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2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054189

RESUMO

Religious institutions have been responsive to the needs of Black men and other marginalized populations. Religious service attendance is a common practice that has been associated with stress management and extended longevity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between religious service attendance and all-cause mortality among Black men 50 years of age and older. Data for this study were from NHANES III (1988-1994). The analytic sample (n = 839) was restricted to participants at least 50 years of age at the time of interview who self-identified as Black and male. Mortality was the primary outcome for this study and the NHANES III Linked Mortality File was used to estimate race-specific, non-injury-related death rates using a probabilistic matching algorithm, linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2015, providing up to 27 years follow-up. The primary independent variable was religious service attendance, a categorical variable indicating that participants attended religious services at least weekly, three or fewer times per month, or not at all. The mean age of participants was 63.6±0.3 years and 36.4% of sample members reported that they attended religious services one or more times per week, exceeding those attending three or fewer times per month (31.7%), or not at all (31.9%). Cox proportional hazard logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between religious service attendance and mortality. Participants with the most frequent religious service attendance had a 47% reduction of all-cause mortality risk compared their peer who did not attend religious services at all (HR 0.53, CI 0.35-0.79) in the fully adjusted model including socioeconomic status, non-cardiovascular medical conditions, health behaviors, social support and allostatic load. Our findings underscore the potential salience of religiosity and spirituality for health in Black men, an understudied group where elevated risk factors are often present.


Assuntos
Religião , Espiritualidade , Negros , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 27(4): e2220519, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of anteroposterior position of the soft tissue on facial attractiveness in black people, and compare the perception of aesthetics and satisfaction between orthodontists and black laypersons. METHODS: The sample was composed of 69 orthodontists and 69 laypersons of black ethnicity (n=138). Facial profile photographs of two black volunteers, a man and a woman, were digitally manipulated to change the position of the lips and chin, by making gradual changes of 4mm in relation to the true vertical line, simulating advance or retrusion of the soft tissues by -2, -6, -10, +2, +6, +10mm, totalling six images per sex. The photographs were classified by the research participants using a visual analogue scale (VAS), from 0 (unpleasant) to 100 (pleasant). The results were analyzed by generalized linear model and by the Fisher's exact test, considering the level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: The orthodontists and black laypersons considered straight profiles the most pleasant. The two groups classified the male profile as being more unpleasant in comparison with the female facial profile, which was concave. When evaluating all the images together, the image most indicated as being the most pleasant, once again, was the one with the straight profile, for both sexes. CONCLUSION: The influence of orthodontists' and laypersons' aesthetic perception on evaluating the facial profile of blacks was similar. The straight profile was classified as the most pleasant and the concave, as the most unpleasant.


Assuntos
Negros , Estética Dentária , Ortodontia , Ortodontistas , Satisfação do Paciente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Negros/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ortodontistas/psicologia , Percepção
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2230697, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074463

RESUMO

Importance: Neighborhood environment is an important factor associated with population disparities in obesity. However, few studies have examined whether and in what ways long-term trajectories of neighborhood conditions may be associated with weight outcomes. Moreover, there is a lack of research focusing on multidimensional and nuanced measures that make distinctions between multiple types of neighborhood change (eg, gentrification vs overall growth). Objective: To examine the association between long-term neighborhood economic trajectories and changes in weight status among Black and White adults residing in predominantly low-income communities in the southeastern US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a longitudinal analysis of participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Five types of neighborhood economic trajectories (stability, growth, displacement, abandonment, and poverty concentration) were measured using data from the US Census and the American Community Survey from 2000 to 2016. Data were analyzed from December 12, 2021, to July 16, 2022. A total of 33 621 Black and White adults in the southeastern US were included in the analytic sample. Exposure: Neighborhood economic trajectory. Main Outcomes and Measures: Substantial weight gain and substantial weight loss (ie, gaining or losing ≥10% of baseline weight) between baseline (March 2002 to September 2009) and follow-up (November 2008 to January 2013) periods were assessed using self-reported information. Results: Among 33 621 participants, the mean (SD) age was 53.4 (8.8) years; 22 116 participants (65.8%) were women, 21 782 (64.8%) were Black, and 11 839 (35.2%) were White. Compared with residents in neighborhoods with stable trajectories, those in neighborhoods with growth trajectories that did not displace original residents were less likely to experience substantial weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.97), whereas those in neighborhoods with poverty concentration trajectories were more likely to experience substantial weight gain (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.17). These patterns appeared stronger among Black participants (eg, substantial weight gain in poverty concentration group: OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.00-1.22]; in growth group: OR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.56-1.02]) compared with White participants (eg, substantial weight gain in poverty concentration group: OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.90-1.18]; in growth group: OR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.52-1.36]). Differences in patterns were also observed among men (eg, substantial weight gain in poverty concentration group: OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.88-1.17]; in growth group: OR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.35-0.96]) compared with women (eg, substantial weight gain in poverty concentration group: OR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23]; in growth group: OR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.62-1.12]). However, none of the interaction terms between Black vs White participants and men vs women were statistically significant. Neighborhood trajectory was not associated with substantial weight loss (poverty concentration group: OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.93-1.09]; abandonment group: OR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.84-1.15]; displacement group: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.83-1.23]; growth group: OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.69-1.12]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, neighborhood economic trajectories were associated with weight gain. These findings highlight the importance of using more nuanced and multidimensional measures of neighborhood change in public health research.


Assuntos
Negros , Características de Residência , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aumento de Peso , Redução de Peso
5.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(5): 15579883221110355, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065625

RESUMO

Many African fathers face practices in their host countries that conflict with the conceptions of fatherhood in their countries of origin. They deal with negative stereotypes, including notions of paternal irresponsibility when it comes to embracing child care. This article looks at how exposure to the Belgian norms of fatherhood may redefine the fatherhood practices of African first-time fathers residing in Belgium. Drawing on a qualitative narrative approach, this article explores the perceptions and experiences of African migrant fathers in Belgium and examines how they adapt to a different fathering culture. The findings show that while African first-time fathers acknowledged their primary role as providers, they also embraced new practices that transgress defined gender lines in African culture. In the absence of a larger family support network, respondents face the responsibility of providing prenatal and postnatal support and sharing in child care responsibilities. Findings also shed light on how African fathers with European partners engage in shared decision-making and negotiate on core African values such as male circumcision.


Assuntos
Negros , Pai , Bélgica , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 15(9): e009292, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-related mortality has been decreasing within the United States; however, persistent disparities in demographic subsets may exist. In this study, we assessed nationwide trends in mortality related to HCM among people ≥15 years of age in the United States from 1999 to 2019. METHODS: Trends in mortality related to HCM were assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiological Research database. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 1 000 000 people and associated annual percent changes with 95% CIs were determined. Joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in the overall, demographic (sex, race and ethnicity, age), and regional groups. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2019, 39 200 HCM-related deaths occurred. In the overall population, age-adjusted mortality rate decreased from 11.2 in 1999 to 5.4 in 2019. Higher mortality rates were observed for males, Black patients, and patients ≥75 years of age. Large metropolitan counties experienced pronounced declines in age-adjusted mortality rate over the study period. In addition, California had the highest overall age-adjusted mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 2 decades, HCM-related mortality has decreased overall in the United States. However, demographic and geographic disparities in HCM-related mortality have persisted over time and require further investigation.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Negros , Estudos Transversais , Etnicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(10): 3861-3870, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134792

RESUMO

Institutional racism is prevalent in the health services in Brazil and is based on concrete power relations that subjugate, dominate and exclude blacks from having adequate access to health care and health institutions. This critical essay analyzes the importance of expanding the debate, and the production of knowledge about the health of the black population (HBP), focusing on two points: the role of the National Policy for the Integral Health of the Black Population (PNSIPN) and the importance of including the skin color item in the health information systems; and the need for a process of permanent training of professionals, including contents related to the understanding of racism as an element of the social determination of health/disease and heir effects. To demonstrate how structural and institutional racism have affected the black population, we bring also examples of the quilombola populations in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in the country since 2020. It is concluded that the promotion of care, the reduction of inequities and the quality of health care need to undergo changes in several dimensions, such as the strengthening of the SUS, the daily fight against structural and institutional racism, among others.


O racismo institucional impera nos serviços de saúde no Brasil, fundados em relações concretas de poder que subjugam, dominam e excluem negros/as do adequado acesso aos serviços e instituições de saúde. Este ensaio crítico analisa a importância da ampliação do debate e da produção do conhecimento sobre a saúde da população negra (SPN), focando dois pontos: o papel da Política Nacional de Saúde Integral da População Negra (PNSIPN) e a importância da inserção do quesito cor nos sistemas de informação em saúde; e a necessidade de um processo de formação permanente dos/as profissionais, inserindo conteúdos relacionados à compreensão do racismo como um dos elementos de determinação social de saúde/doença e seus efeitos. Para demonstrar como o racismo estrutural e institucional tem afetado a população negra, trazemos também exemplos das populações quilombolas no contexto da pandemia de COVID-19 no país a partir de 2020. Conclui-se que a promoção do cuidado, a redução das iniquidades e a qualidade da atenção à saúde precisam passar por mudanças em várias dimensões, como o fortalecimento do SUS e o combate cotidiano ao racismo estrutural e institucional.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Racismo , Negros , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(40): e2210941119, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126098

RESUMO

As research documenting disparate impacts of COVID-19 by race and ethnicity grows, little attention has been given to dynamics in mortality disparities during the pandemic and whether changes in disparities persist. We estimate age-standardized monthly all-cause mortality in the United States from January 2018 through February 2022 for seven racial/ethnic populations. Using joinpoint regression, we quantify trends in race-specific rate ratios relative to non-Hispanic White mortality to examine the magnitude of pandemic-related shifts in mortality disparities. Prepandemic disparities were stable from January 2018 through February 2020. With the start of the pandemic, relative mortality disadvantages increased for American Indian or Alaska Native (AIAN), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and Black individuals, and relative mortality advantages decreased for Asian and Hispanic groups. Rate ratios generally increased during COVID-19 surges, with different patterns in the summer 2021 and winter 2021/2022 surges, when disparities approached prepandemic levels for Asian and Black individuals. However, two populations below age 65 fared worse than White individuals during these surges. For AIAN people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.25 (95% CI = 2.14, 2.37) in October 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.74 (95% CI = 1.62, 1.86), and for NHOPI people, the observed rate ratio reached 2.12 (95% CI = 1.92, 2.33) in August 2021 vs. a prepandemic mean of 1.31 (95% CI = 1.13, 1.49). Our results highlight the dynamic nature of racial/ethnic disparities in mortality and raise alarm about the exacerbation of mortality inequities for Indigenous groups due to the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade , Índios Norte-Americanos ou Nativos do Alasca , Asiáticos , Negros , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Mortalidade/etnologia , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Pandemias , Grupos Raciais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Brancos
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(9): 1667-1679, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055213

RESUMO

African populations are the most diverse in the world yet are sorely underrepresented in medical genetics research. Here, we examine the structure of African populations using genetic and comprehensive multi-generational ethnolinguistic data from the Neuropsychiatric Genetics of African Populations-Psychosis study (NeuroGAP-Psychosis) consisting of 900 individuals from Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda. We find that self-reported language classifications meaningfully tag underlying genetic variation that would be missed with consideration of geography alone, highlighting the importance of culture in shaping genetic diversity. Leveraging our uniquely rich multi-generational ethnolinguistic metadata, we track language transmission through the pedigree, observing the disappearance of several languages in our cohort as well as notable shifts in frequency over three generations. We find suggestive evidence for the rate of language transmission in matrilineal groups having been higher than that for patrilineal ones. We highlight both the diversity of variation within Africa as well as how within-Africa variation can be informative for broader variant interpretation; many variants that are rare elsewhere are common in parts of Africa. The work presented here improves the understanding of the spectrum of genetic variation in African populations and highlights the enormous and complex genetic and ethnolinguistic diversity across Africa.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , África Austral , Negros/genética , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos
12.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1507-1514, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981277

RESUMO

Objectives. To compare survival by gender and race among transgender and cisgender people enrolled in private insurance in the United States between 2011 and 2019. Methods. We examined Optum's Clinformatics Data Mart Database. We identified transgender enrollees using claims related to gender-affirming care. Our analytic sample included those we identified as transgender and a 10% random sample of cisgender enrollees. We limited our sample to those 18 years or older who were non-Hispanic Black or White. We identified 18 033 transgender and more than 4 million cisgender enrollees. We fit Kaplan-Meier survival curves and calculated standardized mortality ratios while adjusting for census region. Results. Black transfeminine and nonbinary people assigned male sex at birth were 2.73 times more likely to die than other Black transgender people and 2.38 and 3.34 times more likely than Black cisgender men and women, respectively; similar results were found when White transfeminine and nonbinary people assigned male sex at birth were compared with White cisgender cohorts. Conclusions. Our findings highlight glaring inequities in mortality risks among Black transfeminine and nonbinary people assigned male sex at birth and underscore the need to monitor mortality risks in transgender populations and address the social conditions that increase these risks. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1507-1514. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306963).


Assuntos
Seguro , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Negros , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 100, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African ancestry is a significant risk factor for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa are 2.5-fold greater than global averages. However, the region has largely been excluded from the benefits of whole genome interrogation studies. Additionally, while structural variation (SV) is highly prevalent, PCa genomic studies are still biased towards small variant interrogation. METHODS: Using whole genome sequencing and best practice workflows, we performed a comprehensive analysis of SVs for 180 (predominantly Gleason score ≥ 8) prostate tumours derived from 115 African, 61 European and four ancestrally admixed patients. We investigated the landscape and relationship of somatic SVs in driving ethnic disparity (African versus European), with a focus on African men from southern Africa. RESULTS: Duplication events showed the greatest ethnic disparity, with a 1.6- (relative frequency) to 2.5-fold (count) increase in African-derived tumours. Furthermore, we found duplication events to be associated with CDK12 inactivation and MYC copy number gain, and deletion events associated with SPOP mutation. Overall, African-derived tumours were 2-fold more likely to present with a hyper-SV subtype. In addition to hyper-duplication and deletion subtypes, we describe a new hyper-translocation subtype. While we confirm a lower TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-positive rate in tumours from African cases (10% versus 33%), novel African-specific PCa ETS family member and TMPRSS2 fusion partners were identified, including LINC01525, FBXO7, GTF3C2, NTNG1 and YPEL5. Notably, we found 74 somatic SV hotspots impacting 18 new candidate driver genes, with CADM2, LSAMP, PTPRD, PDE4D and PACRG having therapeutic implications for African patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this first African-inclusive SV study for high-risk PCa, we demonstrate the power of SV interrogation for the identification of novel subtypes, oncogenic drivers and therapeutic targets. Identifying a novel spectrum of SVs in tumours derived from African patients provides a mechanism that may contribute, at least in part, to the observed ethnic disparity in advanced PCa presentation in men of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Negros/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
14.
Psychosom Med ; 84(7): 766-772, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between John Henryism, a psychological trait typified by high-effort active coping that has been associated with adverse health outcomes among Blacks, and cognitive decline. METHODS: In a cohort of community-dwelling older Black adults ( N = 611), we investigated the relationship between John Henryism and cognitive decline. John Henryism was measured using the John Henryism Active Coping Scale (JHACS), a nine-item validated measure of self-reported high-effort coping (mean [standard deviation] = 16.9 [4.8]; range, 4-27). We implemented a three-step modeling process using mixed-effects models to assess the relationship between the JHACS and global cognitive function as well as five cognitive domains. We adjusted for demographics and for factors known to be associated with cognitive function and decline including vascular risk factors, discrimination, and income. RESULTS: The trait of high-effort active coping was associated with lower-average cognitive function ( ß = -0.07, 95% confidence interval = -0.10 to -0.03), but not with decline. The results remained after further adjustment for experiences of discrimination, income, and vascular risk factors. In domain-specific analyses, we found that the JHACS was associated with baseline levels of working memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, but not decline. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the importance of using culturally specific measures in considering the heterogeneity of cognitive health outcomes in minoritized populations. Understanding how stress responses relate to late-life cognition among older Black adults could help promote aspects of behavioral resilience along with healthful coping responses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Negros , Adulto , Idoso , Cognição , Humanos , Renda , Fatores de Risco
15.
Pharmacogenomics ; 23(14): 771-782, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043428

RESUMO

Background & aim: POR is an enzyme that mediates electron transfer to enable the drug-metabolizing activity of CYP450 proteins. However, POR has been understudied in pharmacogenomics despite this vital role. This study aimed to characterize the genetic variation in POR across African populations and to compare the star allele (haplotype) distribution with that in other global populations. Materials & methods: POR star alleles were called from whole-genome sequencing data using the StellarPGx pipeline. Results: In addition to the common POR*1 and *28 (defined by rs1057868), five novel rare haplotypes were computationally inferred. No significant frequency differences were observed among the majority of African populations. However, POR*28 was observed at a higher frequency in individuals of non-African ancestry. Conclusion: This study highlights the distribution of POR alleles in Africa and across global populations with a view toward informing future precision medicine implementation.


Assuntos
Negros , Farmacogenética , Alelos , Negros/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
16.
Nature ; 609(7927): 552-559, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045292

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is characterized by considerable geo-ethnic disparity. African ancestry is a significant risk factor, with mortality rates across sub-Saharan Africa of 2.7-fold higher than global averages1. The contributing genetic and non-genetic factors, and associated mutational processes, are unknown2,3. Here, through whole-genome sequencing of treatment-naive prostate cancer samples from 183 ancestrally (African versus European) and globally distinct patients, we generate a large cancer genomics resource for sub-Saharan Africa, identifying around 2 million somatic variants. Significant African-ancestry-specific findings include an elevated tumour mutational burden, increased percentage of genome alteration, a greater number of predicted damaging mutations and a higher total of mutational signatures, and the driver genes NCOA2, STK19, DDX11L1, PCAT1 and SETBP1. Examining all somatic mutational types, we describe a molecular taxonomy for prostate cancer differentiated by ancestry and defined as global mutational subtypes (GMS). By further including Chinese Asian data, we confirm that GMS-B (copy-number gain) and GMS-D (mutationally noisy) are specific to African populations, GMS-A (mutationally quiet) is universal (all ethnicities) and the African-European-restricted subtype GMS-C (copy-number losses) predicts poor clinical outcomes. In addition to the clinical benefit of including individuals of African ancestry, our GMS subtypes reveal different evolutionary trajectories and mutational processes suggesting that both common genetic and environmental factors contribute to the disparity between ethnicities. Analogous to gene-environment interaction-defined here as a different effect of an environmental surrounding in people with different ancestries or vice versa-we anticipate that GMS subtypes act as a proxy for intrinsic and extrinsic mutational processes in cancers, promoting global inclusion in landmark studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Brancos , Asiáticos/genética , Negros/genética , Etnicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Nucleares , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Brancos/genética
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to observational studies, two polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene have been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Africans. One polymorphism involves the substitution of two amino-acid residues (S342G and I384M; known as G1), while the other involves the deletion of two amino-acid residues in a row (N388 and Y389; termed G2). Despite the strong link between APOL1 polymorphisms and kidney disease, the molecular mechanisms via which these APOL1 mutations influence the onset and progression of CKD remain unknown. METHODS: To predict the active site and allosteric site on the APOL1 protein, we used the Computed Atlas of Surface Topography of Proteins (CASTp) and the Protein Allosteric Sites Server (PASSer). Using an extended molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the characteristic structural perturbations in the 3D structures of APOL1 variants. RESULTS: According to CASTp's active site characterization, the topmost predicted site had a surface area of 964.892 Å2 and a pocket volume of 900.792 Å3. For the top three allosteric pockets, the allostery probability was 52.44%, 46.30%, and 38.50%, respectively. The systems reached equilibrium in about 125 ns. From 0-100 ns, there was also significant structural instability. When compared to G1 and G2, the wildtype protein (G0) had overall high stability throughout the simulation. The root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF) of wildtype and variant protein backbone Cα fluctuations revealed that the Cα of the variants had a large structural fluctuation when compared to the wildtype. CONCLUSION: Using a combination of different computational techniques, we identified binding sites within the APOL1 protein that could be an attractive site for potential inhibitors of APOL1. Furthermore, the G1 and G2 mutations reduced the structural stability of APOL1.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína L1 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Negros , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(1): 69-79, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032458

RESUMO

Background: This article investigates the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) as a long-held custom in Qeshm Island, which makes many African-descended women face different physical and psychological health problems. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of female genital mutilation in Qeshm Island and the traditional mode of thinking of Afro-Iranian people of the Island about this practice. Methods: This study is based on the descriptive analysis method. The questions of the study are (a) Why female genital mutilation is still practiced in Qeshm Island; (b) What are the mental and physical effects of female genital mutilation on women; and (c) How government or NGOs are fighting against this tradition. The results: This article has found out that female genital mutilation resulted in many lifelong diseases and sexual degradation in African-descended women of Qeshm Island. This article also illustrates that the best way to combat this wrong tradition is to inform people by gradual training without any insult to their beliefs. Conclusion: This study reveals the prevalence of a false tradition and the necessity of behavioral change. In doing so, the government and NGOs' strong actions and attracting the support of the community elders are also needed.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Idoso , Negros , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Prevalência
20.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(1): 133-138, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032462

RESUMO

Introduction: Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue outside the endometrial cavity. It has high prevalence in women living in developed countries but is believed to be rare among indigenous African women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of endometriosis in an indigenous African women population. Methods: Gynaecological specimens received and diagnosed as endometriosis in a teaching hospital's Histopathology laboratory over a 5-year period was retrospectively reviewed. Data obtained were analysed by simple statistical methods. Results: There were 25 diagnosed cases of endometriosis representing 0.9% of gynaecological specimens received in the period. Patients' average age is 38.4±8.4 years; peak age was 31- 40 years (n=10; 40%). Myometrium is the most common site (n=16; 64%), other sites include umbilicus and round ligament etc. Pelvic pain, 36% and irregular uterine bleeding, 28% are most common symptoms. There was primary and secondary infertility in 20% and 16% of cases respectively. The umbilical and suprapubic masses had symptoms that synchronised with the patient's menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Endometriosis has low prevalence in our population. Women presenting with chronic pelvic pain, infertility and menstrual disorders should be evaluated for endometriosis. Population-based study is required to further characterize the condition in our population.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Infertilidade , Adulto , Negros , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pélvica , Estudos Retrospectivos
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