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4.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(3): 622-630, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603180

RESUMO

Introduction: The current COVID-19 pandemic mainly affects older people, those with obesity or other coexisting chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. It has been observed that about 20 % of patients will require hospitalization, and some of them will need the support of invasive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Nutritional status appears to be a relevant factor influencing the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Several international guidelines have provided recommendations to ensure energy and protein intake in people with COVID-19, with safety measures to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare personnel. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main recommendations related to adequate nutritional management for critically ill patients with COVID-19 in order to improve their prognosis and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Metanálise como Assunto , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Apoio Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome da Realimentação/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634174

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate energy requirements of pregnant Holstein × Gyr cows. Different planes of nutrition were established by two feeding regimens: ad libitum or maintenance. Sixty-two nonlactating cows with average body weight of 480 ± 10.1 kg and an age of 5 ± 0.5 years were used. Cows were divided into three groups: pregnant (n = 44), non-pregnant (n = 12), and baseline reference (n = 6). The 56 pregnant and non-pregnant cows were randomly allocated into a feeding regimen: ad libitum or maintenance. To evaluate the effects of days of pregnancy, pregnant and non-pregnant animals were slaughtered at 140, 200, 240, and 270 days of pregnancy. Energy requirements for maintenance differed between pregnant and non-pregnant cows, thus two equations were developed. Net energy and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of non-pregnant cows were 82 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day and 132 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day, respectively. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance of non-pregnant cows was 62.4%. Net energy and metabolizable energy for maintenance of pregnant cows were 86 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day and 137 kcal/kg empty body weight0.75/day, respectively. Efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance of pregnant cows was 62.5%. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for gain was 41.9%. The efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for pregnancy was 14.1%. Furthermore, net energy requirement for pregnancy was different from zero from day 70 of pregnancy onwards. In conclusion, net energy and metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of non-pregnant cows are different from pregnant cows. Furthermore, we believe that the proposed non-linear equations to estimate net energy requirements for pregnancy are more adequate than current NRC equation, and should be recommended for Holstein × Gyr cows.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Gravidez , Útero/metabolismo
7.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(6): 455-464, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450124

RESUMO

Several features and comorbidities in Down syndrome have nutritional implications and consequences. In infancy and early childhood, children with Down syndrome have a high risk of oral motor difficulties and pharyngeal dysphagia with aspiration, which both require systematic attention. To improve nutritional status in children who are underweight and who have clinical signs of feeding problems, further evaluation of underlying causes is required. Clinical interventions should promote swallowing safety and development of feeding abilities. Even from 4-5 years of age, overweight in children with Down syndrome can be a concern. To prevent disease later in life, an urgent need exists for more research on nutritional aspects in the prevention and treatment of obesity in adolescents with Down syndrome. This Review did not find any data to support the use of dietary supplementation, except when deficiency is documented. Additionally, the literature reported the need for more research that uses larger study samples and control groups and that addresses important nutritional challenges in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
8.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 451-467, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443986

RESUMO

Applied behavior analysis has the most empirical support as intervention for pediatric feeding disorders, when a child does not eat or drink a sufficient quantity or variety of food to maintain proper nutrition. Interdisciplinary collaboration is crucial for diagnosis, referral, and management of pediatric feeding disorders because the etiology is complex and multifactorial. Thus, our aim is to provide information about how to recognize a feeding disorder, to delineate the environmental variables implicated in the etiology and maintenance of feeding disorders, and to provide recommendations for prevention and intervention for feeding disorders based on the applied-behavior analytic literature.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Criança , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384114

RESUMO

Zambia is still facing undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies despite fortification and supplementation programmes stressing the need for additional solutions. Fermented foods have the potential to improve nutrient intake and, therefore, could have an important role in food based recommendations (FBRs) to ensure adequate intake of nutrients for optimal health of populations. Secondary dietary intake data was used in Optifood, a linear programming software to develop FBRs, for children aged 1-3 and 4-5 years in Mkushi district of Zambia. Three scenarios per age group were modeled to determine FBRs based on: (1) FBRs based on local available foods (2) FBR and Mabisi, a fermented milk beverage, and (3) FBR with Munkoyo, a cereal fermented beverage. The scenarios were compared to assess whether addition of Mabisi or Munkoyo achieved a better nutrient intake. FBRs based on only locally available non-fermented foods did not meet ≥70% of recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for calcium, fat, iron and zinc, so-called problem nutrients. The addition of Munkoyo to the FBRs did not reduce the number of problem nutrients, but after adding Mabisi to the FBR's only iron (67% of RNI) in the 1-3 year age group and only zinc (67% of RNI) in the 4-5 year age group remained problem nutrients. Mabisi, a fermented milk product in combination with the local food pattern is a good additional source of nutrients for these age groups. However, additional nutrition sensitive and cost-effective measures would still be needed to improve nutrient intake, especially that of iron and zinc.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Leite/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
Clin Nutr ; 39(6): 1631-1638, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-93095

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemics is posing unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Patients with worst outcomes and higher mortality are reported to include immunocompromised subjects, namely older adults and polymorbid individuals and malnourished people in general. ICU stay, polymorbidity and older age are all commonly associated with high risk for malnutrition, representing per se a relevant risk factor for higher morbidity and mortality in chronic and acute disease. Also importantly, prolonged ICU stays are reported to be required for COVID-19 patients stabilization, and longer ICU stay may per se directly worsen or cause malnutrition, with severe loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which may lead to disability, poor quality of life and additional morbidity. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition should therefore be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing concise guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients by proposing 10 practical recommendations. The practical guidance is focused to those in the ICU setting or in the presence of older age and polymorbidity, which are independently associated with malnutrition and its negative impact on patient survival.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Nutr ; 39(6): 1631-1638, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305181

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemics is posing unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Patients with worst outcomes and higher mortality are reported to include immunocompromised subjects, namely older adults and polymorbid individuals and malnourished people in general. ICU stay, polymorbidity and older age are all commonly associated with high risk for malnutrition, representing per se a relevant risk factor for higher morbidity and mortality in chronic and acute disease. Also importantly, prolonged ICU stays are reported to be required for COVID-19 patients stabilization, and longer ICU stay may per se directly worsen or cause malnutrition, with severe loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which may lead to disability, poor quality of life and additional morbidity. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition should therefore be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing concise guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients by proposing 10 practical recommendations. The practical guidance is focused to those in the ICU setting or in the presence of older age and polymorbidity, which are independently associated with malnutrition and its negative impact on patient survival.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(2): 321-326, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190597

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la valoración de los menús hospitalarios debe realizarse periódicamente para adecuarlos a las necesidades de los pacientes. El yogur líquido de leche de cabra podría tener ventajas nutricionales en comparación con el de vaca. OBJETIVOS: evaluar la satisfacción de los pacientes con el menú hospitalario y con la incorporación del yogur líquido de leche de cabra, suministrado como postre en el menú hospitalario, en comparación con un postre lácteo de vaca. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se realizó una encuesta de satisfacción con el menú hospitalario y con el postre (yogur de cabra no edulcorado frente a postre lácteo de vaca edulcorado (yogur o arroz con leche)) a pacientes ingresados con dietas basales. RESULTADOS: se analizaron 214 encuestas. El 43,9 % de los encuestados fueron mujeres. La edad media fue de 62,1 ± 15,8 años y la estancia media de los pacientes de 14,1 ± 20,1 días. La aceptación del menú hospitalario se valoró como buena por un alto porcentaje de los encuestados (temperatura, 90,9 %; preparación, 75,6 %; presentación, 88,9 %; horario, 73,7 %). La satisfacción global con el almuerzo (de 1 a 10) fue de 7,5 ± 2,1 en los pacientes que tomaron yogur líquido de leche de cabra frente a 7,4 ± 2,2 en los que tomaron el postre lácteo de vaca (NS); con el postre fue de 6,1 ± 3,2 frente a 7,9 ± 2,5 (p < 0,000), respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: la satisfacción global con el menú hospitalario fue alta y la aceptación del postre de yogur líquido de cabra fue menor que la observada con el postre lácteo de vaca. La ausencia de edulcorantes en el primero pudo influir en los resultados


INTRODUCTION: an assessment of hospital menus should be regularly performed to suit the needs of patients. Drinkable goat milk yogurt could have nutritional advantages over the cow's milk variety. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the satisfaction of patients with the hospital menu and with the inclusion therein of drinkable goat milk yogurt as a dessert as compared to a cow milk dessert. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a satisfaction survey for the hospital menu and its included dessert (non-sweetened goat milk yogurt vs a sweetened cow's milk dessert (yogurt or rice pudding)) was conducted in patients admitted with baseline diets. RESULTS: in all, 214 responses were analyzed: 43.9 % of respondents were women. Mean age was 62.1 ± 15.8 years, and average patient stay was 14.1 ± 20.1 days. Acceptance of the hospital menu was rated as good in a high percentage of respondents (temperature, 90.9 %; preparation, 75.6 %; presentation, 88.9 %; time schedule, 73.7 %). Overall satisfaction with the lunch meal (1 to 10) was 7.5 ± 2.1 in patients who took the drinkable goat milk yogurt vs 7.4 ± 2.2 in those who took the cow's milk dessert (NS); satisfaction with the dessert was 6.1 ± 3.2 vs 7.9 ± 2.5 (p < 0.000), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: overall satisfaction with the hospital menu was high, and the acceptance of the liquid goat milk yogurt was lower than that observed for the cow's milk dessert. The absence of sweeteners in the former may have influenced the results obtained


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição , Iogurte , Valor Nutritivo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Planejamento de Cardápio/normas , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAE4799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215466

RESUMO

The Brazilian Consensus on Nutrition in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Graft- versus -host disease was approved by Sociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea , with the participation of 26 Brazilian hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers. It describes the main nutritional protocols in cases of Graft- versus -host disease, the main complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.


Assuntos
Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/dietoterapia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Necessidades Nutricionais , Brasil , Congressos como Assunto , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 983-996, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on resting energy expenditure (REE) in spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMAI) is still limited. The lack of a population-specific REE equation has led to poor nutritional support and impairment of nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best predictors of measured REE (mREE) among simple bedside parameters, to include these predictors in population-specific equations, and to compare such models with the common predictive equations. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, anthropometric, and treatment variables were examined as potential predictors of mREE by indirect calorimetry (IC) in 122 SMAI children consecutively enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal observational study. Parameters predicting REE were identified, and prespecified linear regression models adjusted for nusinersen treatment (discrete: 0 = no; 1 = yes) were used to develop predictive equations, separately in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. RESULTS: In naïve patients, the median (25th, 75th percentile) mREE was 480 (412, 575) compared with 394 (281, 554) kcal/d in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients, respectively (P = 0.009).In nusinersen-treated patients, the median (25th, 75th percentile) mREE was 609 (592, 702) compared with 639 (479, 723) kcal/d in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients, respectively (P = 0.949).Both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients, the best prediction of REE was obtained from 3 models, all using as predictors: 1 body size related measurement and nusinersen treatment status. Nusinersen treatment was correlated with higher REE both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. The population-specific equations showed a lower interindividual variability of the bias than the other equation tested, however, they showed a high root mean squared error. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that ventilatory status, nusinersen treatment, demographic, and anthropometric characteristics determine energy requirements in SMAI. Our SMAI-specific equations include variables available in clinical practice and were generally more accurate than previously published equations. At the individual level, however, IC is strongly recommended for assessing energy requirements. Further research is needed to externally validate these predictive equations.


Assuntos
Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/metabolismo , Metabolismo Basal , Calorimetria Indireta , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/genética , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/terapia , Ventiladores Mecânicos
15.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000681, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196485

RESUMO

The interplay between nutrition and the microbial communities colonizing the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., gut microbiota) determines juvenile growth trajectory. Nutritional deficiencies trigger developmental delays, and an immature gut microbiota is a hallmark of pathologies related to childhood undernutrition. However, how host-associated bacteria modulate the impact of nutrition on juvenile growth remains elusive. Here, using gnotobiotic Drosophila melanogaster larvae independently associated with Acetobacter pomorumWJL (ApWJL) and Lactobacillus plantarumNC8 (LpNC8), 2 model Drosophila-associated bacteria, we performed a large-scale, systematic nutritional screen based on larval growth in 40 different and precisely controlled nutritional environments. We combined these results with genome-based metabolic network reconstruction to define the biosynthetic capacities of Drosophila germ-free (GF) larvae and its 2 bacterial partners. We first established that ApWJL and LpNC8 differentially fulfill the nutritional requirements of the ex-GF larvae and parsed such difference down to individual amino acids, vitamins, other micronutrients, and trace metals. We found that Drosophila-associated bacteria not only fortify the host's diet with essential nutrients but, in specific instances, functionally compensate for host auxotrophies by either providing a metabolic intermediate or nutrient derivative to the host or by uptaking, concentrating, and delivering contaminant traces of micronutrients. Our systematic work reveals that beyond the molecular dialogue engaged between the host and its bacterial partners, Drosophila and its associated bacteria establish an integrated nutritional network relying on nutrient provision and utilization.


Assuntos
Acetobacter/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais/fisiologia , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 22(85): 15-20, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193436

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: evaluar la implantación en España de un sistema de etiquetado frontal interpretativo en productos alimentarios dirigidos a menores. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo de una muestra de 19 productos alimentarios promocionados en el canal televisivo infantil con publicidad líder en España. Se aplicaron los modelos NutriScore y Sellos de Advertencia, según la información nutricional y las declaraciones nutricionales y de propiedades saludables de dichos productos en 2018. RESULTADOS: el 94,7% de la muestra registró las tres peores categorías en NutriScore (C, D y E) y el 78,9%, al menos un Sello de Advertencia. El 52,6% usó declaraciones nutricionales, de los cuales el 90% registró las dos peores categorías en NutriScore (D y E) y el 80% al menos un Sello de Advertencia. CONCLUSIONES: la implantación en España de un sistema de etiquetado frontal interpretativo en los productos alimentarios podría constituir una valiosa herramienta de salud pública, identificando productos poco saludables dirigidos a menores y contribuyendo a luchar contra la obesidad infantil


INTRODUCTION: study assessing the potential impact of introducing interpretive front-of-pack labelling in foods targeted to children children in Spain. METHODS: a descriptive study was carried out on a sample of 19 food products advertised on the leading children's television network in Spain that features advertisements. The analysis applied the NutriScore and nutrient-specific warning label systems based on the nutrition information and nutrition and health claims featured in the packaging of these products in 2018. RESULTS: of the foods included in the sample, 94.7% received scores corresponding to the bottom three NutriScore categories (C, D, E), and 78.9% at least one Warning Label. Nutrition claims were featured on the packaging of 52.6% of these products, of which 90% scored in 1 of the 2 lowest NutriScore grades (D, E) and 80% would receive at least one Warning Label. CONCLUSIONS: the introduction of interpretive front-of-pack labelling for food products could be a valuable public health intervention in Spain, helping identify unhealthy foods that target children and curb childhood obesity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Composição de Alimentos , Nutrição da Criança , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Necessidades Nutricionais , Alimentos Especializados/normas , Estudos Transversais , Publicidade de Alimentos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151074

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition is still prevalent in South Africa, hence the importance of a dietary survey to identify risks of under- and over-nutrition. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied in two economically active provinces, Gauteng (GTG) (N = 733) and Western Cape (WC) (N = 593). Field workers completed questionnaires, and a 24 h recall with children taking part aged 1-<10-years (N = 1326). Important findings were that 71% and 74%, respectively, of 3-<6-year-olds and 6-<10-year-olds had an energy intake below the estimated energy requirement (EER), while 66% 1-<3-year-olds had intakes above the EER. The percentage of children with a total fat intake below recommended levels decreased as age increased ((51%, 40% and 5%) respectively, for the three age groups). Similarly, the percentage of those who had a total fat intake above the recommendation increased with increasing age (4%, 11% and 26%, respectively, for the three age groups). Saturated fat intake above 10%E was highest in the youngest and oldest children (33% and 32%, respectively). The percentage of children with a free sugars intake above 10%E was 47%, 48% and 52% respectively, and 98%-99% had a fibre intake that was less than recommended. Overall, the diet was not healthy, with the main food items being very refined, and the diet being high in salty snacks and sugary items, and low in fruit, vegetables and legumes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , População Urbana
18.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1208-1213, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to a lack of research data on the protein requirements of the elderly in China, the estimated average requirement (EAR) and the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of protein in the elderly remain the same as those in young and middle-aged people at 0.98 g/(kg·d). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the protein requirements of healthy Chinese adults >65y old through use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. METHODS: Seven healthy adult men and 7 healthy adult women participated in the study, with protein intakes ranging from 0.3 to 1.8 g/(kg·d). The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at a 1.5 resting energy expenditure. Protein was given based on the lactalbumin. Phenylalanine and tyrosine were added to protein doses of 0.3-1.5 g/kg according to the highest dose of protein content [1.8 g/(kg·d)]. Phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were kept constant at each protein dose. The mean protein requirement was determined by applying a nonlinear mixed-effects model analysis to the F13CO2, which identified a breakpoint in F13CO2 in response to graded amounts of protein. This trial was registered with the Chinese clinical trial registry as ChiCTR-BOC-17010930. RESULTS: Protein EAR and RNI for healthy elderly Chinese adults were determined to be 0.91 and 1.17 g/(kg·d), respectively, based on the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. CONCLUSIONS: The estimates of protein requirements for Chinese adults >65 y in the present study are 3.4% and 19.4% higher than the current estimated requirements, 0.88 g/(kg·d) for EAR and 0.98 g/(kg·d) for RNI.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , China , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenilalanina/administração & dosagem , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Tirosina/administração & dosagem
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069478

RESUMO

The German Society for Nutritional Medicine has recently updated its guideline on clinical nutrition in critically ill patients thereby cooperating with seven other national medical societies. This article provides readers with a concise overview on selected key aspects of this guideline relevant for clinical practice. We will discuss some issues in detail such as the determination of energy expenditure and of calorie and protein intake, the choice of the route of administration (enteral or parenteral), and the handling of micronutrients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Nutrição Enteral , Estado Terminal , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Nutrição Parenteral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
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