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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130082, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209609

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) are the most widely used class of pesticides globally. However, NNIs may cause adverse health effects, including chronic liver disease, and perturbation of the gut microbiota. Thiacloprid (THI) is one of the NNIs widely used in agriculture. Therefore, it is essential to elucidate effects of THI on the microbiota-gut-liver axis to assess the risk of chronic liver disease following exposure to NNIs. This study aimed at investigating whether THI exposure promoted liver injury by altering the gut microbiota and related metabolites. In this study, healthy male quails were exposed to 2 or 4 mg/kg THI or 0.75 % (w/v) saline once daily for 6 weeks, respectively. Metabolomics, 16S rRNA sequencing, and transcriptomic methods were performed to analyze the toxic mechanisms of THI in Japanese quails. We found that THI evoked damage and disruption to intestinal barrier function, leading to increased harmful substances such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phenylacetic acid entering the liver. Besides, our results showed significantly altered hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in THI-exposed quails, with abnormal liver lipid metabolism, showing severe liver injury, fibrosis, and steatosis compared with the control quails. In conclusion, THI exposure aggravates liver injury via microbiota-gut-liver axis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inseticidas , Animais , Masculino , Coturnix/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol/farmacologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 158886, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167137

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of chemical toxicity and temperature interaction is essential to improve ecological risk assessment under climate change. However, there is only limited knowledge about the effect of temperature on the toxicity of chemicals. To fill this knowledge gap and to improve our mechanistic understanding of the influence of temperature, the current study explored toxicokinetics and the chronic toxicity effects of two insecticides, imidacloprid (IMI) and flupyradifurone (FPF), on Gammarus pulex at different temperatures (7-24 °C). In the toxicokinetics tests, organisms were exposed to IMI or FPF for 2 days and then transferred to clean water for 3 days of elimination at 7, 18, or 24 °C. In the chronic tests, organisms were exposed to the individual insecticides for 28 days at 7, 11, or 15 °C. Our research found that temperature impacted the toxicokinetics and the chronic toxicity of both IMI and FPF, while the extent of such impact differed for each insecticide. For IMI, the uptake rate and biotransformation rate increased with temperature, and mortality and food consumption inhibition was enhanced by temperature. While for FPF, the elimination rate increased with temperature at a higher rate than the increasing uptake rate, resulting in a smaller pronounced effect of temperature on mortality compared to IMI. In addition, the adverse effects of the insecticides on sublethal endpoints (food consumption and dry weight) were exacerbated by elevated temperatures. Our results highlight the importance of including temperature in the ecological risk assessment of insecticides in light of global climate change.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Toxicocinética , Temperatura , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20220253, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382527

RESUMO

The systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are considered as one of the key culprits contributing to ongoing declines in pollinator health and abundance. Bumblebees are among the most important pollinators of temperate zone plants, making their susceptibility to neonicotinoid exposure of great concern. We report that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies exposed to field-realistic concentrations of the commonly used neonicotinoid Imidacloprid grew slower, consumed less food, and produced fewer workers, males and gynes, but unexpectedly produced larger workers compared to control colonies. Behavioural observations show that queens in pesticide-treated colonies spend more time inactive and less time caring for the brood. We suggest that the observed effects on brood body size are driven by a decreased queen ability to manipulate the larva developmental programme. These findings reveal an intricate and previously unknown effect of insecticides on the social interactions controlling brood development in social insect colonies. Insecticide influences on the social mechanisms regulating larval development are potentially detrimental for bumblebees, in which body size strongly influences both caste differentiation and the division of labour among workers, two organization principles of insect societies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Masculino , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Larva
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(9): 1450-1461, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36319919

RESUMO

The use of pesticides to protect crops often affects non-target organisms vital to ecosystem functioning. A functional soil mesofauna is important for decomposition and nutrient cycling processes in agricultural soils, which generally have low biodiversity. To assess pesticide effects on natural soil communities we enclosed intact soil cores in situ in an agricultural field in 5 cm wide mesocosms. We used two types of mesh lids on the mesocosms, allowing or preventing migration of mesofauna. The mesocosms were exposed to the insecticide imidacloprid (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg dry soil) and left in the field for 20 days. Overall, regardless of lid type, mesocosm enclosure did not affect springtail or mite abundances during the experiment when compared with undisturbed soil. Imidacloprid exposure reduced the abundance of both surface- and soil-living springtails in a concentration-dependent manner, by 65-90% at the two highest concentrations, and 21-23% at 0.1 mg/kg, a concentration found in some agricultural soils after pesticide application. Surface-living springtails were more affected by imidacloprid exposure than soil-living ones. In contrast, neither predatory nor saprotrophic mites showed imidacloprid-dependent changes in abundance, concurring with previous findings indicating that mites are generally less sensitive to neonicotinoids than other soil organisms. The possibility to migrate did not affect the springtail or mite abundance responses to imidacloprid. We show that under realistic exposure concentrations in the field, soil arthropod community composition and abundance can be substantially altered in an organism-dependent manner, thus affecting the soil community diversity.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Praguicidas , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Solo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232869

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid pesticides (NPs) are neurotoxic substances. They are highly effective as insecticides owing to their water solubility, permeability, and long-lasting activity. These molecules are structurally similar to nicotine and act as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. The administration of NPs to experimental animals reportedly causes neuromuscular and reproductive disorders. Moreover, recently reported problems caused by NPs include damage to land-dwelling creatures (such as mammals and birds), hydrobiology, and ecosystems. This review summarizes the recent reports on NP concentrations detected in river systems in several Japanese regions. These values were lower than the environmental standard values; however, seasonal variations were observed. Furthermore, reports on NP-induced testicular and ovarian toxicity were examined, revealing that the mechanism of injury is mainly driven by oxidative stress. The use of NPs is declining worldwide, except in Japan; therefore, continuous monitoring remains necessary.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Japão , Mamíferos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nicotina , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 456: 116283, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252886

RESUMO

Although neonicotinoids are among the major classes of pesticides that affect mammalian nervous systems, little is known about sex differences in their effects. This study aimed to examine whether the neurobehavioral effects of a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CLO), differed between sexes. Male and female C57BL/6N mice were orally administered CLO (5 or 50 mg/kg) at or below the chronic no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and subjected to behavioral tests of emotional and learning functions. Changes in neuroactivity in several brain regions and the concentrations of CLO and its metabolites in blood and urine were measured. Acute CLO exposure caused sex-related behavioral effects; decreases in locomotor activities and elevation of anxiety-like behaviors were more apparent in males than in females. In addition, male-specific impairment of short- and long-term learning memory by CLO exposure was observed in both the novel recognition test and the Barnes maze test. Male-dominant increases in the number of c-fos positive cells were observed in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus in the thalamus and in the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, which are related to the stress response and learning function, respectively. The concentrations of CLO and most metabolites in blood and urine were higher in males. These results support the notion that male mice are more vulnerable than females to the neurobehavioral effects of CLO and provide novel insights into the risk assessment of neonicotinoids in mammalian neuronal function.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Mamíferos
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 246: 114188, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244166

RESUMO

Clothianidin is a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide that can effectively prevent piercing-sucking pests, such as white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). In this study, the sublethal effects of clothianidin on the biological traits of S. furcifera were evaluated via the age-stage, two-sex life table procedure. Our results exhibited that the female adult longevity, fecundity and hatchability of F0 generation were significantly decreased after LC10 and (or) LC30 of clothianidin exposure compared to the control. Transgenerational effects showed that the pre-adult period, female adult longevity, total longevity, oviposition days (Od), fecundity and mean generation time (T) of F1 generation were significantly decreased in the LC10 and LC30 groups compared to the control. Moreover, the development times of the third- and fifth-instar nymphs, total preoviposition period (TPOP) and doubling time (DT) were significantly shorter in the LC10 group than in the control and LC30 groups. Furthermore, the intrinsic rate of increase (ri) and finite rate of increase (λ) values of the LC10 group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the male adult longevity, adult preoviposition period (APOP) and net reproductive rate (R0) between the treated groups and the control. Enzyme activity and gene expression results showed that the P450 enzyme activity and mRNA levels of many P450 genes were significantly increased by clothianidin treatment. In addition, the knockdown of CYP4CE3 and CYP6FJ3, which showed the highest inducing levels, by RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically increased the toxicity of clothianidin against S. furcifera. These results indicated that sublethal concentrations of clothianidin showed a stimulatory effect on the development, but it could adversely affect the survival and reproduction of S. furcifera. Additionally, CYP4CE3 and CYP6FJ3 might play an important role in the detoxification and evolution of clothianidin resistance in S. furcifera.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Reprodução , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
8.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 83(4): 349-360, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264308

RESUMO

In chemical risk assessment, extrapolations from laboratory tests to more realistic conditions are essential to address the toxic effects of pesticides on individuals and populations under field conditions. To transfer toxicological laboratory tests to differing temperature conditions, or outdoor field scenarios, the consideration of temperature dependence is essential and increases realism. Special consideration is given to the impact of temperature on direct sensitivity of organisms to pesticides, for which there are only few modelling approaches available so far. We present a concept for applying physiological temperature dependencies to toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) parameters in the General Uniformed Threshold model of Survival (GUTS). To test this approach in an exemplary study, temperature dependencies from studies on the developmental rate of the mayfly Cloeon dipterum were applied to the parameters of a previously parameterised TKTD model of this species after exposure to imidacloprid. Using a physiologically derived temperature correction for the TKTD rate constants, model predictions for independently conducted toxicology experiments with temperature ranges between 7.8 and 26.4 °C were performed for validation. Our approach demonstrates the successful transfer of a physiological observed temperature dependency on toxicity parameters and survival patterns for Cloeon dipterum and imidacloprid as a case study.


Assuntos
Ephemeroptera , Praguicidas , Humanos , Animais , Temperatura , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078631

RESUMO

As a major neonicotinoid insecticide, thiacloprid (THCP) is frequently detected in aquatic environments worldwide due to its heavy use, posing potential threats to aquatic organisms. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to THCP (1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 µg/L) for 5 days and then recovered in THCP-free water for 20 days to investigate the effects of early-stage THCP exposure on the development, antioxidant defense, and neurotransmitter systems of zebrafish, and explore their recovery mechanism. The results show that THCP exposure induced developmental toxicity and oxidative stress in zebrafish. The hypoactivity, behavioral alterations (decreased avoidance and edge preference behaviors) and neurotoxicity were found throughout the exposure-recovery experiments. THCP exposure altered the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and serotonin (5-HT)-related genes accompanied by the decrease in GABA and 5-HT contents. However, after recovery, GABA content returned to the control level, but 5-HT did not, indicating that only the serotonergic system was persistently disrupted. Overall, our results suggest that the disruption of the serotonergic system and oxidative stress may aggravate neurotoxicity and that the former was the main reason for the depressive-like behavior. This study could help to unravel the mechanisms of the behavioral alterations induced by early-stage THCP exposure in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Tiazinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273851, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074788

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides applied to flowering crops can have negative impacts on bees, with implications for crop pollination. To assess if exposure to the neonicotinoid clothianidin via a treated crop (rapeseed) affected bee behaviour, pollination performance (to strawberry), and bee reproduction, we provided each of 12 outdoor cages with rapeseed (autumn-sown plants complemented with a few spring-sown plants to extend the flowering period) grown from either clothianidin-treated or untreated (control) seeds, together with strawberry plants and a small population of red mason bees (Osmia bicornis). We expected clothianidin to reduce bee foraging activity, resulting in impaired strawberry pollination and bee reproduction. During the early stage of the experiment, we observed no difference between treatments in the length of entire foraging trips, or the combined number of rapeseed and strawberry flowers that the bees visited during these trips. During the later stage of the experiment, we instead determined the time a female took to visit 10 rapeseed flowers, as a proxy for foraging performance. We found that they were 10% slower in clothianidin cages. Strawberries weighed less in clothianidin cages, suggesting reduced pollination performance, but we were unable to relate this to reduced foraging activity, because the strawberry flowers received equally many visits in the two treatments. Clothianidin-exposed females sealed their nests less often, but offspring number, sex ratio and weight were similar between treatments. Observed effects on bee behaviour appeared by the end of the experiment, possibly because of accumulated effects of exposure, reduced bee longevity, or higher sensitivity of the protocols we used during the later phase of the experiment. Although the lack of a mechanistic explanation calls for interpreting the results with cautiousness, the lower strawberry weight in clothianidin cages highlights the importance of understanding complex effects of plant protection products, which could have wider consequences than those on directly exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Fragaria , Inseticidas , Animais , Abelhas , Feminino , Flores/química , Guanidinas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Polinização , Sementes/química , Tiazóis
11.
Environ Pollut ; 313: 120146, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096262

RESUMO

China is the largest beekeeping and honey consumption country globally. Neonicotinoids in honey can pose adverse effects on honey bees and human, but data on neonicotinoids residues in honey and its health risk remain limited in China. A total of 94 honey samples were selected from Chinese market based on production region and sale volume in 2020. Eight neonicotinoids and four metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Health risk of neonicotinoids in honey on honey bees and human was assessed by hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI). Neonicotinoids and their metabolites were overall detected in 97.9% of honey samples. Acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid were top three dominant neonicotinoids in honey with the detection frequencies of 92.6%, 90.4%, and 73.4%, respectively. For honey bees, 78.7% of honey samples had a HI larger than one based on the safety threshold value of sublethal effects. Top three neonicotinoids with the highest percent proportion of HQ larger than one for honey bees were acetamiprid (43.6%), imidacloprid (31.9%), and thiamethoxam (24.5%) and their maximum HQs were 420, 210, and 41, respectively. Based on oral median lethal doses for honey bees, both HQ and HI were lower than one in all honey samples. For human, both HQ and HI were lower than one based on acceptable daily intakes in all honey samples. Neonicotinoids concentrations and detection frequencies in honey samples and its health risk varied with production region, commercial value of nectariferous plants, number of nectariferous plants, and sale price. The results suggested extensive residues of neonicotinoids in honey in Chinese market with a variation by the characteristics of honey. The residues were likely to affect the health of honey bees, but showed no detectable effect on human health.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Animais , Abelhas , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/análise , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/análise , Tiametoxam
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 366: 110149, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084723

RESUMO

The frequent application of second-generation neonicotinoids thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLO) has led to a high detectable rate in environment samples and poses threats to nontarget organisms and human beings, however, the information on the influences of long-term exposure at low doses was limited. In this study, the tissue distribution of TMX and CLO in mice at acceptable daily intake (ADI) level and 5 × ADI was determined and the health effects were assessed. TMX and CLO were detected in the liver, serum, lung, heart and kidney in the TMX exposure groups, which indicated that TMX degraded to CLO in mice. Residue levels of TMX in tissues increased with the increasing of doses. The concentrations of CLO in different tissues in the CLO exposure groups were in the order Ckidney > Clung > Cheart > Cliver. Measurement of biochemical indicators, combined with metabolomic analysis of liver, kidney, and cecal contents, examination of changes in the gut microbiota, and histopathological assessment indicated that both TMX and CLO affected energy absorption and lipid metabolism in mice and destroyed tissue structures. Furthermore, we found that CLO had a stronger effect on metabolism in mice, despite its lower acute toxicity. These results have prompted us to consider the chronic toxicity and potential hazards of chemicals in future risk assessments.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nitrocompostos , Animais , Guanidinas , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Camundongos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Oxazinas/química , Oxazinas/toxicidade , Tiametoxam , Tiazóis , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
J Environ Manage ; 322: 115989, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055090

RESUMO

Flupyradifurone (FLU) has great application potential in agricultural production as a new generation of neonicotinoid insecticide after imidacloprid. Nevertheless, the toxic effects of FLU on non-target soil organisms remain unclear, resulting in considerable environmental risks. We evaluated the acute and subchronic toxicities of FLU to earthworms. The results of acute toxicity show that the median lethal concentration (LC50) values (14 d) of FLU were 186.9773 mg kg-1 for adult earthworms and 157.6502 mg kg-1 for juveniles, respectively. The subchronic toxicity of FLU that focused on the activities of antioxidant and detoxication enzymes showed the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities in earthworms increased while the peroxidase (POD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities decreased after exposure to FLU. Oxidative damage analyses revealed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in earthworms were increased by FLU, resulting in DNA damage. Transcriptomics and RT-qPCR confirmed that FLU influenced the expression of genes related to antioxidant response and detoxification of earthworms. Ultimately detoxification metabolism, environmental information processing, cell processes, and immune system pathways are significantly enriched to respond jointly to FLU. Our study fills the gaps in the toxicity of FLU to earthworms, providing a basis for its risk assessment of soil ecosystems and non-target biological toxicity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Catalase/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa/farmacologia , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Piridinas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Transferases/metabolismo , Transferases/farmacologia
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 245: 114092, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155333

RESUMO

Clothianidin (CLO) is an insecticide belonging to the second-generation class of neonicotinoids. In this study, we evaluated how CLO affects the survival and the complete life cycle of the tropical insect Chironomus xanthus, a non-target species, considering the Parental (P) and Filial (F1) generations. We found a 48 h-lethal concentration (LC50) of CLO of 3.78 µg/L. The lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) were: i) for body growth and head capsule width in P generation = 47.3 ng/L CLO; ii) for body growth and head capsule width in F1 generation larvae = 80 and 36.4 ng/L CLO, respectively; iii) for cumulative emergence it was 80 ng/L CLO in the P generation, while there was no significant difference in the F1 generation; iv) for total developmental time for males and females = 61.53 ng/L in P generation; v) in the F1 generation, the LOEC was determined to be 36.4 ng/L for males and 80 ng/L for females; vi) The number of total hatched eggs and total hatched eggs/female had LOECs of 36.4 ng/L CLO for both generations. Our study reveals that environmentally relevant concentrations of the CLO-based insecticide are highly toxic to C. xanthus. It also shows that the F1 generation, resulting from parents exposed to CLO was not clearly resistant to the insecticide. This fact might be explained by the different effects observed for males and females of F1 generation. Understanding the sub-types of acetylcholine receptors present on target and non-target insect species and toxicological effects of neonicotinoids seems to be desirable for the insecticide industry to deal with insect pests and the environmental protection of non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Inseticidas , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Guanidinas , Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Receptores Colinérgicos , Tiazóis
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 245: 114091, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155336

RESUMO

Due to the wide existence of neonicotinoid insecticides (neonics) and their potential impact on ecosystems and human health, they have received special attention in recent years. Soil is not only a sink of neonics but also a source of neonics, so it plays a key role in the ubiquity of neonics in the environment. The purpose of this research was to compare neonics residues in soils of different types of land use and estimate their exposure to different populations via ingestion. A total of 130 soil samples from six different types were collected. The concentrations of seven neonics in soil were simultaneous determined using isotope-dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that at least one neonic was analyzed in all samples. The highest average concentration was 3.42 ng/g (clothianidin), followed by 3.39 ng/g (thiamethoxam), 3.06 ng/g (acetamiprid), 2.84 ng/g (imidacloprid), 2.66 ng/g (nitenpyram), 2.43 ng/g (thiacloprid), and 1.89 ng/g (dinotefuran). IMI and ACE were the most commonly found neonics in soil. The neonic levels in different soils varied significantly. The integrated neonic residue in cropland was much higher than that in other types of land. The risk assessment revealed that the average daily dose (ADD) through ingestion contact with soil was acceptable to children and adults. With the increasing evidence that neonics could cause a variety of toxic effects on mammals and humans, ingestion exposure caused by neonics in soil should also receive continuous attention in future studies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Ecossistema , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Isótopos/análise , Mamíferos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos , Solo , Tiametoxam
16.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 41(12): 2968-2980, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089896

RESUMO

Amphibians have been facing global declines over the last decades from direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic activities. A contributor to declines is waterway contamination from agricultural runoffs of pesticides such as neonicotinoids. Beyond direct and indirect effects of the pesticide, few studies have investigated the possible interactions between neonicotinoids and natural environmental stressors across larval development, which could alter the strength and direction of observed neonicotinoid effects. The present study used a fully crossed design to investigate how a concentration of imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid; 10 µg/L) measured in surface waters interacted with low and high population densities (0.33 and 1 tadpole/L, respectively), an important environmental stressor, to influence behavior and development across metamorphosis in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), known to breed in agricultural landscapes. Behaviors were measured in the absence and presence of predation cues using open-field tests at three distinct developmental stages, up to the metamorph stage. We found that imidacloprid did not interact with population density or independently affect behaviors in the absence of predation cues. However, individuals raised at high density compared with low density were more active at an early developmental stage but less active at metamorphic climax. Furthermore, both density and imidacloprid independently decreased the natural freezing response of tadpoles to predation cues. Finally, we found that distance traveled in the open-field test was weakly repeatable between aquatic stages but not repeatable across metamorphosis, a pattern that was not affected by treatments. The present study provides novel insights on the ecotoxicology of imidacloprid in the presence of a natural stressor, highlighting the importance of including behavioral assays and natural stressors in studies of amphibian ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:2968-2980. © 2022 SETAC.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Humanos , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Densidade Demográfica , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Ranidae/fisiologia , Larva , Praguicidas/farmacologia
17.
Environ Pollut ; 314: 120253, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155223

RESUMO

Due to worldwide production, sales and application, neonicotinoids dominate the global use of insecticides. While, neonicotinoids are considered as pinpoint neurotoxicants that impair cholinergic neurotransmission in pest insects, the sublethal effects on nontarget organisms and other neurotransmitters remain poorly understood. Thus, we investigated long-term neurological outcomes in the decomposer nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In the adult roundworm the neonicotinoid thiacloprid impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neuromuscular behaviors, while respective exposures to thiamethoxam showed no effects. Thiacloprid caused a concentration-dependent delay of the transition between swimming and crawling locomotion that is controlled by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Age-resolved analyses revealed that impairment of locomotion occurred in young as well as middle-aged worms. Treatment with exogenous serotonin rescued thiacloprid-induced swimming deficits in young worms, whereas additional exposure with silica nanoparticles enhanced the reduction of swimming behavior. Delay of forward locomotion was partly caused by a new paralysis pattern that identified thiacloprid as an agent promoting a specific rigidity of posterior body wall muscle cells and peripheral neuropathy in the nematode (lowest-observed-effect-level 10 ng/ml). On the molecular level exposure with thiacloprid accelerated protein aggregation in body wall muscle cells of polyglutamine disease reporter worms indicating proteotoxic stress. The results from the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans show that assessment of neurotoxicity by neonicotinoids requires acknowledgment and deeper research into dopaminergic and serotonergic neurochemistry of nontarget organisms. Likewise, it has to be considered more that different neonicotinoids may promote diverse neural end points.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico , Animais , Tiametoxam , Caenorhabditis elegans , Agregados Proteicos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Serotonina , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Dióxido de Silício , Solo , Colinérgicos/farmacologia
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 109(6): 1001-1009, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117203

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the side effects of selected neonicotinoids (Acetamiprid, Aceta, and Imidacloprid, Imid) on Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. The acute toxicity, Probit method, revealed an LC50 of 195.81 and 150.76 ppm for Aceta/96 h and Imid/72 h respectively. The fish were divided into three groups that were exposed, for 21 days (n = 5/replicate), to 1/10 of the LC50 of either neonicotinoids, however, the third was an unexposed control group. Results of erythrocytic micronucleus (MN), and nuclear abnormalities (NA) showed that Aceta and Imid exposure caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in MN by ~ 2.2 and ~ 10 folds, respectively relative to control. NAs occurred at the order of kidney-shaped > budding > binucleated in Aceta, however, budding > binucleated > kidney-shaped was noticed in the Imid group. Histopathological changes in gills, liver, and muscles were observed significantly in both exposed groups with more severity in the Imid group. Collectively, Aceta and Imid have potential genotoxicity and histopathological alterations in O. niloticus.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brânquias , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Fígado
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 751, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074195

RESUMO

Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide. This pesticide has been found in freshwater ecosystems, including Brazilian freshwaters. For this reason, studies are being conducted to detect the presence of IMI in freshwater and understand its effects on the aquatic biota. In the present study, the acute toxic effect of the imidacloprid commercial formulation (ICF) Galeão® on the Brazilian non-target aquatic organisms Chironomus sancticaroli and Poecilia reticulata was evaluated. Enzymatic activities (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) were also determined. Moreover, we considered 11 studies that detected IMI concentrations up to 3.65 µg.L-1 in 28 different Brazilian freshwaters to evaluate the acute ecological risk of IMI in these environments. From the ecotoxicological assays, we determined the LC50 values for C. sancticaroli (LC50-48 h 1.52 µg.L-1) and P. reticulata (LC50-96 h 122.65 mg.L-1). The high sensitivity of C. sancticaroli demonstrates that this species could be used as a bioindicator in studies investigating the contamination of freshwater by IMI. Enzymatic activity changes were observed in both organisms and offered sublethal responses to the effects of the pollution by IMI on aquatic biota. Our results suggest that the presence of IMI in Brazilian aquatic ecosystems can represent a potential ecological risk for the aquatic insect populations and, consequently, cause an imbalance in these ecosystems. The present study provides relevant and comparable toxicity information that may be useful to develop public policies to protect the Brazilian aquatic ecosystem from IMI contamination.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Inseticidas , Poecilia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12494-12505, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006007

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides have attracted worldwide attention due to their ubiquitous occurrence and detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, yet their impacts on fish reproduction during long-term exposure remain unknown. Here, zebrafish (F0) were exposed to a neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, at 0.19-1637 µg/L for 154 d. Accumulation and biotransformation of acetamiprid were observed in adult fish, and the parent compound and its metabolite (acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) were transferred to their offspring. Acetamiprid caused slight survival reduction and significant feminization in F0 fish even at the lowest concentration. Hormone levels in F0 fish were remarkedly altered, that is, gonad 17ß-estradiol (E2) significantly increased, while androstenedione decreased. The corresponding transcription of steroidogenic genes (ar, cyp19b, fshß, gnrh2, gnrh3, and lhß) were significantly upregulated in the brain and gonad of the females but downregulated in the males. The vtg1 gene expression in the liver of male fish was also upregulated. In addition to F0 fish, parental exposure to acetamiprid decreased hatchability and enhanced malformation of F1 embryos. Chronic exposure to acetamiprid at environmentally relevant concentrations altered hormone production and the related gene expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in a sex-dependent way, caused feminization and reproductive dysfunction in zebrafish, and impaired production and development of their offspring.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Feminino , Feminização/induzido quimicamente , Feminização/metabolismo , Gônadas , Humanos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Reprodução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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