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1.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 290-299, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232723

RESUMO

Existe un debate considerable en la literatura sobre cómo el narcisismo predice diversos comportamientos asociados con la utilidad de los sitios de redes sociales, pero los investigadores han prestado menos atención a explorar los mediadores potenciales de esta relación. Con base en la literatura existente, anticipamos que el narcisismo predice comportamientos de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales. El estudio actual también investigó el papel mediador del perfeccionismo multidimensional entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción. Se recopiló un total de 605 cuestionarios completos de estudiantes de universidades de Rawalpindi e Islamabad, Pakistán, mediante un muestreo conveniente. El estudio utilizó el Inventario de Personalidad Narcisista (Ames et al., 2006), un cuestionario de desarrollo propio sobre comportamiento de autopromoción en sitios de redes sociales y la Escala de Perfeccionismo Multidimensional (Hewitt et al., 1991). Los hallazgos indicaron que las mujeres en comparación con los hombres y las solteras en comparación con las casadas obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en narcisismo. Los niveles educativos más altos se asociaron con tasas más altas de narcisismo. Los resultados también sugieren que el narcisismo se correlaciona con el perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y, más significativamente, con el narcisismo orientado a los demás. El perfeccionismo orientado a uno mismo y a los demás medió significativamente la relación entre el narcisismo y el comportamiento de autopromoción en los sitios de redes sociales.(AU)


There is considerable debate in the literature about how narcis-sism predicts various behaviors associated with the utility of social net-working sites, but researchers have paid less attention to exploring the po-tential mediators of this relationship.Based on the existing literature, we anticipated that narcissism predicts self-promoting behaviors on social networking sites. The current study also investigated the mediating role of multidimensional perfectionismbetween narcissism and self-promoting behavior. A total of 605 complete questionnaires weregathered fromstu-dents from universities from Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan using convenient sampling. The study used Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Ames et al., 2006), self-developed Self-promoting Behavior on social net-working sites questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Hewitt et al., 1991). Findings indicated that females as compared to males and single as comparedto married individuals scored higher on narcissism. Higher educational levels were associated with higher rates of narcissism. The results also suggestthat narcissism correlated with self-oriented per-fectionism, and more significantlywith others-oriented narcissism. Self-oriented and others-oriented perfectionism significantly mediated the rela-tionship between narcissism and self-promoting behavior on social net-working sites.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Perfeccionismo , Narcisismo , Comportamento , Estudantes/psicologia , Paquistão
2.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 52(2): 150-172, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829230

RESUMO

Patients with primary or co-occurring narcissistic disorders are seen routinely in general psychiatry settings. Contemporary trends in training and practice have impacted psychiatrists' skills and confidence in identifying and treating these disorders, which can range from relatively benign to high-acuity presentations. The goal of this article is to introduce key principles derived from transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) for use by clinicians in general practice in their work with patients with narcissistic disorders, even when those clinicians do not routinely provide individual psychotherapy. Practical application of TFP principles in work with patients with narcissistic disorders in general psychiatry are proposed, including in diagnostic evaluation, family engagement, prescribing, and safety assessment and risk management calculus. Many psychiatrists whose practices are focused primarily on psychopharmacology, or a "medical model," may not appreciate fully the impact of pathological narcissism in their work. Clinicians who may benefit from familiarity with TFP principles in work with patients with narcissistic disorders include the approximately one-half of U.S. psychiatrists who do not offer psychotherapy in their practice.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Psicoterapia , Transferência Psicológica , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Narcisismo
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304741, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829855

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the mediation effect of narcissism and the mediation effect moderated by gender in the effect of social anxiety on university students' SNS addiction. In this cross-sectional survey, university students, aged 19 to 29 were selected from two provinces in South Korea. The sample size was calculated using G*power 3.1., and a sample of 170 university students was used in the final analysis. To perform the analysis, descriptive statistics; independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation were used. The data collected was statistically analyzed using SPSS Program 23.0 and SPSS PROCESS macro (version 4.0). The moderated mediation effect was significant in both male and female groups. The mediation effect of narcissism on the relationship between social anxiety and SNS addiction proneness was stronger in the female group than in the male group. The findings have the potential to provide substantial basic data for developing health promotion and education programs to reduce university students' social anxiety, narcissism, and SNS addiction.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Narcisismo , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Rede Social , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e3016, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined therapists' dispositional empathy profiles and how they differ based on professional and personal characteristics. METHOD: A total of 376 clinicians was recruited for this study. Dispositional empathy was assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Profiles were generated using latent profile analysis. Predictors of profiles were assessed with multiple self-report questionnaires measuring demographic and professional characteristics, romantic attachment styles, five-factor personality traits and vulnerable narcissism. RESULTS: A four-profile solution was retained with the following proportions: rational empathic (20%), disengaged/detached (10%), empathic immersion (35%) and insecure/self-absorbed (35%). Overall, few relationships were found regarding demographic and professional characteristics. In contrast, significant relationships were found between profile membership and personal characteristics, including avoidant and anxious attachment, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, intellect/imagination and vulnerable narcissism. CONCLUSION: The findings show that differences in therapists' empathic dispositions are linked to personality dimensions. Implications for psychotherapy research, practice and training are discussed.


Assuntos
Empatia , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicoterapeutas/psicologia , Psicoterapeutas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Narcisismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10884, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740864

RESUMO

Maladaptive personality traits, such as 'dark personalities' are found to result in a diverse set of negative outcomes, including paraphilic interests and associated (illegal) behaviors. It is however unclear how these are exactly related, and if related, if then only those individuals higher on dark personality traits and higher impulsivity engage in paraphilic behaviors. In the current study, 50 participants were recruited to investigate the relationship between Dark Tetrad personality traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and everyday sadism), paraphilic interests (arousal and behavior) and the moderating role of impulsivity. Personality and paraphilic interests were investigated through self-report questionnaires. Impulsivity was measured both through self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity and the P3 event related potential using electroencephalography during the Go/No-Go task (i.e. response inhibition). The results showed that there was a positive association between psychopathy, sadism and paraphilic interests. Whereas everyday sadism was associated with paraphilic (self-reported) arousal, psychopathy was associated with paraphilic behavior. Although P3 amplitude was not associated with paraphilic interests, self-reported dysfunctional impulsivity was associated with paraphilic behavior specifically. However, there was no moderating role of dysfunctional impulsivity and response inhibition (P3) in the relationship between psychopathy and paraphilic behavior. Findings indicate that the relation between specific dark personalities and paraphilic interests may be more complex than initially thought. Nevertheless, risk assessment and intervention approaches for paraphilia and related behavior both may benefit from incorporating Dark Tetrad and impulsivity measurements.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Eletroencefalografia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12213, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806513

RESUMO

While grandiose narcissism is well-studied, vulnerable narcissism remains largely unexplored in the workplace context. Our study aimed to compare grandiose and vulnerable narcissism among managers and people from the general population. Within the managerial sample, our objective was to examine how these traits diverge concerning core personality traits and socially desirable responses. Furthermore, we endeavored to explore their associations with individual managerial performance, encompassing task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Involving a pool of managerial participants (N = 344), we found that compared to the general population, managers exhibited higher levels of grandiose narcissism and lower levels of vulnerable narcissism. While both narcissistic variants had a minimal correlation (r = .02) with each other, they differentially predicted work performance. Notably, grandiose narcissism did not significantly predict any work performance dimension, whereas vulnerable narcissism, along with neuroticism, predicted higher CWB and lower task performance. Conscientiousness emerged as the strongest predictor of task performance. This study suggests that organizations might not benefit from managers with vulnerable narcissism. Understanding these distinct narcissistic variants offers insights into their impacts on managerial performance in work settings.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Personalidade , Desejabilidade Social , Desempenho Profissional , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11507, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769333

RESUMO

Research into relationships between victim-generated content, abuse received, and observer characteristics when considering Twitter abuse has been limited to male victims. We evaluated participant perceptions of female celebrity victims and abuse received on Twitter. We used a 3 (Initial Tweet Valence; negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Abuse Volume; low, high) repeated measures design and online survey method. Participants were shown tweets generated by six female celebrities, counterbalanced such that each participant saw each celebrity in one Valence-Volume condition. Stimuli were presented across six 'lists' such that celebrity 'victims' could be rotated across Valence-Volume pairings. Participants rated-per target stimulus-the level of blame attributable to the victim and the perceived severity of the incident. Furthermore, participants were asked to complete a Dark Tetrad scale-measuring their Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Sadism. Analyses determined that victim-blaming was influenced by victim Initial Tweet Valence (greater victim-blaming associated with more-negative content) and observer Machiavellianism. Perceived severity was influenced by victim Initial Tweet Valence, Volume of Abuse received, and observer Machiavellianism. Results were consistent with previous research involving male celebrity victims. Further research is needed to understand the contributions of participants' hostile and benevolent sexism, as well as the role of victim attractiveness.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Maquiavelismo , Adulto Jovem , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Narcisismo , Percepção Social/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11665, 2024 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778125

RESUMO

The concept of narcissism encompasses various personality traits, including cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics, which often lead to difficulties in maintaining a healthy self-esteem. This study examines the prevalence of narcissism traits (Admiration and Rivalry) in the surgical profession and their association with age, gender and professional experience. A total of 1390 participants (408 women, 982 men) took part in an online survey. The results show that female participants have significantly lower levels of rivalry than male colleagues. Additionally, age was found to be inversely correlated with both facets of narcissism, demonstrating that levels of narcissism decrease as age increases. Participants who are still in education tend to show higher levels of both facets. These results improve our understanding of personality traits in surgery and provide valuable insights for researchers and practitioners.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autoimagem , Personalidade , Fatores Sexuais
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302644, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701068

RESUMO

Narcissism is a part of the Dark Triad that consists also of the traits of Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Two main types of narcissism exist: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Being a Dark Triad trait, narcissism is typically associated with negative outcomes. However, recent research suggests that at least the grandiose type may be linked (directly or indirectly) to positive outcomes including lower levels of psychopathology, higher school grades in adolescents, deeper and more strategic learning in university students and higher cognitive performance in experimental settings. The current pre-registered, quasi-experimental study implemented eye-tracking to assess whether grandiose narcissism indirectly predicts cognitive performance through wider distribution of attention on the Raven's Progressive Matrices task. Fifty-four adults completed measures of the Dark Triad, self-esteem and psychopathology. Eight months to one year later, participants completed the Raven's, while their eye-movements were monitored during high stress conditions. When controlling for previous levels of psychopathology, grandiose narcissism predicted higher Raven's scores indirectly, through increased variability in the number of fixations across trials. These findings suggest that grandiose narcissism predicts higher cognitive performance, at least in experimental settings, and call for further research to understand the implications of this seemingly dark trait for performance across various settings.


Assuntos
Atenção , Cognição , Narcisismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Autoimagem
10.
Eur J Neurosci ; 59(12): 3273-3291, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649337

RESUMO

Despite the clinical significance of narcissistic personality, its neural bases have not been clarified yet, primarily because of methodological limitations of the previous studies, such as the low sample size, the use of univariate techniques and the focus on only one brain modality. In this study, we employed for the first time a combination of unsupervised and supervised machine learning methods, to identify the joint contributions of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to narcissistic personality traits (NPT). After preprocessing, the brain scans of 135 participants were decomposed into eight independent networks of covarying GM and WM via parallel ICA. Subsequently, stepwise regression and Random Forest were used to predict NPT. We hypothesized that a fronto-temporo parietal network, mainly related to the default mode network, may be involved in NPT and associated WM regions. Results demonstrated a distributed network that included GM alterations in fronto-temporal regions, the insula and the cingulate cortex, along with WM alterations in cerebellar and thalamic regions. To assess the specificity of our findings, we also examined whether the brain network predicting narcissism could also predict other personality traits (i.e., histrionic, paranoid and avoidant personalities). Notably, this network did not predict such personality traits. Additionally, a supervised machine learning model (Random Forest) was used to extract a predictive model for generalization to new cases. Results confirmed that the same network could predict new cases. These findings hold promise for advancing our understanding of personality traits and potentially uncovering brain biomarkers associated with narcissism.


Assuntos
Rede de Modo Padrão , Substância Cinzenta , Narcisismo , Personalidade , Substância Branca , Humanos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Feminino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
11.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2966, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600830

RESUMO

Decades of research implicate perfectionism as a risk factor for psychopathology. Most research has focused on trait perfectionism (i.e., needing to be perfect), but there is a growing focus on perfectionistic self-presentation (PSP) (i.e., the need to seem perfect). The current article reports the results of a meta-analysis of previous research on the facets of PSP and psychopathology outcomes (either clinical diagnoses of psychiatric disorders or symptoms of these disorders). A systematic literature search retrieved 30 relevant studies (37 samples; N = 15,072), resulting in 192 individual effect-size indexes that were analysed with random-effect meta-analysis. Findings support the notion of PSP as a transdiagnostic factor by showing that PSP facets are associated with various forms of psychopathology, especially social anxiety, depression, vulnerable narcissism and-to lesser extent-grandiose narcissism and anorexia nervosa. The results indicated that there both commonalities across the three PSP and some unique findings highlighting the need to distinguish among appearing perfect, avoiding seeming imperfect and avoiding disclosures of imperfections. Additional analyses yielded little evidence in the results across studies including undergraduates, community samples and clinical samples. Our discussion includes a focus on factors and processes that contribute to the association between PSP and psychopathology.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Narcisismo , Psicopatologia
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 280, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narcissism has been implied as a putative risk factor for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, previous research did not disentangle the degree of substance use from substance-related problems, the symptoms of SUDs. This preregistered study addressed the open question whether grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and their constituent traits convey specific SUD risk, that is, explain substance-related problems beyond the degree of use. Furthermore, we tested whether impulsivity or substance use motives linked to narcissistic self-regulation mediate this association. METHODS: Narcissism, impulsivity, substance use motives, past-year substance use, and substance-related problems were assessed in 139 (poly-)substance users, 121 of whom completed a one-year follow-up. For significant longitudinal associations between narcissism factors and substance-related problems controlled for the degree of use, we tested impulsivity and substance use motives as mediators. RESULTS: Grandiose narcissism (r =.24, p =.007) and its constituent factors antagonistic (r =.27, p =.003) and agentic narcissism (r =.18, p =.050), but not vulnerable narcissism, prospectively predicted substance-related problems beyond the degree of substance use. Associations of grandiose narcissism and antagonistic narcissism with substance-related problems were fully mediated by impulsivity, but not substance use motives. Impulsivity explained roughly one third of the association of both grandiose (P̂M = 0.30) and antagonistic narcissism (P̂M = 0.26) with substance-related problems. DISCUSSION: We demonstrate that grandiose narcissism- particularly antagonistic but also agentic narcissism- is specifically linked to substance-related problems beyond the degree of substance use. The mediating effect of impulsivity but not substance use motives suggests that impulsivity may be a more important mechanism than narcissistic self-regulation in promoting SUD in narcissism. However, future studies may use more targeted measures than substance use motives to further probe the role of self-regulation. Similar result patterns for alcohol compared to all substances together indicate that mechanisms may be alike across substances. In conclusion, narcissistic individuals may not use substances more but have a higher SUD risk, informing prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Motivação , Delusões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
13.
Psicothema ; 36(2): 195-204, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) is a recently developed instrument for assessing the "dark" personality traits of psychopathy, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and sadism. We aimed to examine the SD4's psychometric properties, adapting it into Spanish and exploring its structure, gender invariance, reliability, concurrent validity, and nomological network. METHOD: A sample of 668 adults (Mage = 26.36, SD = 10.64, 69.2% females) completed the SD4 and other self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: The results demonstrated sound indices of reliability and concurrent validity, an adequate four-factor structure, and support for gender invariance. Furthermore, most of the findings about the nomological network were in line with prior hypotheses: All four SD4 scales were associated with low levels of agreeableness and antagonism; psychopathy was also related to low conscientiousness, disinhibition and impulse-control problems; narcissism was positively associated with extraversion and negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; Machiavellianism was uncorrelated with impulsivity-related problems, which made it distinct from the psychopathy profile; finally, sadism showed a similar pattern of associations to psychopathy, albeit less strongly linked to impulsivity problems and externalizing behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the SD4 presents sound psychometric properties, although the overlap between psychopathy and sadism warrants some caution.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Psicometria , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Sadismo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adolescente , Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
14.
Riv Psichiatr ; 59(2): 45-51, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651772

RESUMO

Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) is a term addressed to describe negative, psychopathological feelings, thinking and behaviours, including hostility and fear, exhibited by children who have been alienated from one parent by the other parent. Despite its relevance in the clinical psychology field, theoretical and empirical contributions to understanding and deepening the many facets of this concept are still few. In particular, literature aimed at disentangling the alienating parent's psychological characteristics is scarce and fragmented. Our contribution encompasses a narrative review of scientific literature since the term PAS was coined in 1987 by Gardner, to delineate narcissistic proneness in alienating parents. Namely, considering the narcissistic drift the western society is going toward, we hypothesised that narcissism has a pivotal role in parents' alienating behaviours against the alienated ones. Firstly, the elements that emerged from our literature search confirmed our theoretical hypothesis, in terms of the likely role of narcissism/narcissistic marked traits in alienating parents. In the second section, we contextualised the phenomenon in a psychodynamic/psychoanalytic theoretical framework. Finally, based on previous findings/considerations, the developmental trajectories of children with PAS have been traced. An improved theoretical knowledge of this phenomenon, also in terms of the psychopathology associated with its genesis, means to refine the diagnostic and treatment tools to prevent it.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Relações Pais-Filho , Humanos , Criança , Pais/psicologia , Alienação Social/psicologia , Hostilidade , Medo/psicologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9905, 2024 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38688968

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop the Global Assessment of Active Trolling and Passive Bystanderism (GAATPB) scale and investigate the influence of personality traits on trolling behaviors. Focusing on the Dark Tetrad (DT) traits and agreeableness, the present study examined their associations and predictive utility on active trolling and passive bystanderism. Participants were recruited from social networking sites (SNSs), and eligibility criteria included active SNS usage and engagement in online interactions. A total of 797 healthy adult students participated in the study, with data from 300 used for the initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining 497 (Mage = 22.25 years, SD = 3.37) for the subsequent analyses. Results indicated a significant correlation between DT traits and agreeableness across both active trolling and passive bystanderism, revealing a shared personality profile. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that narcissism, Machiavellianism, and trait sadism were predictors of active trolling, with psychopathy being the strongest predictor. However, psychopathy did not emerge as a predictor for passive bystanderism. The study also highlighted that DT traits mediated the relationship between lower agreeableness and overall trolling behavior, suggesting that trolling manifests from lower agreeableness through the instigation of callous-unemotional, manipulative, and self-centered traits inherent in DT.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Maquiavelismo , Adolescente , Narcisismo , Estudantes/psicologia
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 174: 245-253, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670059

RESUMO

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with personality pathology. However, only few studies have been conducted on the link between ADHD and pathological narcissism (PN), with or without a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). In order to fill this gap, PN and NPD were assessed in 164 subjects suffering from ADHD, with several other measures including ADHD severity, quality of life, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and emotion dysregulation (ED). We found that a significant proportion of ADHD patients suffered from NPD, and that both narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability were associated with ADHD hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms, but not with inattentive symptoms. These two dimensions seemed to be negatively associated with well-being and positively associated with most of the other studied psychiatric dimensions except ED, the latter being only associated with vulnerability, even after adjustment on borderline symptoms. Overall, despite important limitations that limit the generalizability of our findings to the overall ADHD population (notably linked to selection bias), we believe that this exploratory study sheds light on the potential clinical relevance of narcissistic pathology in adult ADHD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Narcisística
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683821

RESUMO

According to biobehavioral synchronicity model, empathy-a fundamental requirement for reciprocal and prosocial behavior-is at the core of rebound from stress, an essential feature of resilience. However, there are also reports on antagonistic traits-characterized by empathic deficit-bolstering immunity to stress. In the literature there is also inconclusive evidence regarding gender-related differences in resilience. In separate female and male subsamples we analyzed the network constellation entailing resilience (assessed as rebound from stress), empathic (cognitive empathy, affective resonance, and affective dissonance) and antagonistic personality traits (Machiavellianism, grandiose- and vulnerable narcissism). For both genders, Machiavellian agency instigated by narcissistic admiration occupied the central position in the network indicating that personality's resources for proactivity and control are essential for successful rebound. Empathy, and in particular its affective component, occupied only a peripheral position in the network. Machiavellian antagonism in men and grandiose narcissism in females bridged prosocial mechanism of resilience with antagonistic nodes of the network. In the female subsample both types of malign narcissism (rivalry and vulnerable narcissism) directly thwarted rebound. This process was not detected in the male subsample network dominated by antagonism. That is, gender-related differences were associated with the avoidance strategies rather than with the proactive strategies. Thus, resilience assessed as rebounding from stress primarily involves personality resources which modulate proactive- and prosocial- but not necessarily reciprocal behavior.


Assuntos
Empatia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Resiliência Psicológica , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Empatia/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 72(3): 958-960, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497161
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 172: 307-333, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical and subclinical forms of narcissism may increase suicide risk. However, little is known and there are controversies on this topic. This systematic review aims at providing an overview of studies investigating this association. METHODS: We used PubMed, Scopus, and PsycInfo databases and followed PRISMA. We focused on cohort, case-control, cross-sectional and case series studies. We referred to both clinical (i.e., narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and/or NPD criteria) and subclinical forms (i.e., grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic traits) of narcissism. Moreover, we considered: Suicidal Ideation (SI), Non-Suicidal Self-Injury(s) (NSSI), Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH), Suicide Attempt(s) (SA), Suicide Risk (SR), and Capability for Suicide. RESULTS: We included 47 studies. Lack of association between NPD diagnosis/criteria and suicide-related outcomes (SI) or mixed results (SA) were found. Higher homogeneity emerged when considering narcissistic traits. Vulnerable narcissism was associated with SI, less impulsive NSSI, and DSH. Grandiose narcissism was associated with severe NSSI and multiple SA with high intent to die, but it was protective against SI and SR. Vulnerable narcissism seemed to be associated with suicide-related outcomes characterized by low intent to die, while grandiose narcissism seemed to be a risk factor for outcomes with high planning and severity. LIMITATIONS: Between-study heterogeneity and lack of longitudinal studies. CONCLUSIONS: Assessing suicide risk in subjects with clinical or subclinical forms of narcissism may be useful. Moreover, considering the most vulnerable form of narcissism, and not just the grandiose one, may contribute to a more nuanced risk stratification and to the identification of distinct therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Tentativa de Suicídio , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4443, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396168

RESUMO

The Dark Tetrad (DT) is composed of the traits of Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy, and Sadism. Most studies analyzing the DT have employed a variable-centered approach, analyzing the traits separately. In the present study, we treat DT as a whole, adopting a person-centered approach. We analyzed different homogeneous subgroups of individuals characterized by specific DT profiles, aiming to examine their relationship with Big Five personality factors. A sample of 1149 participants (50.1% women, 18-79 years) completed The Short Dark Triad and the Assessment of Sadistic Personality instrument to assess DT, while the Mini-IPIP was used to assess the Big Five personality factors. Cluster analysis yielded five groups: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Mean DT, Low DT, and High DT group. The main results showed that the High DT group was distinguished by higher levels of extraversion and lower levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness (compared with the Low DT group). Moreover, the Narcissism group was characterized by higher scores on emotional stability, openness to experience, and extraversion. Finally, distribution according to gender varied across DT groups (more men than women in the High DT group and the opposite in the Low DT group). Limitations and future lines of research are discussed.


Assuntos
Maquiavelismo , Personalidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Sadismo , Narcisismo
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