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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14168, 2024 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898143

RESUMO

The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is complex and multifactorial and in half of patients it remains unexplained (U-RPL). Recently, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has gained increasing relevance for its therapeutic potential. On this regard, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to analyze the efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) from the beginning of pregnancy in terms of live birth rates (LBR) in U-RPL. Registered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We stratified findings based on relevant clinical factors including number of previous miscarriages, treatment type and control type. Intervention or exposure was defined as the administration of LMWH alone or in combination with low-dose aspirin (LDA). A total of 6 studies involving 1016 patients were included. The meta-analysis results showed that LMWH used in the treatment of U-RPL was not associated with an increase in LBR with a pooled OR of 1.01, a medium heterogeneity (26.42%) and no publication bias. Results of other sub-analyses according to country, treatment type, and control type showed no significant effect of LMWH on LBR in all subgroups, with a high heterogeneity. The results highlight a non-significant effect of LMWH in U-RPL on LBR based on moderate quality evidence.Registration number: PROSPERO: ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022326433 ).


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Humanos , Aborto Habitual/prevenção & controle , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gravidez , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Nascido Vivo
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1348771, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863934

RESUMO

Background: Ovarian stimulation (OS) for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with PCOS often results in multiple follicular development, yet some individuals experience poor or suboptimal responses. Limited data exist regarding the impact of poor/suboptimal ovarian response on pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the live birth rate (LBR) per fresh embryo transfer and cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) per aspiration cycle differ in women with PCOS defined by the Patient-Oriented Strategy Encompassing IndividualizeD Oocyte Number (POSEIDON) criteria. Methods: A retrospective study involving 2,377 women with PCOS who underwent their first IVF/ICSI cycle at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2011 to December 2020 was used. Patients were categorized into four groups based on age, antral follicle count, and the number of oocytes retrieved, according to the POSEIDON criteria. The LBR and CLBR were compared among these groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether the POSEIDON criteria served as independent risk factors and identify factors associated with POSEIDON. Results: For patients <35 years old, there was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate between POSEIDON and non-POSEIDON patients, whereas POSEIDON patients exhibited lower rates of implantation and live birth. POSEIDON Group 1a displayed lower rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. However, no significant differences were observed in the rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth between POSEIDON Group 1b and non-POSEIDON groups. For patients ≥35 years old, there were no significant differences in the rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth between POSEIDON and non-POSEIDON patients. CLBRs were significantly lower in POSEIDON Groups 1 and 2, compared with the non-POSEIDON groups. The levels of body mass index (BMI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and antral follicle count (AFC) were associated with POSEIDON hypo-response. POSEIDON was found to be associated with lower CLBR, but not LBR per fresh embryo transfer. Conclusions: In patients with PCOS, an unexpected suboptimal response can achieve a fair LBR per fresh embryo transfer. However, CLBR per aspirated cycle in POSEIDON patients was lower than that of normal responders. BMI, basal FSH level, and AFC were independent factors associated with POSEIDON. Our study provides data for decision-making in women with PCOS after an unexpected poor/suboptimal response to OS.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Transferência Embrionária , Fertilização in vitro , Nascido Vivo , Indução da Ovulação , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Taxa de Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia
3.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 65, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) has been regarded as a key measure of in vitro fertilization (IVF) success after a complete treatment cycle. Women undergoing IVF face great psychological pressure and financial burden. A predictive model to estimate CLBR is needed in clinical practice for patient counselling and shaping expectations. METHODS: This retrospective study included 32,306 complete cycles derived from 29,023 couples undergoing IVF treatment from 2014 to 2020 at a university-affiliated fertility center in China. Three predictive models of CLBR were developed based on three phases of a complete cycle: pre-treatment, post-stimulation, and post-treatment. The non-linear relationship was treated with restricted cubic splines. Subjects from 2014 to 2018 were randomly divided into a training set and a test set at a ratio of 7:3 for model derivation and internal validation, while subjects from 2019 to 2020 were used for temporal validation. RESULTS: Predictors of pre-treatment model included female age (non-linear relationship), antral follicle count (non-linear relationship), body mass index, number of previous IVF attempts, number of previous embryo transfer failure, type of infertility, tubal factor, male factor, and scarred uterus. Predictors of post-stimulation model included female age (non-linear relationship), number of oocytes retrieved (non-linear relationship), number of previous IVF attempts, number of previous embryo transfer failure, type of infertility, scarred uterus, stimulation protocol, as well as endometrial thickness, progesterone and luteinizing hormone on trigger day. Predictors of post-treatment model included female age (non-linear relationship), number of oocytes retrieved (non-linear relationship), cumulative Day-3 embryos live-birth capacity (non-linear relationship), number of previous IVF attempts, scarred uterus, stimulation protocol, as well as endometrial thickness, progesterone and luteinizing hormone on trigger day. The C index of the three models were 0.7559, 0.7744, and 0.8270, respectively. All models were well calibrated (p = 0.687, p = 0.468, p = 0.549). In internal validation, the C index of the three models were 0.7422, 0.7722, 0.8234, respectively; and the calibration P values were all greater than 0.05. In temporal validation, the C index were 0.7430, 0.7722, 0.8234 respectively; however, the calibration P values were less than 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides three IVF models to predict CLBR according to information from different treatment stage, and these models have been converted into an online calculator ( https://h5.eheren.com/hcyc/pc/index.html#/home ). Internal validation and temporal validation verified the good discrimination of the predictive models. However, temporal validation suggested low accuracy of the predictive models, which might be attributed to time-associated amelioration of IVF practice.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilização in vitro , Nascido Vivo , Humanos , Feminino , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravidez , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Taxa de Gravidez , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2417397, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884995

RESUMO

Importance: Many studies have reported that the interpregnancy interval (IPI) is a potential modifiable risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the association between IPI after live birth and subsequent spontaneous abortion (SA) is unclear. Objective: To investigate the association of IPI after a healthy live birth and subsequent SA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from 180 921 women aged 20 to 49 years who had a single healthy live birth and planned for another pregnancy and who participated in the Chinese National Free Prepregnancy Checkups Project from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2020. Statistical analysis was conducted from June 20 to October 5, 2023. Exposure: Interpregnancy interval, defined as the interval between the delivery date and conception of the subsequent pregnancy, was categorized as follows: less than 18 months, 18 to 23 months, 24 to 35 months, 36 to 59 months, and 60 months or longer. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was SA. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression models to examine the association between IPI and the risk of SA. Dose-response associations were evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Results: The analyses included 180 921 multiparous women (mean [SD] age at current pregnancy, 26.3 [2.8] years); 4380 SA events (2.4% of all participants) were recorded. A J-shaped association between IPI levels and SA was identified. In the fully adjusted model, compared with IPIs of 18 to 23 months, both short (<18 months) and long (≥36 months) IPIs showed an increased risk of SA (IPIs of <18 months: OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.04-1.27]; IPIs of 36-59 months: OR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.15-1.43]; IPIs of ≥60 months: OR, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.78-2.56]). Results of the subgroup analysis by mode of previous delivery were consistent with the main analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study of multiparous women suggests that an IPI of shorter than 18 months or an IPI of 36 months or longer after a healthy live birth was associated with an increased risk of subsequent SA. The findings are valuable to make a rational prepregnancy plan and may facilitate the prevention of SA and improvement in neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Intervalo entre Nascimentos , Nascido Vivo , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco
5.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 69, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the POSEIDON criteria, group 3 and group 4 have an expected low prognosis. For those patients with inadequate ovary reserve, embryo accumulated from consecutive oocyte retrieval cycles for multiple frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET) has become more common. It is necessary to inform them of the pregnancy outcomes after single or multiple FET cycles before the treatment. However few studies about cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) for those with low prognosis have been reported. METHODS: This retrospective study included 4712 patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer cycles from July 2015 to August 2020. Patients were stratified as POSEIDON group 3, group 4, control 1 group (< 35 years) and control 2 group (≥ 35 years). The primary outcome is CLBRs up to six FET cycles and the secondary outcomes were LBRs per transfer cycle. Optimistic approach was used for the analysis of CLBRs and the depiction of cumulative incidence curves. RESULTS: Under optimistic model analyses, control 1 group exhibited the highest CLBR (93.98%, 95%CI 91.63-95.67%) within 6 FET cycles, followed by the CLBR from women in POSEIDON group 3(92.51%, 95%CI 77.1-97.55)was slightly lower than that in control 1 group. The CLBR of POSEIDON group 4(55% ,95%CI 39.34-70.66%)was the lowest and significantly lower than that of control 2 group(88.7%, 95%CI 80.68-96.72%). Further, patients in POSEIDON group 4 reached a CLBR plateau after 5 FET cycles. CONCLUSIONS: The patients of POSEIDON group 3 may not be considered as traditional "low prognosis" in clinical practice as extending the number of FET cycles up to 6 can archive considerably CLBR as control women. While for the POSEIDON group 4, a simple repeat of the FET cycle is not recommended after four failed FET cycles, some strategies such as PGT-A may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária , Nascido Vivo , Humanos , Feminino , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência Embrionária/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência Embrionária/tendências , Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prognóstico , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009749, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practitioners in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) continually seek alternative or adjunct treatments to improve ART outcomes. This Cochrane review investigates the adjunct use of synthetic versions of two naturally produced hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), in assisted reproduction. Steroid hormones are proposed to increase conception rates by positively affecting follicular response to gonadotrophin stimulation. This may lead to a greater oocyte yield and, subsequently, an increased chance of pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of DHEA and T as pre- or co-treatments in infertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases up to 8 January 2024: the Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGF) Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and trial registries for ongoing trials. We also searched citation indexes, Web of Science, PubMed, and OpenGrey. We searched the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted experts in the field for any additional trials. There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHEA or T as an adjunct treatment to any other active intervention, placebo, or no treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted relevant data, and assessed risk of bias. We pooled data from studies using fixed-effect models. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for each dichotomous outcome. Analyses were stratified by type of treatment. We assessed the certainty of evidence for the main findings using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 RCTs. There were 1599 women in the intervention group and 1469 in the control group. Apart from three trials, the trial participants were women identified as 'poor responders' to standard in vitro fertilisation (IVF) protocols. The included trials compared either T or DHEA treatment with placebo or no treatment. Pre-treatment with DHEA versus placebo/no treatment: DHEA likely results in little to no difference in live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates (OR 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.76; I² = 16%, 9 RCTs, N = 1433, moderate certainty evidence). This suggests that in women with a 12% chance of live birth/ongoing pregnancy with placebo or no treatment, the live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate in women using DHEA will be between 12% and 20%. DHEA likely does not decrease miscarriage rates (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.37; I² = 0%, 10 RCTs, N =1601, moderate certainty evidence). DHEA likely results in little to no difference in clinical pregnancy rates (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.49; I² = 0%, 13 RCTs, N = 1886, moderate certainty evidence). This suggests that in women with a 17% chance of clinical pregnancy with placebo or no treatment, the clinical pregnancy rate in women using DHEA will be between 16% and 24%. We are very uncertain about the effect of DHEA on multiple pregnancy (OR 3.05, 95% CI 0.47 to 19.66; 7 RCTs, N = 463, very low certainty evidence). Pre-treatment with T versus placebo/no treatment: T likely improves live birth rates (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.99; I² = 0%, 8 RCTs, N = 716, moderate certainty evidence). This suggests that in women with a 10% chance of live birth with placebo or no treatment, the live birth rate in women using T will be between 15% and 30%. T likely does not decrease miscarriage rates (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.51; I² = 0%, 9 RCTs, N = 755, moderate certainty evidence). T likely increases clinical pregnancy rates (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.54 to 3.06; I² = 0%, 13 RCTs, N = 1152, moderate certainty evidence). This suggests that in women with a 12% chance of clinical pregnancy with placebo or no treatment, the clinical pregnancy rate in women using T will be between 17% and 29%. We are very uncertain about the effect of T on multiple pregnancy (OR 2.56, 95% CI 0.59 to 11.20; 5 RCTs, N = 449, very low certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of T versus oestradiol or T versus oestradiol + oral contraceptive pills. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to very low, the main limitations being lack of blinding in the included trials, inadequate reporting of study methods, and low event and sample sizes in the trials. Data on adverse events were sparse; any reported events were minor. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pre-treatment with T likely improves, and pre-treatment with DHEA likely results in little to no difference, in live birth and clinical pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF who have been identified as poor responders. DHEA and T probably do not decrease miscarriage rates in women under IVF treatment. The effects of DHEA and T on multiple pregnancy are uncertain. Data regarding adverse events were very limited; any reported events were minor. Research is needed to identify the optimal duration of treatment with T. Future studies should include data collection on adverse events and multiple pregnancy.


Assuntos
Desidroepiandrosterona , Nascido Vivo , Taxa de Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Testosterona , Humanos , Feminino , Desidroepiandrosterona/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Viés , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Indução da Ovulação/métodos
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12894, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839827

RESUMO

The decrease in assisted reproductive technology success among older women, attributed to decreased oocyte quantity and quality, poses a significant challenge. Currently, no consensus on the optimal ovarian stimulation protocol for older women undergoing IVF exists. This retrospectively registered cohort study aimed to compare the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR), time to live birth (TTLB), and cost-effectiveness among women older than 35 years who were receiving either the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin cotreatment with ovarian stimulation (CC cotreatment) protocol. To compare treatment outcomes, we performed propensity score matching (PSM) on 2871 IVF cycles in women older than 35 years who received either the GnRHa or CC cotreatment protocol, resulting in 375 cycles in each group. Additionally, a decision tree model was utilized to assess the cost-effectiveness of the two protocols. Following PSM, both groups had similar baseline characteristics. The CC cotreatment protocol resulted in a greater rate of cycle cancellation (13.07% vs. 8.00%, p = 0.032), but the groups maintained comparable fertilization rates and embryo quality. Although the TTLB was longer in the CC cotreatment group, the CLBR per initial cycle (41.07% vs. 45.33%, p = 0.269) and delivery outcomes were similar between the two groups at the 24 months follow-up. Additionally, the average cost per live birth in the CC cotreatment group was 21.27% lower than in the GnRHa group (¥32,301.42 vs. ¥39,174.22). In conclusion, for women older than 35 years undergoing IVF, the CC cotreatment protocol offered a comparable CLBR to the GnRHa protocol but with reduced costs, indicating its potential as a viable and cost-effective ovarian stimulation option.Clinical trial registration: https://www.chictr.org.cn/ , identifier [ChiCTR2300076537].


Assuntos
Clomifeno , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Nascido Vivo , Indução da Ovulação , Humanos , Feminino , Clomifeno/uso terapêutico , Clomifeno/economia , Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Adulto , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Indução da Ovulação/economia , Gravidez , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Fertilização in vitro/economia , Gonadotropinas/uso terapêutico , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/economia , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Gravidez
9.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 45(1): 2351809, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In China, there is a unique type of second marriage (SM) family where the woman is remarried, and the man is experiencing his first marriage. Additionally, the woman is older than the man. Therefore, these families experience many challenges: psychological, emotional, and societal pressure. Such family is a typical sample for studying sociocultural and psychological stress influencing on outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study aimed to investigate the impact of social psychological stress on the live birth outcomes AR. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, second marriage (SM) families who visited the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University reproductive center between January 2012 to December 2022 were screened, and 561s marriage families (the SM group) with 5600 first marriage (FM) families (the FM group) were included undergoing their first ART cycles. The primary outcome of this study was the live birth rate (LBR). RESULTS: The live birth rate (LBR) of SM group (30.7%) is lower than that of the FM group (43.6%) (p < 0.01). After adjustment by logistic regression, the second marriage group (OR = 1.269, 95%CI 1.031-1.562, p = 0.025) were independent factors associated with the outcome of live birth. After propensity score matching (PSM), the live birth rate of SM group (28.7%) is lower than the FM group (35.9%) (0 = 0.011). CONCLUSION: The SM family experience higher levels of social and psychological pressure, which lead to lower level of LBR than FM family.


Assuntos
Casamento , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Feminino , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/psicologia , Adulto , Casamento/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , China , Masculino , Gravidez , Nascido Vivo
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1378635, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737550

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the live birth rate (LBR) of the first single euploid frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer (FBT) cycles after preimplantation genetic testing for structural rearrangements (PGT-SR) in couples with balanced chromosomal translocations (BCT). Design: Single center, retrospective and observational study. Methods: A total of 336 PGT-SR and the first single euploid FBT cycles between July 2016 and December 2022 were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the live birth outcomes. The parameters of the study population, controlled ovarian stimulation cycles, and FBT cycles were analyzed. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to find the factors that affected the LBR. Results: The percentage of blastocysts at developmental stage Day 5 compared to Day 6 (51.8% vs. 30.8%; P<0.001) and with morphology ≥BB compared to

Assuntos
Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária , Nascido Vivo , Taxa de Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Translocação Genética , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Resultado da Gravidez , Blastocisto , Indução da Ovulação/métodos
11.
Immunobiology ; 229(3): 152808, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor (TNFi) treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes in unexplained recurrent miscarriage (URM) patients, evidence for its efficacy and safety is still insufficient. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TNFi on pregnancy outcomes in patients with URM. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a single institution in China, involving 121 patients treated with TNFi for URM from 2019 to 2022. Patients enrolled were divided into treatment group (receiving TNFi and heparin therapy) and control group (receiving heparin therapy). The outcome variables were the 24-week live birth rate, miscarriage rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, neonatal outcomes, and adverse events. RESULTS: In our study, patients receiving TNFi treatment exhibited a significant increase in live birth rates, achieving 71.2 % compared to the 50.9 % observed in the control group (OR 2.507, 95 % CI: 1.127-5.579). Concurrently, there was a discernible reduction in the miscarriage rate within the TNFi-treated group, marking 24.2 %, in contrast to 43.6 % in the control group (OR 0.387, 95 % CI: 0.170-0.884). Subgroup analyses further illuminated that those under the age of 35 benefitted remarkably from TNFi treatment, with live birth rates soaring to 62.5 % (OR 2.525, 95 % CI: 1.041-6.125). For patients with a history of two miscarriages, the TNFi regimen significantly augmented the live birth rate to 58.9 % (OR 3.044, 95 % CI: 1.039-8.921). Patients with a normal weight range registered a 58.4 % live birth rate post-TNFi treatment (OR 4.261, 95 % CI: 1.539-11.397). Notably, an evident interaction between BMI and TNFi treatment was identified, suggesting a potential modulatory role of BMI on the therapeutic efficacy of TNFi. About safety assessments, neither the TNFi-treated group nor the control manifested any significant disparities in liver function abnormalities, platelet count anomalies, or other pregnancy-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: TNFi, alongside basic therapy, notably enhances the live birth rate in URM patients under 35, with two prior miscarriages or a normal BMI, without increasing adverse event risk. Further prospective studies are essential to validate these observations.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Resultado da Gravidez , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , China , Nascido Vivo , Resultado do Tratamento , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos adversos
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 298: 35-40, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of double trophectoderm biopsy on clinical outcomes following single euploid blastocyst transfer. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of 2046 single euploid frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers from January 2015 to June 2022 in a single centre. All patients undergoing a frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FTET) cycle with euploid blastocysts, biopsied for any indication, were included. The outcomes were compared for blastocysts which were biopsied and vitrified once (Group 1, n = 1684), biopsied once but vitrified twice (Group 2, n = 312) and biopsied and vitrified twice (Group 3n = 50). We adjusted for confounders and performed subgroup analysis for PGT-A, PGT-M and PGT-SR cycles. The primary outcome was live birth rate. Secondary outcomes included pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, birthweight and sex ratio. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders (previous failed euploid implantations, embryo quality and day of biopsy), embryos which were biopsied twice had lower OR for clinical pregnancy (0.48, CI 0.26-0.88, p = 0.019) and for live birth (0.50 CI 0.27-0.92, p = 0.025) compared to controls. Embryos which were biopsied once but vitrified twice had no different ORs for all reproductive outcomes compared to controls. No significant difference was observed for neonatal birthweight or sex ratio amongst the three groups. This is a retrospective single centre study with inherent bias and results may not be transferable to all settings. CONCLUSION: This study is the largest to date assessing the outcomes of FTET cycles following double trophectoderm biopsy. The results are in keeping with the existing literature and can be incorporated into patient counselling. Whilst double biopsy seems to adversely impact LBR, it is only one of the many factors that can affect success rates. The subfertility background and embryo characteristics should not be overlooked. This study provides reassuring evidence since double biopsied embryos still result in live births with no difference in sex ratio or birthweight. However, long term follow up of the off-springs is lacking and should be reported in future studies.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravidez , Adulto , Biópsia , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Blastocisto/patologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Nascido Vivo , Vitrificação , Resultado da Gravidez
13.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 56, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian stimulation and the use of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for triggering oocyte maturation in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) introduces several differences in luteal phase hormone levels compared with natural cycles that may negatively impact on endometrial receptivity and pregnancy rates after fresh embryo transfer. Exogenous luteal phase support is given to overcome these issues. The suitability of a pragmatic approach to luteal phase support is not known due to a lack of data on early phase luteal hormone levels and their association with fertility outcomes during IVF with fresh embryo transfer. This study determined early luteal phase profiles of serum progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and hCG, and associations between hormone levels/hormone level profile after hCG trigger and the live birth rate in women undergoing IVF with fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: This prospective single center, cohort study was conducted in Vietnam from January 2021 to December 2022. Women aged 18-38 years with normal ovarian reserve and undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol were included. Serum hormone levels were determined before trigger, at 12, 24 and 36 h after hCG, and daily from 1 to 6 days after oocyte pick-up. Serum hormone level profiles were classified as lower or upper. The primary outcome was live birth rate based on early luteal phase hormone level profile. RESULTS: Ninety-five women were enrolled. Live birth occurred in 19/69 women (27.5%) with a lower progesterone profile and 13/22 (59.1%) with an upper progesterone profile (risk ratio [RR] 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-3.60), and in 6/31 (19.4%) versus 26/60 (43.3%) with a lower versus upper serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone profile (RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.03-4.86). Nearly 20% of women had peak progesterone concentration on or before day 3 after oocyte pick-up, and this was associated with significantly lower chances of having a life birth. CONCLUSIONS: These data show the importance of proper corpus luteum function with sufficient progesterone/17-hydroxyprogesterone production for achievement of pregnancy and to maximize the chance of live birth during IVF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04693624 ( www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov ).


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica , Fertilização in vitro , Fase Luteal , Indução da Ovulação , Progesterona , Humanos , Feminino , Fase Luteal/sangue , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Adulto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Progesterona/sangue , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Taxa de Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Adolescente , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia
14.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 44(1): 2349714, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend of increasing caesarean section (CS) rates brings up questions related to subfertility. Research regarding the influence of CS on assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is conflicting. A potential mechanism behind CS-induced subfertility is intra uterine fluid resulting from a caesarean scar defect or niche. The vaginal microbiome has been repeatedly connected to negative ART outcomes, but it is unknown if the microbiome is changed in relation to a niche. METHODS: This systematic review describes literature investigating the effect of a niche on live birth rates after assisted reproduction. Furthermore, studies investigating a difference in microbial composition in subfertile persons with a niche compared to no niche are evaluated. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched on March 2023 for comparative studies on both study questions. Inclusion criteria were i.e., English language, human-only studies, availability of the full article and presence of comparative pregnancy data on a niche. The quality of the included studies and their risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies. The results were graphically displayed in a forest plot. RESULTS: Six retrospective cohort studies could be included on fertility outcomes, with a total of 1083 persons with a niche and 3987 without a niche. The overall direction of effect shows a negative impact of a niche on the live birth rate (pooled aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.48-0.69) with low-grade evidence. Three studies comparing the microbiome between persons with and without a CS could be identified. CONCLUSION: There is low-grade evidence to conclude that the presence of a niche reduces live birth rates when compared to persons without a niche. The theory that a caesarean has a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes because of dysbiosis promoted by the niche is interesting, but there is no sufficient literature about this.


The increasing number of caesarean deliveries has raised concerns about how it might affect a woman's ability to get pregnant afterwards. Some studies suggest that having a caesarean section (CS) could make it harder to conceive, particularly through in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The reason could be the scar or niche from a previous caesarean. This niche can cause fluid inside the uterus. We also know that the mix of bacteria in the vagina, called the vaginal microbiome, can affect a woman's chances of getting pregnant, especially with treatments like IVF. But we are not sure if having a caesarean affects the vaginal microbiome.To understand this better, van den Tweel's team looked at studies on whether having a niche from a caesarean affects a woman's chance of having a baby through IVF. They also looked at studies comparing the bacteria in the vagina of women who have had a caesarean with those who have not. They found that having a caesarean niche makes it harder for a woman to have a baby through IVF. However, the evidence from these studies is not very strong. We still do not know enough about whether having a caesarean niche affects the bacteria in the vagina.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Cicatriz , Humanos , Feminino , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Vagina/microbiologia , Microbiota , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/microbiologia , Nascido Vivo , Fertilidade , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade
15.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 63(3): 336-340, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the optimal timing of embryo transfer after the first round treatment of chronic endometritis (CE) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients were recruited from a retrospective analysis of a large university-affiliated reproduction center in 2021. Some people chose to undergo embryo transfer in the same menstrual cycle with the first round of antibiotic treatment (Group 1, n = 29). Others received embryo transfer in the next cycle after the first round of treatment (Group 2, n = 69) or even one cycle later (Group 3,n = 96). RESULTS: Patients in Group 1 got significantly lower biochemical pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than Group 2 (p < 0.05) and also Group 3 (p < 0.05). Then after comparing the influence factors, we found embryo transfer in the next cycle after antibiotic treatment had a higher clinical pregnancy rate than group 1 (OR = 3.2 p < 0.05) and group 3(OR = 2.5, p < 0.05). The live birth rate in group 2 was higher than group 1(OR = 3.5, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings illustrate that embryo transfer in the next menstrual cycle is the optimal time. Embryo transfer in the same menstrual cycle with the first round of treatment reduces the pregnancy rate.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Transferência Embrionária , Endometrite , Taxa de Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Endometrite/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doença Crônica , Fatores de Tempo , Fertilização in vitro/métodos , Nascido Vivo , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 63(3): 391-393, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis and cordocentesis in a pregnancy associated with a favorable fetal outcome. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old, primigravid woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of positive non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for trisomy 21 at 16 weeks of gestation. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[17], and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on uncultured amniocytes revealed rsa X(P095) × 2, (13, 18, 21) × 2. She underwent cordocentesis (cord blood sampling) at 21 weeks of gestation which revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[48]. At 27 weeks of gestation, she was referred to our hospital for genetic counseling, and repeat amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XX in 20/20 colonies. Quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes and parental bloods excluded uniparental disomy (UPD) 21. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on the DNA extracted from uncultured amniocytes revealed arr (1-22,X) × 2, Y × 0 with no genomic imbalance. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 104 uncultured amniocytes detected one cell (1/104 = 0.9%) with trisomy 21, while the rest cells were disomy 21, compared with 0% (0/100) in the normal control. The woman was encouraged to continue the pregnancy. The pregnancy was carried to 38 weeks of gestation, and a 2771-g female baby was delivered no phenotypic abnormality. aCGH analysis on the cord blood showed arr (1-22,X) × 2, Y × 0 with no genomic imbalance. The umbilical cord had a karyotype of 47,XX,+21[3]/46,XX[37]. The placenta had a karyotype of 46,XX. When follow-up at age 3½ months, the neonate was phenotypically normal and had normal development. The peripheral blood had a karyotype of 46,XX in 40/40 cells. Interphase FISH analysis on buccal mucosal cells detected normal disomy 21 cells in 100/100 cells. CONCLUSION: Low-level mosaic trisomy 21 at amniocentesis and cordocentesis in the second trimester can be associated with perinatal progressive decrease of the trisomy 21 cell line and a favorable fetal outcome.


Assuntos
Amniocentese , Cordocentese , Síndrome de Down , Mosaicismo , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/genética , Mosaicismo/embriologia , Recém-Nascido , Nascido Vivo/genética , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo/métodos , Cariotipagem , Resultado da Gravidez
17.
Trials ; 25(1): 348, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation remains a critical barrier in assisted reproductive technologies. One of the main causes of unsuccessful embryo implantation is window of implantation (WOI) displacement, particularly in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). Therefore, a reliable diagnostic tool for identifying the optimal WOI is essential. Previous data has suggested that a novel RNA-Seq-based endometrial receptivity testing (ERT) can diagnose WOI, guide personalized embryo transfer (pET), and improve pregnancy outcomes in patients with RIF compared to standard embryo transfer (sET). However, there is still a lack of evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) with sufficient power to determine whether pET based on ERT can increase the rate of live births as the primary outcome. METHODS: This trial is a prospective, single-blind, parallel-group RCT (1:1 ratio of pET versus sET). Infertile women with RIF who intend to undergo frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) after preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) with the availability of at least one euploid blastocyst for transfer will be enrolled and assigned into two parallel groups randomly. Participants in the intervention group will undergo ERT and then pET based on the results of ERT, while those in the control group will undergo sET. The primary outcome is live birth rate. DISCUSSION: The findings of this study will provide evidence for the effect of pET guided by ERT on pregnancy outcomes in patients with RIF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100049041. Registered on 20 July 2021.


Assuntos
Implantação do Embrião , Transferência Embrionária , Endométrio , Nascido Vivo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Taxa de Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , China , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
Hum Reprod ; 39(6): 1231-1238, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719783

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What are the pregnancy and obstetric outcomes in women with atypical hyperplasia (AH) or early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) managed conservatively for fertility preservation? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study found a live birth rate of 62% in patients with AH or EC after conservative treatment, with higher level of labour induction, caesarean section, and post-partum haemorrhage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility-sparing treatment is a viable option for women with AH or EC during childbearing years, but the outcomes of such treatments, especially regarding pregnancy and obstetrics, need further exploration. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study analysed data from January 2010 to October 2022, involving 269 patients from the French national register of patients with fertility-sparing management of AH/EC. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Women above 18 years of age, previously diagnosed with AH/EC, and approved for fertility preservation were included. Patients were excluded if they were registered before 2010, if their treatment began <6 months before the study, or if no medical record on the pregnancy was available. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In total, 95 pregnancies in 67 women were observed. Pregnancy was achieved using ART in 63 cases (66%) and the live birth rate was 62%, with early and late pregnancy loss at 26% and 5%, respectively. In the 59 cases resulting in a live birth, a full-term delivery occurred in 90% of cases; 36% of cases required labour induction and 39% of cases required a caesarean section. The most common maternal complications included gestational diabetes (17%) and post-partum haemorrhaging (20%). The average (±SD) birthweight was 3110 ± 736 g; there were no significant foetal malformations in the sample. No significant difference was found in pregnancy or obstetric outcomes between ART-obtained and spontaneous pregnancies. However, the incidence of induction of labour, caesarean section, and post-partum haemorrhage appears higher than in the general population. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The retrospective nature of the study may introduce bias, and the sample size might be insufficient for assessing rare obstetric complications. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study offers valuable insights for healthcare providers to guide patients who received fertility-sparing treatments for AH/EC. These pregnancies can be successful and with an acceptable live birth rate, but they seem to be managed with caution, leading to possible tendency for more caesarean sections and labour inductions. No increase in adverse obstetric outcomes was observed, with the exception of suspicion of a higher risk of post-partum haemorrhaging, to be confirmed. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No funding was received for this study. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Preservação da Fertilidade , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Hiperplasia Endometrial/terapia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/complicações , Nascido Vivo , Taxa de Gravidez , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , França/epidemiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 339, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the per OPU clinical outcomes for transfer of Day 3 double cleavage-stage embryos (DET) and Day 5 single blastocyst-stage (SBT) in patients with five or fewer good quality embryos on day 3 per occyte pick-up cycle (OPU) in antagonist cycles with consideration of blastocyst formation failure. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of 2,116 cases of OPU treated with antagonist protocol in the affiliated Chenggong Hospital of Xiamen University between January 2013 and December 2020. DET was performed in 1,811cycles and SBT was performed in 305 cycles. The DET group was matched to the SBT group by propensity score (PS) matching according to multiple maternal baseline covariates. After PS matching, there were 303 ET cycles in each group. The primary outcomes were the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR), cumulative multiple pregnancy rate(CMPR)per OPU and the number of ET to achieve live birth per OPU. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of clinical pregnancy(CPR), live birth rate(LBR), multiple pregnancy rate(MPR). RESULTS: Following PS mating, the CLBR was slightly higher (48.8% versus 40.3% ; P = 0.041) and the CMPR was significantly higher in the DET group compared to SBT group(44.2% versus 7.9%, P < 0.001). The CPR, LBR and MPR per fresh transfer were higher in DET group compared to SBT group(50.2% versus 28.7%; 41.3% versus 21.5%;29.6% versus 0%, P < 0.001). The number of ET to achieve live birth per OPU in SBT group was obiviously more than in DET group(1.48 ± 0.578 versus 1.22 ± 0.557 ,P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: With a marginal difference cumulative live birth rate, the lower live birth rate per fresh transfer and higher number of ET per OPU in the SBT group suggested that it might take longer time to achieve a live birth with single blastocyst strategy. A trade-off decision should be made between efficiency and safety.


Assuntos
Fase de Clivagem do Zigoto , Transferência Embrionária , Taxa de Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Transferência de Embrião Único/métodos , Nascido Vivo , Blastocisto , Indução da Ovulação/métodos
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 143(6): 839-848, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of demographic shifts, changes in contemporaneous clinical practices, and technologic innovation on assisted reproductive technology (ART) success rates by conducting an analysis of cumulative live-birth rates across different time periods, age groups, and infertility diagnoses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of autologous linked cycles comparing cumulative live-birth rates over successive cycles from patients undergoing their first retrieval between 2014 and 2019 in the SART CORS (Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System) database. All cycles reported for these individuals up to 2020 were included for analysis. We compared cumulative live-birth rates stratified by age and infertility cause with published data from the 2004-2009 SART CORS database. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2019, 447,042 patients underwent their first autologous index retrieval, resulting in 1,007,374 cycles and 252,215 live births over the period of 2014 to 2020. In contrast, between 2004 and 2008, 246,740 patients underwent 471,208 cycles, resulting in 140,859 births by 2009. Noteworthy shifts in demographics were observed, with an increase in people of color seeking reproductive technology (57.9% vs 51.7%, P <.001). There was also an increase in patients with diminished ovarian reserve and ovulatory disorders and a decrease in endometriosis, tubal, and male factor infertility ( P <.001). Previously associated with decreased odds of live birth, frozen embryo transfer and preimplantation genetic testing showed increased odds in 2014-2020. Preimplantation genetic testing rose from 3.4% to 36.0% and was associated with a lower cumulative live-birth rate for those younger than age 35 years ( P <.001) but a higher cumulative live-birth rate for those aged 35 years or older ( P <.001). Comparing 2014-2020 with 2004-2009 shows that the overall cumulative live-birth rate improved for patients aged 35 years or older and for all infertility diagnoses except ovulatory disorders ( P <.001). CONCLUSION: This analysis provides insights into the changing landscape of ART treatments in the United States over the past two decades. The observed shifts in demographics, clinical practices, and technology highlight the dynamic nature of an evolving field of reproductive medicine. These findings may offer insight for clinicians to consider in counseling patients and to inform future research endeavors in the field of ART.


Assuntos
Nascido Vivo , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Infertilidade/terapia , Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências
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