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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 231, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604570

RESUMO

Attendance in special education (SE) is more common among individuals born preterm than among those born at term. Less is known about school grades of those born preterm in mainstream education (ME), and how these grades predict later educational attainment. This population-based register-linkage study assessed (1) attendance in SE, and then focused on those in ME by assessing (2) school grades at 16 year, (3) completed educational level at 25 year, and (4) school grades as predictors for completed education by gestational age (GA) with full-term birth (39-41 completed weeks) as reference. The sample comprised 223,744 individuals (10,521 preterm, 4.7%) born in Finland (1/1987-9/1990). Of the sample, 4.9% attended SE. Those born preterm had up to 5.5-fold rates for SE. In ME, those born extremely preterm (EPT) had marginally lower mathematics grades compared with full-term counterparts, whilst those born late preterm or early term had slightly higher grades. Those born EPT or very preterm had lower physical education grades in ME. However, the minor differences in school grades according to GA appear not to translate into educational differences in young adulthood. The associations between school grades at 16 year and completed education at 25 year did not vary by GA.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Adulto , Lactente , Idade Gestacional , Escolaridade , Parto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
2.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 78(1): 35-49, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607200

RESUMO

Importance: The use and misuse of opioids in pregnancy have been increasing and are a major public health issue. Opioid use in pregnancy and during lactation has been associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective: This review aims to summarize the existing literature and current recommendations for opioid use while pregnant or lactating. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar literature search using the following terms was performed to gather relevant data: "opioids," "opioid maintenance therapy," "opioid use disorder," "suboxone," "buprenorphine," "methadone," "medication for opioid use disorder," "fetal outcomes," "perinatal outcomes," "pregnancy," "lactation," and "neonatal abstinence syndrome." Results: Available studies on opioid use in pregnancy and during lactation were reviewed and support association with increased odds of maternal death, placental insufficiency, cardiac arrest, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, low birth weight, and small for gestational age infants. Studies were also reviewed on pharmacotherapy options in pregnancy and promising prenatal care models. Conclusion and Relevance: There is a critical need for research on the effects of opioid use and related pharmacotherapy options in pregnancy. Once the adverse perinatal effects of opioid exposure are identified and well-characterized, patient education, intervention, and antenatal surveillance can be developed to predict and mitigate its impact on maternal and fetal health.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Lactação , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Placenta , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Parto , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
3.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 4(1): e34-e42, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with cardiovascular disease later in life. Given that hypertensive disorders of pregnancy often occur at a relatively young age, there might be an opportunity to use preventive measures to reduce the risk of early cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiovascular mortality in women after a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (PRN) and the national death registry at the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics were linked. We analysed women in the Netherlands with a first birth during 1995-2015 to determine the association between cardiovascular mortality and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (based on recorded diastolic blood pressure or proteinuria, or both). We analysed the association between the highest diastolic blood pressure measured in pregnancy and cardiovascular mortality and constructed survival curves to assess cardiovascular mortality after hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, specifically pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. To differentiate between the severity of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cardiovascular mortality was assessed in women with a combination of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) and growth restriction (birthweight in the 10th percentile or less). All hazard ratios (HRs)were adjusted for maternal age. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2015, the PRN contained 2 462 931 deliveries and 1 625 246 women. In 1 243 890 women data on their first pregnancy were available and were included in this analysis after linkage, with a median follow-up time of 11·2 years (IQR 6·1-16·3). 259 177 (20·8%) women had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and of these 45 482 (3·7%) women had pre-eclampsia and 213 695 (17·2%) women had gestational hypertension; 984 713 (79·2%) women did not develop hypertension in their first pregnancy. Compared with women without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, the risk of death from any cause was higher in women who had hypertensive disorders (HR 1·30 [95% CI 1·23-1·37], p<0·001), pre-eclampsia (1·65 [1·48-1·83]; p<0·0001), and gestational hypertension (1·23 [1·16-1·30]; p<0·0001). Those women with pre-eclampsia had a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with those without any hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (adjusted HR 3·39 [95% CI 2·67-4·29]), as did those with gestational hypertension (2·22 [1·91-2·57]). For women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy combined with preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) and birthweight in the 10th percentile or less, the adjusted HR for cardiovascular mortality was 6·43 (95% CI 4·36-9·47), compared with women without a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. The highest diastolic blood pressure measured during pregnancy was the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular mortality (for 80-89 mm Hg: adjusted HR 1·47 [95% CI 1·00-2·17]; for 130 mm Hg and higher: 14·70 [7·31-29·52]). INTERPRETATION: Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy have a risk of cardiovascular mortality that is 2-3 times higher than that of women with normal blood pressure during pregnancy. The highest measured diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy is an important predictor for cardiovascular mortality later in life; therefore, women who have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy should be given personalised cardiovascular follow-up plans to reduce their risk of cardiovascular mortality. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 325-334, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term exposure to air pollution is known to be harmful to preterm birth (PTB), but little is known about the short-term effects. This study aims to quantify the short-term effect of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on PTB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18,826 singleton PTBs were collected during the study period. Poisson regression model combined with the distributed lag non-linear model was applied to evaluate the short-term effects of PTBs and air pollutants. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to NO2 was significantly associated increased risk of PTB at Lag1 (RR: 1.025, 95%CI: 1.003-1.047). In the moving average model, maternal exposure to NO2 significantly increased the risk of PTB at Lag01 (RR: 1.029, 95%CI: 1.004-1.054). In the cumulative model, maternal exposure to NO2 significant increased the risk of PTB at Cum01 (RR:1.026, 95%CI: 1.002-1.051), Cum02 (RR: 1.030, 95%CI: 1.003-1.059), and Cum03 (RR: 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.066). The effects of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 on PTB were significant and greater in the cold season than the warm season. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 before delivery has a significant risk for PTB, particularly in the cold season.Key messagesMaternal exposure to NO2 was significant associated with an increased risk of preterm birth at the day 1 before delivery.Particle matter (PM2.5 and PM10) showed a significant short-term effect on preterm birth in the cold season.The effects of air pollutants on preterm birth was greater in the cold season compared with the warm season.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , China/epidemiologia
5.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 36(1): 2162819, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597826

RESUMO

Objectives The relationship between prenatal physical activity (PA) and adverse birth outcomes is still inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between PA during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes by using data from the Guangxi Zhuang birth cohort (GZBC) in China.Study Design A total of 11,292 mother-infant pairs were included from GZBC in China. The information on PA status, intensity, adequacy, and volume and birth outcomes were collected. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were applied to analyze the effects of PA during pregnancy on birth weight z-scores (BW z-scores) and gestational age and risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PTB), respectively. Cubic spline analysis was conducted to detect a nonlinear dose-response of total weekly activity metabolic equivalents (MET) and birth outcomes.Results Compared to no regular PA during pregnancy, moderate and high-intensity PA (MVPA) was associated with increase BW z-scores (ß = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.15, p = .044) and associated with a marginal significant decrease in risk of PTB (OR = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.51, 1.05, p = .093). However, PA had no relationship with gestational age and risk of SGA, and Nonlinear relationships were not observed between total weekly activity MET and risk of SGA and PTB.Conclusion These finding shows that PA during pregnancy may increase the BW z-score and reduce risk of PTB, supporting the guidelines that pregnant women should be encouraged to engage in appropriate physical activity during pregnancy in China.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , China/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Parto , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Exercício Físico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 84(1)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602927

RESUMO

Objective: While poor neonatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS) has been particularly well described among infants exposed to antidepressants, specifically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), this is not the case for second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a drug safety warning regarding fetal antipsychotic exposure and risk for PNAS and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The primary objective of this study was to examine the risk for PNAS among infants exposed to SGAs compared to SSRI/SNRI-exposed infants, leveraging the prospective, longitudinal design of the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychiatric Medications (NPRPM).Methods: The NPRPM is a prospective pharmacovigilance program in which pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, are enrolled and followed prospectively. Medical records were systematically reviewed and data abstracted using a checklist of PNAS and EPS symptoms specifically outlined in the FDA drug safety warning. The two study groups included infants exposed to an SGA during pregnancy and infants exposed to an SSRI/SNRI during pregnancy. The primary outcome was the presence of at least one or more PNAS symptoms during the first month of life. Other neonatal outcomes following exposure to the medication of interest, including preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, rates of EPS, and whether infants were discharged home with their mothers, are also reported.Results: Of the 2,145 women enrolled in this study as of December 16, 2020, a total of 373 women and their infants (n = 384) were eligible for inclusion (n = 193 SGA-exposed infants and 191 SSRI/SNRI-exposed infants). Among SGA-exposed infants, 32.6% (63/193) experienced at least 1 PNAS sign compared to 34.6% of infants (66/191) in the SSRI/SNRI-exposed group. The majority of infants in each group showed no symptoms of PNAS. No differences were observed between the two groups with respect to rates of preterm birth, NICU admission, prevalence of EPS, and timing of infants being discharged home with their mothers.Conclusions: PNAS symptomatology was comparable among infants exposed prenatally to an SGA or to an SSRI/SNRI. These preliminary findings provide an estimated risk of PNAS among infants exposed to SGAs of roughly 30%. Interestingly, these findings are also consistent with estimates in the literature of PNAS in SSRI/SNRI-exposed infants, suggesting a possible common pathway underlying this phenomenon.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01246765.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Antipsicóticos , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Inibidores da Recaptação de Serotonina e Norepinefrina/efeitos adversos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 45, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution and several prenatal factors, such as socio-demographic, behavioural, physical activity and clinical factors influence adverse birth outcomes. The study aimed to investigate the impact of ambient air pollution exposure during pregnancy adjusting prenatal risk factors on adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in MACE birth cohort. METHODS: Data for the study was obtained from the Mother and Child in the Environment (MACE) birth cohort study in Durban, South Africa from 2013 to 2017. Land use regression models were used to determine household level prenatal exposure to PM2.5, SO2 and NOx. Six hundred and fifty-six births of pregnant females were selected from public sector antenatal clinics in low socio-economic neighbourhoods. We employed a Generalised Structural Equation Model with a complementary log-log-link specification. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential prenatal factors, the results indicated that exposure to PM2.5 was found to have both significant direct and indirect effects on the risk of all adverse birth outcomes. Similarly, an increased level of maternal exposure to SO2 during pregnancy was associated with an increased probability of being small for gestational age. Moreover, preterm birth act a mediating role in the relationship of exposure to PM2.5, and SO2 with low birthweight and SGA. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and SO2 pollution adversely affected birth outcomes after controlling for other prenatal risk factors. This suggests that local government officials have a responsibility for better control of air pollution and health care providers need to advise pregnant females about the risks of air pollution during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Análise de Classes Latentes , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Parto , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , África do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 563, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631499

RESUMO

Exposure to low levels of nitrate in drinking water may have adverse reproductive effects. We reviewed evidence about the association between nitrate in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes published to November 2022. Randomized trials, cohort or case-control studies published in English that reported the relationship between nitrate intake from drinking water and the risk of perinatal outcomes were included. Random-effect models were used to pool data. Three cohort studies showed nitrate in drinking water is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (odds ratio for 1 mg/L NO3-N increased (OR1) = 1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.01, I2 = 23.9%, 5,014,487 participants; comparing the highest versus the lowest nitrate exposure groups pooled OR (ORp) = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10, I2 = 0%, 4,152,348 participants). Case-control studies showed nitrate in drinking water may be associated with the increased risk of neural tube defects OR1 = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.10; 2 studies, 2196 participants; I2 = 0%; and ORp = 1.51, 95% CI 1.12, 2.05; 3 studies, 1501 participants; I2 = 0%). The evidence for an association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of small for gestational age infants, any birth defects, or any congenital heart defects was inconsistent. Increased nitrate in drinking water may be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and some specific congenital anomalies. These findings warrant regular review as new evidence becomes available.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Nitratos/análise , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Água Potável/análise , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Reprodução , Parto
9.
AIDS ; 37(3): 489-501, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) worldwide receive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy. We aimed to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnant WLHIV receiving cART compared with pregnant WLHIV receiving zidovudine monotherapy. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched four electronic literature databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Global Health, EMBASE) for studies published between 1 January 1980 and 20 April 2020 using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies reporting data on WLHIV receiving cART compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy for 11 adverse perinatal outcomes were sought: preterm birth (PTB), very PTB, spontaneous PTB, low birthweight (LBW), very LBW, preterm and term LBW, small for gestational age (SGA), very SGA (VSGA), stillbirth, and neonatal death. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to calculate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We included 30 studies reporting on 317 101 pregnant women in 27 countries. WLHIV receiving cART were at increased risk of PTB (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.46), LBW (1.35, 1.19-1.53), SGA (1.32, 1.13-1.53), VSGA (1.64, 1.34-2.02), and stillbirth (2.41, 1.83-3.17) compared to WLHIV receiving monotherapy. The significance of these results was maintained in subgroup analyses for studies conducted in low and middle-income countries and average quality studies. Additionally, WLHIV receiving nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART were associated with increased risk of PTB, LBW, and stillbirth, while WLHIV receiving protease inhibitor-based cART were associated with increased risk of PTB, compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Pregnant WLHIV receiving cART are associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, compared with WLHIV receiving monotherapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Resultado da Gravidez
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 60, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain (GWG) criteria recommended by the Institute of Medicine may not be appropriate for Asians. Our aims are to investigate the association between GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to propose optimal total GWG and rates of GWG for Chinese women. METHODS: Prospective data of 51,125 mother-child pairs from 27 hospitals and community health care centers from Guizhou, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in China between 2014 and 2018 were analyzed. Generalized Additive Models were performed to determine the associations of GWG with the risk of aggregated adverse outcomes (gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, stillbirth, preterm birth, macrosomia, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age). The range that did not exceed a 2.5% increase from the lowest risk of aggregated adverse outcomes was defined as the optimal GWG range. RESULTS: Among all participants, U-shaped prospective association was found between GWG and the risk of aggregated adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range of 8.2-13.0 kg was proposed for underweight, 7.3-12.5 kg for normal weight, and 2.0-9.4 kg for overweight/obese women. Meanwhile, a higher GWG rate in the first two trimesters than that in the last trimester was suggested, except for overweight/obese women. After stratified by maternal age, mothers ≥35 years were suggested to gain less weight compared to younger mothers. CONCLUSIONS: To keep a balance between maternal health and neonatal growth, optimal GWG ranges based on Asia-specific BMI categories was suggested for Chinese women with different pre-gravid BMIs and maternal ages.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Adulto , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gestantes , China/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Aumento de Peso , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal
11.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280754, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence exploring the maternal and neonatal complications of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) following singleton or twin pregnancies. Further, there have been no reviews completed examining the possible risk factors associated with GDM in singleton compared to twin pregnancies. This study assesses the impact of GDM in singleton and twin pregnancies on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: From 1954 to December 2021, a thorough literature search was conducted in the EMBASE, Cochrane, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases and search engines. The risk of bias was calculated using the Newcastle Ottawa (NO) scale. A random-effects model was applied and interpreted as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, with the quality of most studies being good to satisfactory. The risk of caesarean section (pooled OR = 0.32; 95%CI: 0.22 to 0.46), small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates (pooled OR = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.84), preterm delivery (pooled OR = 0.07; 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.09), respiratory morbidity (pooled OR = 0.26; 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.37), neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (pooled OR = 0.19; 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.40), and NICU admission (pooled OR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.14 to 0.25) was significantly lower in singleton pregnancies with GDM than in twin pregnancies with GDM. CONCLUSION: Maternal outcomes like caesarean section and neonatal outcomes like SGA neonates, preterm delivery, respiratory morbidity, hyperbilirubinemia, and NICU admission were significantly greater in twin pregnancies with GDM. It is important for clinicians and policymakers to focus intervention strategies on twin pregnancies with GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 45, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 exposure during pregnancy is related to adverse effects for both the mother and the infant. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has lowered the risk of symptomatic disease substantially. Recently published studies have evaluated the outcomes of women who received the COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy; systematic evidence regarding vaccination safety is crucial to ensure that COVID-19 vaccination is not associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched from each database's inception through April 7, 2022. All interventional and observational studies comparing neonatal or pregnancy outcomes between pregnant women who received COVID-19 vaccines during their pregnancy and unvaccinated pregnant women were included. The random-effects model was used in the meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies comprising 756,098 pregnant mothers were included. The rate of neonates with 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7 (log RR -0.08 (95% CI: -0.15 to -0.00), (P = 0.03)) and pregnant mothers with preterm birth (log RR -0.11 (95% CI: -0.21 to -0.01), (P = 0.02)) was significantly lower among vaccinated group. No significant difference was observed in adverse neonatal outcomes (log RR -0.07 (95% CI: -0.17 to 0.03)), small for gestational age (log RR -0.06 (95% CI: -0.14 to 0.02)), caesarean delivery (log RR 0.05 (95% CI: -0.05 to 0.15)), postpartum hemorrhage (log RR -0.05 (95% CI: -0.13 to 0.02)), stillbirth (log RR -0.05 (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.45)). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, no evident differences were observed when comparing vaccinated pregnant mothers with those who had not received COVID-19 vaccines. Based on low certainty of evidence, vaccination during pregnancy was accompanied by a favorable Apgar score in neonates and fewer preterm births.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
13.
Environ Int ; 171: 107729, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623379

RESUMO

Nocturnal temperature is observed increasing with global warming. However, evidence on night-time non-optimal temperature on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is limited, and the potential interactions with air pollution on PTB has not been well clarified. We therefore conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of night-time temperature extremes on the risk of PTB and its interaction with air pollution. Records of 196,780 singleton births from 4 counties in Huai River Basin (2013-2018) were obtained. Gridded data on night-time temperature were collected from a high-quality Chinese Air Quality Reanalysis dataset. We used a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the effects of night-time heat and cold exposure on the risk of PTB as well as its subtypes. Potential interactions between night-time temperature extremes and fine particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) were examined using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). We found that the risk of PTB was positively associated with third trimester night-time extremely heat and cold exposure, with adjusted OR of 1.898 (95 %CI: 1.655-2.177) and 2.044 (95 %CI: 1.786-2.339). Similar effects were observed for PTB subtypes, moderately PTB (mPTB) and very PTB (vPTB). Synergistic effects (RERI greater than 0) of each trimester night-time temperature extremes exposure and PM2.5 on PTB were observed. We identified consistent positive interactions between night-time temperature extremes and PM2.5 on mPTB. No significant interaction of night-time temperature extremes and PM2.5 on vPTB was found. In conclusion, this large retrospective cohort study found that third trimester night-time heat and cold exposure significantly increased the risk of PTB and its subtypes. There is a synergistic effect between night-time temperature extremes and high PM2.5 levels on PTB and mPTB. In the context of climate warming, our results add new evidence to the current understanding of night-time non-optimal temperature exposure on PTB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Temperatura , Rios , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , China/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 47, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidance (Saving Babies Lives Care Bundle Version 2 (SBLCBv2) Element 5) was published in 2019, with the aim to standardise preterm care in England. We plan to identify how many preterm birth surveillance clinics there are in England, and to define current national management in caring for women who are both asymptomatic and high-risk of preterm birth, and who arrive symptomatically in threatened preterm labour, to assist preterm management both nationally and internationally. METHODS: An online survey comprising of 27 questions was sent to all maternity units in England between February 2021 to July 2021. RESULTS: Data was obtained from 96 units. Quantitative analysis and free text analysis was then undertaken. We identified 78 preterm birth surveillance clinics in England, an increase from 30 preterm clinics in 2017. This is a staggering 160% increase in 4 years. SBLCBv2 has had a considerable impact in increasing preterm birth surveillance clinic services, with the majority (61%) of sites reporting that the NHS England publication influenced their unit in setting up their clinic. Variations exist at every step of the preterm pathway, such as deciding which risk factors warrant referral, distinguishing within particular risk factors, and offering screening tests and treatment options. CONCLUSIONS: While variations in care still do persist, hospitals have done well to increase preterm surveillance clinics, under the difficult circumstances of the COVID pandemic and many without specific additional funding.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nascimento Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hospitais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673735

RESUMO

Low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth are adverse perinatal outcomes that pose a significant risk to a child's healthy beginning. While antenatal care (ANC) is an established intervention for pregnancy care, little is understood about how the number and timing of ANC visits can impact these adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the impact of the number and timing of ANC visits on LBW and preterm birth in a regional setting. A decade-long perinatal dataset related to singleton live births that took place in the Southern New South Wales Local Health District (SNSWLHD) was utilized. The outcomes of interest were LBW and preterm birth, and the exposure variables were based on the Australian pregnancy guidelines on the number and timing of ANC visits. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to measure the association between outcome and exposure while adjusting for potential confounders. A greater level of protection against LBW and preterm birth was observed among mothers who had an adequate number of visits, with early entry (first trimester) into ANC. The protective effect of an adequate number of ANC visits against LBW and preterm birth among mothers with late entry into ANC (third trimester) was found to be statistically non-significant.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Criança , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Austrália , Parto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite being a very well-documented subject in the literature, there are still conflicting results regarding teenage pregnancies and their fetal outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, comparative cohort study that included 1082 mothers aged less than 18 years, compared to 41,998 mothers aged over 18 years, who delivered in our tertiary referral center between January 2015 and December 2021. To check for significant differences between the two groups, the chi-qquared or Fisher's test for categorical variables were used. RESULTS: We detected statistically significant higher rates of fetal malformation, premature birth, FGR and SGA fetal growth conditions, preeclampsia, condylomatosis and vaginal infection with E. coli in our cohort of teenagers. In this subpopulation of teenagers, the rate for premature birth at less than 32 weeks of gestation was 3.26-fold higher and 3.25-fold higher for condylomatosis, and these results referred to the cohort of adult patients (>18 years old) that gave birth in the same interval of time. CONCLUSIONS: Teenage pregnancies still remain a major health problem that burdens all countries worldwide regardless of their income. It needs solutions initially to prevent pregnancy in this young age segment and last but not least to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos de Coortes , Escherichia coli , Romênia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674364

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) identifies infants prematurely born <37 weeks/gestation and is one of the main causes of infant mortality. PTB has been linked to air pollution exposure, but its timing is still unclear and neglects the acute nature of delivery and its association with short-term effects. We analyzed 3 years of birth data (2015-2017) in Turin (Italy) and the relationships with proinflammatory chemicals (PM2.5, O3, and NO2) and biological (aeroallergens) pollutants on PTB vs. at-term birth, in the narrow window of a week before delivery. A tailored non-stationary Poisson model correcting for seasonality and possible confounding variables was applied. Relative risk associated with each pollutant was assessed at any time lag between 0 and 7 days prior to delivery. PTB risk was significantly associated with increased levels of both chemical (PM2.5, RR = 1.023 (1.003-1.043), O3, 1.025 (1.001-1.048)) and biological (aeroallergens, RR ~ 1.01 (1.0002-1.016)) pollutants in the week prior to delivery. None of these, except for NO2 (RR = 1.01 (1.002-1.021)), appeared to play any role on at-term delivery. Pollutant-induced acute inflammation eliciting delivery in at-risk pregnancies may represent the pathophysiological link between air pollution and PTB, as testified by the different effects played on PTB revealed. Further studies are needed to better elucidate a possible exposure threshold to prevent PTB.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Lactente , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Exposição Materna
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e056581, 2023 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether twin zygosity influences the association between neonatal outcomes and gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the Chinese guidelines in twin-pregnancy women. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. And it is not a clinical trial. SETTING: Women with twin pregnancies living in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5140 women who delivered live and non-malformed twins from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2017 were included in this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary neonatal outcomes included paired small for gestational age (SGA, <10 th percentile birth weight for gestational age and sex), low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) and gestational age (<33 weeks and <37 weeks). The association between GWG and neonatal outcomes was examined by Logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 5140 women were included, of whom 22.24%, 54.78% and 22.98% were below, within and above the Chinese guidelines, respectively. Among the including 10 280 infants, 26.28% of them were monozygotic (MZ) twins and 73.72% of them were dizygotic (DZ) twins. Women with low GWG had a significantly higher proportion of LBW/LBW and LBW/NBW infants, a greater likelihood of SGA/SGA and SGA/appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants and a higher incidence of preterm birth. The associations persisted both in MZ and DZ twins, and twin zygosity influenced the degree of association between GWG and SGA, LBW and preterm birth. High GWG was associated with significant risk reductions in SGA/AGA pairs, LBW/LBW or LBW/NBW pairs, and less than 33 gestational weeks. However, high GWG was only associated with reduced risk of LBW/LBW pairs both in MZ and DZ twins. CONCLUSIONS: GWG below the Chinese recommendations increased the risk of SGA, LBW and preterm birth in both MZ and DZ twins. The effect was more pronounced in MZ twins than that in DZ twin pairs. A high GWG only reduced the risk of LBW/LBW pairs both in MZ and DZ twins.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , China/epidemiologia
19.
Laeknabladid ; 109(2): 75-81, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705587

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migrant women often experience worse perinatal outcomes during pregnancy, birth, and puerperium than native women, but results regarding preterm birth vary. The objective of this study was to detect the prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth among Icelandic and migrant women in Iceland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a population-based cohort study with data from the Icelandic Medical Birth Register. The cohort included all women who had a singleton birth from 22w0d to 36w6d of pregnancy in the years 1997-2018, a total of 89 170 women. The group was divided in two; women with an Icelandic citizenship and women with foreign citizenship, that were further divided according to the Human Development Index (HDI) of their country of citizenship. Preterm birth rate and risk factor prevalence was analysed according to this classification and significance in differences measured with a chi-square test. RESULTS: Significance in differences of preterm birth was found between Icelandic (4.4%) and migrant women (5.6%) (p<0.001). Migrant women from middle-HDI countries gave birth preterm in 5.5% of cases (p<0.01) and women from low-HDI countries in 6.4% of cases (p<0.001). Migrant women were more often diagnosed with urinary tract infections, diabetes, intrauterine growth restriction and premature rupture of membranes, but less often with pre-eclampsia, obesity, placental defect, mental health issues and age p<18 years (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Migrant women in Iceland from middle-HDI and low-HDI countries give birth preterm more often than Icelandic women. A difference in risk factors is also present and needs further research. The findings can be used in continuing development of prenatal care for migrant women in Iceland.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Migrantes , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Adolescente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Islândia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Placenta
20.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 24(1): 25-35, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708549

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Changes in estrogen levels during pregnancy as well as histologic changes in breast tissue can justify the relationship of preterm birth (PTB) and the risk of BC. Therefore, there is a hypothesis that the duration of pregnancy can be associated with BC, so the aim of this study was to find out whether PTB is a risk factor for BC. METHODS: Published studies were located back to the earliest available publication date (1983), using the Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science bibliographic databases. This review included the cohort or case control studies that assessed the association between PTB and BC. Pooled effect sizes with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Thirteen studies including a total of 2,845,553 women were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that PTB could increase the risk of BC (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; I2= 62.5%). The risk was significantly increased in women who delivered at 37-39 (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and 26-31 weeks of gestation (RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.47) compared to women who delivered at 40-41 weeks of gestation. A significant increment in the risk of BC was observed in primiparous (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.08) and women older than 45 years (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.24). There was no difference between other gestational age categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add to evidence that short gestation pregnancies may increase the risk of BC, especially in primiparous and women older than 45 years. Considering the methodological weaknesses existed in included studies, minor clinical differences, and the complexity of the exact pathophysiology of PTB on BC, the precise position of PTB as a risk factor for BC in clinical practice is undetermined. Further studies are still needed.
.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
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