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1.
Urologe A ; 59(3): 326-340, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125448

RESUMO

The significance of electricity for medicine in the modern industrial age should not be underestimated. Particularly in connection with neurasthenia, electrotherapeutic approaches also experienced a boom for domestic use. Thus, electrotherapy reached urology just as it was becoming established as a medical specialty. We analyzed urological manuals and textbooks and objects in the W. P. Didusch Center for Urologic History and the Museum zur Geschichte der Urologie in Berlin to present the wide range of indications for electrotherapy in the emerging field of urology from impotence to urethral strictures and try to highlight the variability of their importance over time.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Neurastenia/história , Urologia/história , Berlim , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/tendências , Eletricidade , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Museus , Neurastenia/terapia , Urologia/tendências
2.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 641-646, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056020

RESUMO

Natural history collections are now being championed as key to broad ecological studies, especially those involving human impacts in the Anthropocene. However, collections are going through a crisis that threatens their present and future value, going beyond underfunding/understaffing to a more damaging practice: current researchers are no longer depositing material. This seems to be especially true for ecological studies that now benefit from historical collections, as those researchers are not trained to think about voucher specimens. We investigated indexed journals in Ecology and Zoology to assess if they have guidelines concerning voucher specimens. Only 4% of ecological journals presently encourage (but mostly do not require) voucher deposition, while 15% of zoological journals encourage it. In the first place, this goes contrary to scientific standards of reproducibility, since specimens are primary data. Secondly, this erodes the legacy we will leave for future researchers, because if this trend goes on unchecked, it will leave a massive gap in collections' coverage, undermining the quality that is presently acclaimed. The scientific community needs a wakeup call to avoid impoverishing the future value of natural history collections. Training and changing researchers' mindsets is essential, but that takes time. For the moment, we propose a stopgap measure: at the minimum, academic journals should encourage authors to deposit specimens in open collections, such as museums and universities.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Museus , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 327-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007156
4.
Dev Genes Evol ; 230(1): 13-26, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002661

RESUMO

The group Xiphosurida (horseshoe "crabs") is today only represented by four species. However, in the fossil record, several dozen species have been described, especially from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years ago). Several species have been interpreted as representatives of Euproops or Belinurus, but there is ongoing discussion which of these species are valid and how they can be differentiated. Recent studies suggested that differences in the timing of individual development could provide information for species distinction, exemplified by studies on Euproops danae (Mazon Creek, USA) and Euproops sp. ("Piesproops"; Piesberg, Germany). For this study, we reinvestigated all Carboniferous xiphosurids from the British Coal Measures stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum London. Size comparisons of the specimens revealed nine size groups; the smaller specimens were originally labelled as Belinurus, the larger ones as Euproops. The nine size groups exhibit five different morphotypes differing in structures surrounding the posterior shield (= thoracetron): spines of different lengths and, in larger specimens, a more or less developed flange. Two of these morphotypes show significantly longer spines than the remaining specimens and could be conspecific as E. anthrax. The remaining specimens are interpreted as growth series of another species, presumably of E. rotundatus. An ontogenetic flange formation is also known from E. danae and the "Piesproops", but the timing differs between all three species. In E. rotundatus, the flange develops rather late, but then comparably abruptly, which makes this development more metamorphic in relation to development in the other species.


Assuntos
Caranguejos Ferradura/classificação , Animais , Fósseis , Caranguejos Ferradura/anatomia & histologia , Caranguejos Ferradura/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Museus , História Natural
5.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 264-265, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982059
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110061, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841931

RESUMO

The use of pollen as a forensic tool for geolocation is a well-established practice worldwide in cases ranging from the provenance of drugs and other illicit materials to tracking the travel of individuals in criminal investigations. Here we propose a novel approach to generation of pollen databases that uses pollen vacuumed from mammal pelts collected historically from international areas that are now deemed too high risk to visit. We present the results of a study we conducted using mammal pelts collected from Mexico. This new investigative technique is important because, although it would seem that the ubiquitous and geo-specific nature of pollen would make pollen analysis among the most promising forensic tools for law enforcement and intelligence agencies, it is not the case. The process is notoriously slow because pollen identification is a tedious task requiring trained specialists (palynologists) who are few in number worldwide, and the reference materials necessary for geolocation usually are rare or absent, especially from regions of the world that are no longer safe to visit because of war or threat of terrorism. Current forensic palynological work is carried out by a few highly trained palynologists who require accurate databases of pollen distribution, especially from sensitive areas, to do their jobs accurately and efficiently. Our project shows the suitability of using the untapped museum pelt resources to support homeland security programs. This first palynological study using museum pelts yielded 133 different pollen and spore types, including 8 moss or fern families, 12 gymnosperm genera and 112 angiosperm species. We show that the palynological print from each region is statistically different with some important clustering, demonstrating the potential to use this technique for geolocation.


Assuntos
Botânica/métodos , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Museus , Pólen , Esporos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecossistema , Humanos
7.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(1): 57-73, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845958

RESUMO

The BoneMedLeg research project was developed to address current research concerns related to the use of skeletal reference collections for forensic purposes. These concerns were partly addressed by amassing a new reference collection which incorporates unclaimed human remains sourced from two municipal cemeteries in the city of Porto, Portugal. Amassed between 2012 and 2014 the collection was developed with permission from and in partnership with the Municipality of Porto, in a manner that is similar to that of other skeletal reference collections in Portugal. Traditionally, municipalities have bequeathed human remains that are cleared from temporary primary and secondary burial plots at local cemeteries and deemed unclaimed, to museums and universities for research purposes. The BoneMedLeg collection currently includes a total of 95 individuals, of which only 81 are fully identified (38 males and 43 females), with ages ranging from 21 days to 94 years, and a mean age of about 62 years. Years of death range from 1969 to 2003, and years of birth from 1891 to 1969. Only about half of the individuals are documented as to cause of death, which includes a considerable diversity of etiologies, from oncological to cardiovascular system disorders, and also traumatic injuries. The collection is more representative of an unskilled working class and aged population, due to one of the main sourced cemeteries disproportionately serving more socioeconomic disadvantaged communities and reflecting the demographics of the city over the past 40 years. In addition to describing the history and curatorial process of the collection in detail, this paper also discusses its broad legal framework and potential biases in its profile and composition which can inform and help plan future research projects.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos , Cemitérios , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Museus , Portugal , Valores de Referência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 300-311, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795600

RESUMO

This paper presents a harsh course of Tongji Medical School.The school was relocated several times, but still kept running though it met with the cataclysm-the World WarⅠand World WarⅡ.By using collections from School History Museum of Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Hospital History Museum of Tongji Medical School as clue and combining the years of itself, it's found that Tongji Medical School is a medical education institution which has Germanic medical educational tradition. The information from this paper has provided the primary sources for research on the origin and development of modern Chinese medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Museus , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Memória , Faculdades de Medicina , Universidades
9.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25039, jan.- dez. 2019. Quadros
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048270

RESUMO

Fundamentado no aporte teórico-metodológico da História Oral, este texto analisa os dez Centros de Memória da Educação Física e Esporte existentes nas universidades federais brasileiras, considerando seus objetivos, funções e estratégias de ação. Para tanto, foram realizadas 36 entrevistas com pessoas que criaram e participaram dessas iniciativas, as quais foram cotejadas com outras fontes documentais. Ao analisarmos essas diferentes fontes, identificamos o quanto esses lugares são representados como espaços que guardam, recuperam, preservam, produzem e divulgam memórias. Por estarem vinculados a instituições universitárias outras funções são mencionadas, notadamente, no que se refere à produção de conhecimento e à formação de pessoas


Based on the theoretical-methodological contribution of Oral History, this text analyzes the ten Memory Centers for Physical Education and Sports operating in Brazilian federal universities, considering their goals, functions and action strategies. Thirtysix interviews were conducted with the people who created and participated in those initiatives, which were compared with other documentary sources. In analyzing these different sources, the article discusses how these places are represented as spaces that keep, recover, preserve, produce and disseminate memories. Because they are linked to university institutions, other functions are mentioned, especially regarding knowledge production and training


Fundamentado en el aporte teórico-metodológico de la Historia Oral, este texto analiza los diez Centros de Memoria de Educación Física y Deporte existentes en las universidades federales brasileñas, considerando sus objetivos, funciones y estrategias de acción. Para ello, fueron realizadas 36 entrevistas con personas que crearon y participaron en esas iniciativas, las cuales fueron verificadas con otras fuentes documentales. Al analizar las diferentes fuentes identificamos que esos lugares son representados como espacios que guardan, recuperan, preservan, producen y divulgan memorias. Por estar vinculados a instituciones universitarias, otras funciones son mencionadas, sobre todo en lo que se refiere a la producción de conocimiento y a la formación de personas


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Universidades , História , Arquivos , Bibliotecas , Memória , Museus
12.
Zootaxa ; 4576(1): zootaxa.4576.1.1, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715772

RESUMO

The Port Elizabeth Museum herpetology collection contains 407 type specimens, representing 70 primary and 55 secondary squamate types. The type series comprise 93 African taxa (84 lizards and 9 snakes), of which 75 are still regarded as valid. It is the third largest primary reptile type collection in Africa. This is the first catalogue of this important African squamate type collection. It provides the original name, original publication date, journal volume number and pagination, reference to illustrations, current name, museum collection number, type locality, and notes on the status of all types and important additional non-type material mentioned in historical descriptions. Photographs of all primary types, as well as original illustrated material are provided.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Museus , Serpentes , África do Sul
13.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.1, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715789

RESUMO

The type specimens of Lecithoceridae which are deposited in the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), Tervuren, Belgium (five species of Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer and two of Homaloxestis Meyrick) were re-examined. The results are: 1) two species of Lecithocera are transferred to Thubdora Park and Torodora Meyrick respectively, with new combinations: Thubdora barbata (Meyrick, 1933), comb. nov. and Torodora semnodora (Meyrick, 1933), comb. nov.; 2) six species which were misidentified as L. barbata are described as new species in the genus Thubdora: T. ealeaensis sp. nov., T. ghesquierei sp. nov., T. gladiator sp. nov., T. kapangaensis sp. nov., T. neobarbata sp. nov. and T. seydeli sp. nov.; 3) four species which were misidentified as L. semnodora are described as new species in the genus Torodora: T. amplignathosa sp. nov. , T. lichanosa sp. nov., T. planusa sp. nov. and T. triloba sp. nov.; 4) L. schoutedeniella Ghesquière is transferred to Dichomeris Hübner of the family Gelechiidae; 5) Homaloxestis pancrocopa Meyrick does not belong to Homaloxestis nor to Lecithoceridae, and should be transferred to a different family of Gelechioidea; 6) a lectotype is designated for Lecithocera semnodora Meyrick, 1933; 7) the species names of Lecithocera eugenopa Meyrick and Homaloxestes chloromorpha Meyrick based on the type-labels under two specimens are revealed as unpublished manuscript names. Illustrations of the adults and their genitalia of all the types are provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Bélgica , Congo , Genitália , Museus
14.
Zootaxa ; 4590(2): zootaxa.4590.2.8, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716098

RESUMO

The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily was first recognized by Erichson (1843) in a much broader sense, including what is now the Cillaeinae. According to Kirejtshuk (2008), there are seven genera and 13 subgenera within Carpophilinae. To date, however, no comprehensive tribal or generic phylogenetic reconstructions have been published for the subfamily. This work constitutes a preliminary stage of a larger project that will address the subfamily in a rigorous taxonomic and systematic framework. A stable taxonomic foundation for Carpophilus species and other Carpophilinae taxa is needed to ensure the validity of future work in the subfamily. Herein we designate lectotypes and paralectotypes and confirm holotypes for 14 species of carpophiline sap beetles following ICZN (1999) articles 73.1 and 74.1.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Londres , Museus , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4623(1): zootaxa.4623.1.5, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716275

RESUMO

The Lecithoceridae of southern Africa are reviewed, based on material preserved in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa. A total of 22 species are recognized including three new species: Idiopteryx jansei sp. nov., Lecithocera minyodes sp. nov. and Protolychnis natalensis sp. nov. Isotypa Janse, 1954 syn. nov. is synonymized with Idiopteryx Walsingham, 1891 and Homaloxestis lophophora Janse, 1954 stat. rev. is raised to species rank, separating it from H. cholopis Meyrick, 1906. In addition, Lecithocera ochrometra Meyrick, 1933 is transferred to Torodora Meyrick, 1894 as T. ochrometra (Meyrick, 1933) comb. nov., Lecithocera officialis Meyrick, 1911 is excluded from Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer, 1853, and Dragmatucha proaula (Meyrick, 1908) is newly reported from Kenya. It is revealed that the male genital figure for Homaloxestis cholopis (Meyrick, 1906) by Janse (1954) was erroneously illustrated, based on a different species which is probably undescribed. Another miss-placed figure of the genitalia by Janse (1954) was also found for Lecithocera aenicta Janse, 1954. Diagnosis, descriptions (only for the new species), depositories of types, and distribution data of all the known species are provided. Images of adults, male and/or female genitalia, and the venation of a few species are illustrated.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , África Austral , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino , Museus , África do Sul
16.
Zootaxa ; 4620(1): zootaxa.4620.1.1, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716286

RESUMO

The personal collection of P.H. Vercammen-Grandjean, which is deposited in the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Switzerland), is revised and a catalogue of holotypes is compiled. The inventory includes data on the holotypes of 92 valid trombiculid species, 18 specimens erroneously labeled as holotypes and 84 specimens designated as holotypes of unpublilshed species (nomina nuda).


Assuntos
Trombiculidae , Animais , Museus , Suíça
17.
Zootaxa ; 4565(2): zootaxa.4565.2.10, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716483

RESUMO

Entocythere cambaria was described by William S. Marshall in 1903 as the first species in what would later become family Entocytheridae. Designated as the type species of Entocythere both by original designation and monotypy, E. cambaria is integral to understanding relationships within the genus. Yet, a type series for E. cambaria was not designated, and specimens used by Marshall to describe the species have since been deemed no longer extant. C.W. Hart Jr. and Dabney Hart assigned a neotype for E. cambaria in 1974, but this specimen was not catalogued into the Invertebrate Zoology Collection at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History, and subsequently disappeared. A specimen, which we believe to be Hart and Hart's intended neotype, was recently discovered, giving us the opportunity to clarify the neotype designation of E. cambaria, and provide a complete description based on modern standards for podocopid ostracods. In addition, based on careful scrutiny of numerous specimens, including the types, we synonymize Entocythere illinoisensis with E. cambaria, and describe in full for the time the adult female of the species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Feminino , Museus
19.
Zootaxa ; 4652(1): zootaxa.4652.1.14, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716894

RESUMO

One new species of the genus Xizicus Gorochov, 1993 is described, namely Xizicus (Eoxizicus) lobicercus sp. nov. from China. In addition, morphological photograph of Xizicus (Eoxizicus) divergrntis (Liu Zhang, 2000) are provided. All the type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Museus , Tamanho do Órgão , Universidades
20.
Zootaxa ; 4648(1): zootaxa.4648.1.3, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716959

RESUMO

The tribe Copiphorini is one of four tribes in the subfamily Conocephalinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). It is easily distinguished from other Tettigoniids by the markedly slanting head shape and the notched frons. This study revises the tribe in Taiwan. The specimens, which were examined for this study, were collected in Taiwan from October 1962 to May 2008 and deposited in the Museum of National Chung Hsing University and National Museum of Natural Science. There are five genera and six species distributed in Taiwan such as Euconocephalus nasutus (Thunberg, 1815), Euconocephalus pallidus (Redtenbacher, 1891), Pseudorhynchus gigas Redtenbacher, 1891, Pyrgocorypha formosana Matsumura Shiraki 1908, Ruspolia lineosa (Walker, 1869), and Xestophrys horvathi Bolivar, 1905. These are redescribed and a key is provided to the genera and species from Taiwan. Notes are given on the habitats and distribution of the species.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema , Museus , Taiwan
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