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1.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 8(1): 40, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forcibly displaced populations are highly vulnerable to psychosocial distress and mental disorders, including alcohol misuse. In an ongoing trial that seeks to develop a transdiagnostic intervention addressing psychological distress and alcohol use disorders among conflict-affected populations, we will carry out a cost-effectiveness evaluation using a capability-based Oxford Capabilities Mental Health (OxCAP-MH) measure. The OxCAP-MH is a 16-item questionnaire developed from the Capability Approach, that covers multiple domains of functioning and welfare. The aim of the current paper is to present the results of the translation, cultural adaptation and valuation of the OxCAP-MH into Juba Arabic for South Sudanese refugees living in Uganda. We adhered to the official Translation and Linguistic Validation process of the OxCAP-MH. To carry out the translation, the Concept Elaboration document, official English version of the OxCAP-MH, and the Back-Translation Review Template were used. Four independent translators were used for forward and back translations. The reconciled translated version was then piloted in two focus group discussions (N = 16) in Rhino refugee settlement. A most important to least important valuation of the sixteen capability domains covered in the OxCAP-MH was also done. RESULTS: The Juba Arabic version of the OxCAP-MH was finalized following a systematic iterative process. The content of the Juba Arabic version remained unchanged, but key concepts were adapted to ensure cultural acceptability, feasibility, and comprehension of the measure in the local context of Rhino refugee settlement. Most participants had low levels of literacy and required support with filling in the tool. Participants suggested an additional capability that is currently not reflected in the OxCAP-MH, namely access to food. Furthermore, discussions around the valuation exercise of the sixteen domains led to two separate importance scales, which showed relevant differences. CONCLUSIONS: In this context, the OxCAP-MH was considered culturally acceptable. The valuation exercise proved cognitively demanding. Participants voiced confusion over how to answer the questions on the OxCAP-MH instrument due to low levels of literacy. These concerns invite consideration for future research to consider how measures such as the OxCAP-MH can be made more accessible to individuals with low literacy rates in resource poor settings.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Refugiados , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Uganda , População Negra
2.
S Afr J Surg ; 62(1): 66-71, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perforation of peptic ulcer (PPU) is the most morbid complication of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with scant recent reports from sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to describe a PPU series from a single centre in South Africa and contrast the findings with other recent reports from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study of PPU at Kalafong Hospital in Pretoria was performed. The relationship of patient demographics, risk factors, ulcer pathology and severity scores to mortality were analysed. Recent similar reports from sub-Saharan Africa were reviewed and the findings compared to the current study and findings from high income countries (HIC). RESULTS: The study comprised 121 patients. The majority were black men with an average age of 46.6 years, with few comorbidities. A large proportion of patients admitted to risk factors and most presented to hospital 48 hours after the onset of symptoms. The majority (71%) of the perforations occurred in the stomach. The patient sex, age, risk factors and the mortality at 4% were similar to other African studies, although perforations were mainly duodenal in most of the African studies. The median age of patients in the East African studies was lower by 13 years. Patients in HIC series of PPU were older, more likely to be female, have duodenal perforations and a higher mortality than in the African series. CONCLUSION: Patients were mostly smokers, presented late to hospital and had gastric perforations. The findings of low mortality and male predominance concurred with those of other sub-Saharan African reports and were the opposite of trends in HIC.


Assuntos
Úlcera Péptica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Negra , Hospitalização , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2320299121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557172

RESUMO

Racism is associated with negative intergenerational (infant) outcomes. That is, racism, both perceived and structural, is linked to critical, immediate, and long-term health factors such as low birth weight and infant mortality. Antiracism-resistance to racism such as support for the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement-has been linked to positive emotional, subjective, and mental health outcomes among adults and adolescents. To theoretically build on and integrate such past findings, the present research asked whether such advantageous health correlations might extend intergenerationally to infant outcomes? It examined a theoretical/correlational process model in which mental and physical health indicators might be indirectly related to associations between antiracism and infant health outcomes. Analyses assessed county-level data that measured BLM support (indexed as volume of BLM marches) and infant outcomes from 2014 to 2020. As predicted, in the tested model, BLM support was negatively correlated with 1) low birth weight (Ncounties = 1,445) and 2) mortalities (Ncounties = 409) among African American infants. Given salient, intergroup, policy debates tied to antiracism, the present research also examined associations among White Americans. In the tested model, BLM marches were not meaningfully related to rates of low birth weight among White American infants (Ncounties = 2,930). However, BLM support was negatively related to mortalities among White American infants (Ncounties = 862). Analyses controlled for structural indicators of income inequality, implicit/explicit bias, voting behavior, prior low birth weight/infant mortality rates, and demographic characteristics. Theory/applied implications of antiracism being linked to nonnegative and positive infant health associations tied to both marginalized and dominant social groups are discussed.


Assuntos
Antirracismo , Racismo , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mortalidade Infantil , Negro ou Afro-Americano , População Negra , Peso ao Nascer
4.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 36(1-2): 180-191, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557347

RESUMO

In recent years the historical subject base in psychobiography has expanded from a traditional focus on White (Caucasian) subjects to a broader more culturally inclusive population of significant personalities throughout history. A critical component of strong multicultural psychobiography is the inclusion of anchoring theories of psychology that are rooted in socio-cultural-political context. To psychologically profile culturally diverse individuals with only traditional Western theories of psychology and psychiatry (e.g. medical models, psychodynamic, existential, cognitive-behavioral) limits the ability of the research to accurately capture the erlebnis (lived experience) of extraordinary individuals in proper cultural context. This article reviews specific psychological theories that have recently set a foundation for more nuanced and culturally contextualised psychological profiles of historic personalities who represent diverse racial/ethnic/cultural backgrounds. Among the theories covered are the Integrated African Psychology Perspective (IAPP), an Indigenous (Native American) model of psychobiography, as well as theories and models on Psychological Nigrescence (Black racial identity development), Intersectionality, Politicised Collective Identity (PCI), Queered Black Racial Identity Development (QBRID), and Adultification of Black Children, among others. Examples of applications of these culture-centered theories to psychobiography, drawn from the present authors recently completed psychobiographies, as well as from other researchers internationally, are presented.


Assuntos
Cultura , Personalidade , Criança , Humanos , Diversidade Cultural , População Negra
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2313878121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588425

RESUMO

Many mainstream organizations celebrate their historical successes. In their history, however, they often marginalized racial minorities, women, and other underrepresented groups. We suggest that when organizations celebrate their histories, even without mentioning historical marginalization, they can undermine belonging and intentions to join the organization among historically marginalized groups. Four experiments demonstrate that Black participants who were exposed to an organization that celebrated their history versus the present showed reduced belonging and intentions to participate in the organization. These effects were mediated by expectations of biased treatment in the organization. Further, when organizations had a history of Black people in power, celebrating history was no longer threatening, highlighting that the negative effects of celebrating history are most likely when organizations are or are assumed to be majority-White and have treated Black Americans poorly. Taken together, these findings suggest that emphasizing organizational history can be a source of social identity threat among Black Americans.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Identificação Social , Humanos , Feminino , População Negra
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(4): 24, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597722

RESUMO

Purpose: Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (conjSCC) is more prevalent and aggressive in sub-Saharan African countries compared with the rest of the world. This study aims to compare the genomic, immunophenotypic, and histologic features between patients from the United States and Ethiopia, to identify etiopathogenic mechanisms and unveil potential treatment strategies. Methods: We compared histologic features and mutational profiles using whole exome sequencing, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) status, PD-L1 expression, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in conjSCC tumors of patients from Ethiopia (ETH; n = 25) and the United States (from MD Anderson [the MDA cohort]; n = 29). Genomic alterations were compared with SCCs from other anatomic sites using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results: Solar elastosis was seen in 78% of ETH and 10% of MDA samples. Thicker tumors had higher density of CD8+ and CD3+ cells. HPV status was similar between the cohorts (ETH = 21% and MDA = 28%). The mean tumor mutation burden (TMB) was significantly higher in conjSCC (3.01/Mb, log10) and cutaneous SCC compared other SCC subtypes. ETH samples had higher TMB compared to the MDA cohort (3.34 vs. 2.73). Mutations in genes associated with ultraviolet light (UV) signature were most frequently encountered (SBS7b = 74% and SBS7a = 72%), with higher prevalence in the ETH cohort, whereas SBS2 and SBS13 signatures were more common among MDA HPV+ conjSCCs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that UV exposure may play a major role in conjSCC, with a higher prevalence in the ETH cohort compared with the MDA cohort, where HPV also contributes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Raios Ultravioleta , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Genômica , Túnica Conjuntiva , População Negra
7.
Health Promot Int ; 39(2)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597720

RESUMO

Ethiopia increased the availability of latrines notably, but the sanitation facilities rarely meet hygienic standards. Therefore, the market-based sanitation (MBS) programme has been implemented across the country for nearly a decade to expand the market and boost the demand for hygienic sanitation products and services. While it does not seem that the MBS would bring any notable change in sanitation conditions so far, its implementation challenges are not adequately understood. To address this gap, this article delves into the grassroots-level implementation of MBS in the Wolaita zone. The study relies on qualitative data gathered through interviews with various stakeholders, examining both demand- and supply-side challenges. Some issues identified were external to MBS implementation, such as high inflation and an unstable political and security situation in Ethiopia. Additionally, the study reveals that more general deficiencies of the Ethiopian health extension program, including the stress and discouragement of local change agents (health extension workers, health development army members) due to workloads and low remuneration, have adversely impacted MBS delivery. The implementation of MBS has also not effectively addressed the affordability of hygienic sanitation products. On the supply side, economic constraints and organizational inefficiencies have hindered the development of the sanitation market, preventing it from reaching a critical mass. Our research suggests that MBS alone will not suffice to improve sanitation in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
População Negra , Saneamento , Humanos , Etiópia , Pessoal de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e243623, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592725

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about support for and willingness to engage in political violence in the United States. Such violence would likely involve firearms. Objective: To evaluate whether firearm owners' and nonowners' support for political violence differs and whether support among owners varies by type of firearms owned, recency of purchase, and frequency of carrying a loaded firearm in public. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional nationally representative survey study was conducted from May 13 to June 2, 2022, among US adult members of the Ipsos KnowledgePanel, including an oversample of firearm owners. Exposure: Firearm ownership vs nonownership. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes concern (1) support for political violence, in general and to advance specific political objectives; (2) personal willingness to engage in political violence, by severity of violence and target population; and (3) perceived likelihood of firearm use in political violence. Outcomes are expressed as weighted proportions and adjusted prevalence differences, with P values adjusted for the false-discovery rate and reported as q values. Results: The analytic sample comprised 12 851 respondents: 5820 (45.3%) firearm owners, 6132 (47.7%) nonowners without firearms at home, and 899 (7.0%) nonowners with firearms at home. After weighting, 51.0% (95% CI, 49.9%-52.1%) were female, 8.5% (95% CI, 7.5%-9.5%) Hispanic, 9.1% (95% CI, 8.1%-10.2%) non-Hispanic Black, and 62.6% (95% CI, 61.5%-63.8%) non-Hispanic White; the mean (SD) age was 48.5 (18.0) years. Owners were more likely than nonowners without firearms at home to consider violence usually or always justified to advance at least 1 of 17 specific political objectives (owners: 38.8%; 95% CI, 37.3%-40.4%; nonowners: 29.8%; 95% CI, 28.5%-31.2%; adjusted difference, 6.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 4.5-9.3 percentage points; q < .001) but were not more willing to engage in political violence. Recent purchasers, owners who always or nearly always carry loaded firearms in public, and to a lesser extent, owners of assault-type rifles were more supportive of and willing to engage in political violence than other subgroups of firearm owners. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of support for political violence in the United States, differences between firearm owners and nonowners without firearms at home were small to moderate when present. Differences were greater among subsets of owners than between owners and nonowners. These findings can guide risk-based prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Propriedade , Violência , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , População Negra , Etnicidade
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 198, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnic inequalities in maternal and neonatal health in the UK are well documented. Concerns exist regarding the use of skin colour in neonatal assessments. Healthcare professionals should be trained to recognise symptoms of diverse skin tones, and comprehensive, and inclusive guidance is necessary for the safe assessment of all infants. Disparities in healthcare provision have been emphasised during the COVID-19 pandemic, and additional research is needed to determine whether such policies adequately address ethnic minority neonates. METHODS: A desktop search included searches of guidance produced for the United Kingdom (UK). Further searches of the Cochrane and World Health Organization (WHO) were used to identify any international guidance applicable in the UK context. RESULTS: Several policies and one training resource used descriptors 'pink,' 'pale,' 'pallor,' and 'blue' about neonatal skin and mucous membrane colour. No policies provided specific guidance on how these colour descriptors may appear in neonates with different skin pigmentation. Only the NICE guidance and HEE e-learning resource acknowledged the challenges of assessing jaundice in infants with diverse skin tones, while another guideline noted differences in the accuracy of bilirubin measurements for the assessment of jaundice. Three policies and one training resource advised against relying on visual observation of skin colour when diagnosing neonatal conditions. The training resource included images of ethnic minority neonates, although most images included white infants. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate consideration of ethnicity in UK policy and training perpetuates disparities, leading to inaccurate assessments. A review is needed for inclusivity in neonatal care, regardless of skin pigmentation.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Icterícia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , População Negra , Povo Asiático
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(3): e2354766, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436960

RESUMO

Importance: Medical debt is increasingly common in the US. Little is known regarding its association with population health. Objective: To examine the associations of medical debt with health status, premature death, and mortality at the county level in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the US county level using 2018 medical debt data from the Urban Institute Debt in America project linked with 2018 data on self-reported health status and premature death from the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps and with 2015 to 2019 mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Data analysis was performed from August 2022 to May 2023. Exposure: Share of population with any medical debt in collections and median amount of medical debt. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health status was measured as (1) the mean number of physically and mentally unhealthy days in the past 30 days per 1000 people, (2) the mean number of premature deaths measured as years of life lost before age 75 years per 1000 people, and (3) age-adjusted all-cause and 18 cause-specific mortality rates (eg, malignant cancers, heart disease, and suicide) per 100 000 person-years. Multivariable linear models were fitted to estimate the associations between medical debt and health outcomes. Results: A total of 2943 counties were included in this analysis. The median percentage of the county population aged 65 years or older was 18.3% (IQR, 15.8%-20.9%). Across counties, a median 3.0% (IQR, 1.2%-11.9%) of the population were Black residents, 4.3% (IQR, 2.3%-9.7%) were Hispanic residents, and 84.5% (IQR, 65.7%-93.3%) were White residents. On average, 19.8% (range, 0%-53.6%) of the population had medical debt. After adjusting for county-level sociodemographic characteristics, a 1-percentage point increase in the population with medical debt was associated with 18.3 (95% CI, 16.3-20.2) more physically unhealthy days and 17.9 (95% CI, 16.1-19.8) more mentally unhealthy days per 1000 people during the past month, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21) years of life lost per 1000 people, and an increase of 7.51 (95% CI, 6.99-8.04) per 100 000 person-years in age-adjusted all-cause mortality rate. Associations of medical debt and elevated mortality rates were consistent for all leading causes of death, including cancer (1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.22]), heart disease (1.39 [95% CI, 1.21-1.57]), and suicide (0.09 [95% CI, 0.06-0.11]) per 100 000 person-years. Similar patterns were observed for associations between the median amount of medical debt and the aforementioned health outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that medical debt is associated with worse health status, more premature deaths, and higher mortality rates at the county level in the US. Therefore, policies increasing access to affordable health care, such as expanding health insurance coverage, may improve population health.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Mortalidade Prematura , Humanos , Academias e Institutos , População Negra , Estudos Transversais , Nível de Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1373544, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450122

RESUMO

Introduction: This study examined the relationship between fat distribution and diabetes by sex-specific racial/ethnic groups. Methods: A secondary data analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 data (n = 11,972) was completed. Key variables examined were visceral adipose tissue area (VATA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), diabetes prevalence, and race/ethnicity. The association of VATA and SFA and diabetes prevalence was examined separately and simultaneously using multiple logistic regression. Bonferroni corrections were applied to all multiple comparisons between racial/ethnic groups. All analyses were adjusted for demographics and muscle mass. Results: VATA was positively associated with diabetes in both sexes (p < 0.001) and across all racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.05) except Black females. No statistically significant relationships were observed between SFA and diabetes while accounting for VATA with the exception of White females (p = 0.032). When comparing racial/ethnic groups, the relationship between VATA and diabetes was stronger in White and Hispanic females than in Black females (p < 0.005) while the relationship between SFA and diabetes did not differ between any racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion: This study found that VATA is associated with diabetes for both sexes across almost all racial/ethnic groups independent of SFA whereas the only significant relationship between SFA and diabetes, independent of VATA, was observed in White females. The findings indicated that visceral fat was more strongly associated with diabetes than subcutaneous. Additionally, there are health disparities in sex-specific racial/ethnic groups thus further study is warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Etnicidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Negra , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hispânico ou Latino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Brancos
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e04402023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451640

RESUMO

Violence is a serious public health issue and constitutes a historical social phenomenon with diverse causes and consequences, and multiple manifestations. The main victims continue to be populations left vulnerable and marginalised, where dimensions including gender, class, race and social belonging intersect. Although studies to explain the phenomenon of violence do address ethnic and racial issues, they tend not to consider violence as stemming also from institutional racism. This paper examines data from a qualitative and quantitative study drawing on focus groups and semi-structured interviews to evaluate symbolic and structural violence experienced by young black people from 15 to 29 years old residing in peripheral neighbourhoods of two Brazilian state capitals - Recife and Fortaleza. The focus is on their standpoints that situate the intersectionality, especially among race/skin colour, territorial belonging and class, in the very definition of identity. In both capitals, the young black people revealed a common reality: life projects constrained by economic limitations and by the concrete or symbolic demarcation of social spaces to which they are denied access.


A violência é um grave problema de saúde pública e constitui um fenômeno sócio-histórico, com causas e consequências diversas e múltiplas expressões. As principais vítimas seguem sendo as populações vulnerabilizadas e periféricas, nas quais se interseccionam dimensões como gênero, classe, raça e pertencimento social. Embora as questões étnico-raciais estejam presentes nos estudos que explicam o fenômeno da violência, estes tendem a não a considerar também fruto do racismo institucional. Este artigo pretende analisar dados de uma pesquisa quali-quanti que avaliou experiências de violência simbólica e estrutural vivenciadas por jovens negros/as de 15 a 29 anos de idade e moradores/as de bairros periféricos de duas capitais brasileiras - Recife e Fortaleza, a partir de grupos focais e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foram enfatizados os lugares de fala que situavam a interseccionalidade, sobretudo de raça/cor da pele, pertencimento territorial e classe, na própria definição identitária. Em ambas as capitais a juventude negra trouxe à tona uma realidade comum: um horizonte limitado na definição de projetos de vida, tanto por questões econômicas quanto da demarcação concreta ou simbólica de lugares sociais para os quais seu acesso é interditado.


Assuntos
População Negra , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Brasil , Grupos Focais , Saúde Pública
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e04702023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451643

RESUMO

Mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted indicators of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the YPLL due to mortality caused by COVID-19, according to sex, age group, and race/color in Brazil, from March 2020 to December 2021. Deaths caused by COVID-19 were characterized, in which the rates and ratios of standardized YPLL rates, the average number of years of potential life lost (ANYPLL), and the average age at death (AAD) were estimated and compared. Overall, 13,776,969.50 potential years of life were lost, which resulted in an average loss of 22.5 potential years not lived. A greater loss of potential years of life was identified in men (58.12%) and in the age groups from 0 to 59 years in the black (58.92%) and indigenous (63.35%) populations, while in the age groups of 60 years and over, a greater loss of YPLL was observed in the white (45.89%) and yellow (53.22%) populations. Women recorded the highest ADD, with the exception of indigenous women. White men (1.63), brown men (1.59), and black men (1.61) had the highest rates when compared to white women. Although COVID-19 has a greater impact on the elderly, it was the black and indigenous populations under the age of 60 who had the greatest loss of potential years of life.


A mortalidade provocada pela pandemia da COVID-19 tem produzido impactos aos indicadores de Anos Potenciais de Vida Perdidos (APVP) em nível mundial. Objetiva-se estimar os APVP devido à mortalidade por COVID-19, segundo sexo, faixa etária e raça/cor, no período de março de 2020 a dezembro de 2021, no Brasil. Foram caracterizadas as mortes por COVID-19, estimadas e comparadas as taxas e razão de taxas padronizadas de APVP, a média de anos potenciais de vida não vividos (APVNV) e a idade média do óbito (IMO). No geral, foram perdidos 13.776.969,50 anos potenciais de vida, o que determinou uma perda média de 22,5 anos potenciais não vividos. Houve maior perda de anos potenciais de vida nos homens (58,12%) e nas faixas etárias de 0 a 59 anos nas populações negra (58,92%) e indígena (63,35%), enquanto nas faixas etárias de 60 anos e mais foi observada maior perda de APVP nas populações branca (45,89%) e amarela (53,22%). As mulheres registraram as maiores IMO, com exceção das mulheres indígenas. Homens brancos (1,63), pardos (1,59) e pretos (1,61) tiveram as maiores taxas em comparação às mulheres brancas. Apesar da COVID-19 ter tido maior impacto em idosos, foram as populações negra e indígena na faixa de menos de 60 anos quem teve maior perda de anos potenciais de vida.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , População Negra , Brasil/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Pandemias , Povos Indígenas , Brancos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 701, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population mortality is an important metric that sums information from different public health risk factors into a single indicator of health. However, the impact of COVID-19 on population mortality in low-income and crisis-affected countries like Sudan remains difficult to measure. Using a community-led approach, we estimated excess mortality during the COVID-19 epidemic in two Sudanese communities. METHODS: Three sets of key informants in two study locations, identified by community-based research teams, were administered a standardised questionnaire to list all known decedents from January 2017 to February 2021. Based on key variables, we linked the records before analysing the data using a capture-recapture statistical technique that models the overlap among lists to estimate the true number of deaths. RESULTS: We estimated that deaths per day were 5.5 times higher between March 2020 and February 2021 compared to the pre-pandemic period in East Gezira, while in El Obeid City, the rate was 1.6 times higher. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that using a community-led capture-recapture methodology to measure excess mortality is a feasible approach in Sudan and similar settings. Deploying similar community-led estimation methodologies should be considered wherever crises and weak health infrastructure prevent an accurate and timely real-time understanding of epidemics' mortality impact in real-time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , População Negra , Pandemias , Pobreza , Saúde Pública
16.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298041, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446778

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the impact of low food security on student well-being and academic performance has become a growing concern at institutions of higher education across the U.S. This mixed methods study adds to the growing body of evidence on the association between student socio-demographic and economic characteristics and food security. An online survey covering food access, student well-being, and housing security was sent to 35,337 undergraduate and graduate students at a large southeastern land grant university. A total of 2,116 complete responses were received; a 6% response rate. The survey responses also included 176 written statements by students. The survey found that 16% of both undergraduate and graduate students had low or very low food security, as defined by a modified USDA food security measure. The socio-demographic and economic characteristics that were linked to a higher likelihood of low food security included: having a GPA of less than 3.0, having a disability, being an international student, being a first-generation student, being a transfer student, going into debt to pay for food, being a Black or African American student, having poor mental health, having uncertain living arrangements, and having no medical insurance. Recommendations for enhancing student access to food, housing, and mental health services are discussed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Humanos , Universidades , População Negra , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Alimentos
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295437, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been significant progress in maternal health outcomes in the sub-Saharan African region since the early 1990s, in part due to digital and mobile health interventions. However, critical gaps and disparities remain. Mobile phones in particular have potential to reach underserved, hard-to-reach populations with underdeveloped infrastructure. In spite of the opportunities for mobile phones to address maternal mortality in the region, there is no extensive mapping of the available literature on mobile phone interventions that aim to improve access of maternal care in sub-Saharan Africa. The proposed scoping review aims to map literature on the nature and extent of mobile phones interventions designed to improve maternal care health services in the region. METHODS: Conduct of this scoping review will be guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute approach. Literature searches will be conducted in multiple electronic databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, APA PsycInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Global Health, African Index Medicus, Web of Science, and Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts. Grey literature will also be identified. Keyword searches will be used to identify articles. Two reviewers will independently screen eligible titles, abstracts and full articles with a third reviewer to help resolve any disputes. We will extract data on general study characteristics, population characteristics, concept, context, intervention details, study results, gaps and recommendations. DISCUSSION: Understanding use of mobile phones among underserved, hard-to-reach populations with underdeveloped infrastructure to address maternal mortality in developing countries is very critical to informing health systems on potential effective strategies. This review will complement the evidence base on utilisation of mobile phone interventions to improve the delivery of maternal health services in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Academias e Institutos , População Negra , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
18.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 724, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Africa is blessed with vast arable land and enriched with valuable natural resources encompassing both renewable (like water, forests, and fisheries) and non-renewable (such as minerals, coal, gas, and oil). Under the right conditions, a natural resource boom should serve as an important driver for growth, development, and the transition from cottage industry to factory output. However, despite its wealth, Africa is often associated with the notion of a resource curse. Negative outcomes are often linked with mineral wealth. This paper investigates the causes of adverse health outcomes in resource-rich regions. The study provides empirical support for the natural resource curse with particular emphasis on the environmental health risks in Africa. We explore the multifaceted connections among mineral deposits, environmental risks, conflict events and population dynamics, shedding light on the complexities of resource-rich areas. RESULTS: We amalgamate georeferenced data pertaining to 22 specific mineral deposits with information on the prevalence of reliance on compromised infrastructures at a spatial resolution of 0.5 ∘ × 0 . 5 ∘ for all of Africa between 2000 and 2017. Through comprehensive econometric analysis of environmental health risk factors, including reliance on contaminated water sources, open defecation, unimproved sanitation, particulate matter concentration, and carbon concentration, we uncover the intricate pathways through which mineral deposits impact public health. Our findings revealed the significant role of in-migration in mediating environmental health risks. Moreover, we found that the activities of extractive companies amplify certain environmental risks including reliance on unimproved sanitation and practices and particulate matter concentration. Conflict events emerge as a key mediator across all environmental health risks, underlining the far-reaching consequences of instability and violence on both local communities and the environment. CONCLUSION: The study contributes to the discourse on sustainable development by unraveling the nuanced associations between mineral wealth and health challenges. By drawing attention to the intricate web of factors at play, we provide a foundation for targeted interventions that address the unique environmental and health challenges faced by mineral-rich communities.


Assuntos
População Negra , Minerais , Humanos , África , Material Particulado , Água
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e04232023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451638

RESUMO

This article aimed to analyze how institutional racism at a Brazilian public university affects the lives of Black students. This mixed study was developed by applying an online self-administered questionnaire to university students who self-declared as Blacks. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square, and multinomial logistic regression. Qualitative data analysis was performed using IRAMUTEQ. Sixty-eight (54.4%) of the 125 respondents claimed to have suffered racism at least once within the university. We noticed that racist situations experienced by Black people within the university environment call into question the student's self-confidence and motivation, directly affecting their mental health and performance in the course. The importance of receptive groups for strengthening students' belonging was highlighted.


O objetivo do artigo foi analisar como o racismo institucional em uma universidade pública brasileira afeta a vida de estudantes negros e negras. Trata-se de um estudo misto, desenvolvido por meio da aplicação de questionário autoaplicado online a estudantes universitários que se autodeclararam negros. Os dados quantitativos foram analisados por estatística descritiva, análise bivariável por meio do qui-quadrado e regressão logística multinominal. A análise dos dados qualitativos foi feita no Iramuteq. Do total de 125 respondentes, 68 (54,4%) afirmaram ter sofrido racismo pelo menos uma vez dentro da universidade. Percebeu-se que as situações racistas vividas pelas pessoas negras dentro do ambiente universitário colocam em questão a autoconfiança e a motivação do estudante, afetando diretamente a sua saúde mental e seu desempenho no curso. Evidenciou-se a importância dos coletivos para acolhimento e fortalecimento do pertencimento dos estudantes.


Assuntos
Racismo , Racismo Sistêmico , Humanos , Universidades , População Negra , Estudantes
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(3): e05092023, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451645

RESUMO

This ecological study of time trends and multiple groups evaluated incompleteness in the race/colour field of Brazilian health information system records and the related time trend, 2009-2018, for the diseases and disorders most prevalent in the black population. The Romero and Cunha (2006) classification was applied in order to examine incompleteness using secondary data from Brazil's National Notifiable Diseases System, Hospital Information System and Mortality Information System, by administrative regions of Brazil, while percentage underreporting and time trend were calculated using simple linear regression models with Prais-Winsten correction (p-value<0.05). All records scored poorly except those for mortality from external causes (excellent), tuberculosis (good) and infant mortality (fair). An overall downward trend was observed in percentage incompleteness. Analysis by region found highest mean incompleteness in the North (30.5%), Northeast (33.3%) and Midwest (33.0%) regions. The Southeast and Northeast regions showed the strongest downward trends. The findings intended to increase visibility on the implications of the race/color field for health equity.


Propõe-se avaliar a incompletude e a tendência temporal do preenchimento do campo raça/cor das doenças e agravos mais prevalentes na população negra nos Sistemas de Informação em Saúde do Brasil, 2009-2018. Trata-se de estudo ecológico de tendência temporal e múltiplos grupos. Foi adotada a classificação de Romero e Cunha (2006) para análise da incompletude e utilizados dados secundários do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação, Sistema de Informações Hospitalares e Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Brasil e regiões brasileiras, calculada a proporção de subnotificação e a tendência temporal, utilizando o modelo de regressão linear simples, com correção Prais-Winsten (p-valor<0,05). Excetuando-se os registros de mortalidade por causas externas (excelente), tuberculose (bom) e mortalidade infantil (regular), todos os registros apresentaram escore ruim. Observou-se tendência decrescente da proporção de incompletude. A análise por região mostrou que as maiores médias de incompletude foram registradas na região Norte (30,5%), Nordeste (33,3%) e Centro-Oeste (33,0%). As regiões Sudeste e Nordeste foram as que mais apresentaram tendência decrescente. Os resultados visam ampliar a visibilidade acerca das implicações do preenchimento do campo raça/cor para a equidade em saúde.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar , Humanos , População Negra , Brasil/epidemiologia , Grupos Raciais , Etnicidade
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