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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568776

RESUMO

Dietary habits have been proven to have an impact on the microbial composition and health of the human gut. Over the past decade, researchers have discovered that gut microbiota can use nutrients to produce metabolites that have major implications for human physiology. However, there is no comprehensive system that specifically focuses on identifying nutrient deficiencies based on gut microbiota, making it difficult to interpret and compare gut microbiome data in the literature. This study proposes an analytical platform, NURECON, that can predict nutrient deficiency information in individuals by comparing their metagenomic information to a reference baseline. NURECON integrates a next-generation bacterial 16S rRNA analytical pipeline (QIIME2), metabolic pathway prediction tools (PICRUSt2 and KEGG), and a food compound database (FooDB) to enable the identification of missing nutrients and provide personalized dietary suggestions. Metagenomic information from total number of 287 healthy subjects was used to establish baseline microbial composition and metabolic profiles. The uploaded data is analyzed and compared to the baseline for nutrient deficiency assessment. Visualization results include gut microbial composition, related enzymes, pathways, and nutrient abundance. NURECON is a user-friendly online platform that provides nutritional advice to support dietitians' research or menu design.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Metagenoma , Necessidades Nutricionais
2.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474878

RESUMO

Assessing dietary inadequacies can contribute to understanding the nutritional vulnerabilities of a country. This study aimed to investigate nutrient intakes and micronutrient inadequacies in the Brazilian adult population, with an interest in different age subgroups. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1812 individuals aged 19 to 65 years from a population-based study with a representative sample of Brazilian adults. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h food recalls, and the probabilities of inadequate intake were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intake targets. Adequate macronutrient intake was over 99% for proteins, 84.7% for carbohydrates, and 80.7% for total fats. There was a high probability of inadequacy (above 90%) for vitamins D and E, but vitamin D inadequacy was very similar between the sexes. In contrast, vitamin E was more likely to be inadequately consumed among women. A high probability of inadequacies (above 85%) of calcium and magnesium were found in the population, regardless of age group. Except for iron, the probability of an inadequacy of other minerals increased with age. The results showed a relevant proportion of nutrient inadequacies, with those most at risk being women and older individuals, helping with the better targeting and monitoring of public-health policies that address nutritional problems in the population.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Brasil , Necessidades Nutricionais , Vitaminas , Micronutrientes
3.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 27(3): 275-282, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456627

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diets low in animal-source foods or solely consisting of plant-based foods, hardly meet nutrition needs of children, exposing them to inadequate intake of essential nutrients. Thus, including edible insects in children's diets is relevant for meeting nutritional requirements, other potential health benefits, and building more sustainable food systems. Nutrition and health research on insects is novel and still limited. This review covers recently published research between April 2022 and November 2023 focusing on the relevance of including insects in children's diets. RECENT FINDINGS: Insects provide protein, fat and micronutrients, and are generally nutritionally equivalent to animal-source foods. The protein and fat quality of edible insects varies depending on several factors. Insects also contain chitin which could potentially be beneficial for gut health. For insects to be considered suitable for inclusion in children's diet, they must be accepted. However, children who are unfamiliar with insects respond to them with curiosity and disgust. SUMMARY: Insect farming can enhance their availability and consumption, potentially addressing nutrition gaps. Furthermore, transitioning from occasional to regular insect consumption requires actual exposure and integration into diets of insects. To affirm the nutrition and health potential of edible insects for children, well designed human studies are essential.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais
6.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297158, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386635

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 30 elements (essential and non-essential or toxic) were determined in 25 foods consumed in Italy by children aged 0-6 months and produced in Europe. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry were used as measurement techniques for the elements of interest. The estimated intakes for one-year-old infants were compared with risk estimators and nutritional requirements. Data indicate that commercially available baby food in Italy provides an excellent contribution for Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, K, and P, covering up to approximately 70% of the adequate intake (AI) for an infant aged 6-12 months. The intake of detectable toxic elements was always below the safety limit: even the most concentrated toxic elements never exceeded about 86% of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). This result indicates that the analyzed baby food is of good quality and does not pose risks to children's health.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Análise Espectral , Necessidades Nutricionais , Itália , Europa (Continente)
7.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 48(3): 284-290, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minor burns could be associated with moderate hypermetabolism. In this study, the primary outcome was measured energy expenditure (mEE) determined by indirect calorimetry in patients with minor burns. We also compared mEE with predictive values and actual energy intakes. METHODS: Adults with minor burns exclusively treated on an outpatient basis were included. During the week following injury, a dietitian performed indirect calorimetry (Q-NRG in canopy mode), calculated the estimated energy expenditure (eEE) based on the Harris-Benedict (HB) and Henry formulas, and evaluated daily energy intakes using a food anamnesis. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (59.2% male; median age: 35 [interquartile range: 29-46.5] years; body mass index [BMI]: 26.2 [22.3-29.6] kg/m2; burn surface area [BSA]: 1.5% [1%-2%]) were included 4 (2-6) days after injury. The mEE was 1863 (1568-2199) kcal or 25 (22.4-28.5) kcal/kg and 1838 (1686-2026) kcal or 26.1 (23.7-27.7) kcal/kg in patients who were respectively fasting for >10 h or not (P = 0.991 or P = 0.805). The total mEE was 104% (95%-116%) and 108% (99%-122%) of the total eEE using the HB and Henry formulas, respectively, with diet-induced thermogenesis and physical activity level. Hypermetabolism (ie, oxygen consumption at rest ≥3.5 ml/kg/min) was observed in 21/49 (42.9%) patients. Energy intakes corresponded to 71% (60%-86%) of the total mEE. CONCLUSION: Performing indirect calorimetry in adults with minor burns revealed that ≥40% of the tested adults presented a hypermetabolism and that their mEE was not covered by their energy intakes.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Metabolismo Energético , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos de Coortes , Necessidades Nutricionais , Queimaduras/terapia
8.
J Exp Biol ; 227(4)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300135

RESUMO

Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are hypothesized to be natural doping agents in migratory shorebirds, enabling prolonged flight by increasing membrane fluidity and oxidative capacity of the flight muscles. Animals can obtain n-3 LCPUFAs from the diet or by conversion of dietary α-linolenic acid, 18:3 n-3. However, the capacity to meet n-3 LCPUFA requirements from 18:3 n-3 varies among species. Direct tests of muscle oxidative enhancement and fatty acid conversion capacity are lacking in marine shorebirds that evolved eating diets rich in n-3 LCPUFAs. We tested whether the presence and type of dietary fatty acids influence the fatty acid composition and flight muscle oxidative capacity in western sandpipers (Calidris mauri). Sandpipers were fed diets low in n-3 PUFAs, high in 18:3 n-3, or high in n-3 LCPUFAs. Dietary fatty acid composition was reflected in multiple tissues, and low intake of n-3 LCPUFAs decreased the abundance of these fatty acids in all tissues, even with a high intake of 18:3 n-3. This suggests that 18:3 n-3 cannot replace n-3 LCPUFAs, and dietary n-3 LCPUFAs are required for sandpipers. Flight muscle indicators of enzymatic oxidative capacity and regulators of lipid metabolism did not change. However, the n-3 LCPUFA diet was associated with increased FAT/CD36 mRNA expression, potentially benefitting fatty acid transport during flight. Our study suggests that flight muscle lipid oxidation is not strongly influenced by n-3 PUFA intake. The type of dietary n-3 PUFA strongly influences the abundance of n-3 LCPUFAs in the body and could still impact whole-animal performance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Necessidades Nutricionais
10.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 20(3): 311-313, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232338

RESUMO

This editorial and the accompanying article summarize evidence-based guidelines that can inform dietary recommendations in oncology practices.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 63(3): 673-695, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this systematic review was to determine a minimum serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) threshold based on the risk of having rickets in young children. This work was commissioned by the WHO and FAO within the framework of the update of the vitamin D requirements for children 0-3 years old. METHODS: A systematic search of Embase was conducted to identify studies involving children below  4 years of age with serum 25OHD levels and radiologically confirmed rickets, without any restriction related to the geographical location or language. Study-level and individual participant data (IPD)-level random effects multi-level meta-analyses were conducted. The odds, sensitivity and specificity for rickets at different serum 25OHD thresholds were calculated for all children as well as for children with adequate calcium intakes only. RESULTS: A total of 120 studies with 5412 participants were included. At the study-level, children with rickets had a mean serum 25OHD of 23 nmol/L (95% CI 19-27). At the IPD level, children with rickets had a median and mean serum 25OHD of 23 and 29 nmol/L, respectively. More than half (55%) of the children with rickets had serum 25OHD below 25 nmol/L, 62% below 30 nmol/L, and 79% below 40 nmol/L. Analysis of odds, sensitivities and specificities for nutritional rickets at different serum 25OHD thresholds suggested a minimal risk threshold of around 28 nmol/L for children with adequate calcium intakes and 40 nmol/L for children with low calcium intakes. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and IPD meta-analysis suggests that from a public health perspective and to inform the development of dietary requirements for vitamin D, a minimum serum 25OHD threshold of around 28 nmol/L and above would represent a low risk of nutritional rickets for the majority of children with an adequate calcium intake.


Assuntos
Raquitismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Cálcio , Raquitismo/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas , Calcifediol , Necessidades Nutricionais
12.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296831, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232085

RESUMO

Nutrient profiling is a method that classifies foods based on their nutrient content and identifies foods that are high in micronutrients both across and within food groups. This study aimed to identify foods that are rich sources of the seven micronutrients (iron, zinc, calcium, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin B12) of public health concern for the Bangladeshi population.. This study developed a metric termed "naturally nutrient-rich score 7 (NNR7)" specifically for third-trimester pregnant women to identify nutrient-dense foods. Further, it computed the nutrient adequacy score (NAS) of the top NNR7-scored foods for seven micronutrients to assess the extent (percent) to which foods can meet pregnant women's recommended dietary allowances (RDA). A linear programming technique was then used to construct a nutrient-adequate model diet for third-trimester pregnant women using the top ten NNR7-scored foods. According to the NNR7, food groups such as leafy vegetables, fish, meat, poultry and eggs, and vegetables are the richest sources of the problem micronutrients. Mutton liver (916.7%), soybean (39.3%), lamb liver (2160%) and duck liver (50.0%) were found to fulfill the highest percentage of the RDA of vitamin A, zinc, vitamin B12, and iron, respectively. In the formulated nutrient-adequate diets for pregnant women, rice, potato, brown wheat flour, and soya oil were universal to all three diets and Bengal gram, orange, Ganges River sprat, and duck liver were the most common ones. The study findings highlight the need for the consumption of foods such as leafy vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, eggs, pulses and vegetables to increase the intake of problematic micronutrients. Planning a nutrient-adequate diet for pregnant women using linear programming can be an alternative approach to optimize and shape food choices to meet their nutritional requirements.


Assuntos
Dieta , Gestantes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Dieta/métodos , Farinha , Ferro , Micronutrientes , Necessidades Nutricionais , Triticum , Verduras , Vitamina A , Vitamina B 12 , Zinco
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 59: 312-319, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Failure to identify a patient's energy requirement has a variety of consequences both physiological and economical. Previous studies have shown that predictive formulas, including the Harris Benedict equation (HB), both over- and underestimates energy requirement in severely ill patients and healthy younger adults, compared to the golden standard, indirect calorimetry (IC). The comparison between measured and estimated energy requirements in hospitalized patients in regular wards is underreported. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between measured energy requirements and requirements estimated by HB in the individual hospitalized patients, and to investigate whether those findings were associated with other specific patient characteristics. METHODS: IC (n = 86) was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) (n = 67) was used for body composition in patients admitted to Aalborg University Hospital. Furthermore, height, weight, body mass index, calf circumference, while information regarding hospital ward, vital values, dieticians estimated energy requirements and blood samples were collected in the patients' electronic medical records. Bland-Altman plots, multiple linear regression analysis, and Chi2 tests were performed. RESULTS: On average a difference between IC compared with the HB (6.2%), dietitians' estimation (7.8%) and BIA (4.50%) was observed (p < 0.05). Association between REE and skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (R2 = 0.58, ß = 149.0 kJ), body fat mass (BFM) (R2 = 0.51, ß = 59.1 kJ), and weight (R2 = 0.62, ß = 45.6 kJ) were found (p < 0.05). A positive association between measured REE and HB were found in the following variables (p < 0.05): CRP, age, surgical patients, and respiratory rate. CONCLUSION: This study found a general underestimation of estimated energy expenditure compared to measured REE. A positive correlation between measured REE and SMM, BRM and weight was found. Lastly, the study found a greater association between CRP, age, surgical patients, and respiratory rate and a general greater than ±10% difference between measured and estimation of energy requirements.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Metabolismo Energético , Adulto , Humanos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Composição Corporal , Necessidades Nutricionais
14.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 27(2): 192-199, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190340

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in our society is a pressing concern that has demanded immediate attention. Traditional treatments have proven ineffective for many individuals, leading to a surge in bariatric surgery as a last resort. While the rate of early and late postoperative complications may be low, when they occur, they place these patients at higher risk of requiring intensive care treatment. Therefore, it is our aim to discuss the nutritional care of these individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Nutritional management of critically ill postbariatric surgical patients is related to the difficulty of providing an adequate nutritional assessment, calculating the macro and micronutrient requirements, choosing the right therapy, and defining the timely moment to initiate it. The anatomic changes related to the bariatric operation pose a high risk for a nonfunctional gastrointestinal tract both in the early postoperative and late postoperative. Therefore, the route of nutrition will greatly rely on the absorptive capacity, as well as on the nutritional status, with parenteral nutrition being an early option, especially for those with high critical care severity scores. Also, these patients are known to have an altered microbiota which may influence the absorptive capacity. Immunonutrition, prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics may represent potential options, but there is currently little support for 'one size fits all'. SUMMARY: The nutritional care of critically ill patients postbariatric surgery is a complex and nuanced process requiring a multifaceted precision approach. The distinct nutritional challenges of early and late postoperative patients necessitate a thorough nutritional assessment and a highly individualized nutritional care plan.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Apoio Nutricional , Obesidade , Cuidados Críticos
15.
Animal ; 18(2): 101071, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262856

RESUMO

Differences and/or similarities in the influence of sex class for hair sheep requirements remain inconclusive. Knowledge of energy requirements allows well-formulated diets to be provided which is crucial for improving animal production. We aimed to determine the effect of sex class on the net energy requirements of growing hair sheep in a multi-study approach. We used a data set composed of individual measurements of 382 hair sheep (299 non-castrated and 83 castrated males) from 11 studies that used the methodology of comparative slaughter. Net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm) were obtained by the regression between heat production and metabolizable energy intake. The metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance (MEm) were calculated by the iterative method, and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for maintenance (km) was obtained by NEm divided by MEm. The net energy requirements for gain (NEg) were estimated from retained energy (RE) against empty BW gain (EBWG). The efficiency of energy use for weight gain (kg) was obtained from the relationship between RE and the energy metabolizable intake for gain, removing the intercept. There was an effect of sex on NEg and two equations were generated: NEg (MJ/day) = 1.040 (±0.04055) × EBW0.75 × EBWG0.8767(±0.03293) and NEg (MJ/day) = 1.040 (±0.04055) × EBW0.75 × EBWG0.8300(±0.03468) (R2 = 0.86; MSE = 0.0037; AIC = -468.0) for non-castrated and castrated males, respectively. Sex class did not affect kg (P > 0.05) and one kg was generated (0.29). Sex did not affect kprotein (P = 0.14) and kfat (P = 0.32), assuming an average deposition efficiency of 0.27 for protein and 0.78 for fat. The NEm and MEm did not differ (P > 0.05) between sex classes, with a value of 0.272 and 0.427 MJ/kg0.75 EBW per day, respectively. The km observed was 0.64. In conclusion, non-castrated and castrated male hair sheep have similar maintenance energy requirements although energy requirements for gain differed among them. The Committees overestimate the gain and maintenance requirements for hair sheep. Therefore, the equations generated in this study are recommended.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Metabolismo Energético , Animais , Masculino , Ovinos , Ração Animal/análise , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Carneiro Doméstico , Peso Corporal
16.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 39(1): 246-253, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37221644

RESUMO

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common pediatric traumas among children in the United States. Appropriate nutrition support, including the initiation of early enteral nutrition, within the first 48 h after injury is crucial for children with a TBI. It is important that clinicians avoid both underfeeding and overfeeding, as both can lead to poor outcomes. However, the variable metabolic response to a TBI can make determining appropriate nutrition support difficult. Because of the dynamic metabolic demand, indirect calorimetry (IC) is recommended, instead of predictive equations, to measure energy requirements. Although IC is suggested and ideal, few hospitals have the technology available. This case review discusses the variable metabolic response, identified using IC, in a child with a severe TBI. The case report highlights the ability of the team to meet measured energy requirements early, even in the setting of fluid overload. It also highlights the presumed positive impact of early and appropriate nutrition provision on the patient's clinical and functional recovery. Further research is needed to investigate the metabolic response to TBIs in children and the impact optimal feedings based on the measured resting energy expenditure have on clinical, functional, and rehabilitation outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Ingestão de Energia , Criança , Humanos , Estado Terminal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Apoio Nutricional , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Necessidades Nutricionais
17.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 109(2): 166-172, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the growth trajectory of children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) during the first year, to assess the risk factors for growth failure (GF) at 1 year and to determine nutritional intakes at discharge required for early optimal growth. DESIGN: Single-centre retrospective cohort study based on data from a structured follow-up programme. SETTING AND PATIENTS: All neonates with CDH (2013-2019) alive at discharge and followed up to age 1. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at birth, 3, 6 and 12 months of age; risk factors for GF at age 1; energy and protein intake of infants achieving early optimal growth. RESULTS: Sixty-three of 65 neonates who were alive at discharge were included. Seven (11%) had GF at 1 year and 3 (4.8%) had a gastrostomy tube. The mean WAZ decreased in the first 3 months before catching up at 1 year (-0.6±0.78). Children with a severe form or born preterm experienced a deeper loss (from -1.5 to -2 z-scores) with late and limited catch-up. The median energy intake required to achieve positive or null weight growth velocity differed significantly according to CDH severity, ranging from 100 kcal/kg/day (postnatal forms) to 139 kcal/kg/day (severe prenatal forms) (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Growth patterns of CDH infants suggest that nutritional risk stratification and feeding practices may influence growth outcomes. Our results support individualised and active nutritional management based on CDH severity, with energy requirements as high as 140% of recommended intakes for healthy term infants.


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Necessidades Nutricionais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Ingestão de Energia , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Nutr ; 154(2): 300-313, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000662

RESUMO

Although a diet high in plant foods can provide beneficial nutritional outcomes, unbalanced and restrictive plant-based diets may cause nutrient deficiencies. Protein intake from these diets is widely discussed, but the comparison of animal and plant proteins often disregards amino acid composition and digestibility as measurements of protein quality. Poor provision of high-quality protein may result in adverse outcomes, especially for individuals with increased nutrient requirements. Several dietary modeling studies have examined protein adequacy when animal-sourced proteins are replaced with traditional and novel plant proteins, but no review consolidating these findings are available. This narrative review aimed to summarize the approaches of modeling studies for protein intake and protein quality when animal-sourced proteins are replaced with plant foods in diet simulations and examine how these factors vary across age groups. A total of 23 studies using dietary models to predict protein contribution from plant proteins were consolidated and categorized into the following themes-protein intake, protein quality, novel plant-based alternatives, and plant-based diets in special populations. Protein intake from plant-based diet simulations was lower than from diets with animal-sourced foods but met country-specific nutrient requirements. However, protein adequacy from some plant-sourced foods were not met for simulated diets of children and older adults. Reduced amino acid adequacy was observed with increasing intake of plant foods in some scenarios. Protein adequacy was generally dependent on the choice of substitution with legumes, nuts, and seeds providing greater protein intake and quality than cereals. Complete replacement of animal to plant-sourced foods reduced protein adequacy when compared with baseline diets and partial replacements.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Idoso , Proteínas de Plantas , Necessidades Nutricionais , Aminoácidos
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(2): 371-383, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37992970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2005, the Institute of Medicine advised using methods other than nitrogen balance (NB) for determining protein requirements. Since then, protein requirements using indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) have been published and are higher than NB. Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide of cysteine, glutamate, and glycine, is a principal antioxidant that can be used as a functional indicator of protein adequacy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure changes in erythrocyte GSH kinetics [fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and absolute synthesis rate (ASR)] in healthy adults following a range of protein intakes at and above the current recommendations. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults [8 males and 8 females, aged 25.6 ± 0.9 y (mean ± SEM)] were studied at 4 of 6 protein intakes ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1. Erythrocyte GSH kinetics were assessed during a 7-h infusion of [U-13C2-15N]glycine following 2 d of adaptation to each protein intake. Blood and urine tests were performed to measure oxidative stress markers, plasma homocysteine, triglycerides, plasma amino acid concentrations, 5-L-oxoproline (5-OP), and urinary sulfate. The protein intake that maximized GSH synthesis was determined using mixed-effect change-point regression in R. Primary and secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed-effects and repeated-measures analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc test. RESULTS: The protein intake that maximized GSH FSR at 78%⋅d-1 was 1.0 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.63, 1.39). GSH ASR was significantly lower at 0.6 and 0.8 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1 than at 1.5 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1 (2.03 and 2.17, respectively, compared with 3.71 mmol⋅L-1⋅d-1). Increasing the protein intake led to increased urinary sulfate but did not affect erythrocyte GSH concentration, plasma oxidative stress markers, triglycerides, homocysteine, or 5-OP. CONCLUSIONS: A protein intake of 1.0 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1 maximized GSH synthesis, which is in agreement with earlier IAAO-derived protein requirements of 0.93 to 1.2 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1. These findings suggest that recommendations based on NB (0.66 g⋅kg-1⋅d-1) may underestimate protein needs for adequate health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02971046.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Glutationa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicina , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Necessidades Nutricionais , Oxirredução , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
J Nutr ; 154(1): 5-6, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918671
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