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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991

RESUMO

COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(18): 3387-3396, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469122

RESUMO

Quercitrin (Qc) is a well-known flavonoid compound that exerts anti-inflammation effects on various diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like response of Qc and its underlying mechanisms concerning neuroinflammation and neuroplasticity in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behaviors. The results showed a single dose of Qc (10 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect at 2 h postadministration and lasted for at least 3 days. The expressions of neuroplasticity signaling molecules of pCREB/BDNF/PSD95/Synapsin1 were upregulated at 2 h, and ERK signaling was upregulated for 3 days in the hippocampus after a single administration of Oc or ketamine. A 5-day treatment of LPS led to depression-like behaviors, including reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in the tail suspension test or forced swim test, which were all reversed by a single dose of Qc. In LPS-treated mice, Qc reduced the levels of inflammation-related factors including IL-10, IL-1ß, and TNF-α in serum, as well as the activations of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB and MEK/ERK pathways in the hippocampus. Moreover, Qc restored the expressions of pCREB/BDNF/PSD95/Synapsin1 signaling in the hippocampus that were impaired by LPS. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, but not PD98059, a MEK inhibitor, produced effects similar to Qc. LY294002 also restored the expressions of pCREB/BDNF/PSD95/Synapsin1 signaling in the hippocampus impaired by LPS. Additionally, subeffective doses of Qc and LY294002 induced behavioral and molecular synergism. Together, the depression-like behaviors in LPS-treated mice were alleviated by a single dose of Qc likely via inhibition of the activations PI3K/AKT/NF-κB inflammation signaling and subsequent improvement of neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502105

RESUMO

The human brain and central nervous system (CNS) harbor a select sub-group of potentially pathogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), including a well-characterized NF-kB-sensitive Homo sapiens microRNA hsa-miRNA-146a-5p (miRNA-146a). miRNA-146a is significantly over-expressed in progressive and often lethal viral- and prion-mediated and related neurological syndromes associated with progressive inflammatory neurodegeneration. These include ~18 different viral-induced encephalopathies for which data are available, at least ~10 known prion diseases (PrD) of animals and humans, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other sporadic and progressive age-related neurological disorders. Despite the apparent lack of nucleic acids in prions, both DNA- and RNA-containing viruses along with prions significantly induce miRNA-146a in the infected host, but whether this represents part of the host's adaptive immunity, innate-immune response or a mechanism to enable the invading prion or virus a successful infection is not well understood. Current findings suggest an early and highly interactive role for miRNA-146a: (i) as a major small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) regulator of innate-immune responses and inflammatory signaling in cells of the human brain and CNS; (ii) as a critical component of the complement system and immune-related neurological dysfunction; (iii) as an inducible sncRNA of the brain and CNS that lies at a critical intersection of several important neurobiological adaptive immune response processes with highly interactive associations involving complement factor H (CFH), Toll-like receptor pathways, the innate-immunity, cytokine production, apoptosis and neural cell decline; and (iv) as a potential biomarker for viral infection, TSE and AD and other neurological diseases in both animals and humans. In this report, we review the recent data supporting the idea that miRNA-146a may represent a novel and unique sncRNA-based biomarker for inflammatory neurodegeneration in multiple species. This paper further reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and mechanism of miRNA-146a in viral and prion infection of the human brain and CNS with reference to AD wherever possible.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/imunologia , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10606-10616, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482683

RESUMO

We previously identified peptides derived from round scad as potential Nrf2 activators. However, the neuroprotection of these peptides is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of WCPFSRSF against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, and the memory-improving effects of WCPFSRSF in mice were also explored. Results showed that WCPFSRSF ameliorated oxidative stress by improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and promoting the Nrf2-mediated endogenous defense system. Moreover, there is an interaction between the up-regulation of Nrf2 and the down-regulation of NFκB induced by the peptide, which was related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could be abolished by the Akt inhibitor LY294002. Further analysis demonstrated that WCPFSRSF may act as a radical scavenger and Nrf2 activator. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects might be related to the Cys and Trp in WCPFSRSF. Moreover, WCPFSRSF could improve spatial memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice. Thus, this work provided evidence for WCPFSRSF as a potential candidate against neurotoxicity and memory deficits.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais
5.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1357-1370, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380651

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) is required for proper immune function and host defense. Zn homeostasis is tightly regulated by Zn transporters that coordinate biological processes through Zn mobilization. Zn deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Myeloid cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are at the front line of host defense against invading bacterial pathogens in the lung and play a critical role early on in shaping the immune response. Expression of the Zn transporter ZIP8 is rapidly induced following bacterial infection and regulates myeloid cell function in a Zn-dependent manner. To what extent ZIP8 is instrumental in myeloid cell function requires further study. Using a novel, myeloid-specific, Zip8 knockout model, we identified vital roles of ZIP8 in macrophage and DC function upon pneumococcal infection. Administration of S. pneumoniae into the lung resulted in increased inflammation, morbidity, and mortality in Zip8 knockout mice compared with wild-type counterparts. This was associated with increased numbers of myeloid cells, cytokine production, and cell death. In vitro analysis of macrophage and DC function revealed deficits in phagocytosis and increased cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation that was, in part, due to increased NF-κB signaling. Strikingly, alteration of myeloid cell function resulted in an imbalance of Th17/Th2 responses, which is potentially detrimental to host defense. These results (for the first time, to our knowledge) reveal a vital ZIP8- and Zn-mediated axis that alters the lung myeloid cell landscape and the host response against pneumococcus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fagocitose/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445612

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a common cause of death worldwide. Here, we isolated cancer stem cells (CSCs) from four adenocarcinomas of the prostate (Gleason scores from 3 + 3 up to 4 + 5). CSCs were characterized by the expression of the stem cell markers TWIST, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), the transcription factors SNAI1 (SNAIL) and SNAI2 (SLUG) and cancer markers such as CD44 and prominin-1 (CD133). All investigated CSC populations contained a fraction highly positive for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) function and displayed robust expressions of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) ligands. Furthermore, we investigated immunotherapeutic approaches but had no success even with the clinically used PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab. In addition, we studied another death-inducing pathway via interferon gamma signaling and detected high-level upregulations of human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A) and beta 2-microglobulin (B2M) with only moderate killing efficacy. To examine further killing mechanisms in prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), we analyzed NF-κB signaling. Surprisingly, two patient-specific populations of PCSCs were found: one with canonical NF-κB signaling and another one with blunted NF-κB activation, which can be efficiently killed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Thus, culturing of PCSCs and analysis of respective NF-κB induction potency after surgery might be a powerful tool for optimizing patient-specific treatment options, such as the use of TNF-inducing chemotherapeutics and/or NF-κB inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445430

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly, is a degenerative disease of the macula, where retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are damaged in the early stages of the disease, and chronic inflammatory processes may be involved. Besides aging and lifestyle factors as drivers of AMD, a strong genetic association to AMD is found in genes of the complement system, with a single polymorphism in the complement factor H gene (CFH), accounting for the majority of AMD risk. However, the exact mechanism of CFH dysregulation confers such a great risk for AMD and its role in RPE cell homeostasis is unclear. To explore the role of endogenous CFH locally in RPE cells, we silenced CFH in human hTERT-RPE1 cells. We demonstrate that endogenously expressed CFH in RPE cells modulates inflammatory cytokine production and complement regulation, independent of external complement sources, or stressors. We show that loss of the factor H protein (FH) results in increased levels of inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF) and altered levels of complement proteins (e.g., C3, CFB upregulation, and C5 downregulation) that are known to play a role in AMD. Moreover, our results identify the NF-κB pathway as the major pathway involved in regulating these inflammatory and complement factors. Our findings suggest that in RPE cells, FH and the NF-κB pathway work in synergy to maintain inflammatory and complement balance, and in case either one of them is dysregulated, the RPE microenvironment changes towards a proinflammatory AMD-like phenotype.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Degeneração Macular/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
J Med Food ; 24(8): 852-859, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382871

RESUMO

CYJ-27, a synthetic analog of decursin, prevents the generation of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of CYJ-27 on the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and cyclooxygenase (COX-)2 were characterized in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition, the effects of CYJ-27 on the production of iNOS and representative proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß, were tested in the lung tissues of LPS-treated mice. CYJ-27 promoted the expression of HO-1, suppressed NF-κB-luciferase activity, and reduced COX-2/PGE2 and iNOS/NO, resulting in a diminution in phosphorylated-STAT-1. Furthermore, CYJ-27 promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, enhanced the combination of Nrf2 to antioxidant response elements, and diminished IL-1ß production in LPS-activated HUVECs. CYJ-27-downregulated iNOS/NO expression was rescued after the RNAi suppression of HO-1. In LPS-treated mice, CYJ-27 significantly diminished iNOS production in the lung tissues and TNF-α expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings indicate that CYJ-27 exerts anti-inflammatory activities by regulating iNOS through downregulation of both NF-κB activation and phosphorylated-STAT-1. Hence, it can act as a template for the development of novel substances to treat inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Inflamação , NF-kappa B , Animais , Benzopiranos , Butiratos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371956

RESUMO

We examined the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of asiatic acid (AA) in atopic dermatitis (AD). AA treatment (5-20 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level and interleukin (IL)-6 protein expression in interferon (IFN)-γ + TNF-α-treated HaCaT cells. The 2,4-dinitrocholrlbenzene (DNCB)-induced AD animal model was developed by administering two AA concentrations (30 and 75 mg/kg/d: AD + AA-L and AD + AA-H groups, respectively) for 18 days. Interestingly, AA treatment decreased AD skin lesions formation and affected other AD characteristics, such as increased ear thickness, lymph node and spleen size, dermal and epidermal thickness, collagen deposition, and mast cell infiltration in dorsal skin. In addition, in the DNCB-induced AD animal model, AA treatment downregulated the mRNA expression level of AD-related cytokines, such as Th1- (TNF-α and IL-1ß and -12) and Th2 (IL-4, -5, -6, -13, and -31)-related cytokines as well as that of cyclooxygenase-2 and CXCL9. Moreover, in the AA treatment group, the protein level of inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8, as well as the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, were decreased. Overall, our study confirmed that AA administration inhibited AD skin lesion formation via enhancing immunomodulation and inhibiting inflammation. Thus, AA can be used as palliative medication for regulating AD symptoms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Colágeno/análise , Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Derme/patologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360990

RESUMO

Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) signaling pathways play a central role in suppressing or inducing inflammation and angiogenesis processes. Therefore, they are involved in many steps of carcinogenesis through cooperation with multiple signaling molecules and pathways. Targeting both transcription factors simultaneously may be considered an equally important strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Several hundreds of phytochemicals, mainly edible plant and vegetable components, were shown to activate Nrf2 and mediate antioxidant response. A similar number of phytochemicals was revealed to affect NF-κB. While activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB may protect normal cells against cancer initiation and promotion, enhanced expression and activation in cancer cells may lead to resistance to conventional chemo- or radiotherapy. Most phytochemicals, through different mechanisms, activate Nrf2, but others, such as luteolin, can act as inhibitors of both Nrf2 and NF-κB. Despite many experimental data confirming the above mechanisms currently, limited evidence exists demonstrating such activity in humans. Combinations of phytochemicals resembling that in a natural food matrix but allowing higher concentrations may improve their modulating effect on Nrf2 and NF-κB and ultimately cancer prevention and therapy. This review presents the current knowledge on the effect of selected phytochemicals and their combinations on Nrf2 and NF-κB activities in the above context.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361003

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczematous lesions and itching, and it has become a serious health problem. However, the common clinical treatments provide limited relief and are accompanied by adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel and effective therapies to treat AD. Neferine is a small molecule compound isolated from the green embryo of the mature seeds of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). It has a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid structure. Relevant studies have shown that neferine has many pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-diabetic activities. However, there are very few studies on neferine in the skin, especially the related effects on inflammatory skin diseases. In this study, we proved that it has the potential to be used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Through in vitro studies, we found that neferine inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, and it reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Through in vivo experiments, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation in a mouse model. Our results show that neferine significantly decreased the skin barrier damage, scratching responses, and epidermal hyperplasia induced by DNCB. It significantly decreased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema, blood flow, and ear thickness and increased surface skin hydration. Moreover, it also inhibited the expression of cytokines and the activation of signaling pathways. These results indicate that neferine has good potential as an alternative medicine for the treatment of atopic dermatitis or other skin-related inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Benzilisoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dinitroclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1437-1447, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400522

RESUMO

Proinflammatory cytokine gene transcription must be moderated to avoid the pathological consequences of excess cytokine production. The relationships between virus infection and the mechanisms that moderate cytokine transcription are incompletely understood. We investigated the influence of Keap1 on cytokine gene induction by Sendai virus infection in mouse embryo fibroblasts. Virus infection induced Keap1 binding to the Ifnb1, Tnf, and Il6 genes. Keap1 moderated viral induction of their transcription by mechanisms that did not require Nrf2. Keap1 was required for NF-κB p50 recruitment, but not for NF-κB p65 or IRF3 recruitment, to these genes. Keap1 formed complexes with NF-κB p50 and NF-κB p65, which were visualized using bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis. These bimolecular fluorescence complementation complexes bound chromosomes in live cells, suggesting that Keap1 could bind chromatin in association with NF-κB proteins. Keap1 was required for viral induction of G9a-GLP lysine methyltransferase binding and H3K9me2 modification at cytokine genes. G9a-GLP inhibitors counteracted transcription repression by Keap1 and enhanced Keap1 and NF-κB recruitment to cytokine genes. The interrelationships among Keap1, NF-κB, and G9a-GLP recruitment, activities, and transcriptional effects suggest that they form a feedback circuit, which moderates viral induction of cytokine transcription. Nrf2 counteracted Keap1 binding to cytokine genes and the recruitment of NF-κB p50 and G9a-GLP by Keap1. Whereas Keap1 has been reported to influence cytokine expression indirectly through its functions in the cytoplasm, these findings provide evidence that Keap1 regulates cytokine transcription directly in the nucleus. Keap1 binds to cytokines genes upon virus infection and moderates their induction by recruiting NF-κB p50 and G9a-GLP.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Viroses , Animais , Citocinas , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Viroses/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4741, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362923

RESUMO

Biologic therapies have transformed the management of psoriasis, but clinical outcome is variable leaving an unmet clinical need for predictive biomarkers of response. Here we perform in-depth immunomonitoring of blood immune cells of 67 patients with psoriasis, before and during therapy with the anti-TNF drug adalimumab, to identify immune mediators of clinical response and evaluate their predictive value. Enhanced NF-κBp65 phosphorylation, induced by TNF and LPS in type-2 dendritic cells (DC) before therapy, significantly correlates with lack of clinical response after 12 weeks of treatment. The heightened NF-κB activation is linked to increased DC maturation in vitro and frequency of IL-17+ T cells in the blood of non-responders before therapy. Moreover, lesional skin of non-responders contains higher numbers of dermal DC expressing the maturation marker CD83 and producing IL-23, and increased numbers of IL-17+ T cells. Finally, we identify and clinically validate LPS-induced NF-κBp65 phosphorylation before therapy as a predictive biomarker of non-response to adalimumab, with 100% sensitivity and 90.1% specificity in an independent cohort. Our study uncovers important molecular and cellular mediators underpinning adalimumab mechanisms of action in psoriasis and we propose a blood biomarker for predicting clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Psoríase/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Antígeno B7-H1 , Terapia Biológica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-17 , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos , Fosforilação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(7): 889-893, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412765

RESUMO

High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), a highly conversed non-histone nucleoproteins with strong pro-inflammatory property, is one of the inflammatory mediator of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous studies have confirmed that HMGB1 regulates ARDS by binding to receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE), Toll-like receptor (TLR) and etc. And it can significantly increase the mortality of ARDS. But the mechanism of HMGB1 release is still unclear. This study focuses on the HMGB1 release progress, which connected with Janus kinases/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), Notch, inflammasome, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and other signaling or dependent pathways in ARDS.


Assuntos
Proteína HMGB1 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like
15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(18): 3323-3334, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460214

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in various chronic pains. NF-κB and CXCL12 modulate the formation of chronic pain. Herein, we hypothesized that EA alleviates cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) through NF-κB/CXCL12 axis in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), which participates in "top-down" pain modulatory circuits. In order to filter the optimum EA frequency for CIBP treatment, 2, 100, or 2/100 Hz EA was set up. In addition, ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral EA groups were established to affirm the optimal EA scheme. Bilateral 2/100 Hz EA was considered as the optimal therapeutic scheme and was applied in a subsequent experiment. Western blotting along with immunofluorescence illustrated that CIBP induces a rapid and substantial increase in CXCL12 protein level and NF-κB phosphorylation in vlPAG from day 6 to day 12. Anti-CXCL12 neutralizing antibody and pAAV-U6-shRNA(CXCL12)-CMV-EGFP-WPRE in vlPAG remarkably improved the mechanical pain threshold of the hind paw in CIBP model relative to the control. EA inhibited the upregulation of pNF-κB and CXCL12 in vlPAG of CIBP. The recombinant CXCL12 and pAAV-CMV-CXCL12-EF1a-EGFP-3Xflag-WPRE reversed the abirritation of EA in the CIBP rat model. NF-κB phosphorylation mediated-CXCL12 expression contributed to CIBP allodynia, whereas EA suppressed NF-κB phosphorylation in CIBP. According to the above evidence, we conclude that bilateral 2/100 Hz EA is an optimal therapeutic scheme for CIBP. The abirritation mechanism of EA might reduce the expression of CXCL12 by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, which might lead to the restraint of descending facilitation of CIBP.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Neoplasias , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Limiar da Dor , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3376496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337004

RESUMO

Lactobacillus rhamnoides, a human intestinal colonizer, can act through various pathways to induce microglia/macrophages to produce cytokines and to polarize microglia/macrophages to different phenotypes to reduce the inflammatory response. In this article, we evaluated the treatment potential of the Lactobacillus rhamnoides GG conditioned medium (LGG-CM) in rat model with SCI (acute spinal cord injury), including functional, neurophysiological, and histological outcomes and the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. In our experiment, LGG-CM (30 mg/kg) was injected directly into the injury site in rats immediately after SCI. Measured by the BBB scale (Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale) and inclined plane test, rats in the LGG-CM-treated group showed better locomotor scores. Moreover, compared to the vehicle treatment group, LGG-CM increased the mRNA level of the M2 marker (CD206), and decreased that of the M1 marker (iNOS). Western blot assays showed that LGG-CM-treated SCI rats had a higher grayscale ratio of p65 and a lower ratio of p-IκBα/IκBα. Our study shows that local injection of LGG-CM after acute SCI can inhibit inflammatory responses and improve motor function recovery. These effects may be related with the inhibition to the NF-κB (The nuclear factor-kappa B) signal pathway which leads to M2 microglia/macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112566, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340153

RESUMO

Artemisia ordosica is one of the main shrubby perennials belonging to Artemisia species of Asteraceae and could be used in folk Chinese/Mongolian medicine to treat symptoms of various inflammatory ailments. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary Artemisia ordosica polysaccharide (AOP) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress in broilers via Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. A total of 192 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments with 6 replicates (n = 8): (1) CON group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (2) LPS group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (3) AOP group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP; (4) LPS+AOP group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP. The trial included starter phase (d 1-14), stress period Ⅰ (d 15-21), convalescence Ⅰ (d 22-28), stress period Ⅱ (d 29-35) and convalescence Ⅱ (d 36-42). During stress period Ⅰ (on d 15, 17, 19 and 21) and stress period Ⅱ (on d 29, 31, 33 and 35), broilers were injected intra-abdominally either with LPS solution or with an equal amount of sterile saline. The results showed that dietary AOP supplementation alleviated LPS-induced reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity and excessive production of ROS, 8-OHdG and PC in serum of broilers challenged with LPS. Moreover, dietary AOP supplementation alleviated the decrease of T-AOC and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in liver of broilers challenged with LPS by increasing expression of Nrf2, and inhibiting over-expression of Keap1 both at gene and protein level. Additionally, dietary AOP supplementation decreased the over-production of IL-1ß and IL-6 in liver of broilers challenged by LPS through decreasing mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß and IL-6, and alleviating the increase of protein expression of TLR4, IKKß, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß, IL-6, and the decrease of protein expression of IkBα. In conclusion, dietary AOP supplementation could alleviate LPS-induced oxidative stress through Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Artemisia/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443321

RESUMO

Berberine (BBR), a plant alkaloid, is known for its therapeutic properties of anticancer, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. The present study was to determine the molecular mechanism of BBR's pharmacological activity in human monocytic (THP-1) cells induced by arachidonic acid (AA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect of BBR on AA/LPS activated proinflammatory markers including TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-8 and COX-2 was measured by ELISA or quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the effect of BBR on LPS-induced NF-κB translocation was determined by immunoblotting and confocal microscopy. AA/ LPS-induced TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 markers were markedly attenuated by BBR treatment in THP-1 cells by inhibiting NF-κB translocation into the nucleus. Molecular modeling studies suggested the direct interaction of BBR to IKKα at its ligand binding site, which led to the inhibition of the LPS-induced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Thus, the present study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory potential of BBR via NF-κB in activated monocytes, whose interplay is key in health and in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic development in blood vessel walls. The present study findings suggest that BBR has the potential for treating various chronic inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Berberina/farmacologia , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of present study was to explore the mechanism of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(PKB/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways after intervention of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on rat bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). METHODS: Prepare and identify AGEs. BMSCs were isolated from 16 SD rats and cultured with different concentration of AGEs. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). BMSCs were cultured with AGEs (0.25 mg/ml) for 30 min, 12 h, 24 h, 72 h and 120 h. In addition, BMSCs were cultured with AGEs, AGEs + JNK inhibitor and AGEs + P38 inhibitor for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to determine the protein and mRNA expression levels, respectively. RESULTS: Cell viability of BMSCs was significantly correlated with concentration and effect time of AGEs (P < 0.05), and the most appropriate concentration was 0.25 mg/ml. AGEs stimulation significantly increased the protein expression levels of NF-κB p65, JNK, p38 (P < 0.05), decreased IκB (P < 0.05), but had no effect on the protein expression of Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the mRNA level, JNK and p38 inhibitors significantly reduced the levels of NF-κB p65, p38 and JNK, increased IκB (P > 0.05), but had no effect on Akt in BMSCs (P > 0.05). At the protein level, JNK and p38 inhibitors notably decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, p38, p-JNK, P-IκB and JNK (P < 0.001), and increased IκB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Advanced glycosylation end products can inhibit the proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells through activating MAPK pathway.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361032

RESUMO

17,18-Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) are bioactive epoxides produced from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. However, these epoxides are quickly metabolized into less active diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We have previously demonstrated that an sEH inhibitor, t-TUCB, decreased serum triglycerides (TG) and increased lipid metabolic protein expression in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. This study investigates the preventive effects of t-TUCB (T) alone or combined with 19,20-EDP (T + EDP) or 17,18-EEQ (T + EEQ) on BAT activation in the development of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders via osmotic minipump delivery in mice. Both T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed significant improvement in fasting glucose, serum triglycerides, and higher core body temperature, whereas heat production was only significantly increased in the T + EEQ group. Moreover, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed less lipid accumulation in the BAT. Although UCP1 expression was not changed, PGC1α expression was increased in all three treated groups. In contrast, the expression of CPT1A and CPT1B, which are responsible for the rate-limiting step for fatty acid oxidation, was only increased in the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups. Interestingly, as a fatty acid transporter, CD36 expression was only increased in the T + EEQ group. Furthermore, both the T + EDP and T + EEQ groups showed decreased inflammatory NFκB signaling in the BAT. Our results suggest that 17,18-EEQ or 19,20-EDP combined with t-TUCB may prevent high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders, in part through increased thermogenesis, upregulating lipid metabolic protein expression, and decreasing inflammation in the BAT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Araquidônicos/uso terapêutico , Benzoatos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/citologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ácidos Araquidônicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/administração & dosagem , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia
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