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1.
N C Med J ; 81(1): 24-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908328

RESUMO

In working to improve the health of North Carolinians, a critical focus starts with our mothers and infants and their surrounding communities. North Carolina's perinatal outcomes, as evidenced by maternal morbidity and mortality, infant mortality, preterm births, and the larger context of lifelong physical and mental health of our citizens, offer areas for improvement and policy implications. In addition, the unacceptable disparities that remain despite some overall improvement in outcomes warrant full attention. This issue of the NCMJ highlights the state of perinatal health in North Carolina; the importance of a risk-appropriate perinatal system of care; the opportunities for supporting our parents, children, and families; and how we as a state and as a community can come together to improve the safety and experience of giving birth in North Carolina and beyond.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
2.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 285-293, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains a common cause of neonatal mortality, with a disproportionately high burden in low-income and middle-income countries. Meta-analyses of low-dose aspirin to prevent pre-eclampsia suggest that the incidence of preterm birth might also be decreased, particularly if initiated before 16 weeks of gestation. METHODS: ASPIRIN was a randomised, multicountry, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin (81 mg daily) initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of pregnancy, and 13 weeks and 6 days of pregnancy, in nulliparous women with an ultrasound confirming gestational age and a singleton viable pregnancy. Participants were enrolled at seven community sites in six countries (two sites in India and one site each in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by site) to receive aspirin or placebo tablets of identical appearance, via a sequence generated centrally by the data coordinating centre at Research Triangle Institute International (Research Triangle Park, NC, USA). Treatment was masked to research staff, health providers, and patients, and continued until 36 weeks and 7 days of gestation or delivery. The primary outcome of incidence of preterm birth, defined as the number of deliveries before 37 weeks' gestational age, was analysed in randomly assigned women with pregnancy outcomes at or after 20 weeks, according to a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) protocol. Analyses of our binary primary outcome involved a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test stratified by site, and generalised linear models to obtain relative risk (RR) estimates and associated confidence intervals. Serious adverse events were assessed in all women who received at least one dose of drug or placebo. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02409680, and the Clinical Trial Registry-India, CTRI/2016/05/006970. FINDINGS: From March 23, 2016 to June 30, 2018, 14 361 women were screened for inclusion and 11 976 women aged 14-40 years were randomly assigned to receive low-dose aspirin (5990 women) or placebo (5986 women). 5780 women in the aspirin group and 5764 in the placebo group were evaluable for the primary outcome. Preterm birth before 37 weeks occurred in 668 (11·6%) of the women who took aspirin and 754 (13·1%) of those who took placebo (RR 0·89 [95% CI 0·81 to 0·98], p=0·012). In women taking aspirin, we also observed significant reductions in perinatal mortality (0·86 [0·73-1·00], p=0·048), fetal loss (infant death after 16 weeks' gestation and before 7 days post partum; 0·86 [0·74-1·00], p=0·039), early preterm delivery (<34 weeks; 0·75 [0·61-0·93], p=0·039), and the incidence of women who delivered before 34 weeks with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0·38 [0·17-0·85], p=0·015). Other adverse maternal and neonatal events were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: In populations of nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies from low-income and middle-income countries, low-dose aspirin initiated between 6 weeks and 0 days of gestation and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation resulted in a reduced incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks, and reduced perinatal mortality. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
BJOG ; 127(3): 345-354, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the population of women having bariatric surgery and compare the pregnancy outcomes for women having bariatric surgery with a non-bariatric surgery population having a first and second pregnancy. DESIGN: Population-based record linkage study. SETTING: New South Wales (NSW), Australia. POPULATION: All women aged 15-45 years with a hospital record in NSW (2002-2014) and all women giving birth in NSW (1994-2015; n = 1 606 737 women). METHODS: Pregnancy and birth outcomes were compared between first and second pregnancies using repeated-measures logistic regression and paired Student's t-tests. Bariatric and non-bariatric groups were also compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal diabetes, preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) and large for gestational age. RESULTS: There was a 13-fold increase in hospitalisations for primary bariatric surgery during 2002-2014. Compared with the general birthing population, women who had bariatric surgery experienced higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, and preterm birth. Among women who had bariatric surgery between a first and second pregnancy, there were reduced rates of hypertension (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.29-0.53), spontaneous preterm birth (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.86), infants that were large for gestational age (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.88), and the admission of infants to a special care nursery or neonatal intensive care (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90) in the second pregnancy. Rates for small-for-gestational age and gestational diabetes following surgery were 8.3 and 11.4%, respectively CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery between a first and second pregnancy was associated with reductions in obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes. Bariatric surgery performed for the management of obesity in accordance with current clinical criteria is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery for obesity may improve pregnancy and birth outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Gestacional , Obesidade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia
4.
BJOG ; 127(1): 79-86, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyse the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) cohort data to examine the safety of acupuncture therapy during pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Korea. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women with confirmed pregnancy between 2003 and 2012 from the 2002-13 NHIS sample cohort (n = 20 799). METHODS: Women with confirmed pregnancy were identified and divided into acupuncture or control group for comparison of their outcomes. Differences in other factors such as age, and rate of high-risk pregnancy and multiple pregnancy were examined. In the acupuncture group, the most frequent acupuncture diagnosis codes and the timing of treatment were also investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of full-term delivery, preterm delivery and stillbirth by pregnancy duration and among the high-risk and multiple pregnancy groups. RESULTS: Of 20 799 pregnant women analysed, 1030 (4.95%) and 19 749 were in the acupuncture and control groups, respectively. Both overall (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% CI 0.98-1.54), and in the stratified analysis of high-risk pregnancies (OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.73-1.64), there was no significant difference between acupuncture and control groups in preterm deliveries. No stillbirths occurred in the acupuncture group and 0.035% of pregnancies resulted in stillbirths in the control group. CONCLUSION: No significant difference in delivery outcomes (preterm delivery and stillbirth) was observed between confirmed pregnancies in the acupuncture and control groups. Therefore, in pregnancy, acupuncture therapy may be a safe therapeutic modality for relieving discomfort without an adverse delivery outcome. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: In pregnancy, acupuncture therapy may be a safe therapeutic modality for relieving discomfort without an adverse outcome.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BJOG ; 127(1): 70-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate preterm birth (PTB) phenotypes in women with different autoimmune rheumatic diseases in a large population-based cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: California, USA. POPULATION: All live singleton births in California between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. Patients with autoimmune disease at delivery were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision , Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (DM/PM), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of 2 481 516 deliveries were assessed (SLE n = 2272, RA n = 1501, SSc n = 88, JIA n = 187, DM/PM n = 38). Multivariable Poisson regression models estimated the risk ratios (RRs) for different PTB phenotypes (relative to term deliveries) for each autoimmune disease compared with the general obstetric population, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, education, payer, parity, and prenatal care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth (PTB) was assessed overall (20-36 weeks of gestation) and by subphenotype: preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), spontaneous birth, or medically indicated PTB. The risk of PTB overall and for each phenotype was partitioned by gestational age: early (20-31 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks of gestation). RESULTS: Risks for PTB were elevated for each autoimmune disease evaluated: SLE (RR 3.27, 95% CI 3.01-3.56), RA (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.79-2.33), SSc (RR 3.74, 95% CI 2.51-5.58), JIA (RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.54-3.23), and DM/PM (RR 5.26, 95% CI 3.12-8.89). These elevated risks were observed for the majority of PTB phenotypes as well. CONCLUSIONS: Women with systemic autoimmune diseases appear to have an elevated risk of various PTB phenotypes. Therefore, preconception counselling and close monitoring during pregnancy is crucial. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study found that women with systemic autoimmune diseases have an elevated risk of preterm birth phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Paridade , Fenótipo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 791-802, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980537

RESUMO

Perinatal factors have been associated with soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in case-control studies. However, (i) the contributions of factors including fetal growth remain unknown, ( ii) these factors have not been examined in cohort studies and (iii) few assessments have evaluated risk in specific STS subtypes. We sought to identify the role of perinatal and familial factors on the risk of STS in a large population-based birth cohort. We identified 4,023,436 individuals in the Swedish Birth Registry born during 1973-2012. Subjects were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry, where incident STS cases were identified. We evaluated perinatal and familial factors obtained from Statistics Sweden, including fetal growth, gestational age, and presence of a congenital malformation. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between perinatal factors and STS overall, as well as by common subtypes. There were 673 individuals diagnosed with STS in 77.5 million person-years of follow-up. Having a congenital malformation was associated with STS (IRR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.23-2.35). This association was stronger (IRR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.25-6.71) in recent years (2000-2012). Low fetal growth was also associated with STS during the same time period (IRR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.05-3.29). Being born preterm was associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (IRR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.08-2.79). In our cohort study, those with congenital malformations and other adverse birth outcomes were more likely to develop a STS compared to their unaffected contemporaries. These associations may point to disrupted developmental pathways and genetic factors influencing the risk of STS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Sarcoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma/genética , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1259-1264, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795583

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution and related factors of birth weight of live births and full-term infants in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Methods: Based on Guangxi women and children information system from 2016 to 2018, a large real-time database about maternal and live-birth information was established. It covered 1 712 midwifery institutions in Guangxi. A total of 2 394 240 cases of live births were collected and 2 243 129 cases of which were full-term infants. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the related factors of low birth weight. Results: The birth weight of 2 394 240 live births, (3 123.49±461.08) g, in Guangxi was approximately normal distribution with a peak distribution to the left. The incidence of low birth weight was 8.05%, and the incidence of macrosomia was 2.07%. The incidence of low birth weight was 10.92% for the puerpera with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) <18.5, 16.82% for the puerpera with height <145 cm, 8.92% for the puerpera with age <20 years old, 7.67% for the puerpera with age ≥35 years old, and 54.65% for the puerpera with premature birth. The birth weight of 2 243 129 full-term infants, (3 176.01±400.78) g, was approximately normal distribution with a peak distribution to the right. The incidence of low birth weight was 2.97%, and the incidence of macrosomia was 2.19%. The incidence of low birth weight was 4.73% for puerpera with BMI<18.5, 8.17% for puerpera with height<145 cm, 4.83% for puerpera with age <20 years old, and 3.05% for puerpera with age ≥35 years old. The risks of low birth weight [OR (95%CI) value] of pregnant women aged <20, 25-29 and 30-34 years old were 1.31 (1.28-1.35), 0.88 (0.86-0.90) and 0.89 (0.87-0.91) times of those aged ≥35 years old. The risks of low birth weight [OR (95%CI) value] of pregnancy BMI <18.5 and 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2) group were 1.98 (1.94-2.03) and 1.20 (1.18-1.23) times of those pregnancy BMI ≥24 kg/m(2). The risks of low birth weight [OR (95%CI) value] of pregnant women's height (cm)<145, 145-154, 155-159 and 160-164 cm were 4.67 (4.39-4.97), 2.36 (2.29-2.44), 1.58 (1.53-1.63) and 1.22 (1.18-1.26) times of those heights ≥165 cm group. The risks of low birth weight [OR (95%CI) value] of pregnant women's gestational age <28, 28-31 and 32-36 years old were 136.65 (124.33-150.20), 1 704.37 (1 509.02-1 925.02) and 33.45 (32.98-33.94) times of those gestational age ≥37 years old. Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight of live births was higher in Guangxi from 2016 to 2018. There is a higher risk of low birth weight for younger, older, low height, low BMI and preterm women in Guangxi from 2016 to 2018.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Nascimento Vivo , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1414-1419, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838814

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the spatial distribution of low birth weight (LBW) and the potential environmental risk factors and provide the evidence for the prevention and intervention of LBW. Methods: Data were from a surveillance system for newly born population and adverse pregnancy outcome between 2007 and 2012 in Pingding county, Shanxi province. The data from 313 villages were analyzed. Spatial hierarchical Bayesian model was used to adjust the risk of LBW at village level, Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were used to analyze the difference in distribution of LBW risk area. Spatial negative binomial model was used to evaluate the association between the risk of LBW and chemical fertilizer application. Results: A total of 18 749 new births were recorded between 2007 and 2012, including 911 LBW cases, the total incidence of LBW was 4.86%. The result of the spatial hierarchical Bayesian model showed that high-risk area of LBW was in the southeast of Pingding and low-risk area was in the middle west of Pingding. The result of Moran's I showed that there was a clustering pattern of LBW risk, and Getis-Ord Gi* found a high risk (hot spot) area in the south area. Moreover, the findings of association analysis showed that the risk of LBW increased with the increased chemical fertilizer application at village level. Conclusions: There were area specific differences in the risk of LBW, and dose-response relationship between chemical fertilizer application and the risk of LBW. Our findings suggest that maternal exposure to chemical fertilizer during pregnancy might be a potential risk factor for LBW in rural area.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/etnologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
9.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 884-895, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850896

RESUMO

The current study aimed to determine the association between trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes among third-trimester pregnant women who were exposed to chlorinated drinking water. A total of 205 pregnant women who participated in the disinfection by-products exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome study in South Africa were randomly asked to participate in this study by providing their morning urine sample voids. Samples were analysed for urinary creatinine and TCAA. Furthermore, participants gave individual data using a structured questionnaire. The mean (median) concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA was 2.34 (1.95) µg/g creatinine. Elevated levels of creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentrations showed an increased risk of premature birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight. There was no significant statistical correlation observed between creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentrations and the total volume of cold water ingested among the study population. No statistically significant association was observed between creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA and premature birth, SGA and low birth weight newborns among the study subjects. However, the urinary TCAA concentrations identified in this study suggest potential health risks towards women and foetus. Therefore, further studies are warranted to prevent further adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Creatinina/urina , Água Potável , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ácido Tricloroacético/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 315, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723374

RESUMO

Introduction: The study investigated the prevalence of stillbirth at the Buea regional hospital, by taking cases of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic(s) and those who did not attend but had their deliveries at the Buea regional hospital. The study specifically estimated the prevalence of stillbirths; identified possible risk factors associated with stillbirths, and determined whether the number of antenatal clinic visits is related to the occurrence of stillbirths-because during antenatal clinic visits, pregnant women are educated on risk factors of stillbirths such as: preterm deliveries; sex of the stillbirth; history of stillbirth; history of abortion(s); what age group of mothers are more likely to have a stillbirth. Methods: The study was a hospital based retrospective study at the maternity in which there were 3577 deliveries registered at the Buea regional hospital dated May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2017. With the aid of a checklist data was collected, analysed and presented with the use of tables, pie-charts and bar charts. Results: The prevalence of stillbirths was 26‰; possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; sex of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths. Conclusion: The study established that stillbirths can occur in any woman of child-bearing age. possible risk factors associated with stillbirths included: preterm deliveries; women aged 20-29 years; history of abortion(s); a history of stillbirth; gender of stillbirths were more of females than males; and insufficient antenatal clinic attendance (≤1 antenatal clinic attendance) had more stillbirths.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1125-1129, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594158

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and preterm birth (PB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) of neonates. Methods: A total of 3 172 pregnant women who were enrolled in the project of Chinese Pregnant Women Cohort Study-Peking Union Medical College (CPWCS-PUMC) from July 25, 2017 to July 24, 2018 and delivered before December 31, 2018 were selected as subjects in this study. The relationship between exposure factors in early pregnancy and adverse outcomes of neonatal delivery was analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The incidence rates of PB, LBW and SGA were 4.76%, 3.53% and 5.74%, respectively. In terms of PB, the analysis results showed that the gestational weight gain (GWG) and living in northern China were protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and family with 3-4 members were risk factors. In the respect of LBW, GWG and daily consumption of milk and dairy products were the protective factors, while premature rupture of membranes, gestational hypertension, sedentary working time more than 6 hours, dental examination or treatment within 1-3 years and passive smoking were risk factors. For SGA, baby girl, passive smoking, peanut oil consumption and unsalted taste were risk factors, while folic acid supplementation was protective factor. Conclusion: The risk factors for PB, LBW and SGA were multifactorial, and relevant specific measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of adverse neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1621-1626, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relation of men's lifelong class status (as measured by neighborhood income) to the rates of early (< 34 weeks) and late (34-36 weeks) preterm birth (PTB). METHODS: Stratified and multilevel, multivariable binomial regression analyses were computed on the Illinois transgenerational birth-file of infants (born 1989-1991) and their parents (born 1956-1976) with appended U.S. census income information. The median family income of men's census tract residence at two-time periods were utilized to assess lifelong class status (defined by residence in either the lower or upper half of neighborhood income distribution). RESULTS: In Cook County Illinois, the preterm rate for births (n = 8115) to men with a lifelong lower class status was twice that of births (n = 10,330) to men with a lifelong upper class status: 13% versus 6.0%, RR = 2.2 (2.0, 2.4). This differential was greatest in early PTB rates: 3.9% versus 1.4%, RR = 3.0 (2.5, 3.7). The relation of men's lifelong class status to both PTB components persisted among non-teens, married, college-educated, and non-Latina White women, respectively. The adjusted (controlling for maternal demographic characteristics) RR of early and late PTB for men with a lifelong lower (versus upper) class status were 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) and 1.2 (1.0, 1.4), respectively. The population attributable risk of early PTB for men's lifelong lower class status equaled 16%. CONCLUSIONS: Men's lifelong lower (versus upper) class status is a novel risk factor for early preterm birth regardless of maternal demographic characteristics. This intriguing finding has public health relevance.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Gravidez , População Urbana
13.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 223(5): 304-316, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623006

RESUMO

AIMS: This is an official guideline of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). The aim of this guideline is to improve the prediction, prevention and management of preterm birth based on evidence obtained from recent scientific literature, the experience of the members of the guideline commission and the views of self-help groups. METHODS: Based on the international literature, the members of the participating medical societies and organizations developed Recommendations and Statements. These were adopted following a formal process (structured consensus conference with neutral moderation, voting was done in writing using the Delphi method to achieve consensus). RECOMMENDATIONS: Part I of this short version of the guideline lists Statements and Recommendations on the epidemiology, etiology, prediction and primary and secondary prevention of preterm birth.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Nascimento Prematuro , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Sistema de Registros , Prevenção Secundária , Sociedades Médicas
14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(14): 1333-1346, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety, efficacy, and appropriate timing of isoniazid therapy to prevent tuberculosis in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy are unknown. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women with HIV infection to receive isoniazid preventive therapy for 28 weeks, initiated either during pregnancy (immediate group) or at week 12 after delivery (deferred group). Mothers and infants were followed through week 48 after delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of treatment-related maternal adverse events of grade 3 or higher or permanent discontinuation of the trial regimen because of toxic effects. The noninferiority margin was an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference in the rate of the primary outcome of less than 5 events per 100 person-years. RESULTS: A total of 956 women were enrolled. A primary outcome event occurred in 72 of 477 women (15.1%) in the immediate group and in 73 of 479 (15.2%) in the deferred group (incidence rate, 15.03 and 14.93 events per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.77 to 4.98, which met the criterion for noninferiority). Two women in the immediate group and 4 women in the deferred group died (incidence rate, 0.40 and 0.78 per 100 person-years, respectively; rate difference, -0.39; 95% CI, -1.33 to 0.56); all deaths occurred during the postpartum period, and 4 were from liver failure (2 of the women who died from liver failure had received isoniazid [1 in each group]). Tuberculosis developed in 6 women (3 in each group); the incidence rate was 0.60 per 100 person-years in the immediate group and 0.59 per 100 person-years in the deferred group (rate difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.94 to 0.96). There was a higher incidence in the immediate group than in the deferred group of an event included in the composite adverse pregnancy outcome (stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, low birth weight in an infant, preterm delivery, or congenital anomalies in an infant) (23.6% vs. 17.0%; difference, 6.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.9). CONCLUSIONS: The risks associated with initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy during pregnancy appeared to be greater than those associated with initiation of therapy during the postpartum period. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; IMPAACT P1078 TB APPRISE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01494038.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Isoniazida/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593283

RESUMO

Advances in perinatal intensive care have resulted in increased survival of the most immature preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks) and these new survivors are now entering school. While the clear majority of all children born preterm have a normal development, the extremely preterm infant is at a considerable risk for long term disabilities and rates of adverse development increase at lower gestational ages. Lung function is commonly affected in children born extremely preterm, and many have treatment for obstructive symptoms. The incidences of major neuromotor impairments, i.e. cerebral palsy, are low, but there is an increasing awareness of common cognitive and neuropsychiatric problems in extremely preterm children and their special needs in school. Extremely preterm children therefore need follow up of lung function and neurodevelopment at least until school start.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
16.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593284

RESUMO

Preterm delivery in Sweden constitutes 5.7 % of all deliveries, which is among the lowest rates in the world. There has not been any increase in the proportion of iatrogenic preterm deliveries during the last decades.The main hypothesis concerning the causality of preterm delivery is still that of the ascending infection from the vagina to the uterus and inflammation resulting in contractions, rupture of membranes and delivery. The mechanisms behind parturition at term are still elusive and this is also true for preterm delivery. The genetic contribution to preterm delivery is about 25-30 %. The first genes that are associated with preterm delivery and gestational duration have recently been published. Huge progress has been made in care of preterm born infants. Sweden has among the lowest rates of mortality and morbidity in the world, especially in the lowest gestational weeks. New modes of care, family-centered care and hospital-assisted home care, have empowered the parents and reduced the cost for care.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corioamnionite , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593288

RESUMO

Late and moderately preterm infants, born between 32+0/7 and 36+6/7 gestational weeks, comprise more than 80 % of all preterm infants and account for almost 40 % of all days of neonatal care. While their total number of days of care has not changed, an increasing part of their neonatal stay (from 29 % in 2011 to 41 % in 2017) is now within home care programmes. Late and moderate preterm birth is often complicated by respiratory disorders, hyperbilirubinemia, hypothermia and feeding difficulties. These infants also have an increased risk of perinatal death and neurologic complications. In the long run, they have higher risks of cognitive impairment, neuropsychiatric diagnoses and need for asthma medication. As young adults, they have a lower educational level and a lower average salary than their full-term counterparts. They also have an increased risk of long-term sick leave, disability pension and need for economic assistance from society.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Educação Especial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tempo de Internação , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/economia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/mortalidade , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
18.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2919-2930, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520220

RESUMO

Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected primarily in children with acute lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), but its occurrence, clinical profile, and role as a causative agent of RTD are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the potential clinical relevance of HBoV. Using molecular tests, we tested 1352 nasopharyngeal samples obtained between October 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018 from children up to the age of 16 with RTD for the presence of HBoV DNA and 20 other respiratory pathogens at three different hospitals in Belgium. HBoV was detected in 77 children with a median age of 10.6 months. Consecutive samples were available for 15 HBoV-positive children and showed persistent HBoV positivity in four of them. Monoinfection was observed in six infants. Four of them were born prematurely and were infected during hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Only one of these six monoinfected children was diagnosed with recurrent wheezing due to HBoV. This child was carried to term and had a high viral load. Coinfections, most frequently with rhinovirus (52.1%) and adenovirus (49.3%), were observed in 72 patients. In seventeen of them in which HBoV was present at high viral load or higher viral load than its copathogens, bronchi(oli)tis (n = 8), recurrent wheezing (n = 8) or episodic wheezing (n = 1) were diagnosed. Our results suggest that HBoV infection at high viral load in infants is associated with wheezing (P = 0.013, Cramer's V = 0.613).


Assuntos
Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 658, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511019

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: In 2009, the prevention service "Familieambulatoriet" (FA) was established in three pilot hospital areas offering psychosocial support and health monitoring to parents in high risk regarding mental health and substance use, for the purpose of preventing child mental health and developmental problems through preschool years. This study selected new-born health as a preliminary endpoint for evaluation of population effects in three pilot areas, utilizing national statistics for birth cohorts from 2005 to 2013. The aim of the study is to evaluate changes in population new born health incidences associated with the establishment of new supportive and preventive FA-services at three pilot sites from 2009 in contrast to previous years and the remaining country. This quasi-experimental design evaluated changes in populations with new services available not those receiving the services, and controlled for national historical changes, variation between hospital districts, and random variation across the years before or years after the pilot services were introduced. Our hypothesis was to expect reduced frequencies of preterm births, SGA births, low APGAR scores, pediatric transfer, and new born abstinence symptoms in the pilot areas. METHODS: The baseline was established through 4 years preceding 2009, contrasting changes at pilot sites the following 4 years 2009-2013 using the remaining hospital area populations in Norway 2005-2008 and 2009-2013 as contrasts. RESULTS: Related to the introduction of FA services, we found three significant improvements in new born health using mixed effects logistic regression. 1) In the population rate of babies born prematurely with small for gestational age (SGA), using the 10th percentile criteria as the definition; odds ratio (OR) = 0.73 (95% Cl: 0.60 to 0.88). 2) A similar reduction using the 2.5th percentile criteria, although with wider confidence limits; OR = 0.73 (95% Cl: 0.54 to 0.99). 3) A decrease in the frequency of low APGAR scores (0-6) 5 min. after birth; OR = 0.80 (95% Cl: 0.68 to 0.95). Thus, the FA-areas remained significantly lowered on SGA rates or Low APGAR rates across the years after FA establishment, despite considerable variation, in contrast to the baseline years and to the remaining country. No significant effect was found for the outcomes frequency of premature births (unrelated to SGA), SGA among full-term babies, child abstinence symptoms or pediatric transfer of the baby. False negative findings may result from low-rate outcomes or studying the population rather than users. CONCLUSIONS: Population rates suggest that introducing FA services offering support and monitoring in high-risk families may contribute to improving aspects of new born infant health. Intervention components and strategies should be studied more closely using individual data.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Medicina Preventiva , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Projetos Piloto , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Fatores de Risco
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109639, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mounting evidence have linked traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) with increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), whether it can interact with indoor environmental factors remains unknown, and its window(s) susceptibility at the stage of gestation is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore PTB risk for prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and home environmental factors during pregnancy, so as to identify critical window(s) in the combined effect of traffic air pollution and main home environmental factor(s) on PTB development. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 3,509 preschool children was performed in Changsha, China during 2011-2012. The PTB prevalence was reported by the parents based on a questionnaire. We estimated each mother's exposure to traffic-related air pollutant NO2 in different windows of gestation, including conception month, three trimesters, birth month, and whole gestation. Maternal exposure to home environmental factors was considered by renovation (new furniture/redecoration) in pregnancy, and mold/damp stains and window condensation during perinatal period. Associations of PTB with both ambient NO2 and home environmental factors, and their interactions on PTB were evaluated by logistic regression models using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Traffic air pollutant NO2 exposure in utero was significantly associated with PTB, with adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of 1.41 (1.00-1.98) for an IQR increase in NO2 exposure during whole pregnancy, particularly in the conception month and 1st trimester. We further found a positive relationship between perinatal exposure to mold/damp stains in the homes and PTB, OR (95% CI) = 1.73 (1.04-2.90). Especially, we detected a significant interaction between outdoor NO2 and indoor mold/damp stains on PTB risk. Male and female foetus were respectively more susceptible to perinatal mold/dampness at home and outdoor NO2 exposure in early gestation. CONCLUSION: Our finding indicates that both outdoor traffic air pollutant and indoor mold/dampness play key roles in PTB development, and their interaction effect in early pregnancy significantly increases PTB risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos
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