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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921304

RESUMO

Sulfoxaflor is a new insecticide which acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in a similar way to neonicotinoids. However, sufloxaflor (SFX) is thought to act in a different manner and is thus proposed as an alternative in crop protection. The goal of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of SFX and its sublethal effect on the honeybee Apis mellifera after acute exposure. In toxicological assay studies, the LD50 value and sublethal dose (corresponding to the NOEL: no observed effect level) were 96 and 15 ng/bee, respectively. Using the proboscis extension response paradigm, we found that an SFX dose of 15 ng/bee significantly impairs learning and memory retrieval when applied 12 h before conditioning or 24 h after olfactory conditioning. SFX had no effect on honeybee olfactory performance when exposure happened after the conditioning. Relative quantitative PCR experiments performed on the six nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits demonstrated that they are differently expressed in the honeybee brain after SFX exposure, whether before or after conditioning. We found that intoxicated bees with learning defects showed a strong expression of the Amelß1 subunit. They displayed overexpression of Amelα9 and Amelß2, and down-regulation of Amelα1, Amelα3 and Amelα7 subunits. These results demonstrated for the first time that a sublethal dose of SFX could affect honeybee learning and memory performance and modulate the expression of specific nAChR subunits in the brain.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Aprendizagem , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Piridinas , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1677: 463326, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853425

RESUMO

In this study, a novel nitrogen-rich magnetic hypercrosslinked polymer (Fe3O4@Ph-HCP) was fabricated via a facile one-pot reaction of 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, 2,4-dichloropyrimidine and phenyl-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The Fe3O4@Ph-HCP possessed high specific surface, abundant nanopores and good stability. Especially, Fe3O4@Ph-HCP exhibited excellent adsorption capability with fast adsorption rate to neonicotinoid insecticides. It was applied as a superior magnetic adsorbent for rapid enrichment and isolation of four neonicotinoid insecticides (thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) from honey, tomato, lettuce and Chinese cabbage samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity was obtained in the range of 1-1000 ng g-1 for honey, tomato, lettuce and Chinese cabbage samples, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.30-0.67 ng g-1 for honey, 1-1.5 ng g-1 for tomato, lettuce and Chinese cabbage. The spiked recoveries were 80.1-111%, and relative standard deviations were less than 10.0%. These results demonstrate that the developed method can be used as a good alternative method for sensitive determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in complex samples.


Assuntos
Brassica , Mel , Inseticidas , Lycopersicon esculentum , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Alface , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrogênio , Polímeros , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12145, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840789

RESUMO

Acetamiprid removal was investigated by synthesized Graphene oxide, multiwall nanotube and graphite from an aqueous solution. For this propose, FT-IR, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM and EDS were used to characterize the synthesized nano adsorbents and to determine the removal process. A novel PVC membrane electrode as selective electrode made for determining the concentration of acetamiprid. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to investigate the effect of temperature, initial acetamiprid concentration, adsorbent type and contact time as important adsorption parameters. The maximum equilibrium time was found to be 15 min for graphene oxide. The kinetics studies showed that the adsorption of acetamiprid followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics mechnism. All the adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and maximum monolayer adsorption capacity 99 percent. Docking data of adsorption have resulted in the same as experimental data in good manner and confirmed the adsorption process.


Assuntos
Grafite , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Neonicotinoides , Cloreto de Polivinila , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271069, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802579

RESUMO

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a primary pest of soybean, poses a severe threat to soybean production. In this study, the 4th instar nymphs were exposed to the LC50 and LC30 of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from F0 to F4 generations to evaluate the activities of peroxidase, pyruvate kinase, and trehalase using microassay. We found that peroxidase and pyruvate kinase activities in soybean aphids increased rapidly, first to peak and then decreased slowly generation by generation under imidacloprid and thiamethoxam stress. In contrast, the trehalase activity was significantly decreased in F1 to F5 generations when treated with the LC50 and LC30 and imidacloprid and thiamethoxam compared to control. In addition, the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to monitor the changes in molting and juvenile hormone expressions of the soybean aphids in each generation (F1-F5). The expression of juvenile hormone in soybean aphids was increased significantly in each generation under continuous stress of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam LC50 imidacloprid and LC50 thiamethoxam inhibited the expression of molting hormones in soybean aphids of each generation. LC30 imidacloprid or LC30 thiamethoxam significantly stimulated the expression of molting hormone in the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs in each generation. In this paper, the differences in antioxidant regulation, energy metabolism intensity, and hormone expression of multi-generation soybean aphids were monitored under continuous stress of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Our results revealed the effects of continuous insecticide stress on the main endogenous substances. Further, they clarified the regulation rules of resistance in soybean aphids, providing a reference for efficient control with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Ninfa , Peroxidases , Piruvato Quinase , Soja/fisiologia , Tiametoxam/farmacologia , Trealase
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11926, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831394

RESUMO

Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide used to control agricultural pests around the world. This pesticide can have adverse effects on non-target organisms, especially in aquatic environments. The present study evaluated the toxicity of an imidacloprid-based insecticide in amphibians, using Leptodactylus luctator and Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles as study models. Spawning of both species were collected within less than 24 h of oviposition from a non-agricultural land at Erechim, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Survival, swimming activity, body size, morphological malformations, and genotoxic parameters were analyzed at laboratory conditions. A short-term assay was conducted over 168 h (7 days) with five different concentrations of imidacloprid (3-300 µg L-1) being tested. The insecticide did not affect survival, although the tadpoles of both species presented reduced body size, malformed oral and intestine structures, and micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities following exposure to this imidacloprid-based compound. Exposure also affected swimming activity in L. luctator, which reflected the greater sensitivity of L. luctator to imidacloprid in comparison with P. cuvieri. The swimming activity, body size, and malformations observed in L. luctator and the morphological malformations found in P. cuvieri indicated that even the lowest tested concentration of the insecticide were harmful to amphibians. At concentrations of over 3 µg L-1, P. cuvieri presents a smaller body size, and both species are affected by genotoxic cell damage. This demonstrates that imidacloprid is potentially toxic for the two study species at environmentally relevant concentrations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Anuros , Dano ao DNA , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805859

RESUMO

This is a preliminary study conducted to analyze the presence and concentration of pesticides in honey obtained from honey bee colonies located in two regions with managed ecosystems that differ in the intensity and technification of agricultural practices. Fourteen pesticides at variable concentrations were detected in 63% of the samples analyzed. The pesticides most frequently found at higher concentrations were insecticides (neonicotinoids, followed by organophosphates), herbicides, and fungicides. The number, frequency, and concentration of pesticides were higher in samples collected from hives located where intensive and highly-technified agriculture is practiced. Forty-three percent of the samples from that zone had residues of imidacloprid, compared with only 13% of the samples from the less-technified zone. Furthermore, 87.5% of those samples had imidacloprid concentrations that were above sublethal doses for honey bees (>0.25 ng/g) but that are not considered hazardous to human health by the European Commission. The results of this study suggest that honey can be used as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides, which highlights the need to continue monitoring contaminants in this product to determine the risks of pesticide impacts on pollinator health, on ecosystems, and on their potential implications to human health and other non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Animais , Abelhas , Ecossistema , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides
7.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 83: 105426, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781001

RESUMO

As commonly used neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control, imidacloprid (IMI) and acetamiprid (ACE) posed neurotoxicity effects on living organisms. However, researches of the differences in toxicity mechanism between these two neonicotinoid insecticides are still limited. In this study, different cellular metabolism perturbations and redox homeostasis damages induced by IMI and ACE exposure in Neuro-2a cells were investigated. Distinct elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and caspase 7 level demonstrated the influences on necrosis and apoptosis. There were 21 and 12 metabolites screened out as potential biomarkers after IMI and ACE exposure, including lipids and amino acids. Remarkable decrease of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were found only in the ACE20 group. Interference with glutathione metabolism pathway was further validated by detecting GPx (glutathion peroxidase), GSH (reduced glutathione) and GSSG (oxidized glutathione) levels. Taken together, the metabolic interferences and oxidative damages in ACE20 group were significantly different from the other three exposure groups. These results help to explore the toxicity mechanism of neonicotinoid insecticides from multiple perspectives. This study provides scientific basis for evaluating toxicity of different neonicotinoid insecticides.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Lipidômica , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 840: 156485, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688249

RESUMO

Honey bee colonies have shown abnormal mortality rates over the last decades. Colonies are exposed to biotic and abiotic stressors including landscape changes caused by human pressure. Modern agriculture and even forestry, rely on pesticide inputs and these chemicals have been indicated as one of the major causes for colony losses. Neonicotinoids are a common class of pesticides used worldwide that are specific to kill insect pests, with acetamiprid being the only neonicotinoid allowed to be applied outdoors in the EU. To evaluate honeybees' exposure to acetamiprid under field conditions as well as to test the use of in-situ tools to monitor pesticide residues, two honeybee colonies were installed in five Eucalyptus sp. plantations having different area where Epik® (active substance: acetamiprid) was applied as in a common spraying event to control the eucalyptus weevil pest. Flowers, fresh nectar, honey bees and colony products samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of acetamiprid residues. Our main findings were that (1) acetamiprid residues were found in samples collected outside the spraying area, (2) the amount of residues transported into the colonies increased with the size of the sprayed area, (3) according to the calculated Exposure to Toxicity Ratio (ETR) values, spraying up to 22 % of honeybees foraging area does not harm the colonies, (4) colony products can be used as a valid tool to monitor colony accumulation of acetamiprid and (5) the use of Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) can be a cheap, fast and easy tool to apply in the field, to evaluate the presence of acetamiprid residues in the landscape and colony products.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129226, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739746

RESUMO

All remediation pathways in aqueous solutions come down to three dominant ones - physical, chemical, and combinations thereof. Materials proposed for adsorption and oxidative degradation can induce positive or negative effects on cells compared to the pollutants themselves. Present research deals with the effects different methods for pesticide remediation have and how they impact cytotoxicity. With this particular intention, Fe-modified zeolites (obtained via citrate/oxalate complexes) of three zeotypes (MFI, BEA and FAU) were prepared and tested as adsorbents and Fenton catalysts for the removal of the acetamiprid pesticide. The materials are characterized by AFM, FTIR spectroscopy and ICP-OES. A different effect of the zeolite framework and modification route was found among the samples, which leads to pronounced adsorption (FAU), efficient Fenton degradation (MFI) or synergistic effect of both mechanisms (BEA). The cytotoxic effects of acetamiprid in the presence of zeolites, in pristine and modified forms, were tested on the MRC-5 human fibroblast cell line. A complete survey of the toxicity effect behind different pesticide removal methods is presented. Since neither adsorption nor catalytic degradation is the best option for pesticide removal, the focus is shifted to a combination of these methods, which proved to be optimal for pesticide toxicity reduction.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zeolitas , Adsorção , Humanos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Praguicidas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Zeolitas/química
10.
Neotrop Entomol ; 51(4): 600-612, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680781

RESUMO

Entomopathogens (EPFs) are potential alternatives to chemical insecticides for managing Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), an invasive pest of the cotton crop. EPFs alone may not always provide enough insect pest control, but combining EPFs with pesticides, provided both components are compatible, can make an integrated pest management program considerably more effective. Hence, the bioefficacy of EPFs against whitefly, their compatibility with pesticides, and the factors responsible for determining compatibility were studied. The highest nymphal mortality was recorded with the Beauveria bassiana strains Bb-4511 (95.1%) and Bb-4565 (89.9%), and Metarhizium anisopliae Ma-1299 (86.7%) at 1 × 106 conidia ml-1. Lower LC50 values were observed for Cordyceps javanica Cj-089 and Bb-4511, 0.2 × 104 and 0.5 × 104 conidia ml-1, respectively. The toxicity index values in insecticide sensitivity assays ranged from 19.4 to 119.6% among all the EPFs. Comparatively, all the EPFs except Bb-4543 and Bb-4565 showed compatible to moderately toxic reactions to neonicotinoids and spinosyns. Organophosphates (ethion) and pyrethrins (bifenthrin) were toxic to very toxic to all the EPFs except Bb-4511, Fv-083, and Ma-1299. Cj-102 and Cj-089 were compatible with 50% of the average recommended dose of bifenthrin and ethion, and the average recommended dose for the field application of neonicotinoids and spinosyns. Principal component analysis showed that spore production and toxicity index values correlate with each other and are responsible for determining the EPF compatibility with insecticides. The EPF spore production and toxicity index are important factors for determining chemical compatibility. Compatible EPFs can be used individually or in combination as promising and compatible biological alternatives to insecticides in the management of whitefly in cotton.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Ninfa , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos
11.
Chemosphere ; 305: 135418, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750233

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids, such as Imidacloprid (IMI), are frequently detected in water and wastewater, posing a threat on both the environment and the health of living things. In this work, a novel algae-bacteria biofilm reactor (ABBR) was constructed to remove IMI and conventional nutrients from municipal wastewater, aiming to explore the removal effect and advantage of ABBR. Results showed that ABBR achieved 74.9% removal of IMI under 80 µmol m-2·s-1 light, higher than photobioreactor (PBR) without biofilm (61.2%) or ABBR under 40 µmol m-2·s-1 light (48.4%) after 16 days of operation. Moreover, it also showed that ABBR allowed a marked improvement on the removal of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). ABBR showed different IMI removal efficiencies and bacterial communities under different light conditions, indicating that light played an important role in driving ABBR. The merits of ABBR are including (i) ABBR showed rapid pollutant removal in a short time, (ii) in ABBR, stable consortiums were formed and chlorophyll content in effluent was very low, (iii) compared with PBR, degradation products in ABBR showed lower biological toxicity. Our study highlights the benefits of ABBR on IMI removing from municipal wastewater and provides an effective and environment-friendly engineering application potential of IMI removal.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Iluminação , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 241: 113738, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679727

RESUMO

The involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in resistance to chlorpyrifos has been confirmed by the synergism analysis in Nilaparvata lugens. However, the function of specific CarE gene in chlorpyrifos resistance and the transcriptional regulatory mechanism are obscure. Herein, the expression patterns of 29 CarE genes in the susceptible and chlorpyrifos-resistant strains were analyzed. Among them, CarE3, CarE17 and CarE19 were overexpressed in the resistant strain, and knockdown of either CarE gene by RNA interference significantly increased the susceptibility to chlorpyrifos. Remarkably, knockdown of CarE17 reduced the enzymatic activity of CarE by 88.63 % and showed a much greater effect on increasing chlorpyrifos toxicity than silencing other two CarE genes. Overexpression of CarE17 in Drosophila melanogaster decreased the toxicity of chlorpyrifos to transgenic fruit flies. Furthermore, the region between - 205 to + 256 of CarE17 promoter sequence showed the highest promoter activity, and 16 transcription factors (TFs) were predicted from this region. Among these TFs, Lim1ß and C15 were overexpressed in the resistant strain. Knockdown of either TF resulted in reduced CarE17 expression and a decrease in resistance of N. lugens to chlorpyrifos. These results indicate that the constitutive overexpression of Lim1ß and C15 induces CarE17 expression thus conferring chlorpyrifos resistance in N. lugens.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Carboxilesterase/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Hemípteros/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 166: 113212, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690182

RESUMO

Toxicological risk assessment is essential in the evaluation and authorization of different classes of chemical substances. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity testing are of highest priority and rely on established in vitro systems with bacterial and mammalian cells, sometimes followed by in vivo testing using rodent animal models. Transcriptomic approaches have recently also shown their value to determine transcript signatures specific for genotoxicity. Here, we studied how transcriptomic data, in combination with in vitro tests with human cells, can be used for the identification of genotoxic properties of test compounds. To this end, we used liver samples from a 28-day oral toxicity study in rats with the pesticidal active substances imazalil, thiacloprid, and clothianidin, a neonicotinoid-type insecticide with, amongst others, known hepatotoxic properties. Transcriptomic results were bioinformatically evaluated and pointed towards a genotoxic potential of clothianidin. In vitro Comet and γH2AX assays in human HepaRG hepatoma cells, complemented by in silico analyses of mutagenicity, were conducted as follow-up experiments to check if the genotoxicity alert from the transcriptomic study is in line with results from a battery of guideline genotoxicity studies. Our results illustrate the combined use of toxicogenomics, classic toxicological data and new approach methods in risk assessment. By means of a weight-of-evidence decision, we conclude that clothianidin does most likely not pose genotoxic risks to humans.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Guanidinas , Humanos , Mamíferos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Ratos , Medição de Risco , Tiazóis
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 184: 105078, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715032

RESUMO

Acetamiprid (ACP) is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is the most effective pesticide for crop protection as well as flea control in agricultural animals and pets in the world. The goal of this study was to look at the in vivo effects of a sublethal dose of ACP on hematotoxicity, oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and histological alterations, as well as the role of quercetin (QE) in alleviating these effects. Twenty adult male mice were divided into four equal groups orally administered corn oil (control), QE (50 mg kg-1 b.wt.), ACP (1/10 LD50) or ACP plus QE for two weeks. The results showed that ACP significantly lowered the body weight gain, hematological indices, glutathione (GSH), and both cellular and humoral immunity, On the other hand, levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and liver and kidney marker values were considerably increased in male mice exposed to ACP. In addition, examination under light microscopic showed that ACP induces histological alterations in liver and kidney tissues. The results also revealed that treating intoxicated mice with QE significantly reduced the deleterious effects of ACP. In conclusion, current results show that ACP at the sub lethal dose poses toxic risks to the liver and kidneys, and QE as a natural material enhances antioxidant defenses, which can be used as a potential interventional therapy against negative effects of pesticides like ACP.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Quercetina , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Camundongos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/toxicidade
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 184: 105126, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715064

RESUMO

Synthetic insecticides continue to be the main strategy for managing insect pests, which are a major concern for both crop protection and public health. As nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a central role in insect neurotransmission, they are the molecular target of neurotoxic insecticides such as neonicotinoids. These insecticides are used worldwide and have shown high efficiency in culture protection. However, the emergence of insect resistance mechanisms, and negative side-effects on non-target species have highlighted the need for a new control strategy. In this context, the use of insecticide mixtures with synergistic effects have been used in order to decrease the insecticide dose, and thus delay the selection of resistance-strains, and limit their negative impact. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mode of action of neonicotinoid mixtures, as well as their toxicity to various insect pests and non-target species. We found that insecticide mixtures containing neonicotinoids may be an effective strategy for limiting insect pests, and in particular resistant strains, although they could also negatively impact non-target species such as pollinating insects.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Insetos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156398, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654201

RESUMO

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the current model species for pesticide risk assessments, but considering bee diversity, their life histories, and paucity of non-eusocial bee data, this approach could underestimate risk. We assessed whether honey bees were an adequate risk predictor to non-targets. We conducted oral and contact bioassays for Leioproctus paahaumaa, a solitary ground-nesting bee, and A. mellifera, using imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) and dimethoate (organophosphate). The bees responded inconsistently; L. paahaumaa were 36 and 194 times more susceptible to oral and topically applied imidacloprid than A. mellifera, but showed comparable sensitivity to dimethoate. Furthermore, the proposed safety factor of ten applied to honey bee endpoints did not cover the interspecific sensitivity difference. Our standard-setting study highlights the urgent need for more comparative inter-species toxicity studies and the development of standardized toxicity protocols to ensure regulatory pesticide risk assessment frameworks are protective of diverse pollinators.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Dimetoato/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade
17.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119562, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659910

RESUMO

Dinotefuran is a third-generation neonicotinoid pesticide and is increasingly used in agricultural production, which has adverse effects on nontarget organisms. However, the research on the impact of dinotefuran on nontarget organisms is still limited. Here the toxic effects of dinotefuran on an important economic species and a model lepidopteran insect, Bombyx mori, were investigated. Exposure to different doses of dinotefuran caused physiological disorders or death. Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, carboxylesterase, and UDP glycosyl-transferase activities were induced in the fat body at early stages after dinotefuran exposure. By contrast, only glutathione S-transferase activity was increased in the midgut. To overcome the lack of sensitivity of the biological assays at the individual organism level, RNA sequencing was performed to measure differential expressions of mRNA from silkworm larvae after dinotefuran exposure. Differential gene expression profiling revealed that various detoxification enzyme genes were significantly increased after dinotefuran exposure, which was consistent with the upregulation of the detoxifying enzyme. The global transcriptional pattern showed that the physiological responses induced by dinotefuran toxicity involved multiple cellular processes, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress, detoxification, and other fundamental physiological processes. Many metabolism processes, such as carbon metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism, and the citrate cycle, were partially repressed in the midgut or fat body. Furthermore, dinotefuran significantly activated the MAPK/CREB, CncC/Keap1, PI3K/Akt, and Toll/IMD pathways. The links between physiological, biochemical toxicity and comparative transcriptomic analysis facilitated the systematic understanding of the integrated biological toxicity of dinotefuran. This study provides a holistic view of the toxicity and detoxification metabolism of dinotefuran in silkworm and other organisms.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Guanidinas , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119575, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691445

RESUMO

Bees are vital pollinators of crops and wildflowers and as such, wild bee declines threaten food security and functioning ecosystems. One driver of bee declines is the use of systemic insecticides, such as commonly used neonicotinoids. However, rising pest resistance to neonicotinoids, and restrictions on their use in the EU, has increased the demand for replacement insecticides to control crop pests. Flupyradifurone is a novel systemic insecticide that is thought to be relatively 'bee safe' although it can be present in the nectar and pollen of bee-attractive crops. Bumblebees rely on learning to forage efficiently, and thus detriments to learning performance may have downstream consequences on their ability to forage. While neonicotinoids negatively influence bumblebee learning and memory, whether this is also the case for their replacements is unclear. Here, we exposed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to an acute, field-realistic dose of flupyradifurone before training them to learn either an olfactory or colour association. We found that flupyradifurone impaired bumblebees' learning and memory performance in both olfactory and visual modalities. Flupyradifurone-treated bees were also less motivated to feed. Given the similarity between the detriments to cognition found here and those previously reported for neonicotinoids, this implies that these insecticides may have similar sub-lethal effects on bees. Restrictions on neonicotinoid use are therefore unlikely to benefit bees if novel insecticides like flupyradifurone are used as an alternative, highlighting that current agrochemical risk assessments are not protecting bees from the unwanted consequences of pesticide use. Sub-lethal assessments on non-Apis bees should be made mandatory in agrochemical regulation to ensure that novel insecticides are indeed 'bee safe'.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Abelhas , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Motivação , Neonicotinoides , Piridinas
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 2987-2995, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686768

RESUMO

This study was conducted in response to the current situation in our country in which neonicotinoid pesticides (NNIs) are used in large quantities and their concentration in surface water is gradually increasing. Based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the hazard quotient (HQ) and probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were used to compare single and mixture risks of NNIs in the surface water in China. The target and recommended values of NNIs in China's surface water quality supervision were also presented. The results showed that:① in the single acute hazard assessment, imidacloprid (IMI) was the most harmful insecticide, and in the single chronic hazard assessment, imidacloprid (IMI) and acetamiprid (ACE) were more harmful. Furthermore, insects were the most sensitive creatures. ② Hainan province was the region with the highest single acute and chronic hazard in the study area. ③ Based on the joint probability curves of five neonicotinoids, the probability in which 5% of species would be affected by long-term exposure was approximately 91.12%. Thus, the combined ecological risk of these five neonicotinoids cannot be ignored. ④ Based on the toxicity reference value from SSD and the combined results of HQ and PRA, the regulatory values of surface water quality in China were as follows:acetamiprid (ACE) 0.04 µg·L-1, clothianidin (CLO) 0.22 µg·L-1, imidacloprid (IMI) 0.01 µg·L-1, thiacloprid (THI) 0.03 µg·L-1, and thiamethoxam (THIA) 0.24 µg·L-1. In short, the concentration of NNIs in the surface water in China has threatened the safety of aquatic organisms, and its supervision must be improved.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/análise , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Tiametoxam , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 430: 128476, 2022 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739663

RESUMO

Croplands are experiencing increasing neonicotinoid pollution and ecological health problems, which are especially widely applied in China. However, the large regional scale distribution of neonicotinoids and the key factors have seldom been determined. We show that the total residual concentration of neonicotinoids ranged from 13.4 to 157 ng/g with an average level of 75.8 ng/g and imidacloprid which was the dominant compound ranged from 10.4 to 81.3 ng/g during 2017-2021 in the Yangtze River Delta, China. In comparison, the neonicotinoid residues detected here were mostly higher than those in other regions. We further show that the 1-km spatial resolution cropland coverage (78.0%) and crop type (18.1%) predominantly contributed to the large spatial variation of neonicotinoids after adjusting for the factors including temperature, soil pH, soil moisture, and precipitation via automatic linear regression modeling at the provincial scale. Additional analyses revealed that tea croplands had significantly lowest concentration and fruit fields had the highest level due to the different application methods. Our findings provide new insight into key factors quantifying the high spatial resolved distribution of neonicotinoids and urgently call for reasonable application methods against rapidly growing ecology threats from neonicotinoid pollution in China.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Solo , Agricultura , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , Rios/química
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