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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 1-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The treatment of colorectal liver metastases is challenging and requires multidisciplinary strategies. Unfortunately, only 25% of patients with colorectal liver metastases are eligible for liver resection. Due to the variety of therapeutic approaches, this percentage has increased; however, at the same time, the definition of resectability has become complex. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current surgical therapies for colorectal liver metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies published before June 2019 were identified using PubMed. A comprehensive review of the current literature regarding the impact of and innovations in the therapy of colorectal liver metastases was carried out. RESULTS: The major advances in the resectability of colorectal liver metastases were effective chemotherapy regimens and preoperative liver volume modulation techniques. In addition, health professionals face rapid technical developments in interventional local therapies, minimally invasive surgery, robot-assisted surgery and even liver transplantation. CONCLUSION: Currently, liver metastases from colorectal cancer are considered a chronic disease. In cases of advanced colorectal liver metastases, the definition of resectability and the indications for surgical treatment should be exclusively determined by experienced hepatobiliary surgeons.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Doença Crônica , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18530, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895788

RESUMO

The role of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been a matter of scientific debate with mixed results. We conducted a nationwide cohort study to assess the association between AD and risk of CRC. Drawing on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, 46,703 patients with AD (the AD cohort) and 186,812 sex, age, and index year-matched patients without AD (the non-AD cohort) were identified in the period between 2000 and 2008. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of entry in the cohort until the occurrence of a first CRC diagnosis, death, or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2013), whichever occurred first. Hazards ratios (HRs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from the Fine-Gray competing risk model were used to estimate the association between AD and CRC risk. After multivariable adjustment, AD was associated with an increased risk of CRC (adjusted HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.14-1.40). Of note, a significant positive association between AD and CRC risk was evident in both men and women and in all age groups. In summary, this population-based cohort study revealed that AD was associated with an increased risk of CRC in an Asian population. It will be of interest for cohort studies with prediagnostic specimens to evaluate the potential relationship between AD and CRC using biomarkers for allergy status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18575, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895803

RESUMO

This was a meta-analysis of epidemiological articles that aimed to estimate the association of garlic intake with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).Electronic databases, including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, and EMBASE, were systemically searched from inception to May 2019 to identify related articles. In addition, a random model was used to pool the included evidence based on heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses were carried out to examine the differences between different groups. The stability of our findings was tested through sensitivity analyses. Publication bias was also assessed by Egger and Begg tests. Moreover, all enrolled studies were ordered according to the publication year for a cumulative meta-analysis.A total of 11 studies (involving 12,558 cases) were included in the current meta-analysis. Our integrated relative risk (RR) of CRC was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.91) for the highest versus the lowest garlic consumption categories (RR: 0.71 [95% CI, 0.60-0.84] for controls and RR: 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.23] for cohorts). There was significant heterogeneity across all enrolled studies (I = 68.3%, P < .01). The sensitivity analysis revealed no notable alterations of the integrated results. According to the funnel plot regarding garlic intake and the risk of CRC, together with the Egger test (P = .1) and Begg test (P = .064) results, there was no notable evidence of publication bias. The cumulative meta-analysis suggested that the 95% CIs became narrower with the increase in sample size.Based on the existing evidence, garlic intake could reduce the risk of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Alho , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Gut ; 69(1): 112-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). International guidelines recommend surveillance intervals of 1-2 years. However, yearly surveillance likely leads to overtreatment for many. We prospectively assessed a surveillance protocol aiming to safely reduce the burden of colonoscopies. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2018, we enrolled SPS patients from nine Dutch and Spanish hospitals. Patients were surveilled using a protocol appointing either a 1-year or 2-year interval after each surveillance colonoscopy, based on polyp burden. Primary endpoint was the 5-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia (AN) during surveillance. RESULTS: We followed 271 SPS patients for a median of 3.6 years. During surveillance, two patients developed CRC (cumulative 5-year incidence 1.3%[95% CI 0% to 3.2%]). The 5-year AN incidence was 44% (95% CI 37% to 52%), and was lower for patients with SPS type III (26%) than for patients diagnosed with type I (53%) or type I and III (59%, p<0.001). Most patients were recommended a 2-year interval, and those recommended a 2-year interval were not at increased risk of AN: AN incidence after a 2-year recommendation was 15.6% compared with 24.4% after a 1-year recommendation (OR 0.57, p=0.08). CONCLUSION: Risk stratification substantially reduced colonoscopy burden while achieving CRC incidence similar to previous studies. AN incidence is considerable in SPS patients, but extension of surveillance intervals was not associated with increased AN in those identified as low-risk by the protocol. We identified SPS type III patients as low-risk group that might benefit from even less frequent surveillance. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was registered on http://www.trialregister.nl; trial-ID NTR4609.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(12): 1216-1220, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874542

RESUMO

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in adults. Pediatric colorectal carcinoma (PCRC) is a rare non-embryonal tumor with a significantly lower incidence compared to adults. The clinical manifestations of PCRC are not typical, and pediatricians usually have no enough experience in diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, early diagnosis is extremely difficult, which would always lead to late clinical stages when diagnosis is made. At present, the pathogenesis of PCRC is still not clear, and many countries have started to carry out researches at the level of genes, molecules and cells. In both tumor primary tumors and distant metastases, PCRC has obvious difference in distribution from adults, and the proportion of pathological type of mucous adenocarcinoma (including the signet ring cell carcinoma) was significantly higher than that of adults. Although treated according to adult colorectal cancer guidelines, PCRC has been unable to achieve ideal efficacy with poor prognosis and lower long-term survival rate. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, pathological types, treatment and prognosis of colorectal cancer in children by reviewing the latest literatures at home and abroad.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/terapia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/terapia , Criança , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(11): 1058-1063, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770837

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the screening efficiency of colorectal cancer in urban residents of Kunming, China. Methods: Using the method of cluster sampling, from October 2014 to October 2017, residents of the three jurisdictions of Xishan, Guandu and Chenggong Districts of Kunming city were investigated. The inclusion criteria: (1) resident (for more than 3 years) population of Kunming city aged 40-74 years old; (2) voluntarily participating and receiving colonoscopy; (3) signing informed consent. Based on the Harvard Cancer Risk Index, the questionnaire was built on the consensus of more than 20 years of common cancer epidemiology in China. Through the consensus reached by the multidisciplinary expert panel discussion, a comprehensive evaluation system for cancer risk in China was designed. The high-risk group of colorectal cancer was determined by preliminary screening of the questionnaire, and a free colonoscopy was performed for the appointment to the gastrointestinal endoscopy department of the Yunnan Cancer Hospital. All polypoid lesions and ulcers found by colonoscopy must be biopsied to confirm the diagnosis. χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability method was used to compare the detection of colorectal cancer in 4 groups of 40-49 years old, 50-59 years old, 60-69 years old, and ≥70-years old. Detection of colonoscopy, compliance, pathological examination, pathological diagnosis, and morbidity of colorectal cancer were analyzed. Results: A total of 127 960 people from 40 to 74 years old of urban residents in Kunming city participated in the preliminary screening of the questionnaire, including 59 748 (46.7%) males and 68 212 females (53.3%) with mean age of (53.6±8.6) years old. The 40-49 years old group had the largest number of participants (48 044, 37.5%), followed by the groups of 50-59 years old (42 473, 33.2%), 60-69 years old (34 111, 26.7%), and ≥70 years old (3332, 2.6%). Till October 2017, a total of 14 971 people were screened as at high risk of colorectal cancer, with the high-risk detection rate of 11.7%, and the high-risk detection rate of women was significantly higher than that of men [13.4% (9 109/68 212) vs. 9.8% (5 862/59 748), χ(2)=386.947, P<0.001]. The highest high-risk detection rate was in the 50-59 years group in both gender [men: 11.1% (2202/19 831), women: 15.3% (3034/22 642)]. A total of 3449 people among the high-risk population received colonoscopy examination. The compliance rate of colonoscopy was 23.0% (3449/14 971), and the male compliance rate was 19.8% (1162/5862), which was significantly lower than that of females [25.1% (2287/9109), χ(2)=56.175, P<0.001]. The highest compliance was observed in the 50-59 years group [25.4% (1438/5668)], followed by 40-49 years and 60-69 year group [22.1%(1091/4931) and 22.0%(891/4048), respectively], and the compliance of ≥70 years old group was the lowest [9.0% (29/324)]. Colonoscopy examination revealed 606 cases with lesions, the detection rate of lesions was 17.6%, and the male detection rate was significantly higher than that of females [26.9% (313/1162) vs. 12.8% (293/2287), χ(2)=106.140, P<0.001]. The detection rate of lesions increased with age [40-49, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70: 10.9% (119/1091), 17.5% (252/1438), 25.0% (223/891) and 41.4% (12/29), respectively, χ(2)=79.010, P<0.001]. A total of 584 cases underwent endoscopic excision and pathological diagnosis, and 465 cases (13.5%) of precancerous lesions were detected. The prevalence of precancerous lesions in men was higher than that in women [21.3% (247/1162) vs. 9.5% (218/2287), χ(2)=90.801, P<0.001], the precancerous lesion detection rate increased with age [40-49, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70: 8.0% (87/1091), 14.3% (206/1438), 18.1% (161/891) and 37.9% (11/29); χ(2)=58.109, P<0.001]. A total of 4 patients with colorectal cancer were detected, including 3 males and 1 female. The detection rate of male colorectal cancer was 258.2/100 000, and the female was 43.7/100 000, whose difference was not statistically significant (χ(2)=1.488, P=0.223). There was no significant difference in the detection rate of colorectal cancer among 4 age groups [40-49, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70: 91.7/100 000 (1/1091), 69.5/100 000 (1/1438), 224.5/100 000 (2/891) and 0, respectively, P=0.696]. Conclusions: Screening for colorectal cancer is an important measure to control the onset and death of colorectal cancer. Through the questionnaire risk assessment plus colonoscopy, two-step screening method can improve the screening efficiency and greatly reduce the screening cost.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , População Urbana
7.
Surg Clin North Am ; 99(6): 1111-1121, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676051

RESUMO

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of cancer secondary to long-standing intestinal inflammation. Surgical options must take into account the significant risk of synchronous disease at other colonic sites. Ileal pouch anal anastomosis is a viable option for patients with ulcerative colitis, but this should be restricted to early cancers that are unlikely to require preoperative or postoperative radiation treatment.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/métodos , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1162-1165, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683406

RESUMO

This study analyzed the distribution of high-risk population, the compliance and detected lesions of colorectal cancer screening from the Cancer Screening Program in urban areas of Kunming,Yunnan Province from 2014 to 2017. A total of 127 960 residents were included,of which 14 791 (11.70%) cases were diagnosed with high risk of colorectal cancer by the National Cancer Center High Risk Population Assessment System. A total of 3 484 cases completed colonoscopy clinical screening and the rate of participation was 23.55%. The screening results showed that 592 positive cases were detected, and the positive rate was 17.17%. The detection rates of polyps,adenomas,advanced adenomas,precancerous lesions and colorectal cancer were 16.27%,13.12%,7.18%,7.63% and 0.26%, with 567, 457, 250, 266 and 9 cases, respectively.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMJ ; 367: l6090, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) rates in England by using recent World Endoscopy Organisation guidelines, compare incidence among colonoscopy providers, and explore associated factors that could benefit from quality improvement initiatives. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: National Health Service in England between 2005 and 2013. POPULATION: All people undergoing colonoscopy and subsequently diagnosed as having colorectal cancer up to three years after their investigation (PCCRC-3yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: National trends in incidence of PCCRC (within 6-36 months of colonoscopy), univariable and multivariable analyses to explore factors associated with occurrence, and funnel plots to measure variation among providers. RESULTS: The overall unadjusted PCCRC-3yr rate was 7.4% (9317/126 152), which decreased from 9.0% in 2005 to 6.5% in 2013 (P<0.01). Rates were lower for colonoscopies performed under the NHS bowel cancer screening programme (593/16 640, 3.6%), while they were higher for those conducted by non-NHS providers (187/2009, 9.3%). Rates were higher in women, in older age groups, and in people with inflammatory bowel disease or diverticular disease, in those with higher comorbidity scores, and in people with previous cancers. Substantial variation in rates among colonoscopy providers remained after adjustment for case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Wide variation exists in PCCRC-3yr rates across NHS colonoscopy providers in England. The lowest incidence was seen in colonoscopies performed under the NHS bowel cancer screening programme. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to address this variation in rates and prevent colorectal cancer by enabling earlier diagnosis, removing premalignant polyps, and therefore improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal/normas
10.
BMJ ; 367: l6109, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review and summarise the evidence on the prevalence of colorectal adenomas and cancers at a follow-up screening colonoscopy after negative index colonoscopy, stratified by interval between examinations and by sex. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Two investigators independently extracted characteristics and results of identified studies and performed standardised quality ratings. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies assessing the outcome of a follow-up colonoscopy among participants at average risk for colorectal cancer with a negative previous colonoscopy (no adenomas). RESULTS: 28 studies were identified, including 22 cohort studies, five cross sectional studies, and one case-control study. Findings for an interval between colonoscopies of one to five, five to 10, and more than 10 years were reported by 17, 16, and three studies, respectively. Summary estimates of prevalences of any neoplasm were 20.7% (95% confidence interval 15.8% to 25.5%), 23.0% (18.0% to 28.0%), and 21.9% (14.9% to 29.0%) for one to five, five to 10, and more than 10 years between colonoscopies. Corresponding summary estimates of prevalences of any advanced neoplasm were 2.8% (2.0% to 3.7%), 3.2% (2.2% to 4.1%), and 7.0% (5.3% to 8.7%). Seven studies also reported findings stratified by sex. Summary estimates stratified by interval and sex were consistently higher for men than for women. CONCLUSIONS: Although detection of any neoplasms was observed in more than 20% of participants within five years of a negative screening colonoscopy, detection of advanced neoplasms within 10 years was rare. Our findings suggest that 10 year intervals for colonoscopy screening after a negative colonoscopy, as currently recommended, may be adequate, but more studies are needed to strengthen the empirical basis for pertinent recommendations and to investigate even longer intervals. STUDY REGISTRATION: Prospero CRD42019127842.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
BMJ ; 367: l5383, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate benefits and harms of different colorectal cancer screening strategies, stratified by (baseline) 15-year colorectal cancer risk. DESIGN: Microsimulation modelling study using MIcrosimulation SCreening ANalysis-Colon (MISCAN-Colon). SETTING: A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) defined the time frame and screening interventions, including selection of outcome measures. POPULATION: Norwegian men and women aged 50-79 years with varying 15-year colorectal cancer risk (1-7%). COMPARISONS: Four screening strategies were compared with no screening: biennial or annual faecal immunochemical test (FIT) or single sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy at 100% adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence, burdens, and harms over 15 years of follow-up. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Over 15 years of follow-up, screening individuals aged 50-79 at 3% risk of colorectal cancer with annual FIT or single colonoscopy reduced colorectal cancer mortality by 6 per 1000 individuals. Single sigmoidoscopy and biennial FIT reduced it by 5 per 1000 individuals. Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and annual FIT reduced colorectal cancer incidence by 10, 8, and 4 per 1000 individuals, respectively. The estimated incidence reduction for biennial FIT was 1 per 1000 individuals. Serious harms were estimated to be between 3 per 1000 (biennial FIT) and 5 per 1000 individuals (colonoscopy); harms increased with older age. The absolute benefits of screening increased with increasing colorectal cancer risk, while harms were less affected by baseline risk. Results were sensitive to the setting defined by the guideline panel. Because of uncertainty associated with modelling assumptions, we applied a GRADE rating of low certainty evidence to all estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 15 year period, all screening strategies may reduce colorectal cancer mortality to a similar extent. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy may also reduce colorectal cancer incidence, while FIT shows a smaller incidence reduction. Harms are rare and of similar magnitude for all screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Idoso , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sangue Oculto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sigmoidoscopia/efeitos adversos , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
BMJ ; 367: l5515, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578196

RESUMO

CLINICAL QUESTION: Recent 15-year updates of sigmoidoscopy screening trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening. Prompted by the new evidence, we asked: "Does colorectal cancer screening make an important difference to health outcomes in individuals initiating screening at age 50 to 79? And which screening option is best?" CURRENT PRACTICE: Numerous guidelines recommend screening, but vary on recommended test, age and screening frequency. This guideline looks at the evidence and makes recommendations on screening for four screening options: faecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year, FIT every two years, a single sigmoidoscopy, or a single colonoscopy. RECOMMENDATIONS: These recommendations apply to adults aged 50-79 years with no prior screening, no symptoms of colorectal cancer, and a life expectancy of at least 15 years. For individuals with an estimated 15-year colorectal cancer risk below 3%, we suggest no screening (weak recommendation). For individuals with an estimated 15-year risk above 3%, we suggest screening with one of the four screening options: FIT every year, FIT every two years, a single sigmoidoscopy, or a single colonoscopy (weak recommendation). With our guidance we publish the linked research, a graphic of the absolute harms and benefits, a clear description of how we reached our value judgments, and linked decision aids. HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED: A guideline panel including patients, clinicians, content experts and methodologists produced these recommendations using GRADE and in adherence with standards for trustworthy guidelines. A linked systematic review of colorectal cancer screening trials and microsimulation modelling were performed to inform the panel of 15-year screening benefits and harms. The panel also reviewed each screening option's practical issues and burdens. Based on their own experience, the panel estimated the magnitude of benefit typical members of the population would value to opt for screening and used the benefit thresholds to inform their recommendations. THE EVIDENCE: Overall there was substantial uncertainty (low certainty evidence) regarding the 15-year benefits, burdens and harms of screening. Best estimates suggested that all four screening options resulted in similar colorectal cancer mortality reductions. FIT every two years may have little or no effect on cancer incidence over 15 years, while FIT every year, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy may reduce cancer incidence, although for FIT the incidence reduction is small compared with sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening related serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events are rare. The magnitude of the benefits is dependent on the individual risk, while harms and burdens are less strongly associated with cancer risk. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION: Based on benefits, harms, and burdens of screening, the panel inferred that most informed individuals with a 15-year risk of colorectal cancer of 3% or higher are likely to choose screening, and most individuals with a risk of below 3% are likely to decline screening. Given varying values and preferences, optimal care will require shared decision making.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Sangue Oculto , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Bull Cancer ; 106(11): 969-974, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615647

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the most common digestive cancer. The objectives of this study was to analyse the frequency, aetiologies, and the therapeutic and progressive aspects of colorectal cancer in young adults in Burkina Faso. This study was a 10-years descriptive study conducted in 2 regional hospitals in Burkina Faso. It included all patients aged 20 to 45 years admitted to these two hospitals for colon cancer or rectal cancer during the study period. A total of 116 patients were included, which was 39.2% of all patients admitted for colorectal cancer during the same period. The average age of the included patients was 35.4 years old. There were 70 male patients (60.3%). Seven patients had a history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and six had a family history of colon cancer. The average consultation time was 6.2 months. In 25 cases (19.9%), the cancer was discovered in the context of an abdominal emergency. Ninety-two patients (79.3%) were diagnosed at stage 3 or stage 4 according to the TNM Staging System. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma (103 cases, 88.9%). Therapeutically, surgery was performed on 87 patients (75%) and chemotherapy was used in 37 cases (31.9%). Sixteen patients received radiotherapy. The intra operative mortality rate was 4.6%. The 5-year survival rate was 17%. In conclusion, colorectal cancer in young adults occurs without obvious risk factors in Burkina Faso. Mortality remains high because of the limited therapeutic arsenal.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17570, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626124

RESUMO

Perineural invasion (PNI) is a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer. Neurotrophic factors, molecular determinants of PNI, are altered in their expression levels in patients with ulcerative colitis. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of PNI in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and sporadic cancer.We retrospectively reviewed 778 colorectal cancers with pathological T3-T4 in 761 patients all of whom were surgically resected without preoperative treatment. The lesions were classified into either CAC or sporadic cancer based on the clinical information. Clinicopathological findings including PNI were compared between CACs and sporadic cancers. Moreover, we analyzed the risk factors for positive PNI by multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model.Ten of the cancers (1.3%) were diagnosed as CACs, and the remaining 768 as sporadic cancers. CACs were characterized by being nonobstructive and predominantly located in the rectum. The CACs had a larger size and more frequent undifferentiated histology than sporadic cancers. PNI was observed more frequently in CACs (90%) than in sporadic cancers without obstruction (45%, P = .007). On multivariate analysis, CAC was one of the significant factors associated with PNI (odds ratio: 9.05, P = .040).Our results suggest that CAC was more likely to exhibit PNI than sporadic colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Reto/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
15.
Lancet ; 394(10207): 1467-1480, 2019 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631858

RESUMO

Several decades ago, colorectal cancer was infrequently diagnosed. Nowadays, it is the world's fourth most deadly cancer with almost 900 000 deaths annually. Besides an ageing population and dietary habits of high-income countries, unfavourable risk factors such as obesity, lack of physical exercise, and smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Advancements in pathophysiological understanding have increased the array of treatment options for local and advanced disease leading to individual treatment plans. Treatments include endoscopic and surgical local excision, downstaging preoperative radiotherapy and systemic therapy, extensive surgery for locoregional and metastatic disease, local ablative therapies for metastases, and palliative chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Although these new treatment options have doubled overall survival for advanced disease to 3 years, survival is still best for those with non-metastasised disease. As the disease only becomes symptomatic at an advanced stage, worldwide organised screening programmes are being implemented, which aim to increase early detection and reduce morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
Gut ; 68(12): 2179-2185, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in the USA despite rapid declines in older ages. Similar patterns are reported in Australia and Canada, but a comprehensive global analysis of contemporary data is lacking. DESIGN: We extracted long-term data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and supplemental sources to report on worldwide CRC incidence rates and trends by age (20-49 years and ≥50 years) through diagnosis year 2012 or beyond (Australia, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, USA). RESULTS: During 2008-2012, age-standardised CRC incidence rates in adults <50 ranged from 3.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 3.2 to 3.9) in India (Chennai) to 12.9 (95% CI 12.6 to 13.3) in Korea. During the most recent decade of available data, incidence in adults <50 was stable in 14 of 36 countries; declined in Austria, Italy and Lithuania; and increased in 19 countries, nine of which had stable or declining trends in older adults (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Slovenia, Sweden, UK and USA). In Cyprus, Netherlands and Norway, inclines in incidence in young adults were twice as rapid as those in older adults (eg, Norway average annual per cent change (AAPC), 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) vs 0.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.7)). Among most high-income countries with long-term data, the uptick in early-onset disease began in the mid-1990s. The steepest increases in young adults were in Korea (AAPC, 4.2 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.0)) and New Zealand (AAPC, 4.0 (95% CI 2.1 to 6.0)). CONCLUSION: CRC incidence increased exclusively in young adults in nine high-income countries spanning three continents, potentially signalling changes in early-life exposures that influence large bowel carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Previsões , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4877-4884, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk among subgroups of women with and without risk factors for CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative, we estimated hazard ratios for CRC in association with aspirin use, with stratifications by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk status, family history of CRC, and history of colorectal polypectomy. RESULTS: Aspirin was associated with a lower risk of CRC among women with low/normal or high CVD-risk status; no family history of CRC; or a history of colonoscopy with polypectomy. Aspirin was not associated with CRC among women with a family history of CRC or a history of colonoscopy without polypectomy. CONCLUSION: Aspirin was associated with a lower risk of CRC in women at all levels of CVD-risk, in those with a history of colonoscopy with polypectomy, and in those without a family history of CRC.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4917-4924, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent data highlighted that location of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may have a prognostic impact and also a predictive value of the outcomes of first-line therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of mCRC patients who underwent first-line therapy from 2011 to April 2018 at our Institute were retrospectively reviewed. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR) according to the primary tumor location were investigated. RESULTS: Overall, 130 patients were eligible. Two-year OS was 82.9% in left-sided colon cancers (LCC) and 67.5% in right-sided (RCC) (p=0.32). One-year mPFS was statistically longer in LCC (46.8% vs. 24.2%, p=0.0005). mPFS was longer in LCC treated with anti-VEGF vs. anti-EGFR (p=0.06). ORR was 51.1% in LCC, 25% in RCC (p=0.008). Overall, 11 complete responses all in LCC were observed (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Tumor location has a prognostic impact and might influence the outcomes of mCRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(10): 1177-1185, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest better oncological results after open versus laparoscopic rectal resection for cancer. The external validity of these results has not been tested on a nationwide basis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify risk factors for positive circumferential resection margin in patients undergoing surgery for rectal cancer with special emphasis on surgical approach. DESIGN: This database study was based on the Danish nationwide colorectal cancer database. To identify risk factors for positive circumferential resection margin, we performed uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses. To assess the role of surgical approach, a propensity score-matched analysis was performed. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at public hospitals across Denmark. PATIENTS: Patients undergoing elective rectal resection from October 2009 through December 2013 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was the risk of a positive circumferential resection margin. RESULTS: Included in the final analyses were 2721 cases (745 operated on by an open approach; 1976 by laparoscopy). On direct comparison, positive circumferential resection margin occurred more often after open resection (6.3% vs 4.7%; p = 0.047). After multivariate analyses, tumors located low in the rectum, neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, increasing T and N stage, tumor fixated in the pelvis, and dissection in the muscularis plane increased the risk of a positive circumferential resection margin. In the propensity score-matched sample (541 exact matched pairs), the laparoscopic approach did not influence the risk of a positive circumferential resection margin (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.5; p = 0.77). LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data, and thereby contained possible selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this nationwide database study, and after multivariate and propensity score-matched analyses, there was no increased risk of positive circumferential resection margin after laparoscopic vs open rectal resection. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A996. MARGEN DE RESECCIÓN CIRCUNFERENCIAL DESPUÉS DE LA RESECCIÓN RECTAL LAPAROSCÓPICA Y ABIERTA: UN ESTUDIO DE COHORTE DE PUNTUACIÓN DE PROPENSIÓN A NIVEL NACIONAL: Estudios recientes sugieren mejores resultados oncológicos después de la resección rectal abierta versus laparoscópica. La validez de estos resultados no se ha probado a nivel nacional. OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo en pacientes sometidos a cirugía por cáncer de recto con especial énfasis en el abordaje quirúrgico. DISEÑO:: Estudio de la base de datos nacional de Dinamarca de cáncer colorrectal. Para identificar los factores de riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo, realizamos análisis de regresión logística uni y multivariable. Para evaluar el papel del abordaje quirúrgico, se realizó un análisis emparejado de puntuación de propensión. AJUSTES: Hospitales públicos en toda Dinamarca. PACIENTES: Pacientes sometidos a resección rectal electiva en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2009 y diciembre de 2013. PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADOS: Riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo. RESULTADOS: 2721 casos (745 operados por abordaje abierto; 1976 por laparoscopia) se incluyeron en el análisis final. En la comparación directa, el margen de resección circunferencial positivo ocurrió más a frecuentemente, después de la resección abierta (6.3 vs 4.7%; p = 0.047). Posterior a los análisis multivariados, tumores localizados en el recto bajo, quimioterapia con radioterapia neoadyuvante, incremento de etapas T y la N, tumor fijo en pelvis y la disección en el plano muscular, aumentaron el riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo. En la muestra emparejada del puntaje de propensión (541 pares coincidentes exactos), el abordaje laparoscópico no influyó en el riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo (razón de probabilidades (IC 95%) 0.9 (0.6-1.5); p = 0.77). LIMITACIONES: Revisión retrospectiva de los datos recopilados prospectivamente y por lo tanto, posible sesgo de selección. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio de la base de datos a nivel nacional y después de los análisis emparejados multivariados y de puntuación de propensión, no hubo un mayor riesgo del margen de resección circunferencial positivo después de la resección laparoscópica versus resección abierta. Vea el Resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/A996.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Margens de Excisão , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Reto/cirurgia , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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