museus , Ciência
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 247: 114240, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323153

RESUMO

The paper discusses the types of fibers contained in the museum textile artifacts and the types of pests and pesticides. Also, the main health problems associated with pesticide exposure are presented. Textile fibers represent an excellent source of food for microbes and insects. The key to the long-term preservation of textiles is by implementing an integrated management program for pest and environmental conditions control. The main types of pesticides are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides, and fumigants and a way for classification can be made according to the LD50 (lethal dose) value which evaluates the toxicity of a pesticide. Depending on the LD50 values, pesticides can be very toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic, and relatively non-toxic. Exposure to pesticides can occur through 4 four routes: oral, dermal, respiratory, and eye exposure. The main diseases that can be associated with exposure to pesticides are discussed in the paper. In the end, a basic set of precautionary recommendations when handling museum objects that may contain hazardous materials was presented.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Museus , Artefatos , Têxteis
7.
Biol Lett ; 18(11): 20220214, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382374

RESUMO

While the latitudinal diversity gradient has received much attention, biodiversity and species richness also vary between continents across similar latitudes. Fossil information can be used to understand the evolutionary mechanisms that generated such variation between continents of similar latitudes. We integrated fossil data into a phylogenetic analysis of the Mauritiinae palms, whose extant diversity is restricted to the Neotropics, but extended across Africa and India during most of the Cenozoic. Mauritiinae diverged from its sister lineage Raphiinae ca 106 Ma. Using ancestral state estimation and a lineage through time analysis, we found that diversity arose globally during the late Cretaceous and Palaeocene across South America, Africa and India. The Palaeocene-Eocene transition (ca 56 Ma) marked the end of global Mauritiinae expansion, and the beginning of their decline in both Africa and India. Mauritiinae disappeared from the Indian subcontinent and Africa at the end of the Eocene and the Miocene, respectively. By contrast, Neotropical diversity steadily increased over the last 80 Myr. Taken together, our results suggest that the Neotropics functioned as a continental-scale refuge for Mauritiinae palms, where lineages survived and diversified while global climatic changes that drastically reduced rainforests led to their demise on other continents.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Museus , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Fósseis
8.
J Hist Biol ; 55(3): 443-463, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326953

RESUMO

In Fall 1939, as war engulfed Europe, the author of one of the most influential texts on genetics and evolution, Theodosius Dobzhansky, wrote a letter to curator of insects at the United States National Museum, Edward Albert Chapin. Dobzhansky wished to know what Chapin thought about his pursuing some taxonomic work on an old fascination of his: lady-bird beetles. This paper examines the resulting correspondence as a window into Dobzhansky's attitude toward taxonomy, the different pressures on geneticists and taxonomists when wrestling with how to name species, the relation between biological theory and taxonomic practice, and how claims regarding human races may have motivated Dobzhansky's continued interest in the work of beetle taxonomists. In doing so, this article builds on the work of Paul Farber and others to highlight the importance of including museums, taxonomy, and the naturalist tradition within the history of twentieth-century biology.


Assuntos
Besouros , Museus , Animais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , História do Século XX , Evolução Biológica , Besouros/genética , Grupos Raciais , Europa (Continente)
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433369

RESUMO

In the present work, a complete non-invasive scientific investigation of six Utagawa Kunisada's woodblock prints (nishiki-e) belonging to the Oriental Art Museum "E. Chiossone" (Genoa, Italy), was performed in situ. The campaign started with high resolution multiband imaging (visible, multiband fluorescence, near infrared) followed by reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) to characterize and highlight the peculiar printing techniques and the condition of the support. Then fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS), spectrofluorimetry, Raman and reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were successfully applied in synergy for the investigation of the printing materials (pigments, binders, support). The results obtained represent a set of very important information for these never-before-studied works of art, useful to the different professionals involved: historians, conservators and curators. The materials identified were completely in agreement with those traditionally used in the Edo period in the 19th century, while the computational imaging technique RTI gave an additional amount of information in terms of surface characterization that could not be overlooked when studying these works of art. RTI data were further processed to enhance the texture visualization.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Museus , Japão , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Itália
10.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(11): 346, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209241

RESUMO

The use of museum preserved specimens to know microbiome in extinct and threatened species has been explored recently. The fishes of the genus Herichthys are distributed mainly in the Pánuco-Tamesí system in Northeastern Mexico, one of the most polluted basins in the country leading to near half of the species be considering as threatened. In this paper we used the hypervariable V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from the 11 species of the genus Herichthys obtained from museum collections to evaluate the potential use of fixed preserved vouchers in the knowledge of gut microbiota diversity and the potential role of sympatric and allopatric speciation of the hosts in the gut microbiome evolution. The 100% of the samples were successfully amplified where the number of amplicons ranged from 4500 from a formaldehyde fixed specimen up to 55,000 in ethanol preserved specimens. Differences in gut microbiota were found between sympatric species and among the comparison of some trophic guilds. A non-random association between the gut host and their microbiome was found allow to suggest a potential phylosymbiosis relationship. In conclusion, the most abundant phyla recovered from the gut microbiota in this study were similar to those previously reported in other cichlids supporting the idea that a gut microbial core is conserved in this group of fishes despite millions of years of evolution and leading to support the potential use of museum specimens in microbiome studies.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Etanol , Formaldeído , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Museus , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(43): e2201540119, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251990

RESUMO

Episodic autobiographical memories are characterized by a spatial context and an affective component. But how do affective and spatial aspects interact? Does affect modulate the way we encode the spatial context of events? We investigated how one element of affect, namely aesthetic liking, modulates memory for location, in three online experiments (n = 124, 79, and 80). Participants visited a professionally curated virtual art exhibition. They then relocated previously viewed artworks on the museum map and reported how much they liked them. Across all experiments, liking an artwork was associated with increased ability to recall the wall on which it was hung. The effect was not explained by viewing time and appeared to modulate recognition speed. The liking-wall memory effect remained when participants attended to abstractness, rather than liking, and when testing occurred 24 h after the museum visit. Liking also modulated memory for the room where a work of art was hung, but this effect primarily involved reduced room memory for disliked artworks. Further, the liking-wall memory effect remained after controlling for effects of room memory. Recalling the wall requires recalling one's facing direction, so our findings suggest that positive aesthetic experiences enhance first-person spatial representations. More generally, a first-person component of positive affect transfers to wider spatial representation and facilitates the encoding of locations in a subject-centered reference frame. Affect and spatial representations are therefore important, and linked, elements of sentience and subjectivity. Memories of aesthetic experiences are also spatial memories of how we encountered a work of art. This linkage may have implications for museum design.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Emoções , Estética , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Museus
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3068686, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211001

RESUMO

This paper discusses the method of fossil digitization combining paleontology and art by using data mining. The aim of the study is to increase the creativity and vitality of museum exhibits and promote scientific exchange. The purpose of the study is to discuss how the interdisciplinary approach will benefit the communication of science and to realize the cooperative development of creative science popularization, art science popularization, dialogue science popularization, and communication science popularization through the cooperation between museums and institutions disseminating and researching science. The research method takes the Jehol Biota in western Liaoning Province of China as an example to explore the methods and approaches to transform museum resources into creative products. Through artificial intelligence data mining and digital reconstruction, data can be used for archaeological research but also for scientific popularization and scientific dissemination of the resources of art transformation. Research results: as the cornerstone to consolidate the digital development of society and economy, "the new infrastructure of artificial intelligence" will start a comprehensive digital transformation. Through the integration of multiple fields and disciplines, museums will change from resource dependence to focus more on market creation, which will promote museum's industry development.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Paleontologia , Comunicação , Mineração de Dados , Museus
13.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274826, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256623

RESUMO

This study shifts the focus away from demonstrating the existence of the effect toward understanding the mechanism by which the effect of AR operates in museum learning. By uncovering and describing the contingencies of AR from the perspectives of learner control, this study investigates how and when AR affects museum learning experiences, and to give insights into curation with AR. A between-subjects experiment was conducted with 48 college students divided into three groups. This study considered both qualitative and quantitative features of learner control and designed the AR control tools and experiment accordingly, and the findings supported the success of integrating the immersive technology of AR and the theoretical framework of learner control to construct museum exhibits. The results showed that visitors are willing to use the provided tools in museum AR and perform steadily in knowledge acquisition. In addition to offering more learner control in museums, AR promotes positive behaviors and attitudes. This study contributes to the field studies of learner control by linking learner control with the critical dimensions of AR-enhanced museum learning to provide more guidance in exhibit design. Based on the findings, practical suggestions on incorporating learner control in AR-based interactive exhibits are provided.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Museus , Humanos , Atitude , Estudantes
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 400-407, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073419

RESUMO

This paper describes the process of co-design of technological products to increase museum accessibility and engagement in visitors with mild or moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). By using an Inclusive Research approach, a multidisciplinary team of experts, including researchers in Users Experience (UX), psychology, and education, museum curators and a group of participants with IDs (n=9) have participated as the research team. Participants with IDs were involved in two rounds of interviews. The first-round interview aimed to explore participants' use and familiarity with technologies and to understand their interest in using technological tools in different contexts. The second-round interview aimed at exploring participants' spontaneous choice between different tools classified as low (easy-to-read vs Augmentative and Alternative Communication) or high-tech (Augmented Reality) aids for acquiring new knowledge within a museum space. The analysis of the interviews revealed that there was a general consistency between previous technology use/experience/interest and the choice of ICT-based products by participants with IDs. These results highlight the importance of emphasizing a multidisciplinary dialogue and the active participation of IDs users to outline methodologies, programs, procedures, and international standards to foster inclusive access to cultural heritage.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Museus , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Pesquisadores , Tecnologia
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 419-426, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073421

RESUMO

This paper addresses the issue of balancing the two values underlying the accessibility and conservation of cultural heritage: its use and its protection. These values are often, wrongly, regarded as opposites, or as incompatible. The reason for this contrast originates in the way of understanding ancient architecture and in the value of the relationship between architecture and people. This issue is considered by presenting a recent case concerning the Museum of Santa Giulia in Brescia, a multi-layered complex that preserves evidence ranging from the prehistoric to the contemporary age, housed in a monastic complex of Longobard origin. The recent failure to build some ramps proposed for increasing accessibility to the church of San Salvatore, an integral part of the museum's itinerary, offers an opportunity to reflect on the need for better integration between different, and only apparently opposed, instances. The topic is dealt with by referring to the most recent disciplinary reflections in the field of conservation carried out in Italy with respect to the issue of accessibility to the cultural heritage, without neglecting juridical-normative aspects and international documents, such as the Faro Convention. This multidisciplinary reading aims to highlight the main significance of accessing cultural heritage, with reference also to the objectives of sustainable development and the human development of the individual and the reference community.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Museus , Humanos , Itália , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 427-434, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073422

RESUMO

Brescia's museums network has adopted and developed in the last years a wide number of ways to make its heritage inclusive and accessible to everyone. Via the creation of different tools and initiatives, Brescia Museums Foundation, that manages the network, is at constant work to ensure the possibility to all members of the public to fully experience the cultural heritage.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Museus
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 443-450, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073424

RESUMO

The Italian museum system made significant progress in terms of accessibility. Despite the considerable increase in the number of people with functional limitations who visit museums, the percentage of those who do not visit museums is still very high, whatever the presence of limitations. Based on this empirical evidence, a new approach to the problem of accessibility becomes necessary. The paper argues in favor of a performative conception of accessibility. More specifically, it will be shown how the approach of relational sociology and the philosophy of gesture allow for elaborating a broader notion of accessibility than the prescriptive one that currently inspires most interventions. By redefining accessibility in terms of a social relationship that combines the adaptive dimension with the transmission of meanings, new possibilities emerge to make a museum visit an attractive and engaging experience. This guiding idea started to be implemented through the experimental project Smart Cultural Heritage 4 All realized at the Museo Sannitico of Campobasso (Italy).


Assuntos
Gestos , Filosofia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Museus , Sociologia
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 483-490, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073429

RESUMO

Large museums as services to the community, can be considered strategic facilities needing exploitation after the health emergency. Through optimising usability, some methodologies and tools taken from other building uses (hospitals, airports) for analysing users and flows seem effective in testing new spaces' uses. The case study of Mercati Traianei-Museo dei Fori Imperiali was investigated in two different periods and methods for comparing the impacting factors on usability and orientation of visiting routes. A direct analysis in 2015 detected crucial issues for walking through museum routes and connections, while a more recent indirect analysis went deeper through configurational methodologies included in the Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS). This methodology empowers analysis of the space syntax, and the factors affecting the visitors' satisfaction. The two methods were found to be effective for a deeper knowledge of the museum and its priorities. Tools of direct on-site observation are essential to promptly identify obstacles for upgrading usability. Instead, the configurational analysis allows a much faster application and supports a more global and dynamic vision of more inclusive visiting routes, avoiding visitors' stigmatisation.


Assuntos
Museus , Satisfação Pessoal
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 491-498, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073430

RESUMO

United Nations' Agenda 2030 highlights the need to "make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable" (SDG 11) and reduce inequalities (SDG 10) for the good health and well-being (SDG 3) of the citizens. Although most Italian museums have been forced to comply with the rules for accessibility in public spaces since 1971 following Law 30/3/1971 n. 118 and, more recently, Legislative Decree 81/2008, in this context, Universal Design can contribute to the achievement of these goals by improving accessibility to spaces, services, and the community's well-being on the one hand, along with providing a deeper comprehension and awareness of the informational processes on the other hand. In this regard, museum organizations play a critical role in enhancing the quality of life and society's education by preserving and distributing cultural heritage over time. Despite the large number of studies focused on museum organizations, there is little research that takes into account Universal Design and its macro-and firm-level economic benefits on museum institutions (not-for-profit, public, and private). Considering this research gap, this study's aim is twofold: 1) to explore how some Italian museums have actually improved their facilities and services according to Universal Design principles and 2) to assess the economic museum accessibility. A qualitative methodology was applied using a questionnaire delivered to eight Italian museum, and collected data was compared. The findings underline how museums' investments in Universal Design may produce relevant economic benefits, both on the macroeconomic and firm levels, providing guidelines for public policies concerning welfare, transport, environment, education, and well-being. Universal Design principles can lead museums to an increasing convergence toward Sustainable Development Goals, improving their overall economic performance as well as strengthening their role in a more aware and participative society. This study has several relevant implications in terms of both policy and management. Policymakers should promote Universal Design investments in museums in order to ensure accessibility to a greater number of visitors, and cultural institutions should consider accessibility as a specific key management dimension to be monitored and improved.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Design Universal , Humanos , Museus , Qualidade de Vida , Nações Unidas
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 507-514, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073432

RESUMO

The use of cultural sites has been profoundly altered by the recent pandemic events with relevant consequences on the cultural heritage industry. While before the CoVid-19 pandemic access to Cultural Sites used to involve a simplified form of control, in the transitional period between the pandemic and the post-pandemic, additional steps are required. The research aims to combine seemingly distant aspects: counteracting the spread of contagion and reorganising the admission processes to institutes of culture, such as museums. Based on the literature, it has been shown that the parameters determining air quality (temperature, relative humidity, concentration of pollutants, dust, CO2, etc.) influence the state of conservation of works of art, while their interaction with the spread of the epidemic has been slightly investigated. The research seeks to find innovative technological solutions to allow access and safe visits to the greatest possible number of users. A conscious design, therefore, must be put in place to allow everyone to enjoy works of art, exhibitions and shows. This is how the concept of universal design is declined here, introducing the concept of 'safe environment accessibility'. The first results of a research carried out on the microclimate and the air quality inside Tyrannicides Hall at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN) will be presented. A device called 'CapsulART' is designed to be placed at the entrance of a specific room, which acts as a filter and as a decompression chamber to lower the level of pollutants present on people's clothes and shoe soles. Through a reduction in temperature, parameters that may increase the ease of contagion (e.g. sweating) should be decreased.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microclima , Museus , Pandemias
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...