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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 89(2): 241-256, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622093

RESUMO

Genes of putative reductases of α,ß-unsaturated carboxylic acids are abundant among anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic microorganisms, yet substrate specificity has been experimentally verified for few encoded proteins. Here, we co-produced in Escherichia coli a heterodimeric protein of the facultatively anaerobic marine bacterium Vibrio ruber (GenBank SJN56019 and SJN56021; annotated as NADPH azoreductase and urocanate reductase, respectively) with Vibrio cholerae flavin transferase. The isolated protein (named Crd) consists of the sjn56021-encoded subunit CrdB (NADH:flavin, FAD binding 2, and FMN bind domains) and an additional subunit CrdA (SJN56019, a single NADH:flavin domain) that interact via their NADH:flavin domains (Alphafold2 prediction). Each domain contains a flavin group (three FMNs and one FAD in total), one of the FMN groups being linked covalently by the flavin transferase. Crd readily reduces cinnamate, p-coumarate, caffeate, and ferulate under anaerobic conditions with NADH or methyl viologen as the electron donor, is moderately active against acrylate and practically inactive against urocanate and fumarate. Cinnamates induced Crd synthesis in V. ruber cells grown aerobically or anaerobically. The Crd-catalyzed reduction started by NADH demonstrated a time lag of several minutes, suggesting a redox regulation of the enzyme activity. The oxidized enzyme is inactive, which apparently prevents production of reactive oxygen species under aerobic conditions. Our findings identify Crd as a regulated NADH-dependent cinnamate reductase, apparently protecting V. ruber from (hydroxy)cinnamate poisoning.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases , Vibrio , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Cinamatos , Oxirredução , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Flavinas/química , Transferases , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo
2.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 242024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587863

RESUMO

Previously, we reported an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-1A derivative able to produce succinic acid (SA) from glycerol with net CO2 fixation. Apart from an engineered glycerol utilization pathway that generates NADH, the strain was equipped with the NADH-dependent reductive branch of the TCA cycle (rTCA) and a heterologous SA exporter. However, the results indicated that a significant amount of carbon still entered the CO2-releasing oxidative TCA cycle. The current study aimed to tune down the flux through the oxidative TCA cycle by targeting the mitochondrial uptake of pyruvate and cytosolic intermediates of the rTCA pathway, as well as the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Thus, we tested the effects of deletions of MPC1, MPC3, OAC1, DIC1, SFC1, and SDH1 on SA production. The highest improvement was achieved by the combined deletion of MPC3 and SDH1. The respective strain produced up to 45.5 g/L of SA, reached a maximum SA yield of 0.66 gSA/gglycerol, and accumulated the lowest amounts of byproducts when cultivated in shake-flasks. Based on the obtained data, we consider a further reduction of mitochondrial import of pyruvate and rTCA intermediates highly attractive. Moreover, the approaches presented in the current study might also be valuable for improving SA production when sugars (instead of glycerol) are the source of carbon.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Ácido Succínico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302130, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625917

RESUMO

PARP inhibitors have been developed as anti-cancer agents based on synthetic lethality in homologous recombination deficient cancer cells. However, resistance to PARP inhibitors such as olaparib remains a problem in clinical use, and the mechanisms of resistance are not fully understood. To investigate mechanisms of PARP inhibitor resistance, we established a BRCA1 knockout clone derived from the pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells, which we termed C1 cells, and subsequently isolated an olaparib-resistant C1/OLA cells. We then performed RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis on olaparib-treated C1 and C1/OLA cells. Our results revealed activation of cell signaling pathway related to NAD+ metabolism in the olaparib-resistant C1/OLA cells, with increased expression of genes encoding the NAD+ biosynthetic enzymes NAMPT and NMNAT2. Moreover, intracellular NAD+ levels were significantly higher in C1/OLA cells than in the non-olaparib-resistant C1 cells. Upregulation of intracellular NAD+ levels by the addition of nicotinamide also induced resistance to olaparib and talazoparib in C1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that upregulation of intracellular NAD+ is one of the factors underlying the acquisition of PARP inhibitor resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Piperazinas , Humanos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , NAD , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Proteína BRCA1
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7984, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575630

RESUMO

The extent of surgical resection is an important prognostic factor in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is one of the adjunctive methods available to achieve the maximal surgical resection. In this study, the tumor margins were visualized with the OCT image obtained from a murine glioma model. A commercialized human glioblastoma cell line (U-87) was employed to develop the orthotopic murine glioma model. A swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system of 1300 nm was used for three-dimensional imaging. Based on the OCT intensity signal, which was obtained via accumulation of each A-scan data, an en-face optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) map was drawn. Due to the limited working distance of the focused beam, OAC values decrease with depth, and using the OAC difference in the superficial area was chosen to outline the tumor boundary, presenting a challenge in analyzing the tumor margin along the depth direction. To overcome this and enable three-dimensional tumor margin detection, we converted the en-face OAC map into an en-face difference map with x- and y-directions and computed the normalized absolute difference (NAD) at each depth to construct a volumetric NAD map, which was compared with the corresponding H&E-stained image. The proposed method successfully revealed the tumor margin along the peripheral boundaries as well as the margin depth. We believe this method can serve as a useful adjunct in glioma surgery, with further studies necessary for real-world practical applications.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , NAD , Glioma/patologia , Imageamento Tridimensional
5.
Biotechnol J ; 19(4): e2300567, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581100

RESUMO

An attractive application of hydrogenases, combined with the availability of cheap and renewable hydrogen (i.e., from solar and wind powered electrolysis or from recycled wastes), is the production of high-value electron-rich intermediates such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides. Here, the capability of a very robust and oxygen-resilient [FeFe]-hydrogenase (CbA5H) from Clostridium beijerinckii SM10, previously identified in our group, combined with a reductase (BMR) from Bacillus megaterium (now reclassified as Priestia megaterium) was tested. The system shows a good stability and it was demonstrated to reach up to 28 ± 2 nmol NADPH regenerated s-1 mg of hydrogenase-1 (i.e., 1.68 ± 0.12 U mg-1, TOF: 126 ± 9 min-1) and 0.46 ± 0.04 nmol NADH regenerated s-1 mg of hydrogenase-1 (i.e., 0.028 ± 0.002 U mg-1, TOF: 2.1 ± 0.2 min-1), meaning up to 74 mg of NADPH and 1.23 mg of NADH produced per hour by a system involving 1 mg of CbA5H. The TOF is comparable with similar systems based on hydrogen as regenerating molecule for NADPH, but the system is first of its kind as for the [FeFe]-hydrogenase and the non-physiological partners used. As a proof of concept a cascade reaction involving CbA5H, BMR and a mutant BVMO from Acinetobacter radioresistens able to oxidize indole is presented. The data show how the cascade can be exploited for indigo production and multiple reaction cycles can be sustained using the regenerated NADPH.


Assuntos
Hidrogenase , Hidrogenase/química , NAD , Hidrogênio/química , NADP , Oxirredutases
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 428, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594590

RESUMO

NADH autofluorescence imaging is a promising approach for visualizing energy metabolism at the single-cell level. However, it is sensitive to the redox ratio and the total NAD(H) amount, which can change independently from each other, for example with aging. Here, we evaluate the potential of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of NADH to differentiate between these modalities.We perform targeted modifications of the NAD(H) pool size and ratio in cells and mice and assess the impact on NADH FLIM. We show that NADH FLIM is sensitive to NAD(H) pool size, mimicking the effect of redox alterations. However, individual components of the fluorescence lifetime are differently impacted by redox versus pool size changes, allowing us to distinguish both modalities using only FLIM. Our results emphasize NADH FLIM's potential for evaluating cellular metabolism and relative NAD(H) levels with high spatial resolution, providing a crucial tool for our understanding of aging and metabolism.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , NAD , Camundongos , Animais , NAD/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Oxirredução , Envelhecimento
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1303: 342523, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: l-lactate detection is important for not only assessing exercise intensity, optimizing training regimens, and identifying the lactate threshold in athletes, but also for diagnosing conditions like L-lactateosis, monitoring tissue hypoxia, and guiding critical care decisions. Moreover, l-lactate has been utilized as a biomarker to represent the state of human health. However, the sensitivity of the present l-lactate detection technique is inadequate. RESULTS: Here, we reported a sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for l-lactate detection based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) doped semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots-Pt) with enzymatic cascade reaction. With the help of an enzyme cascade reaction, the l-lactate was continuously oxidized to pyruvic and then reduced back to l-lactate for the next cycle. During this process, oxygen and NADH were continuously consumed, which increased the red fluorescence of Pdots-Pt that responded to the changes of oxygen concentration and decreased the blue fluorescence of NADH at the same time. By comparing the fluorescence intensities at these two different wavelengths, the concentration of l-lactate was accurately measured. With the optimal conditions, the probes showed two linear detection ranges from 0.5 nM to 5.0 µM and 5.0 µM-50.0 µM for l-lactate detection. The limit of detection was calculated to be 0.18 nM by 3σ/slope method. Finally, the method shows good detection performance of l-lactate in both bovine serum and artificial serum samples, indicating its potential usage for the selective analysis of l-lactate for health monitoring and disease diagnosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The successful application of the sensing system in the complex biological sample (bovine serum and artificial serum samples) demonstrated that this method could be used for sensitive l-lactate detection in practical clinical applications. This detection system provided an extremely low detection limit, which was several orders of magnitude lower than methods proposed in other literatures.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico , NAD , Humanos , Atletas , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxigênio , Polímeros
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8355, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594438

RESUMO

Infections with dengue virus (DENV) remain a worldwide public health problem. A number of bona fide cellular targets of DENV have been identified including liver cells. Despite the many lines of evidence confirming the involvement of hepatocytes during DENV infection, only a few studies have used proteomic analysis to understand the modulation of the cellular proteome occurring upon DENV infection. We utilized a 2D-gel electrophoresis analysis to identify proteins that were differentially regulated by DENV 2 infection of liver (Hep3B) cells at 12 h post infection (hpi) and at 48 hpi. The analysis identifies 4 proteins differentially expressed at 12 hpi, and 14 differentially regulated at 48 hpi. One candidate protein identified as downregulated at 48 hpi in the proteomic analysis (GAPDH) was validated in western blotting in Hep3B cells, and subsequently in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human hepatocytes. The reduced expression of GAPDH was coupled with an increase in NADH, and a significantly reduced NAD + /NADH ratio, strongly suggesting that glycolysis is down regulated in response to DENV 2 infection. Metformin, a well characterized drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, is an inhibitor of hepatic gluconeogenesis was shown to reduce the level of DENV 2 infection and new virus production. Collectively these results show that although glycolysis is reduced, glucose is still required, possibly for use by the pentose phosphate pathway to generate nucleosides required for viral replication.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Proteômica , NAD/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Fígado/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Proteoma/metabolismo , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo
9.
Endocrinology ; 165(5)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565429

RESUMO

NAD+ is one of the most important metabolites for cellular activities, and its biosynthesis mainly occurs through the salvage pathway using the nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) enzyme. The main nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) consumers, poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases and sirtuins enzymes, are heavily involved in DNA repair and chromatin remodeling. Since cancer cells shift their energy production pathway, NAD levels are significantly affected. NAD's roles in cell survival led to the use of NAD depletion in cancer therapies. NAMPT inhibition (alone or in combination with other cancer therapies, including endocrine therapy and chemotherapy) results in decreased cell viability and tumor burden for many cancer types. Many NAMPT inhibitors (NAMPTi) tested before were discontinued due to toxicity; however, a novel NAMPTi, KPT-9274, is a promising, low-toxicity option currently in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Sirtuínas , Humanos , NAD/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reparo do DNA , Sirtuínas/genética
10.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567911

RESUMO

The antibiotic heliomycin (resistomycin), which is generated from Streptomyces resistomycificus, has multiple activities, including anticancer effects. Heliomycin was first described in the 1960s, but its clinical applications have been hindered by extremely low solubility. A series of 4-aminomethyl derivatives of heliomycin were synthesized to increase water solubility; studies showed that they had anti-proliferative effects, but the drug targets remained unknown. In this study, we conducted cellular thermal shift assays (CETSA) and molecular docking simulations to identify and validate that heliomycin and its water-soluble derivative, 4-(dimethylaminomethyl)heliomycin (designated compound 4-dmH) engaged and targeted with sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in p53-functional SAS and p53-mutated HSC-3 oral cancer cells. We further addressed the cellular outcome of SIRT1 inhibition by these compounds and found that, in addition to SIRT1, the water-soluble 4-dmH preferentially targeted a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX, ENOX2). The direct binding of 4-dmH to tNOX decreased the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ which diminished NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase activity, ultimately inducing apoptosis and significant cytotoxicity in both cell types, as opposed to the parental heliomycin-induced autophagy. We also observed that tNOX and SIRT1 were both upregulated in tumor tissues of oral cancer patients compared to adjacent normal tissues, suggesting their clinical relevance. Finally, the better therapeutic efficacy of 4-dmH was confirmed in tumor-bearing mice, which showed greater tNOX and SIRT1 downregulation and tumor volume reduction when treated with 4-dmH compared to heliomycin. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that the multifaceted properties of water-soluble 4-dmH enable it to offer superior antitumor value compared to parental heliomycin, and indicated that it functions through targeting the tNOX-NAD+-SIRT1 axis to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Compostos Policíclicos , Sirtuína 1 , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , NAD/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Apoptose , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 326(5): G483-G494, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573193

RESUMO

Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) releases the energy stored in fat to maintain basic biological processes. Dehydrogenation is a major way to oxidize fatty acids, which needs NAD+ to accept the released H+ from fatty acids and form NADH, which increases the ratio of NADH/NAD+ and consequently inhibits FAO leading to the deposition of fat in the liver, which is termed fatty liver or steatosis. Consumption of alcohol (ethanol) initiates simple steatosis that progresses to alcoholic steatohepatitis, which constitutes a spectrum of liver disorders called alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). ALD is linked to ethanol metabolism. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), microsomal ethanol oxidation system (MEOS), mainly cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), and catalase. ADH also requires NAD+ to accept the released H+ from ethanol. Thus, ethanol metabolism by ADH leads to increased ratio of NADH/NAD+, which inhibits FAO and induces steatosis. CYP2E1 directly consumes reducing equivalent NADPH to oxidize ethanol, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to cellular injury. Catalase is mainly present in peroxisomes, where very long-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids are oxidized, and the resultant short-chain fatty acids will be further oxidized in mitochondria. Peroxisomal FAO generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is locally decomposed by catalase. When ethanol is present, catalase uses H2O2 to oxidize ethanol. In this review, we introduce FAO (including α-, ß-, and ω-oxidation) and ethanol metabolism (by ADH, CYP2E1, and catalase) followed by the interaction between FAO and ethanol metabolism in the liver and its pathophysiological significance.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas , Humanos , Catalase , NAD , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos
12.
Microbiol Res ; 283: 127692, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508088

RESUMO

NADP/NADPH plays an indispensable role in cellular metabolism, serving as a pivotal cofactor in numerous enzymatic processes involved in anabolic pathways, antioxidant defense, and the biosynthesis of essential cellular components. NAD/NADH kinases (NADKs) phosphorylate NAD/NADH, constituting the sole de novo synthetic pathway for NADP/NADPH generation. Despite the pivotal role of NADP/NADPH in cellular functions, the physiological role of NADK remains largely unexplored in filamentous fungi. In this study, we identified three putative NADKs in Fusarium graminearum-FgNadk1, FgNadk2, and FgNadk3-responsible for NAD/NADH phosphorylation. NADK-mediated formation of intracellular NADPH proved crucial for vegetative growth, sexual reproduction, and virulence. Specifically, FgNadk2, the mitochondrial NADK, played a role in oxidative stress resistance and the maintenance of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels. Moreover, the deletion of FgNADK2 resulted in arginine auxotrophy, contributing to the reduced fungal virulence. These findings underscore the necessity of mitochondrial NADK in fungal virulence in F. graminearum, revealing its involvement in mitochondrial redox homeostasis and the arginine biosynthetic pathway. This study provides critical insights into the interconnectedness of metabolic pathways essential for fungal growth, stress response, and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Fusarium , NAD , Virulência , NAD/metabolismo , NADP/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredução , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
13.
Biochemistry ; 63(8): 1016-1025, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546289

RESUMO

Kinetic parameters are reported for glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH)-catalyzed hydride transfer from the whole substrate glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) or truncated substrate ethylene glycol (EtG) to NAD, and for activation of the hydride transfer reaction of EtG by phosphite dianion. These kinetic parameters were combined with parameters for enzyme-catalyzed hydride transfer in the microscopic reverse direction to give the reaction equilibrium constants Keq. Hydride transfer from G3P is favored in comparison to EtG because the carbonyl product of the former reaction is stabilized by hyperconjugative electron donation from the -CH2R keto substituent. The kinetic data show that the phosphite dianion provides the same 7.6 ± 0.1 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition states for enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the forward [reduction of NAD by EtG] and reverse [oxidation of NADH by glycolaldehyde] directions. The experimental evidence that supports a role for phosphite dianion in stabilizing the active closed form of the GPDH (EC) relative to the ca. 6 kcal/mol more unstable open form (EO) is summarized.


Assuntos
Glicerolfosfato Desidrogenase , Glicerofosfatos , Fosfitos , Glicerolfosfato Desidrogenase/química , NAD/metabolismo , Catálise , Cinética
14.
J Physiol ; 602(5): 891-912, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429930

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle cellular development requires the integrated assembly of mitochondria and other organelles adjacent to the sarcomere in support of muscle contractile performance. However, it remains unclear how interactions among organelles and with the sarcomere relates to the development of muscle cell function. Here, we combine 3D volume electron microscopy, proteomic analyses, and live cell functional imaging to investigate the postnatal reorganization of mitochondria-organelle interactions in skeletal muscle. We show that while mitochondrial networks are disorganized and loosely associated with the contractile apparatus at birth, contact sites among mitochondria, lipid droplets and the sarcoplasmic reticulum are highly abundant in neonatal muscles. The maturation process is characterized by a transition to highly organized mitochondrial networks wrapped tightly around the muscle sarcomere but also to less frequent interactions with both lipid droplets and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Concomitantly, expression of proteins involved in mitochondria-organelle membrane contact sites decreases during postnatal development in tandem with a decrease in abundance of proteins associated with sarcomere assembly despite an overall increase in contractile protein abundance. Functionally, parallel measures of mitochondrial membrane potential, NADH redox status, and NADH flux within intact cells revealed that mitochondria in adult skeletal muscle fibres maintain a more activated electron transport chain compared with neonatal muscle mitochondria. These data demonstrate a developmental redesign reflecting a shift from muscle cell assembly and frequent inter-organelle communication toward a muscle fibre with mitochondrial structure, interactions, composition and function specialized to support contractile function. KEY POINTS: Mitochondrial network organization is remodelled during skeletal muscle postnatal development. The mitochondrial outer membrane is in frequent contact with other organelles at birth and transitions to more close associations with the contractile apparatus in mature muscles. Mitochondrial energy metabolism becomes more activated during postnatal development. Understanding the developmental redesign process within skeletal muscle cells may help pinpoint specific areas of deficit in muscles with developmental disorders.


Assuntos
NAD , Proteômica , Humanos , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , NAD/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo
15.
Protein Sci ; 33(4): e4957, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501509

RESUMO

The human NQO1 (hNQO1) is a flavin adenine nucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the two-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones, being essential for the antioxidant defense system, stabilization of tumor suppressors, and activation of quinone-based chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is overexpressed in several tumors, which makes it an attractive cancer drug target. To decipher new structural insights into the flavin reductive half-reaction of the catalytic mechanism of hNQO1, we have carried serial crystallography experiments at new ID29 beamline of the ESRF to determine, to the best of our knowledge, the first structure of the hNQO1 in complex with NADH. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations of free hNQO1 and in complex with NADH. This is the first structural evidence that the hNQO1 functional cooperativity is driven by structural communication between the active sites through long-range propagation of cooperative effects across the hNQO1 structure. Both structural results and MD simulations have supported that the binding of NADH significantly decreases protein dynamics and stabilizes hNQO1 especially at the dimer core and interface. Altogether, these results pave the way for future time-resolved studies, both at x-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotrons, of the dynamics of hNQO1 upon binding to NADH as well as during the FAD cofactor reductive half-reaction. This knowledge will allow us to reveal unprecedented structural information of the relevance of the dynamics during the catalytic function of hNQO1.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Cristalografia , Temperatura , NAD , Antineoplásicos/química , Flavinas , Cristalografia por Raios X , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)
16.
Protein Sci ; 33(4): e4924, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501590

RESUMO

Targeted delivery of small-molecule drugs via covalent attachments to monoclonal antibodies has proved successful in clinic. For this purpose, full-length antibodies are mainly used as drug-carrying vehicles. Despite their flexible conjugation sites and versatile biological activities, intact immunoglobulins with conjugated drugs, which feature relatively large molecular weights, tend to have restricted tissue distribution and penetration and low fractions of payloads. Linking small-molecule therapeutics to other formats of antibody may lead to conjugates with optimal properties. Here, we designed and synthesized ADP-ribosyl cyclase-enabled fragment antigen-binding (Fab) drug conjugates (ARC-FDCs) by utilizing CD38 catalytic activity. Through rapidly forming a stable covalent bond with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-based drug linker at its active site, CD38 genetically fused with Fab mediates robust site-specific drug conjugations via enzymatic reactions. Generated ARC-FDCs with defined drug-to-Fab ratios display potent and antigen-dependent cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells. This work demonstrates a new strategy for developing site-specific FDCs. It may be applicable to different antibody scaffolds for therapeutic conjugations, leading to novel targeted agents.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD , NAD+ Nucleosidase , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1 , Antígenos CD/química , NAD+ Nucleosidase/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas , NAD/química
17.
Sci Immunol ; 9(93): eadj7238, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489349

RESUMO

Adaptive immunity requires the expansion of high-affinity lymphocytes from a heterogeneous pool. Whereas current models explain this through signal transduction, we hypothesized that antigen affinity tunes discrete metabolic pathways to license clonal lymphocyte dynamics. Here, we identify nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis as a biochemical hub for the T cell receptor affinity-dependent metabolome. Through this central anabolic role, we found that NAD biosynthesis governs a quiescence exit checkpoint, thereby pacing proliferation. Normalizing cellular NAD(H) likewise normalizes proliferation across affinities, and enhancing NAD biosynthesis permits the expansion of lower affinity clones. Furthermore, single-cell differences in NAD(H) could predict division potential for both T and B cells, before the first division, unmixing proliferative heterogeneity. We believe that this supports a broader paradigm in which complex signaling networks converge on metabolic pathways to control single-cell behavior.


Assuntos
Linfócitos , NAD , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Transdução de Sinais
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300541, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483875

RESUMO

Glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes glycerol oxidation to dihydroxyacetone in a NAD+-dependent manner. As an initiator of the oxidative pathway of glycerol metabolism, a variety of functional and structural studies of GDH have been conducted previously. Structural studies revealed intriguing features of GDH, like the flexible ß-hairpin and its significance. Another commonly reported structural feature is the enzyme's octameric oligomerization, though its structural details and functional significance remained unclear. Here, with a newly reported GDH structure, complexed with both NAD+ and glycerol, we analyzed the octamerization of GDH. Structural analyses revealed that octamerization reduces the structural dynamics of the N-domain, which contributes to more consistently maintaining a distance required for catalysis between the cofactor and substrate. This suggests that octamerization may play a key role in increasing the likelihood of the enzyme reaction by maintaining the ligands in an appropriate configuration for catalysis. These findings expand our understanding of the structure of GDH and its relation to the enzyme's activity.


Assuntos
NAD , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar , NAD/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
19.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 255, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429435

RESUMO

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) via the nicotinamide (NAM) salvage pathway. While the structural biochemistry of eukaryote NAMPT has been well studied, the catalysis mechanism of prokaryote NAMPT at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated the NAMPT-mediated salvage pathway is functional in the Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) for the synthesis of NAD+, and the enzyme activity of NAMPT in this bacterium is significantly higher than that of human NAMPT in vitro. Our structural analyses of Xcc NAMPT, both in isolation and in complex with either the substrate NAM or the product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), uncovered significant details of substrate recognition. Specifically, we revealed the presence of a NAM binding tunnel that connects the active site, and this tunnel is essential for both catalysis and inhibitor binding. We further demonstrated that NAM binding in the tunnel has a positive cooperative effect with NAM binding in the catalytic site. Additionally, we discovered that phosphorylation of the His residue at position 229 enhances the substrate binding affinity of Xcc NAMPT and is important for its catalytic activity. This work reveals the importance of NAMPT in bacterial NAD+ synthesis and provides insights into the substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism of bacterial type II phosphoribosyltransferases.


Assuntos
Niacinamida , Xanthomonas campestris , Humanos , Niacinamida/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Nicotinamida/farmacologia , Xanthomonas campestris/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/química , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Fosforilação
20.
Biotechnol J ; 19(3): e2300744, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509791

RESUMO

NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases are crucial biocatalysts for synthesizing chiral compounds. Yet, the industrial implementation of enzymatic redox reactions is often hampered by an insufficient supply of expensive nicotinamide cofactors. Here, a cofactor self-sufficient whole-cell biocatalyst was developed for the enzymatic asymmetric reduction of 2-oxo-4-[(hydroxy)(-methyl)phosphinyl] butyric acid (PPO) to L-phosphinothricin (L-PPT). The endogenous NADP+ pool was significantly enhanced by regulating Preiss-Handler pathway toward NAD(H) synthesis and, in the meantime, introducing NAD kinase to phosphorylate NAD(H) toward NADP+. The intracellular NADP(H) concentration displayed a 2.97-fold increase with the strategy compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a recombinant multi-enzyme cascade biocatalytic system was constructed based on the Escherichia coli chassis. In order to balance multi-enzyme co-expression levels, the strategy of modulating rate-limiting enzyme PmGluDH by RBS strengths regulation successfully increased the catalytic efficiency of PPO conversion. Finally, the cofactor self-sufficient whole-cell biocatalyst effectively converted 300 mM PPO to L-PPT in 2 h without the need to add exogenous cofactors, resulting in a 2.3-fold increase in PPO conversion (%) from 43% to 100%, with a high space-time yield of 706.2 g L-1 d-1 and 99.9% ee. Overall, this work demonstrates a technological example for constructing a cofactor self-sufficient system for NADPH-dependent redox biocatalysis.


Assuntos
NADH NADPH Oxirredutases , NAD , NADP/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
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