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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 57, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coaches are considered as an important source of nutrition information by their athletes. However, their knowledge in this area is often insufficient for proper guidance and may lead to the dissemination of misinformation regarding sports nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess coaches' intentions as well as psychosocial determinants underlying their intentions to provide sports nutrition recommendations to their high school athletes. METHODS: Coaches (n = 47) completed a Web-based questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour, to assess their intentions to provide three different sports nutrition recommendations and their determinants. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were most strongly related to the intentions. RESULTS: Forty-six, 44.7 and 91.9% of coaches had the intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates, foods rich in proteins and an increase in hydration to their athletes, respectively. Subjective norm was the only significant determinant of coaches' intention to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates (R2 = 53.7%, ß = 0.73 ± 0.12, P < 0.0001). Subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significantly associated with coaches' intentions to recommend a higher consumption of foods rich in proteins (R2 = 25.9%, ß = 0.50 ± 0.16, P = 0.002 and R2 = 17.2%, ß = 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively) and an increase in hydration (R2 = 26.8%, ß = 0.38 ± 0.13, P = 0.001 and R2 = 46.3%, ß = 0.58 ± 0.11, P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that subjective norm and perceived behavioural control represent important determinants of coaches' intentions to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. These findings should be considered in future interventions aimed at facilitating proper general sports nutrition recommendations provided by coaches to their athletes.


Assuntos
Intenção , Tutoria , Mentores , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Dieta , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692868

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a growing interest on vital roles of micronutrients in the maintenance of good health and enhancement of the immune system for prevention of diseases. Methods: Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of selected micronutrients Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Potassium (K) in ten African indigenous leafy vegetables (AILVs) (Corchorus olitorius, Cucurbita moschata, Amaranthus blitum, Brassica carinata , Cleome gynandra, Solanum scabrum , Crotalaria ochroleuca, Urticadioica, Manihot esculenta, Vigna unguiculata) which are cultivated, marketed and consumed in Kenya and across East and West Africa. Results: In this study, the highest levels of Calcium, Zinc and Iron were found in Urticadioica leaves (75.0 mg/g), Manihot esculenta leaves (0.1 mg/g) and Cucurbita moschata leaves (1.0 mg/g). Amaranthus blitum leaves exhibited the highest content of Magnesium (9.5 mg/g) and Potassium (36.5 mg/g) respectively. This study demonstrated that based on weight and bioavailabilty, 10 g of Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) provides between 57% to 136% daily value of iron for children age between 7 and 10 years old and can provide up to 41%, 81% and 27% daily value of iron for female aged 18+, lactating females aged 18+ and males aged 18+ respectively. A 10 g portion of Urticadioica leaves (dried weight) will provide 75% or 58% of the daily value of calcium based on the North American or western European recommendation respectively while the same amount of Amaranthus leaves provides between 37% to 50 % of daily value of magnesium for adults of nineteen years and older based on their weight. The daily value of zinc despite its dependency with age, weight and Zinc bioavailability can be supplied by 10 g of Manihot esculenta leaves (dried weight) at a percentage ranged from 8% to 39%. Based on the 3510 mg daily recommendation, 10 g of Amaranthus, Brassica carinata, Cleome gynandra and Cucurbita moschata (dried weight) will provide 10.4%, 10.0%, 9.8% and 9.3% daily value for potassium respectively. Conclusion: The research findings are scientific evidences of the nutritional contribution of African indigenous leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/análise , Necessidades Nutricionais , Verduras/química , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
3.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 469-479, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587972

RESUMO

The domestic donkey is a unique equid species with specific nutritional requirements. This article examines the importance of feeding strategies that mimic the donkey's natural environment using poor nutritional quality fibers and access to browsing materials. The relationship between nutrition and health is examined and practical approaches to the healthy and sick donkey are discussed.


Assuntos
Equidae/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Desnutrição/veterinária , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 43, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare nutritional intakes against recommended values as well as between the perceived intake and needs of female lacrosse players. METHODS: Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse players (20.0 ± 1.7 yrs., 169.7 ± 6.4 cm; 69.9 ± 10.7 kg; 27.5 ± 3.3% fat) completed a four-day monitoring period during in-season. Athletes were outfitted with an activity monitor over four consecutive days and completed four-day food records to assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and dietary intake. Body composition was assessed and used to calculate recommended dietary intakes. Actual intake was self-reported using a commercially available food tracking program (MyFitnessPal©, USA). Daily average values were calculated for total and relative energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake. These values were then compared to published nutritional recommendations established by the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Appropriate pairwise comparisons were made depending on the normality of the distribution. RESULTS: Athletes ate significantly less than recommended values for energy, carbohydrates and protein. (p < 0.001). Significant discrepancies (p < 0.001) were also observed between perceptions of intake versus actual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes significantly underestimated perceived intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate when compared to perceived needs. Massive standard deviations and ranges were observed, suggesting that some athletes lack a basic understanding of their daily needs. Results from this data suggest that collegiate athletes lack appropriate understanding of basic nutrition needs and could benefit from basic nutrition education as it pertains to their health and performance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Esportes com Raquete , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1189-1195, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184644

RESUMO

High altitude mountaineering is characterized by high energetic requirements due to the environment in which the activity is developed: negative energy balance, extreme cold, high altitude and the assumption of potential risks can be found during the practice of this sport. High altitude mountaineering, as a result of the previous factors, induces changes in body composition which have never been studied previously in a systematic review. A search within four different databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, Scopus and Medline) was performed using the thesaurus terms "Mountaineering" and "Body composition". A second search was performed using the following terms "Altitude" and "Body composition". The selection criteria included studies with healthy adults which evaluated the effects of at least 14 days of uninterrupted stays at altitudes above 4,000 m. The studies included in the review assessed body composition through different methods such as anthropometry, bioimpedance, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, hydrostatic weighing and air displacement plethysmography. The search was performed up to and including December 1st 2018. Eleven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies reported weight loss, of which five reported significant reductions in lean mass and six reported reductions in fat mass. Also, three studies reported reductions in both fat mass and lean mass. Current evidence is limited to observational studies with important confounding factors affecting the final conclusions. Longitudinal studies with a better methodological design and control groups are needed in order to verify these results


El alpinismo a grandes altitudes se caracteriza por elevados requerimientos energéticos debido al ambiente en el que se desarrolla la actividad: los balances energéticos negativos, el frío extremo, la exposición a la altitud o niveles de estrés elevados se pueden observar en la práctica de este deporte. Debido a estos factores, el alpinismo de altitud induce cambios en la composición corporal que no se han estudiado previamente en una revisión sistemática. Se realizó una búsqueda en cuatro bases de datos (PubMed, SportDiscus, Scopus and Medline) con los términos Mesh "Mountaineering" y "Body composition". Una segunda búsqueda se realizó usando los términos "Altitude" y "Body composition". Los criterios de selección incluyeron estudios con adultos sanos que evaluaron los efectos de estancias de al menos 14 días ininterrumpidos en altitudes superiores a los 4.000 m. La composición corporal se analizó con diferentes métodos como antropometría, bioimpedancia, absorciometría dual de rayos x, pesada hidrostática y pletismografía por desplazamiento de aire. La búsqueda se realizó incluyendo estudios fechados hasta el 1 de diciembre de 2018. Once estudios observacionales cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Todos los estudios reportaron pérdida de peso, de los cuales cinco reportaron reducciones en masa magra; seis, reducciones en masa grasa; y tres, reducciones en ambas. La evidencia actual se limita a estudios observacionales con factores de confusión importantes que afectan a los resultados finales. Se necesitan estudios longitudinales con mejor diseño metodológico y grupo control para verificar estos resultados


Assuntos
Humanos , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Altitude , Necessidade Energética/fisiologia , Antropometria , Absorciometria de Fóton , Pletismografia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Análise Qualitativa
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1231-1234, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184649

RESUMO

Introducción: la esclerodermia es una enfermedad sistémica adquirida poco frecuente, con una patogenia compleja que compromete a numerosos órganos. El abordaje nutricional no está claramente establecido debido a su baja prevalencia. Caso clínico: presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años diagnosticada de esclerodermia difusa con amplia afectación gastrointestinal, pérdida de 40% de peso desde el diagnóstico y anemia grave. A pesar de la toma de suplementos orales, la nutrición a través de gastrostomía y el uso de octreótide, no se alcanzan los requerimientos nutricionales, por lo que se plantea el uso de nutrición parenteral domiciliaria junto al resto de tratamientos. Discusión: esta paciente, la progresión de la afectación digestiva debida a la esclerodermia hizo necesario recurrir al aporte parenteral debido a la intolerancia oral a causa de la pseudooclusión intestinal. En estos casos, la ausencia de tratamiento etiológico hace que la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria juegue un papel importante en el soporte nutricional


Background: systemic sclerosis is a rare systemic acquired disease with a complex pathogenesis which compromises multiple organs. The nutritional approach to treat patients with this disease is not clearly stablished due to its low prevalence. Case report: we present the case of a 37-year-old woman diagnosed with systemic sclerosis with gastrointestinal compromise, 40% weight loss since diagnosis and severe anemia. Despite oral supplementation, placement of a gastrostomy feeding tube and medical therapy with octreotide, her nutritional requirements are not achieved, so we suggest home parenteral nutrition to complete the nutritional support. Discussion: the severe intestinal affection in this patient made it necessary to turn to the parenteral access because of the oral intolerance secondary to the intestinal pseudo-obstruction. In these cases, the lack of etiological treatment makes home parenteral nutrition play an important role in the nutritional approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Esclerodermia Difusa/dietoterapia , Esclerodermia Difusa/diagnóstico , Apoio Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Energética
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1119, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been highlighted as a serious public health problem in the United Kingdom. One in four toddlers are not achieving the recommended intake for their healthy development. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to explore parents' perceptions, awareness and behaviours around vitamin D intake, and the acceptability of and factors affecting purchasing of food and drink fortified with Vitamin D in children aged 0-2 years old. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-four parents completed an online questionnaire, advertised to parents with one child aged up to 2 years on popular social media websites. The majority of participants were mothers, White-British ethnic background, aged 25-44 years. Participants provided an email address if they wanted to be contacted about the focus groups. Recruitment posters advertising the focus groups were placed in community centres. Eighteen participated in 5 focus groups (13 parents), and 5 individual interviews. A thematic analysis methodology was applied. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent (n = 110) of parents reported receiving information about vitamin D during pregnancy and 52% (n = 100) after the birth of their child. Parents reported a low level of satisfaction with vitamin D information: many thought it was limited and recommendations on supplements were unclear. Parents wanted more information about vitamin D requirements for their child (80%, n = 153 out of 192 respondents, 2 non-response), about vitamin D and breastfeeding (56%, n = 108) and vitamin D and pregnancy (49%, n = 94). The recommendations were for simpler, easier to read, with specific and clearer guidelines; delivered regularly during routine appointments, at timely stages throughout pregnancy and after the birth. 23% (n = 45, out of 194 respondents) of parents did not know why vitamin D is important for health. Only 26% (n = 49, out of 192 respondents) of parents reported giving their youngest child a vitamin D supplement on most days of the week. The majority of parents (interview/focus group) wanted more information about foods/drinks fortified with vitamin D. CONCLUSION: Parents were generally not aware of the importance of vitamin D, dietary requirements including supplementation and the availability of vitamin D fortified foods. Major improvements are required for the effective promotion of vitamin D information to parents.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/psicologia , Vitamina D/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3274-3285, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363781

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) is an indispensable amino acid (AA) for dogs of all life stages; however, although Trp requirements for growing dogs are derived from 3 dose-response studies, there are no empirical data on Trp requirements for adult dogs at maintenance. The study objective was to determine Trp requirements of adult dogs of 3 different breeds using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique. Four spayed or neutered Miniature Dachshunds (5.28 ± 0.29 kg BW), 4 spayed Beagles (9.32 ± 0.41 kg BW), and 5 neutered Labrador Retrievers (30.51 ± 2.09 kg BW) were used. After a 14-d adaptation to a Trp-adequate basal diet (Trp = 0.482% dry matter), all dogs were fed a mildly Trp-deficient diet for 2 d (Trp = 0.092% dry matter) before being randomly allocated to receiving 1 of 7 concentrations of Trp supplementation (final Trp content in experimental diets was 0.092, 0.126, 0.148, 0.182, 0.216, 0.249, and 0.283% dry matter) and all dogs received all Trp treatments. After 2-d adaptation to the experimental diets, dogs underwent individual IAAO studies. Total feed was divided in 13 equal meals; at the sixth meal, dogs were fed a bolus of L-[1-13C]-Phenylalanine (Phe) (9.40 mg/kg BW), and thereafter, L-[1-13C]-Phe was supplied (2.4 mg/kg BW) with every meal. Total production of 13CO2 during isotopic steady state was determined by enrichment of 13CO2 in breath samples and total production of CO2 measured using indirect calorimetry. The maintenance requirement for Trp and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined using a 2-phase linear regression model. Mean Trp requirements were estimated at 0.154, 0.218, and 0.157% (dry-matter) for Dachshunds, Beagles, and Labradors, respectively. The upper 95% CI were 0.187, 0.269, and 0.204% (dry-matter) for Dachshunds, Beagles, and Labradors. In conclusion, estimated Trp requirements are higher for Beagles compared with Labradors or Dachshunds, and all estimated requirements are higher than those currently recommended by the NRC and AAFCO.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Cães/fisiologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Triptofano/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 306-311, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search was performed in the electronic databases Medline (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Scopus. Review studies, experimental studies, those with adolescent pregnant women (< 20 years) and iodine supplementation were excluded. The selection followed the steps of identifying the articles in the databases, deleting the duplicates, and reading the titles, abstracts, and then the entire article. The search for the articles occurred in September 2017, using the descriptors "pregnant" and "iodine deficiency" NOT "supplementation" in English, Portuguese and Spanish. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were included, the deficiency prevalence ranged from 16.1% to 84.0%, and the median of iodine intake was insufficient in 75% of the studies. There is no classification for mild, moderate or severe levels of iodine deficiency in pregnant women, which makes it impossible to know the real dimension of the problem. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women, observed worldwide, shows the need for a population classification in order to direct public policies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):306-11.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Gravidez , Prevalência
10.
Animal ; 13(S1): s75-s81, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280745

RESUMO

The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/veterinária , Leite/química , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/análise , Acidose/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Cetose/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Rúmen/fisiopatologia
11.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 18(7): 270-274, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283628

RESUMO

Nutrition, which is an important factor that improves physical performance, has a major place in the lives of both disabled and nondisabled athletes. The main purpose of nutritional assessment of disabled athletes is to assess the individual's consumption to determine the insufficiencies and to suggest the necessary changes to design the most appropriate nutrition plan. Nutrition strategies play a key role in confirming the performance of disabled athletes. Considering the nature of the disability and the specific sports branch, it is important to determine the necessary nutrition solutions to ensure the best protection for the athletes concerned. The literature on the specific nutritional needs for the best sports performance of disabled athletes is insufficient and should be considered in light of current information on specific disability physiology.


Assuntos
Atletas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Necessidades Nutricionais , Metabolismo Basal , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 546, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor dietary habits have been identified as one of the cancer risks factors in various epidemiological studies. Consumption of healthy and balance diet is crucial to reduce cancer risk. Cancer prevention food plan should consist of all the right amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. Although dietary habits could be changed, affordability of healthy foods has been a major concern, as the price of healthy foods are more expensive the unhealthy counterparts. METHODS: Therefore, using linear programming, this study is aimed to develop a healthy and balanced menu with minimal cost in accordance to individual needs that could in return help to prevent cancer. A cross sectional study involving 100 adults from a local university in Kuala Lumpur was conducted in 3 phases. The first phase is the data collection for the subjects, which includes their socio demographic, anthropometry and diet recall. The second phase was the creation of a balanced diet model at a minimum cost. The third and final phase was the finalization of the cancer prevention menu. Optimal and balanced menus were produced based on respective guidelines of WCRF/AICR (World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research) 2007, MDG (Malaysian Dietary Guidelines) 2010 and RNI (Recommended Nutrient Intake) 2017, with minimum cost. RESULTS: Based on the diet recall, most of subjects did not achieve the recommended micronutrient intake for fiber, calcium, potassium, iron, B12, folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and beta-carotene. While, the intake of sugar (51 ± 19.8 g), (13% ± 2%) and sodium (2585 ± 544 g) was more than recommended. From the optimization model, three menus, which met the dietary guidelines for cancer prevention by WCRF/AICR 2007, MDG 2010 and RNI 2017, with minimum cost of RM7.8, RM9.2 and RM9.7 per day were created. CONCLUSION: Linear programming can be used to translate nutritional requirements based on selected Dietary Guidelines to achieve a healthy, well-balanced menu for cancer prevention at minimal cost. Furthermore, the models could help to shape consumer food choice decision to prevent cancer especially for those in low income group where high cost for health food has been the main deterrent for healthy eating.


Assuntos
/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Programação Linear , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/economia , Fibras na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Processes ; 165: 14-22, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176684

RESUMO

Differences in diet requirements may be reflected in how floral visitors make decisions when probing nectar sources that differ in chemical composition. We examined decision-making in butterflies that form a specialization continuum involving pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) when interacting with PA and non-PA plants: Agraulis vanillae (non-specialist), Danaus erippus (low demanding PA-specialist) and D. gilippus (high demanding PA-specialist). In addition, we assessed whether experience affected decision-making. Butterflies were tested on either Tridax procumbens (absence of PAs in nectar) or Ageratum conyzoides flowers (presence of PAs in nectar). Agraulis vanillae showed more acceptance for T. procumbens and more rejection for A. conyzoides; no differences were recorded for both Danaus species. Agraulis vanillae fed less on A. conyzoides than both Danaus species, which did not differ in this regard. In all butterfly species, experience on PA flowers did not affect feeding time. In the field, butterflies rarely visited PA flowers, regardless of the specialization degree. Our findings reveal that the specialization continuum seen in butterflies explains, at least in part, decision-making processes related to feeding. Additional factors as local adaptation mediated by the use of alternative nectar sources can affect flower visitation by specialist butterflies.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais , Flores , Néctar de Plantas , Alcaloides de Pirrolizidina
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2822-2836, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115459

RESUMO

Nutrient requirements of sows during lactation are related mainly to their milk yield and feed intake, and vary greatly among individuals. In practice, nutrient requirements are generally determined at the population level based on average performance. The objective of the present modeling approach was to explore the variability in nutrient requirements among sows by combining current knowledge about nutrient use with on-farm data available on sows at farrowing [parity, BW, backfat thickness (BT)] and their individual performance (litter size, litter average daily gain, daily sow feed intake) to estimate nutrient requirements. The approach was tested on a database of 1,450 lactations from 2 farms. The effects of farm (A, B), week of lactation (W1: week 1, W2: week 2, W3+: week 3 and beyond), and parity (P1: 1, P2: 2, P3+: 3 and beyond) on sow performance and their nutrient requirements were evaluated. The mean daily ME requirement was strongly correlated with litter growth (R2 = 0.95; P < 0.001) and varied slightly according to sow BW, which influenced the maintenance cost. The mean daily standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine requirement was influenced by farm, week of lactation, and parity. Variability in SID lysine requirement per kg feed was related mainly to feed intake (R2 = 0.51; P < 0.001) and, to a smaller extent, litter growth (R2 = 0.27; P < 0.001). It was lowest in W1 (7.0 g/kg), greatest in W2 (7.9 g/kg), and intermediate in W3+ (7.5 g/kg; P < 0.001) because milk production increased faster than feed intake capacity did. It was lower for P3+ (6.7 g/kg) and P2 sows (7.3 g/kg) than P1 sows (8.3 g/kg) due to the greater feed intake of multiparous sows. The SID lysine requirement per kg of feed was met for 80% of sows when supplies were 112 and 120% of the mean population requirement on farm A and B, respectively, indicating higher variability in requirements on farm B. Other amino acid and mineral requirements were influenced in the same way as SID lysine. The present modeling approach allows to capture individual variability in the performance of sows and litters according to farm, stage of lactation, and parity. It is an initial step in the development of new types of models able to process historical farm data (e.g., for ex post assessment of nutrient requirements) and real-time data (e.g., to control precision feeding).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Leite/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Lisina/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Paridade , Gravidez
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3487-3497, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111159

RESUMO

The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different gestation dietary Met/Lys (methionine, Met/lysine) ratios on the production performance of sows. Specifically, it measured the effect of Met on plasma urea and AA concentrations and placental vascular density of pregnant sows. A total of 325 multiparous sows (third parity, Large × White) were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (n = 65) with five dietary Met/Lys ratios 0.27 (nutrient requirements of swine [NRC] 2012 level), 0.32, 0.37, 0.42, and 0.47). The litter size and weight at birth were measured and recorded. Blood samples were obtained on days 0, 40, 90, and 114 of gestation, and placenta samples were collected at parturition. The effects of different dietary Met/Lys ratios on the reproductive performance were evaluated based on the prolificacy of sows as either high (≥13 total piglets born) or low (<13 total piglets born). The results showed that dietary Met/Lys ratio had no significant effect on the reproductive performance of lower prolificacy sows (P > 0.05). However, for high-prolificacy sows, litter weight of born alive significantly increased in 0.37 Met/Lys ratios group compared with control group (P < 0.05). The gestation dietary Met/Lys ratio showed significant quadratic effects on the litter birth weight and percentage of piglets born with weight <0.9 kg (P < 0.05), and the Met/Lys ratios to achieve the best reproductive performance determined to be 0.37. Furthermore, plasma urea concentrations of sows also changed with Met/Lys ratios quadratically (P < 0.05). Increasing dietary Met/Lys ratios elevated the concentration of most plasma AA. Although the dietary Met/Lys ratio had no significant effect on the placental vascular density (P > 0.05), the gestation dietary Met/Lys ratio showed significant quadratic effects on the placental vascular density (P < 0.05). In addition, the birth weight of piglets of high-prolificacy sows was positively correlated with the placental vascular density (P < 0.01). Taken as a whole, the dietary Met/Lys ratio showed a quadratic curve relation with birth weight performance and placental angiogenesis performance, to which 0.37 ratio contributed to the best performance of high-prolificacy sows.


Assuntos
Lisina/farmacologia , Metionina/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Paridade/efeitos dos fármacos , Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035346

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess nutritional intake, sports nutrition knowledge and risk of Low Energy Availability (LEA) in female Australian rules football players. Victorian Football League Women's competition (VFLW) players (n = 30) aged 18-35 (weight: 64.5 kg ± 8.0; height: 168.2 cm ± 7.6) were recruited from Victoria, Australia. Nutritional intake was quantified on training days using the Automated 24 h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Australia), and sports nutrition knowledge was measured by the 88-item Sports Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (SNKQ). The risk of LEA was assessed using the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q). Daily mean carbohydrate intake in the current investigation was 3 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1, therefore, below the minimum carbohydrate recommendation for moderate exercise of approximately one hour per day (5-7 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) and for moderate to intense exercise for 1-3 h per day (6-10 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) for 96.3% and 100% of players, respectively. Daily mean protein intake was 1.5 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1, therefore, consistent with recommendations (1.2-2.0 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) for 77.8% of players. Daily mean calcium intake was 924.8 mg⋅d-1, therefore, below recommendations (1000 mg⋅d-1) for 65.5% of players, while mean iron intake was 12.2 mg⋅d-1, also below recommendations (18 mg⋅d-1) for 100% of players. Players answered 54.5% of SNKQ questions correctly, with the lowest scores observed in the section on supplements. Risk of LEA was evident in 30% of players, with no differences in carbohydrate (p = 0.238), protein (p = 0.296), fat (p = 0.490) or energy (p = 0.971) intakes between players at risk of LEA and those not at risk. The results suggest that female Australian rules football players have an inadequate intake of carbohydrate and calcium and low sports nutrition knowledge. Further investigation to assess the risk of LEA using direct measures is required.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ingestão de Energia , Futebol Americano , Estado Nutricional , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035354

RESUMO

Nitrogen balance (NB) is considered a good marker of adequate protein intake and it has been suggested to be a good predictor of patients' health outcomes. However, in literature, there is a lack of large randomized trials examining NB-guided protein intake in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). A randomized controlled trial enrolling patients admitted to ICU was done to compare changes in NB. Participants were randomized to a standard or protein-fortified diet (protein intake of 1.8 g/kg/day according to the guidelines of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition). The primary endpoint was represented by the NB on Day 1, 3, and study exit. Forty patients were enrolled in the study (19 in the protein-fortified group). The longitudinal analysis showed that, on Day 3, patients randomized to the protein-fortified diet were more likely (p < 0.001) to present better NB (at 3 days, patients in the protein-fortified diet were estimated to have a nitrate value of 5.22 g more than patients in the standard diet, 95% CI 3.86-6.58). The protein-fortified diet was found to be significantly and directly associated with changes in NB in critically ill patients admitted to ICU.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Formulados , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Apoio Nutricional , Nutrição Parenteral
20.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of permissive underfeeding compared to target feeding and intensive insulin therapy (IIT) compared to conventional insulin therapy (CIT) on the inflammatory mediators monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and tissue factor (TF) in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a substudy of a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized controlled trial in which intensive care unit (ICU) patients were randomized into permissive underfeeding compared to target feeding groups and into IIT compared to CIT groups (ISRCTN96294863). In this substudy, we included 91 patients with almost equal numbers across randomization groups. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at days 3, 5, and 7 of an ICU stay. Linear mixed models were used to assess the differences in MCP-1, sICAM-1, and TF across randomization groups over time. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were balanced across randomization groups. Daily caloric intake was significantly higher in the target feeding than in the permissive underfeeding groups (P-value < 0.01), and the daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the IIT than in the CIT groups (P-value < 0.01). MCP-1, sICAM-1, and TF did not show any significant difference between the randomization groups, while there was a time effect for MCP-1. Baseline sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and platelets had a significant effect on sICAM-1 (P-value < 0.01). For TF, there was a significant association with age (P-value < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been previously demonstrated that insulin inhibits MCP-1, sICAM-1 in critically ill patients, and TF in non-critically ill patients, our study demonstrated that IIT in critically ill patients did not affect these inflammatory mediators. Similarly, caloric intake had a negligible effect on the inflammatory mediators studied.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Estado Terminal/terapia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais
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