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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4259-4269, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to two-dimensional cultures, three-dimensional (3D) cultures have many advantages in cancer studies. Nevertheless, their implementation is unsatisfactory. This study aimed to develop an anchorage-dependent 3D culture model for colorectal cancer research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human HCT116, DLD-1 and SW620 colorectal cell lines were cultured in a gelatin sponge, and its applicability for morphological examination was studied. RESULTS: The resulting specimens were suitable for scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical examination. HCT116 formed smaller structures and migrated through the pores of the sponge. DLD-1 formed larger structures with tight cell-to-cell adhesion. SW620 also formed large structures but small clustered cells tended to attach to the anchorage more favorably. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated phosphorylated yes-associated protein (YAP) localized near the attachment site in HCT116 cells. CONCLUSION: Because the gelatin sponge provided suitable anchorage and the cultured cells formed distinguishable 3D structures, this method may be useful for further colorectal cancer research.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Gelatina/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Fosforilação
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4353-4364, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-tumor agent. However, resistance to TRAIL has been reported in a number of clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, CBUD-1001, sensitizes colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apoptotic cell death induced by CBUD-1001 and/or TRAIL was assessed on human CRC cells using the MTT assay, FACS analysis and nuclei staining. The involved molecular mechanisms were explored through western blotting analysis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that combined with CBUD-1001, TRAIL significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in CRC cells via mitochondria-mediated pathways. We also found that hyper-acetylation of histone by CBUD-1001 treatment leads to up-regulation of death receptor (DR) 5 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we identified that enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL by combination with CBUD-1001 depends on the MAPK/CHOP axis, being a key mediator of DR5. CONCLUSION: A novel HDAC inhibitor CBUD-1001 sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5, and that CBUD-1001 and TRAIL combination treatment offers an effective strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in CRC cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Baixo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4447-4453, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been reported to promote proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and immunosuppression. Furthermore, angiogenesis has been reported to induce chemoresistance due to the inefficient distribution of drugs to cancer cells. However, the impact of TAMs on chemoresistance via angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of TAMs on the chemotherapeutic outcome in CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 54 patients who underwent chemotherapy for unresectable metastatic CRC after resection of the primary tumor. We evaluated the density of TAMs and the degree of angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry and then explored the correlation between the density of TAMs and chemotherapeutic outcome. Furthermore, we assessed any correlation between the density of TAMs and that of neovascularity. RESULTS: The high-TAMs group had a significantly worse progression-free survival (p=0.0006) and a poorer response rate (p=0.0274) than the low-TAMs group. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the density of TAMs and the degree of neovascularity (r=0.665, p=0.0004). CONCLUSION: TAMs were shown to promote chemoresistance via angiogenesis in CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4497-4504, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: E-Cadherin has been implicated in cell-cell adhesion, and soluble E-cadherin is involved in angiogenesis and resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in several cancer types. This study aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significance of soluble E-cadherin and other angiogenesis-related factors in plasma and malignant ascites of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 95 body fluid samples (57 plasma and 38 malignant ascites) from patients with CRC. The status of E-cadherin and angiopoietin-2 (AGNPT2) was retrospectively evaluated by immunohistochemistry in primary CRC and paired metastatic peritoneal tissues or cell blocks of malignant ascites of 30 patients with peritoneal metastases of CRC. RESULTS: The expression levels of soluble E-cadherin and ANGPT2 in plasma samples were significantly increased in patients with PC compared with those without. E-Cadherin concentration was significantly lower and ANGPT2 concentration was significantly higher in malignant ascites than plasma samples. Expression of E-cadherin was strongly positive, whilst that of ANGPT2 was negative in primary colorectal tissues, metastatic peritoneal tissues, and cell blocks of malignant ascites by immunohistochemistry. High levels of soluble E-cadherin or ANGPT2 in ascites were negatively associated with overall survival in patients with CRC with malignant ascites. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that soluble E-cadherin and ANGPT2 may be surrogate biomarkers for clinical outcome in patients with PC from CRC.


Assuntos
Angiopoietina-2/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Neoplasias Peritoneais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4505-4513, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor vascular microenvironment has an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of metastatic hepatic tumor vascular microenvironment in relation to the response to systemic fluorouracil-based chemotherapy [folinic acid/fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or folinic acid/fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI)]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 48 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with hepatic metastasis were retrospectively reviewed, and factors such as metastatic tumor vascular microenvironment, chemotherapy response and hepatic resection, were analyzed. Tumor angiogenesis was microscopically evaluated by microvessel density (MVD) in sections stained immunochemically with antibody to CD34 in patients with hepatic resection. Angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment in association with ring enhancement (RE) on computed tomography (CT) was also examined. RESULTS: Microscopic examination revealed that peripheral RE on CT of the metastatic tumor was associated with tumor angiogenesis by MVD. The overall response rate after six courses of first-line chemotherapy for liver metastasis with RE on CT was 64% (23/36), whereas the response rate for those without RE was 25% (3/12), which was significantly lower, although the survival of patients with RE-positive and RE-negative tumors did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Peripheral RE of metastatic hepatic tumor on CT was associated with angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment and higher chemotherapy response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4645-4650, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Previous reports have indicated that increased expression of Jagged-1 (JAG1) may predict chemotherapy response and poor prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the clinical impact of JAG1 expression level in patients with CRC, including recurrence, especially in those diagnosed with lymph node-positive stage III CRC who underwent complete resection and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients were enrolled through a retrospective chart review, and only those for whom the clinical course and all clinical information were adequately determined according to the inclusion criteria were selected for retrospective review through medical records. Immunohistochemical staining of JAG1 was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue. JAG1 expression was determined by scoring for staining intensity and percentage of positively stained cells; the final JAG1 score was determined as the sum of both scores. RESULTS: Sixteen patients who experienced relapse and 15 without (for over 3 years) were selected. The protein expression level of JAG1 showed a tendency for being lower in the group without recurrence, although not statistically significantly (p=0.083); however, the mean JAG1 expression score was significantly lower in the group without recurrence (1.53 vs. 3.19; p=0.004). The patients were divided into two groups with low and high JAG1 expression. The results showed that high JAG1 expression was significantly associated with recurrence of stage III CRC (p=0.029). CONCLUSION: The expression of JAG1 may be a potential novel biomarker for predicting CRC recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443490

RESUMO

Hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) is a natural plant extract isolated from Camptotheca acuminate. It has a broad spectrum of anticancer activity through inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I, which could affect DNA synthesis and lead to DNA damage. Thus, the action of SN38 against cancers could inevitably affect endogenous levels of ribonucleotide (RNs) and deoxyribonucleotide (dRNs) that play critical roles in many biological processes, especially in DNA synthesis and repair. However, the exact impact of SN38 on RNs and dRNs is yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect and associated mechanism of SN38 in human colorectal carcinoma HCT 116 cells. As a result, SN38 could decrease the cell viability and induce DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest and intracellular nucleotide metabolism were perturbed due to DNA damage response, of which ATP, UTP, dATP, and TTP may be the critical metabolites during the whole process. Combined with the expression of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates synthesis enzymes, our results demonstrated that the alteration and imbalance of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates caused by SN38 was mainly due to the de novo nucleotide synthesis at 24 h, and subsequently the salvage pathways at 48 h. The unique features of SN38 suggested that it might be recommended as an effective supplementary drug with an anticancer effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444911

RESUMO

Plant-derived conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) have been widely studied for their preventive and therapeutic properties against diverse diseases such as cancer. In particular, punicic acid (PunA), a conjugated linolenic acid isomer (C18:3 c9t11c13) present at up to 83% in pomegranate seed oil, has been shown to exert anti-cancer effects, although the mechanism behind its cytotoxicity remains unclear. Ferroptosis, a cell death triggered by an overwhelming accumulation of lipid peroxides, has recently arisen as a potential mechanism underlying CLnA cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that PunA is highly cytotoxic to HCT-116 colorectal and FaDu hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells grown either in monolayers or as three-dimensional spheroids. Moreover, our data indicate that PunA triggers ferroptosis in carcinoma cells. It induces significant lipid peroxidation and its effects are prevented by the addition of ferroptosis inhibitors. A combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a known polyunsaturated fatty acid with anticancer properties, synergistically increases PunA cytotoxicity. Our findings highlight the potential of using PunA as a ferroptosis-sensitizing phytochemical for the prevention and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Linolênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hipofaríngeas/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445141

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignancy, with an annual incidence of about 10% of the total number of new cases. Despite well-developed screening tests, mortality from this type of cancer remains unchanged. Therefore, it is important to search for more accurate markers that are useful in the detection of colorectal cancer (especially in its early stages), and treatment. Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) are a family of eight proteins with a diversity of applications, including pro- and anti-angiogenic properties. Consequently, we performed an extensive search of the literature, pertaining to our investigation, via the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Based on the available literature, we summarize that some of those proteins are characterized by increased or decreased concentrations during the course of CRC. We can also assume that some ANGPTLs can inhibit the development of CRC, while others induce its progress. Moreover, some factors are dependent on the stage or histological type of the tumor, the presence of hypoxia, or metastases. Most importantly, some ANGPTLs can be useful in anti-cancer therapy. Therefore, further studies on ANGPTLs as potential markers of CRC should be continued.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443375

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the possible modulation of Nrf2, NF-ĸB and STAT3 signaling pathways in the colorectal cancer (CRC) cells line DLD-1 and HCT116 by secondary metabolites of lichens. An attempt was made to indicate the most promising targets in these signaling pathways. Attention was also paid to the effects of the compounds tested on CRC cells using anakoinosis-that is, simultaneous analysis of several signaling pathways. The effects of the tested natural compounds on the activity of selected transcriptional factors related to CRC were analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR assays. The highest activity against CRC cells was shown by physodic and salazinic acids from the studied secondary metabolites of lichens. As a result, an increase in the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 and the expression of its selected target genes was observed. Physodic and salazinic acids induced the opposite effect in relation to the NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. These results confirmed our earlier observations that lichen-derived compounds have the ability to modulate signaling pathway networks. While caperatic acid affected Wnt/ß-catenin to the most extent, salazinic acid was the most potent modulator of Nrf2, NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Physodic acid seemed to affect all the investigated pathways.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Líquens/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Depsídeos/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361836

RESUMO

Zotarolimus is a semi-synthetic derivative of rapamycin and an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Currently, zotarolimus is used to prolong the survival time of organ grafts, but it is also a novel immunosuppressive agent with potent anti-proliferative activity. Here, we examine the anti-tumor effect of zotarolimus, alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil, on HCT-116 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells implanted in BALB/c nude mice. Compared with the control mice, mice treated with zotarolimus or zotarolimus combined with 5-FU showed retarded tumor growth; increased tumor apoptosis through the enhanced expression of cleaved caspase 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation; reduced inflammation-related factors such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein; and inhibited metastasis-related factors such as CD44, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Notably, mice treated with a combination of zotarolimus and 5-FU showed significantly retarded tumor growth, reduced tumor size, and increased tumor inhibition compared with mice treated with 5-FU or zotarolimus alone, indicating a strong synergistic effect. This in vivo study confirms that zotarolimus or zotarolimus combined with 5-FU can be used to retard colorectal adenocarcinoma growth and inhibit tumorigenesis. Our results suggest that zotarolimus may increase the chemo-sensitization of tumor cells. Therefore, zotarolimus alone and zotarolimus combined with 5-FU may be potential anti-tumor agents in the treatment of human colon adenocarcinoma. Future research on zotarolimus may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360807

RESUMO

This study investigated the roles of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF) in enhancing the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy. HCT116 and Caco-2 cells were treated with LMWF and 5-FU. Cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were analyzed in both cell types. Potential mechanisms underlying how LMWF enhances the anti-cancer effects of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy were also explored. The cell viability of HCT116 and Caco-2 cells was significantly reduced after treatment with a LMWF--5FU combination. In HCT116 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through the (1) induction of cell cycle arrest in the S phase and (2) late apoptosis mediated by the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In Caco-2 cells, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on cell viability through both the c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)/Kirsten rat sarcoma virus (KRAS)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the c-MET/phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathways. Moreover, LMWF enhanced the suppressive effects of 5-FU on tumor cell migration through the c-MET/matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 signaling pathway in both HCT116 and Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrated that LMWF is a potential complementary therapy for enhancing the efficacies of fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with the wild-type or mutated KRAS gene through different mechanisms. However, in vivo studies and in clinical trials are required in order to validate the results of the present study.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361052

RESUMO

Colon cancer (CC) is considered a high-risk cancer in developed countries. Its etiology is correlated with a high consumption of red meat and low consumption of plant-based foods, including whole grains. Sorghum bran is rich in polyphenols. This study aimed to determine whether different high-phenolic sorghum brans suppress tumor formation in a genetic CC rodent model and elucidate mechanisms. Tissue culture experiments used colorectal cancer cell lines SW480, HCT-116 and Caco-2 and measured protein expression, and protein activity. The animal model used in this study was APC Min+/mouse model combined with dextram sodium sulfate. High phenolic sorghum bran extract treatment resulted in the inhibition of proliferation and induced apoptosis in CC cell lines. Treatment with high phenolic sorghum bran extracts repressed TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB transactivation and IGF-1-stimulated PI3K/AKT pathway via the downregulation of ß-catenin transactivation. Furthermore, high-phenolic sorghum bran extracts activated AMPK and autophagy. Feeding with high-phenolic sorghum bran for 6 weeks significantly suppressed tumor formation in an APC Min/+ dextran sodium sulfate promoted CC mouse model. Our data demonstrates the potential application of high-phenolic sorghum bran as a functional food for the prevention of CC.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sorghum/química , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371938

RESUMO

A still growing interest between human nutrition in relation to health and disease states can be observed. Dietary components shape the composition of microbiota colonizing our gastrointestinal tract which play a vital role in maintaining human health. There is a strong evidence that diet, gut microbiota and their metabolites significantly influence our epigenome, particularly through the modulation of microRNAs. These group of small non-coding RNAs maintain cellular homeostasis, however any changes leading to impaired expression of miRNAs contribute to the development of different pathologies, including neoplastic diseases. Imbalance of intestinal microbiota due to diet is primary associated with the development of colorectal cancer as well as other types of cancers. In the present work we summarize current knowledge with particular emphasis on diet-microbiota-miRNAs axis and its relation to the development of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Dieta , Epigênese Genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulin is a secreted, glycosylated peptide-originated by cleavage from a precursor protein-which is involved in cell growth, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. However, the specific prognostic impact of granulin in human colorectal cancer has only been studied to a limited extent. Thus, we wanted to assess the expression of granulin in colorectal cancer patients to evaluate its potential as a prognostic biomarker. METHODS: Expressional differences of granulin in colorectal carcinoma tissue (n = 94) and corresponding healthy colon mucosa were assessed using qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed in colorectal cancer specimens (n = 97), corresponding healthy mucosa (n = 47) and colorectal adenomas (n = 19). Subsequently, the results were correlated with histopathological and clinical patients' data. HCT-116 cells were transfected with siRNA for invasion and migration assays. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR revealed tumoral over expression of granulin in colorectal cancer specimens compared to corresponding healthy colon mucosa and adenomas. Tumoral overexpression of granulin was associated with a significantly impaired overall survival. Moreover, downregulation of granulin by siRNA significantly diminished the invasive capacities of HCT-116 cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: Expression of granulin differs in colorectal cancer tissue, adenomas and healthy colon mucosa. Furthermore, granulin features invasive and migrative capabilities and overexpression of granulin correlates with a dismal prognosis. This reveals its potential as a prognostic biomarker and granulin could be a worthwhile molecular target for individualized anticancer therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Granulinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Granulinas/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299137

RESUMO

The KRAS mutation is one of the leading driver mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it is usually associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. Therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) are widely used for end-stage CRC. However, patients with KRAS mutant genes cannot benefit from this therapy because of Ras signaling activation by KRAS mutant genes. Our previous study revealed the anti-proliferative effect of 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (4-AAQB) on CRC cells, but whether the drug is effective in KRAS-mutant CRC remains unknown. We screened CRC cell lines harboring the KRAS mutation, namely G12A, G12C, G12V and G13D, with one wild type cell line as the control; SW1463 and Caco-2 cell lines were used for further experiments. Sulforhodamine B assays, together with the clonogenicity and invasion assay, revealed that KRAS-mutant SW1463 cells were resistant to cetuximab; however, 4-AAQB treatment effectively resensitized CRC cells to cetuximab through the reduction of colony formation, invasion, and tumorsphere generation and of oncogenic KRAS signaling cascade of CRC cells. Thus, inducing cells with 4-AAQB before cetuximab therapy could resensitize KRAS-mutant, but not wild-type, cells to cetuximab. Therefore, we hypothesized that 4-AAQB can inhibit KRAS. In silico analysis of the publicly available GEO (GSE66548) dataset of KRAS-mutated versus KRAS wild-type CRC patients confirmed that miR-193a-3p was significantly downregulated in the former compared with the latter patient population. Overexpression of miR-193a-3p considerably reduced the oncogenicity of both CRC cells. Furthermore, KRAS is a key target of miR-193a-3p. In vivo treatment with the combination of 4-AAQB and cetuximab significantly reduced the tumor burden of a xenograft mice model through the reduction of the expression of oncogenic markers (EGFR) and p-MEK, p-ERK, and c-RAF/p-c-RAF signaling, with the simultaneous induction of miR-193a-3p expression in the plasma. In summary, our findings provide strong evidence regarding the therapeutic effect of 4-AAQB on KRAS-mutant CRC cells. Furthermore, 4-AAQB effectively inhibits Ras singling in CRC cells, through which KRAS-mutant CRC can be resensitized to cetuximab.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Prognóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ubiquinona/química , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases raf/genética , Quinases raf/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
17.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 612969, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257580

RESUMO

The epidemic of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the world pose a global health emergency. Cancer has been identified as a risk factor for the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection for mediating viral entry into the host cell. However, a systematic analysis of aberrant expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was not yet reported in multiple human cancers. Here, we analyzed gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 across 31 types of tumors. Notably, overexpression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 have been observed in colorectal cancer including colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), and rectum adenocarcinoma (READ). In addition, the colorectal tumors with upregulated gene expressing presented with decreased DNA methylation levels. DNA methylation might be one of the reasons for abnormal expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Conclusively, colorectal cancer was the only cancer with the upregulated expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. More care of colorectal cancer patients is needed in multiple cancers affected by the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Colorretais , Serina Endopeptidases , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/análise , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203267

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is an RNA-binding protein and serves as a post-transcriptional fine-tuner regulating the expression of mRNA targets. However, the clinicopathological roles of IGF2BP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains limited. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the clinical significance and biomarker potentials of IGF2BP1 in CRC. A total of 266 specimens from two sets of CRC patients were collected. IGF2BP1 expression was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The Kaplan-Meier survival plot and a log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine the survival impact of IGF2BP1. Public datasets sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Cancer Metastasis Database (HCMDB), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plotter, and two CRC cell lines, HCT-116 and DLD-1, were used for validating our findings. We showed that IGF2BP1 was overexpressed in tumor specimens compared to 13 paired normal parts by examining the immunoreactivity of IGF2BP1 (p = 0.045). The increased expression of IGF2BP1 in primary tumor parts was observed regardless of metastatic status (p < 0.001) in HCMDB analysis. IGF2BP1 expression was significantly associated with young age (59.6% vs. 46.7%, p-value = 0.043) and advanced stage (61.3% vs. 40.0%, p-value = 0.001). After controlling for confounding factors, IGF2BP1 remained an independent prognostic factor (HR = 1.705, p-value = 0.005). TCGA datasets analysis indicated that high IGF2BP1 expression showed a lower 5-year survival rate (58% vs. 65%) in CRC patients. The increased expression of IGF2BP1 in chemotherapy non-responder rectal cancer patients was observed using a ROC plotter. Overexpression of IGF2BP1 promoted the colony-forming capacity and 5-fluorouracil and etoposide resistance in CRC cells. Here, IGF2BP1 was an independent poor prognostic marker in CRC patients and contributed to aggressive phenotypes in CRC cell lines.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Curva ROC
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208855

RESUMO

Patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) with distant metastases have a poor prognosis. We evaluated the clinicopathological relevance of GRP94 expression in these cases. The immunohistochemical expression of GRP94 was studied in 189 CRC patients with synchronous (SM; n = 123) and metachronous metastases (MM; n = 66), using tissue microarray; the association between GRP94 expression, outcome, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was also evaluated. GRP94 was expressed in 64.6% (122/189) patients with CRC; GRP94 positivity was found in 67.5% and 59.1% patients with SM and MM, respectively. In the SM group, high GRP94 expression was more common in patients with a higher density of CD4+ TILs (p = 0.002), unlike in the MM group. Survival analysis showed that patients with GRP94 positivity had significantly favorable survival (p = 0.030); after multivariate analysis, GRP94 only served as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.034; hazard ratio, 0.581; 95% confidence interval, 0.351-0.961) in the SM group. GRP94 expression was detected in 49.4% of metastatic sites and showed significant heterogeneity between primary and metastatic lesions (p = 0.012). GRP94 is widely expressed in CRC with distant metastases; its expression was associated with favorable prognosis in the SM group, unlike in the MM group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/patologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos
20.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3801-3808, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal adenocarcinoma has a poor prognosis due to its propensity for metastasis. It has been experimentally demonstrated that the microRNA (miRNA) let-7a can effectively inhibit tumor proliferation and metastasis by regulating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway; however, limited research has been conducted in the area of on colorectal cancer. Herein, we aimed to clarify the role and regulation of let-7a in a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (LS-174T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: LS-174T cells were transfected to express let-7a. Let-7a miRNA expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell growth was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; invasion and migration were examined by Matrigel invasion and wound healing assays. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, phosphorylated Drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic 2 (p-SMAD2), and TGF-ß1 were analyzed by western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of TGFB1 were also analyzed by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: Overexpression of let-7a resulted in significant inhibition of LS-174T cell proliferation in vitro. The invasion and migration abilities of the cells overexpressing let-7a were decreased, compared to the control group and miR-negative control group. Transfection of LS-174T cells with let-7a resulted in down-regulation of MMP-2, as well as of TGF-ß1 and p-SMAD2 protein expression. Moreover, TGF-ß1 mRNA levels were reduced following let-7a overexpression. CONCLUSION: Let-7a inhibited the growth and metastasis of colonic mucinous adenocarcinoma cells, at least partially, by regulating the TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Smad/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética
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