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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 349, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contemporary estimates of diabetes mellitus (DM) rates in pregnancy are lacking in Canada. Accordingly, this study examined trends in the rates of type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM) and gestational (GDM) DM in Canada over a 15-year period, and selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This study used repeated cross-sectional data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (CIHI) hospitalization discharge abstract database (DAD). Maternal delivery records were linked to their respective birth records from 2006 to 2019. The prevalence of T1DM, T2DM and GDM were calculated, including relative changes over time, assessed by a Cochrane-Armitage test. Also assessed were differences between provinces and territories in the prevalence of DM. RESULTS: Over the 15-year study period, comprising 4,320,778 hospital deliveries in Canada, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of GDM and T1DM and T2DM. Compared to pregnancies without DM, all pregnancies with any form of DM had higher rates of hypertension and Caesarian delivery, and also adverse infant outcomes, including major congenital anomalies, preterm birth and large-for-gestational age birthweight. CONCLUSION: Among 4.3 million pregnancies in Canada, there has been a rise in the prevalence of DM. T2DM and GDM are expected to increase further as more overweight women conceive in Canada.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Canadá/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Adulto Jovem , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10819, 2024 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734716

RESUMO

Currently, there are no accurate means to predict spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Recently, we observed low expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) in SPTB placentas. Present aim was to compare the concentrations of maternal serum AAT in pregnancies with preterm and term deliveries. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was used as a reference inflammatory marker. Two populations were studied. The first population comprised women who eventually gave birth spontaneously preterm (SPTB group) or term (control group). The second population included pregnant women shortly before delivery and nonpregnant women. We observed that serum AAT levels were higher in the SPTB group than in the controls, and a similar difference was observed when serum CRP was considered in multivariable analysis. However, the overlap in the AAT concentrations was considerable. No statistical significance was observed in serum AAT levels between preterm and term pregnancies at delivery. However, AAT levels were higher at delivery compared to nonpregnant controls. We did not observe a strong correlation between serum AAT and CRP in early pregnancy samples and at labor. We propose that during early pregnancy, complicated by subsequent SPTB, modest elevation of serum AAT associates with SPTB.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Nascimento Prematuro , alfa 1-Antitripsina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , alfa 1-Antitripsina/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento a Termo/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10800, 2024 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734779

RESUMO

Preterm labor, a condition associated with various risk factors such as a history of prior preterm birth (PTB) and multiple pregnancies, has recently seen an increasing focus on its potential link with dyslipidemia. This study aims to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia in expectant mothers and the risks of PTB. We studied 6963 mothers who gave birth at the International Peace Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine in 2020, among which, 437 women had PTB. We extracted clinical and lipid data from electronic records, using multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models to explore the link between lipid concentrations (by quartiles) in pregnancy stages and PTB risk. The PTB rate was 6.3%. Early pregnancy in the PTB group showed elevated ApoA, ApoB, CHOL, LDL, and TG levels compared to controls (all P < 0.05). Late pregnancy showed no notable lipid differences. Multivariable analysis revealed elevated ApoA, TG, higher age, BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2, hypertension, assisted reproductive technology and gestational diabetes as PTB risk factors (all P < 0.05). After adjustments, higher ApoA, ApoB, CHOL and TG levels correlated with increased PTB risk. Using the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs for early pregnancy's highest quartile of ApoA, ApoB, CHOL and TG were 1.348, 1.442, 1.442 and 2.156, respectively. Our findings indicate that dyslipemia in early pregnancy, including elevated levels of ApoA, ApoB, CHOL and TG, are associated with PTB. Managing lipid abnormalities during pregnancy may help reduce the risk of PTB.


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Lipídeos/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303175, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728292

RESUMO

There is lack of clarity on whether pregnancies during COVID-19 resulted in poorer mode of delivery and birth outcomes in Ontario, Canada. We aimed to compare mode of delivery (C-section), birth (low birthweight, preterm birth, NICU admission), and health services use (HSU, hospitalizations, ED visits, physician visits) outcomes in pregnant Ontario women before and during COVID-19 (pandemic periods). We further stratified for pre-existing chronic diseases (asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis, diabetes, hypertension). Deliveries before (Jun 2018-Feb 2020) and during (Jul 2020-Mar 2022) pandemic were from health administrative data. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of delivery and birth outcomes, and negative binomial regression for adjusted rate ratios (aRR) of HSU. We compared outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. Possible interactions between study periods and covariates were also examined. 323,359 deliveries were included (50% during pandemic). One in 5 (18.3%) women who delivered during the pandemic had not received any COVID-19 vaccine, while one in 20 women (5.2%) lab-tested positive for COVID-19. The odds of C-section delivery during the pandemic was 9% higher (aOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.08-1.11) than pre-pandemic. The odds of preterm birth and NICU admission were 15% (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.87) and 10% lower (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.88-0.92), respectively, during COVID-19. There was a 17% reduction in ED visits but a 16% increase in physician visits during the pandemic (aRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.81-0.84 and aRR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.16-1.17, respectively). These aORs and aRRs were significantly higher in women with pre-existing chronic conditions. During the pandemic, healthcare utilization, especially ED visits (aRR = 0.83), in pregnant women was lower compared to before. Ensuring ongoing prenatal care during the pandemic may reduce risks of adverse mode of delivery and the need for acute care during pregnancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Parto Obstétrico , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Ontário/epidemiologia , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD004661, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnesium sulphate is a common therapy in perinatal care. Its benefits when given to women at risk of preterm birth for fetal neuroprotection (prevention of cerebral palsy for children) were shown in a 2009 Cochrane review. Internationally, use of magnesium sulphate for preterm cerebral palsy prevention is now recommended practice. As new randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longer-term follow-up of prior RCTs have since been conducted, this review updates the previously published version. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of magnesium sulphate as a fetal neuroprotective agent when given to women considered to be at risk of preterm birth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 17 March 2023, as well as reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs and cluster-RCTs of women at risk of preterm birth that assessed prenatal magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection compared with placebo or no treatment. All methods of administration (intravenous, intramuscular, and oral) were eligible. We did not include studies where magnesium sulphate was used with the primary aim of preterm labour tocolysis, or the prevention and/or treatment of eclampsia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed RCTs for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias and trustworthiness. Dichotomous data were presented as summary risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and continuous data were presented as mean differences with 95% CI. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (5917 women and their 6759 fetuses alive at randomisation). All RCTs were conducted in high-income countries. The RCTs compared magnesium sulphate with placebo in women at risk of preterm birth at less than 34 weeks' gestation; however, treatment regimens and inclusion/exclusion criteria varied. Though the RCTs were at an overall low risk of bias, the certainty of evidence ranged from high to very low, due to concerns regarding study limitations, imprecision, and inconsistency. Primary outcomes for infants/children: Up to two years' corrected age, magnesium sulphate compared with placebo reduced cerebral palsy (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.89; 6 RCTs, 6107 children; number needed to treat for additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 60, 95% CI 41 to 158) and death or cerebral palsy (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; 6 RCTs, 6481 children; NNTB 56, 95% CI 32 to 363) (both high-certainty evidence). Magnesium sulphate probably resulted in little to no difference in death (fetal, neonatal, or later) (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.13; 6 RCTs, 6759 children); major neurodevelopmental disability (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.44; 1 RCT, 987 children); or death or major neurodevelopmental disability (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.07; 3 RCTs, 4279 children) (all moderate-certainty evidence). At early school age, magnesium sulphate may have resulted in little to no difference in death (fetal, neonatal, or later) (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.02; 2 RCTs, 1758 children); cerebral palsy (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.41; 2 RCTs, 1038 children); death or cerebral palsy (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.20; 1 RCT, 503 children); and death or major neurodevelopmental disability (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.12; 1 RCT, 503 children) (all low-certainty evidence). Magnesium sulphate may also have resulted in little to no difference in major neurodevelopmental disability, but the evidence is very uncertain (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.62; 2 RCTs, 940 children; very low-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes for infants/children: Magnesium sulphate probably reduced severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 or 4) (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.98; 5 RCTs, 5885 infants; NNTB 92, 95% CI 55 to 1102; moderate-certainty evidence) and may have resulted in little to no difference in chronic lung disease/bronchopulmonary dysplasia (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.10; 5 RCTs, 6689 infants; low-certainty evidence). Primary outcomes for women: Magnesium sulphate may have resulted in little or no difference in severe maternal outcomes potentially related to treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest) (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.92; 4 RCTs, 5300 women; low-certainty evidence). However, magnesium sulphate probably increased maternal adverse effects severe enough to stop treatment (average RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.88 to 5.48; 3 RCTs, 4736 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Secondary outcomes for women: Magnesium sulphate probably resulted in little to no difference in caesarean section (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.02; 5 RCTs, 5861 women) and postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.09; 2 RCTs, 2495 women) (both moderate-certainty evidence). Breastfeeding at hospital discharge and women's views of treatment were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The currently available evidence indicates that magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus, compared with placebo, reduces cerebral palsy, and death or cerebral palsy, in children up to two years' corrected age, and probably reduces severe intraventricular haemorrhage for infants. Magnesium sulphate may result in little to no difference in outcomes in children at school age. While magnesium sulphate may result in little to no difference in severe maternal outcomes (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest), it probably increases maternal adverse effects severe enough to stop treatment. Further research is needed on the longer-term benefits and harms for children, into adolescence and adulthood. Additional studies to determine variation in effects by characteristics of women treated and magnesium sulphate regimens used, along with the generalisability of findings to low- and middle-income countries, should be considered.


Assuntos
Viés , Paralisia Cerebral , Sulfato de Magnésio , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Nascimento Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Paralisia Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302010, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy increases the risk of periodontitis due to the increase in progesterone and estrogen. Moreover, periodontitis during pregnancy is associated with development of pregnancy and birth related complications. The aim of this study is to determine, whether periodontal treatment during pregnancy can reduce systemic inflammation and lower the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth related outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PROBE study is a non-randomized controlled intervention study conducted among 600 pregnant women with periodontitis. The women will be recruited among all pregnant women at two Danish hospitals in Region Zealand during their nuchal translucency scan and will subsequently be screened for periodontitis. The intervention group includes 300 pregnant women, who will be offered state-of-the-art periodontal treatment during pregnancy. The control group includes additional 300 pregnant women, who will be offered periodontal treatment after giving birth. Outcome measures include periodontal measures, inflammatory, hormonal and glycaemic markers as well as the prevalence of preterm birth risk, low birth weight and risk markers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia that will be collected from all screened women and further during pregnancy week 20 and pregnancy week 35 for women enrolled in the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study's findings will be published in peer reviewed journals and disseminated at national and international conferences and through social media. The PROBE study is designed to provide important new knowledge as to whether periodontal treatment during pregnancy can reduce the prevalence of complications related to pregnancy and birth. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT06110143).


Assuntos
Periodontite , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Diabetes Gestacional , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Periodontite/terapia , Periodontite/complicações , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410151, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713462

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of cannabis use in pregnancy is rising and is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. In parallel, combined prenatal use of cannabis and nicotine is also increasing, but little is known about the combined impact of both substances on pregnancy and offspring outcomes compared with each substance alone. Objective: To assess the perinatal outcomes associated with combined cannabis and nicotine exposure compared with each substance alone during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study included linked hospital discharge data (obtained from the California Department of Health Care Access and Information) and vital statistics (obtained from the California Department of Public Health) from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2019. Pregnant individuals with singleton gestations and gestational ages of 23 to 42 weeks were included. Data were analyzed from October 14, 2023, to March 4, 2024. Exposures: Cannabis-related diagnosis and prenatal nicotine product use were captured using codes from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcomes were infant and neonatal death, infants small for gestational age, and preterm delivery. Results were analyzed by multivariable Poisson regression models. Results: A total of 3 129 259 pregnant individuals were included (mean [SD] maternal age 29.3 [6.0] years), of whom 23 007 (0.7%) had a cannabis-related diagnosis, 56 811 (1.8%) had a nicotine-use diagnosis, and 10 312 (0.3%) had both in pregnancy. Compared with nonusers, those with cannabis or nicotine use diagnoses alone had increased rates of infant (0.7% for both) and neonatal (0.3% for both) death, small for gestational age (14.3% and 13.7%, respectively), and preterm delivery (<37 weeks) (12.2% and 12.0%, respectively). Moreover, risks in those with both cannabis and nicotine use were higher for infant death (1.2%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 2.18 [95% CI, 1.82-2.62]), neonatal death (0.6%; ARR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.36-2.28]), small for gestational age (18.0%; ARR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.86-2.02]), and preterm delivery (17.5%; ARR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.75-1.91]). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that co-occurring maternal use of cannabis and nicotine products in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of infant and neonatal death and maternal and neonatal morbidity compared with use of either substance alone. Given the increasing prevalence of combined cannabis and nicotine use in pregnancy, these findings can help guide health care practitioners with preconception and prenatal counseling, especially regarding the benefits of cessation.


Assuntos
Nicotina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , California/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Lactente , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Perinatol ; 51(2): 425-439, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705650

RESUMO

This review illuminates the complex interplay between various maternal microbiomes and their influence on preterm birth (PTB), a driving and persistent contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Here, we examine the dynamics of oral, gastrointestinal (gut), placental, and vaginal microbiomes, dissecting their roles in the pathogenesis of PTB. Importantly, focusing on the vaginal microbiome and PTB, the review highlights (1) a protective role of Lactobacillus species; (2) an increased risk with select anaerobes; and (3) the influence of social health determinants on the composition of vaginal microbial communities.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Placenta , Nascimento Prematuro , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Lactobacillus , Boca/microbiologia
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 311, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724897

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the oral probiotic effect on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women undergoing cerclage compared to placebo. METHODS: This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial undertaken in Yasuj, Iran. 114 eligible participants who have undergone cerclage were randomly divided to either receive probiotic adjuvant or 17α-OHP (250 mg, IM) with placebo from the 16th -37th week of pregnancy by "block" randomization method. Our primary outcomes were preterm labor (PTB) (late and early) and secondary outcomes were other obstetrical and neonatal outcomes included preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM), pre-labor rupture of membranes (PROM), mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes including anthropometric characterize and Apgar score (one and fifth-minute). RESULTS: Results show that there are no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of PTB in < 34th (15.51% vs. 17.86%; P = 0.73) and 34-37th weeks of pregnancy (8.7% vs. 16.1%; P = 0.22), and mode of delivery (P = 0.09). PPROM (8.7% vs. 28.5%; P = 0.006) PROM (10.3% vs. 25%; P = 0.04) was significantly lower in patients receiving probiotic adjuvant compared to the control group. After delivery, the findings of the present study showed that there were no significant differences in newborn's weight (3082.46 ± 521.8vs. 2983.89 ± 623.89), head circumstance (36.86 ± 1.53vs. 36.574 ± 1.52), height (45.4 ± 5.34 vs. 47.33 ± 4.92) and Apgar score in one (0.89 ± 0.03 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05) and five minutes (0.99 ± 0.03vs. 0.99 ± 0.03) after birth. CONCLUSION: Our result has shown that the consumption of Lactofem probiotic from the 16th week until 37th of pregnancy can lead to a reduction of complications such as PPROM and PROM.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical , Resultado da Gravidez , Probióticos , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Adulto , Irã (Geográfico) , Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Adulto Jovem , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38765518

RESUMO

Objective: To ascertain how screening for preterm birth is performed among obstetricians working in public and private practice in a middle-income country. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 265 obstetrician-gynecologists employed at public and private facilities. An online questionnaire was administered, with items designed to collect data on prematurity screening and prevention practices. Results: The mean age of respondents was 44.5 years; 78.5% were female, and 97.7% had completed a medical residency program. Universal screening (i.e., by ultrasound measurement of cervical length) was carried out by only 11.3% of respondents in public practice; 43% request transvaginal ultrasound if the manual exam is abnormal, and 74.6% request it in pregnant women with risk factors for preterm birth. Conversely, 60.7% of respondents in private practice performed universal screening. This difference in screening practices between public and private practice was highly significant (p < 0.001). Nearly all respondents (90.6%) reported prescribing vaginal progesterone for short cervix. Conclusion: In the setting of this study, universal ultrasound screening to prevent preterm birth was used by just over half of doctors in private practice. In public facilities, screening was even less common. Use of vaginal progesterone in cervical shortening was highly prevalent. There is an unmet need for formal protocols for screening and prevention of preterm birth in middle-income settings.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Gravidez , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prática Privada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Genet Sel Evol ; 56(1): 39, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nine male and eight female calves born to a Normande artificial insemination bull named "Ly" were referred to the French National Observatory of Bovine Abnormalities for multiple fractures, shortened gestation, and stillbirth or perinatal mortality. RESULTS: Using Illumina BovineSNP50 array genotypes from affected calves and 84 half-sib controls, the associated locus was mapped to a 6.5-Mb interval on chromosome 19, assuming autosomal inheritance with germline mosaicism. Subsequent comparison of the whole-genome sequences of one case and 5116 control genomes, followed by genotyping in the affected pedigree, identified a de novo missense substitution within the NC1 domain of the COL1A1 gene (Chr19 g.36,473,965G > A; p.D1412N) as unique candidate variant. Interestingly, the affected residue was completely conserved among 243 vertebrate orthologs, and the same substitution in humans has been reported to cause type II osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a connective tissue disorder that is characterized primarily by bone deformity and fragility. Moreover, three COL1A1 mutations have been described to cause the same syndrome in cattle. Necropsy, computed tomography, radiology, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of type II OI, further supporting the causality of this variant. In addition, a detailed analysis of gestation length and perinatal mortality in 1387 offspring of Ly and more than 160,000 progeny of 63 control bulls allowed us to statistically confirm in a large pedigree the association between type II OI and preterm delivery, which is probably due to premature rupture of fetal membranes and has been reported in several isolated cases of type II OI in humans and cattle. Finally, analysis of perinatal mortality rates and segregation distortion supported a low level of germ cell mosaicism in Ly, with an estimate of 4.5% to 7.7% of mutant sperm and thus 63 to 107 affected calves born. These numbers contrast with the 17 cases reported and raise concerns about the underreporting of congenital defects to heredo-surveillance platforms, even for textbook genetic syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we describe a large animal model for a recurrent substitution in COL1A1 that is responsible for type II OI in humans. More generally, this study highlights the utility of such datasets and large half-sib families available in livestock species to characterize sporadic genetic defects.


Assuntos
Cadeia alfa 1 do Colágeno Tipo I , Colágeno Tipo I , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteogênese Imperfeita , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Osteogênese Imperfeita/veterinária , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/veterinária , Linhagem , Gravidez
12.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 15: e11, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773803

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal birth weight (MBW) with preterm delivery (PTD) in the Japanese population. To this end, a total of 78,972 Japanese pregnant women were included in a prospective birth cohort study. Multiple logistic regression and multinominal logistic regression models were applied to investigate the associations of MBW with PTD (delivery from 22 to < 37 weeks of gestation), early PTD (delivery from 22 to < 34 weeks), and late PTD (delivery from 34 to < 37 weeks). The results showed that MBW was inversely associated with PTD, early PTD, and late PTD (p-for-trend < 0.0001, 0.0014, and < 0.0001, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios per each 500 g of MBW decrease were 1.167 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.118-1.218) for PTD, 1.174 (95% CI: 1.070-1.287) for early PTD and 1.151 (95% CI: 1.098-1.206) for late PTD. The effect size of the association of MBW with early PTD was similar to that with late PTD. This study demonstrated for the first time an association of a low MBW with PTD, early PTD, and late PTD in a Japanese nationwide cohort.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Risco , Coorte de Nascimento
13.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; 45(1): 2344079, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of low-dose aspirin (LDA) on obstetrical outcomes through a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Embase databases from inception to January 2024 was conducted to identify studies exploring the role of aspirin on pregnancy, reporting obstetrical-related outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB, gestational age <37 weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW, birthweight < 2500g), perinatal death (PND), admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), 5-min Apgar score < 7 and placental abruption. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated for the combined outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed by risk for preeclampsia (PE), LDA dosage (<100 mg vs. ≥100 mg) and timing of onset (≤20 weeks vs. >20 weeks). RESULTS: Forty-seven studies involving 59,124 participants were included. Compared with placebo, LDA had a more significant effect on low-risk events such as SGA, PTB and LBW. Specifically, LDA significantly reduced the risk of SGA (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87-0.95), PTB (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.97) and LBW (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99). For high-risk events, LDA significantly lowered the risk of NICU admission (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99). On the other hand, LDA can significantly increase the risk of placental abruption (RR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.23-2.43). Subgroup analyses showed that LDA significantly reduced the risk of SGA (RR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.97), PTB (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98) and PND (RR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) in pregnant women at high risk of PE, whereas in healthy pregnant women LDA did not significantly improve obstetrical outcomes, but instead significantly increased the risk of placental abruption (RR = 5.56, 95% CI: 1.92-16.11). In pregnant women at high risk of PE, LDA administered at doses ≥100 mg significantly reduced the risk of SGA (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.91) and PTB (RR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97), but did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing the risk of NICU, PND and LBW. LDA started at ≤20 weeks significantly reduced the risk of SGA (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.65-0.89) and PTB (RR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: To sum up, LDA significantly improved neonatal outcomes in pregnant women at high risk of PE without elevating the risk of placental abruption. These findings support LDA's clinical application in pregnant women, although further research is needed to refine dosage and timing recommendations.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Resultado da Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943895, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Preterm birth is one of the main causes of neonatal death worldwide. One strategy focused on preventing preterm birth is the administration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during pregnancy. Omega-3 LCPUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are essential in metabolic and physiological processes during embryonic and fetal development. This study aimed to compare DHA and EPA levels in 44 women with preterm births and 44 women with term births at a tertiary hospital in West Java Province, Indonesia, between November 2022 and March 2023. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 patients in this study consisted of 44 patients with term births (≥37 gestational weeks) and 44 patients with preterm births (<37 gestational weeks) at a tertiary hospital in West Java Province, Indonesia. This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2022 to March 2023. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, maternal DHA and EPA levels were investigated. IBM SPSS 24.0 was used to statistically measure outcomes. RESULTS Average maternal DHA and EPA levels in patients with preterm births were significantly lower than those in term births. Preterm labor risk was further increased by DHA levels of ≤5.70 µg/mL (OR=441.00, P=0.000) and EPA levels ≤3971.54 µg/mL (OR=441.00, P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS Since the average maternal DHA and EPA levels were significantly lower in patients with preterm births, adequate intake of omega-3 LCPUFA in early pregnancy and consistency with existing nutritional guidelines was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Nascimento Prematuro , Nascimento a Termo , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Humanos , Feminino , Indonésia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Recém-Nascido , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Idade Gestacional
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1332972, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38751590

RESUMO

Preterm birth persists as a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity despite decades of intervention effort. Intervention null effects may reflect failure to account for social determinants of health (SDH) or jointly acting risk factors. In some communities, persistent preterm birth trends and disparities have been consistently associated with SDH such as race/ethnicity, zip code, and housing conditions. Health authorities recommend conceptual frameworks for targeted action on SDH and precision public health approaches for preterm birth prevention. We document San Francisco, California's experience identifying the need, rationale, methods, and pilot work for developing a conceptual framework for preterm birth review (PTBR) in San Francisco. The PTBR conceptual framework is intended to enable essential public health services in San Francisco that prevent a range of preterm birth phenotypes by guiding plans for data collection, hypothesis testing, analytical methods, reports, and intervention strategy. Key elements of the PTBR conceptual framework are described including, 10 domains of SDH, 9 domains at the whole person level, such as lived experience and health behaviors, 8 domains at the within-person level, such as biomarkers and clinical measures, 18 preterm birth phenotypes, and the interconnections between domains. Assumptions for the PTBR conceptual framework were supported by a scoping review of literature on SDH effects on preterm birth, health authority consensus reports, and PTBR pilot data. Researcher and health authority interest in each of the domains warrants the framework to prompt systematic consideration of variables in each proposed domain. PTBR pilot data, illustrated in heatmaps, confirm the feasibility of data collection based on the framework, prevalence of co-occurring risk factors, potential for joint effects on specific preterm birth phenotypes, and opportunity for intervention to block SDH effects on preterm birth. The proposed PTBR conceptual framework has practical implications for specifying (1) population groups at risk, (2) grids or heatmap visualization of risk factors, (3) multi-level analyses, and (4) multi-component intervention design in terms of patterns of co-occurring risk factors. Lessons learned about PTBR data collection logistics, variable choice, and data management will be incorporated into future work to build PTBR infrastructure based on the PTBR conceptual framework.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Humanos , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Recém-Nascido , Projetos Piloto
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 363, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) contributes to nearly 11% of all deliveries in the world. The majority of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) remains unexplained. Risk factors include abnormal body mass index (BMI), short cervical length, comorbidities and many more. However, there is limited study on the association between body mass index, cervical length and preterm birth in Malaysia among low-risk women. Hence, we aim to examine the relationship between body mass index, cervical length and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, pregnant women between 16 and 24 weeks who fulfilled the criteria were recruited. Women with history of preterm birth were excluded. Demographic and clinical data (age, BMI, ethnicity, education level and parity) were obtained. Cervical length was measured using transvaginal scan. Patients were then followed up till delivery to determine their delivery gestation and outcome of delivery. RESULTS: Out of 153 women who participated in this study, 146 women had cervical length of more than 30 mm, six had cervical length between 25 mm and 30 mm and one had cervical length of 24 mm. There were nine (9) cases of sPTB, with all of them being late preterm with normal midtrimester cervical length. Almost half of them (44%) were overweight/obese. A significant association was found between age, cervical length, and parity compared to BMI. Nevertheless, no significant association was seen between the BMI and risk of sPTB. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a higher BMI is associated with longer cervical length, but it is not necessarily protective against sPTB. Hence, we concluded there is a limited role in cervical length screening among low-risk women regardless of their BMI in predicting sPTB.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Útero/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Malásia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Obesidade/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 369, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing incidence of negative outcomes during pregnancy, our research team conducted a dose-response systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between ultra-processed foods (UPFs) consumption and common adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia (PE), preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. UPFs are described as formulations of food substances often modified by chemical processes and then assembled into ready-to-consume hyper-palatable food and drink products using flavors, colors, emulsifiers, and other cosmetic additives. Examples include savory snacks, reconstituted meat products, frozen meals that have already been made, and soft drinks. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed using the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases up to December 2023. We pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Our analysis (encompassing 54 studies with 552,686 individuals) revealed a significant association between UPFs intake and increased risks of GDM (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.27; I2 = 77.5%; p < 0.001; studies = 44; number of participants = 180,824), PE (RR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.59; I2 = 80.0%; p = 0.025; studies = 12; number of participants = 54,955), while no significant relationships were found for PTB, LBW and SGA infants. Importantly, a 100 g increment in UPFs intake was related to a 27% increase in GDM risk (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.51; I2 = 81.0%; p = 0.007; studies = 9; number of participants = 39,812). The non-linear dose-response analysis further indicated a positive, non-linear relationship between UPFs intake and GDM risk Pnonlinearity = 0.034, Pdose-response = 0.034), although no such relationship was observed for PE (Pnonlinearity = 0.696, Pdose-response = 0.812). CONCLUSION: In summary, both prior to and during pregnancy, chronic and excessive intake of UPFs is associated with an increased risk of GDM and PE. However, further observational studies, particularly among diverse ethnic groups with precise UPFs consumption measurement tools, are imperative for a more comprehensive understanding.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Fast Foods , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alimento Processado
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(5): 57004, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research on the relationship between water fluoridation and pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether hypothetical interventions to reduce fluoride levels would improve birth outcomes in California. METHODS: We linked California birth records from 2000 to 2018 to annual average fluoride levels by community water system. Fluoride levels were collected from consumer confidence reports using publicly available data and public record requests. We estimated the effects of a hypothetical intervention reducing water fluoride levels to 0.7 ppm (the current level recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services) and 0.5 ppm (below the current recommendation) on birth weight, birth-weight-for-gestational age z-scores, gestational age, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, large-for-gestational age, and macrosomia using linear regression with natural cubic splines and G-computation. Inference was calculated using a clustered bootstrap with Wald-type confidence intervals. We evaluated race/ethnicity, health insurance type, fetal sex, and arsenic levels as potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: Fluoride levels ranged from 0 to 2.5 ppm, with a median of 0.51 ppm. There was a small negative association on birth weight with the hypothetical intervention to reduce fluoride levels to 0.7 ppm [-2.2g; 95% confidence interval (CI): -4.4, 0.0] and to 0.5 ppm (-5.8g; 95% CI: -10.0, -1.6). There were small negative associations with birth-weight-for-gestational-age z-scores for both hypothetical interventions (0.7 ppm: -0.004; 95% CI: -0.007, 0.000 and 0.5 ppm: -0.006; 95% CI: -0.013, 0.000). We also observed small negative associations for risk of large-for-gestational age for both the hypothetical interventions to 0.7 ppm [risk difference (RD)=-0.001; 95% CI: -0.002, 0.000 and 0.5 ppm (-0.001; 95% CI: -0.003, 0.000)]. We did not observe any associations with preterm birth or with being small for gestational age for either hypothetical intervention. We did not observe any associations with risk of preterm birth or small-for-gestational age for either hypothetical intervention. CONCLUSION: We estimated that a reduction in water fluoride levels would modestly decrease birth weight and birth-weight-for-gestational-age z-scores in California. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13732.


Assuntos
Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Resultado da Gravidez , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Fluoretos/análise , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idade Gestacional , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 335, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Women with Type 2 DM seems to have no better perinatal outcomes than those with Type 1 DM. METHODS: Single-center prospective cohort observational study. Pregnant women with diabetes (141 with Type 1 DM and 124 with Type 2 DM) that were followed in the university hospital between 2009 and 2021 were included in this study. Clinical data and obstetric and perinatal outcomes were collected. RESULTS: As expected, women with Type 1 DM were younger and had a longer duration of diabetes than women with Type 2 DM. Obesity and chronic hypertension were higher in the group of women with Type 2 DM and their value of HbA1c in the second and third trimesters were lower than in Type 1 DM. No differences in prematurity were found, but more extreme prematurity was observed in Type 2 DM, as well as a higher rate of congenital malformations. The frequency of hypoglycemia and the weight of the newborn was higher in Type 1 DM. The maternal independent factors related to the weight of the newborn were: the glycemic control at the third trimester, the weight gain during pregnancy, and pregestational BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Newborns born to mothers with Type 1 DM were larger and had a higher frequency of hypoglycemia, while congenital malformations and precocious preterm was more associated to Type 2 DM. Metabolic control, weight gain and pregestational weight were important determinants of both obstetric and neonatal complications.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Prospectivos , Recém-Nascido , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/análise , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e081561, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729756

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Twin pregnancies have a high risk of extreme preterm birth (PTB) at less than 28 weeks of gestation, which is associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Currently there is a lack of effective treatments for women with a twin pregnancy and a short cervix or cervical dilatation. A possible effective surgical method to reduce extreme PTB in twin pregnancies with an asymptomatic short cervix or dilatation at midpregnancy is the placement of a vaginal cerclage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We designed two multicentre randomised trials involving eight hospitals in the Netherlands (sites in other countries may be added at a later date). Women older than 16 years with a twin pregnancy at <24 weeks of gestation and an asymptomatic short cervix of ≤25 mm or cervical dilatation will be randomly allocated (1:1) to both trials on vaginal cerclage and standard treatment according to the current Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guideline (no cerclage). Permuted blocks sized 2 and 4 will be used to minimise the risk of disbalance. The primary outcome measure is PTB of <28 weeks. Analyses will be by intention to treat. The first trial is to demonstrate a risk reduction from 25% to 10% in the short cervix group, for which 194 patients need to be recruited. The second trial is to demonstrate a risk reduction from 80% to 35% in the dilatation group and will recruit 44 women. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committees in the Netherlands on 3/30/2023. Participants will be required to sign an informed consent form. The results will be presented at conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. Participants will be informed about the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05968794.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Nascimento Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto
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