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1.
Oncol Rep ; 51(5)2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577924

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as the second leading cause of cancer­related death worldwide due to its aggressive nature. After surgical resection, >50% of patients with CRC require adjuvant therapy. As a result, eradicating cancer cells with medications is a promising method to treat patients with CRC. In the present study, a novel compound was synthesized, which was termed compound 225#. The inhibitory activity of compound 225# against CRC was determined by MTT assay, EdU fluorescence labeling and colony formation assay; the effects of compound 225# on the cell cycle progression and apoptosis of CRC cells were detected by flow cytometry and western blotting; and the changes in autophagic flux after the administration of compound 225# were detected using the double fluorescence fusion protein mCherry­GFP­LC3B and western blotting. The results demonstrated that compound 225# exhibited antiproliferative properties, inhibiting the proliferation and expansion of CRC cell lines in a time­ and dose­dependent manner. Furthermore, compound 225# triggered G2/M cell cycle arrest by influencing the expression of cell cycle regulators, such as CDK1, cyclin A1 and cyclin B1, which is also closely related to the activation of DNA damage pathways. The cleavage of PARP and increased protein expression levels of PUMA suggested that apoptosis was triggered after treatment with compound 225#. Moreover, the increase in LC3­II expression and stimulation of autophagic flux indicated the activation of an autophagy pathway. Notably, compound 225# induced autophagy, which was associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In accordance with the in vitro findings, the in vivo results demonstrated that compound 225# effectively inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumors in mice without causing any changes in their body weight. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that compound 225# not only inhibited proliferation and promoted G2/M­phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but also initiated cytoprotective autophagy in CRC cells by activating ER stress pathways. Taken together, these findings provide an experimental basis for the evaluation of compound 225# as a novel potential medication for CRC treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Divisão Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo Celular
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 80, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565536

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs)-RNA networks have contributed to cancer development. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are considered as protein recruiters; nevertheless, the patterns of circRNA-protein interactions in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still lacking. Processing bodies (PBs) formed through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) are membrane-less organelles (MLOs) consisting of RBPs and RNA. Previous evidence suggests a connection between PBs dynamics and cancer progression. Despite the increasingly acknowledged crucial role of RBPs and RNA in the accumulation and maintenance of MLOs, there remains a lack of specific research on the interactions between PBs-related RBPs and circRNAs in CRC. Herein, we identify that MEX-3 RNA binding family member A (MEX3A), frequently upregulated in CRC tissues, predicts poorer patient survival. Elevated MEX3A accelerates malignance and inhibits autophagy of CRC cells. Importantly, MEX3A undergoes intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs)-dependent LLPS in the cytoplasm. Specifically, circMPP6 acts as a scaffold to facilitate the interaction between MEX3A and PBs proteins. The MEX3A/circMPP6 complex modulates PBs dynamic and promotes UPF-mediated phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) mRNA degradation, consequently leading to the aggressive properties of CRC cells. Clinically, CRC patients exhibiting high MEX3A expression and low PDE5A expression have the poorest overall survival. Our findings reveal a collaboration between MEX3A and circMPP6 in the regulation of mRNA decay through triggering the PBs aggregation, which provides prognostic markers and/or therapeutic targets for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , RNA Circular , Humanos , Autofagia/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Família , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 222: 116117, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461903

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent with promising applications in the treatment of various malignancies, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the management of OXA resistance remains an ongoing obstacle in CRC therapy. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the immune landscape, targeted therapeutic biomarkers, and mechanisms that influence OXA resistance in CRC. Our results demonstrated that our OXA- resistant CRC prognostic model not only provides risk assessment for patients but also reflects the immune landscape of patients. Additionally, we identified prostate transmembrane protein, androgen-induced1 (PMEPA1) as a promising molecular targeted therapeutic biomarker for patients with OXA-resistant CRC. The mechanism of PMEPA1 may involve cell adhesion, pathways in cancer, and the TGF-ß signaling pathway. Furthermore, analysis of CRC clinical samples indicated that patients resistant to OXA exhibited elevated serum levels of TGF-ß1, increased expression of PMEPA1 in tumors, a lower proportion of CD8+ T cell positivity, and a higher proportion of M0 macrophage positivity, in comparison to OXA-sensitive individuals. Cellular experiments indicated that selective silencing of PMEPA1, alone or in combination with OXA, inhibited proliferation and metastasis in OXA-resistant CRC cells, HCT116R. Animal experiments further confirmed that PMEPA1 silencing suppressed subcutaneous graft tumor growth and liver metastasis in mice bearing HCT116R and synergistically enhanced the efficacy of OXA. These data highlight the potential of leveraging the therapeutic biomarker PMEPA1, CD8+ T cells, and M0 macrophages as innovative targets for effectively addressing the challenges associated with OXA resistance. Our findings hold promising implications for further clinical advancements in this field.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6488, 2024 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499636

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract and a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Since many CRC patients are diagnosed already in the advanced stage, and traditional chemoradiotherapy is prone to drug resistance, it is important to find new therapeutic targets. In this study, the expression levels of ALDOA and p-AKT were detected in cancer tissues and paired normal tissues, and it was found that they were significantly increased in CRC tissues, and their high expression indicated poor prognosis. Moreover, a positive correlation between the expression of ALDOA and p-AKT was found in CRC tissues and paired normal tissues. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the group with both negative of ALDOA/p-AKT expression had longer five-year survival rates compared with the other group. Besides, the group with both high expression of ALDOA/p-AKT had a worse prognosis compared with the other group. Based on the expression of ALDOA and p-AKT in tumor tissues, we can effectively distinguish tumor tissues from normal tissues through cluster analysis. Furthermore, we constructed nomograms to predict 3-year and 5-year overall survival, showing that the expression of ALDOA/p-AKT plays a crucial role in predicting the prognosis of CRC patients. Therefore, ALDOA/p-AKT may act as a crucial role in CRC, which may provide new horizons for targeted therapies for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo
5.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 42(2): e3989, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500386

RESUMO

Colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is one of the most lethal histological types of colorectal cancer, and its mechanism of development is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular characteristics of MAC via in silico analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The expression of genes on chromosome 20q (Chr20q) was negatively associated with the expression of MUC2, which is a key molecule that can be used to distinguish between MAC and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMAC). This was consistent with a significant difference in copy number alteration of Chr20q between the two histological types. We further identified 475 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MAC and NMAC, and some of the Chr20q genes among the DEGs are considered to be pivotal genes used to define MAC. Both in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that simultaneous knockdown of POFUT1 and PLAGL2, both of which are located on Chr20q, promoted MUC2 expression. Moreover, these genes were highly expressed in NMAC but not in MAC according to the results of immunohistological studies using human samples. In conclusion, POFUT1 and PLAGL2 are considered to be important for defining MAC, and these genes are associated with MUC2 expression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso , Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Mucina-2/genética , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Crit Rev Immunol ; 44(4): 13-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505918

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignant tumor, with highly invasive and metastatic potential in the later stage. This study investigated the role of PKN2 overexpression and M2-polarized macrophages in dictating the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer cells. HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line with PKN2 overexpression was generated to investigate the functional role of PKN2. THP-1 cells were polarized into M2-like macrophages, and the co-culture system of THP-1/M2 cells and HCT116 cells was established to examine the impacts of M2-polairzed macrophages on the malignant phenotype of colorectal cancer cells. PKN2 overexpression promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells, and reduced spontaneous cell death in the cell culture. Besides, the presence of M2-polarized THP-1 cells significantly enhanced the aggressive phenotype of HCT116 cells. Both PKN2 overexpression and M2-polarized THP-1 cells increased the expression of NF-κB p65 in HCT116 cells, indicating that enhanced NF-κB signaling may contribute to the augmented aggressiveness of HCT116 cells. These findings suggest PKN2 as an oncogenic factor in colorectal cancer and that M2-polarized THP-1 cells may promote the progression of colorectal cancer by activating NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , NF-kappa B , Humanos , Células HCT116 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Movimento Celular
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7199, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532110

RESUMO

Development and progression of malignancies are accompanied and influenced by alterations in the surrounding immune microenvironment. Understanding the cellular and molecular interactions between immune cells and cancer cells has not only provided important fundamental insights into the disease, but has also led to the development of new immunotherapies. The C-type lectin Dendritic Cell ImmunoReceptor (DCIR) is primarily expressed by myeloid cells and is an important regulator of immune homeostasis, as demonstrated in various autoimmune, infectious and inflammatory contexts. Yet, the impact of DCIR on cancer development remains largely unknown. Analysis of available transcriptomic data of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients revealed that high DCIR gene expression is associated with improved patients' survival, immunologically "hot" tumors and high immunologic constant of rejection, thus arguing for a protective and immunoregulatory role of DCIR in CRC. In line with these correlative data, we found that deficiency of DCIR1, the murine homologue of human DCIR, leads to the development of significantly larger tumors in an orthotopic murine model of CRC. This phenotype is accompanied by an altered phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and a reduction in the percentage of activated effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CRC tumors of DCIR1-deficient mice. Overall, our results show that DCIR promotes antitumor immunity in CRC, making it an attractive target for the future development of immunotherapies to fight the second deadliest cancer in the world.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Imunidade , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
8.
Med Oncol ; 41(5): 100, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538804

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks as the third most prevalent cancer type globally. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms driving CRC progression remain ambiguous, and the prognosis for the majority of patients diagnosed at an advanced stage is dismal. YWHA/14-3-3 proteins serve as central nodes in several signaling pathways and are closely related to tumorigenesis and progression. However, their exact roles in CRC are still poorly elucidated. In this study, we revealed that YWHAG was the most significantly upregulated member of the YWHA/14-3-3 family in CRC tissues and was associated with a poor prognosis. Subsequent phenotypic experiments showed that YWHAG promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells. Mechanistically, RNA-seq data showed that multiple signaling pathways, including Wnt and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were potentially regulated by YWHAG. CTTN was identified as a YWHAG-associated protein, and mediated its tumor-promoting functions by activating the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in CRC cells. In summary, our data indicate that YWHAG facilitates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells by modulating the CTTN-Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, which offers a novel perspective for the treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , beta Catenina , Humanos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Cortactina/metabolismo , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 186: 114563, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442787

RESUMO

Broccoli contains an amount of biologically active substances, which bring beneficial effects on human health. Plant extracellular vesicles have been shown to be novel key factors in cancer diagnosis and tumor therapy. To date, the challenge of overcoming chemoresistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to facilitate the clinical management of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been successful. Nevertheless, the functions of broccoli extracellular vesicles (BEVs) in the progression of CRC and 5-FU resistance are predominantly unclear. Herein, we showed that BEVs isolated from broccoli juice were effectively taken up by colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. The co-administration of BEVs and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer HT-29 cells, effectively blocking cell cycle progression. Furthermore, the co-administration of BEVs and 5-FU induced apoptosis by stimulating ROS production and disrupting mitochondrial function. Importantly, we found that BEVs reversed 5-FU resistance in HT-29 cells by suppressing the abnormal activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings represent a novel strategy for utilizing BEVs to improve the efficacy of colorectal cancer treatment and enhance 5-FU chemosensitivity.


Assuntos
Brassica , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Brassica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542151

RESUMO

In the last decade, pathway-specific targeted therapy has revolutionized colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment strategies. This type of therapy targets a tumor-vulnerable spot formed primarily due to an alteration in an oncogene and/or a tumor suppressor gene. However, tumor heterogeneity in CRC frequently results in treatment resistance, underscoring the need to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in CRC for the development of novel targeted therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of the rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway axis is a major pathway altered in CRC. The aberrant activation of this pathway is associated with CRC initiation, progression, and metastasis and is critical for the development of drug resistance in CRC. Several drugs target PI3K/Akt/mTOR in clinical trials, alone or in combination, for the treatment of CRC. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway axis in driving CRC, existing PI3K/Akt/mTOR-targeted agents against CRC, their limitations, and future trends.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo
11.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 296, 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461356

RESUMO

The intricate crosstalk of various cell death forms was recently implicated in cancers, laying a foundation for exploring the association between cell death and cancers. Recent evidence has demonstrated that biological networks outperform snapshot gene expression profiles at discovering promising biomarkers or heterogenous molecular subtypes across different cancer types. In order to investigate the behavioral patterns of cell death-related interaction perturbation in colorectal cancer (CRC), this study constructed the interaction-perturbation network with 11 cell death pathways and delineated four cell death network (CDN) derived heterogeneous subtypes (CDN1-4) with distinct molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes. Specifically, we identified a subtype (CDN4) endowed with high autophagy activity and the worst prognosis. Furthermore, AOC3 was identified as a potential autophagy-related biomarker, which demonstrated exceptional predictive performance for CDN4 and significant prognostic value. Overall, this study sheds light on the complex interplay of various cell death forms and reveals an autophagy-related gene AOC3 as a critical prognostic marker in CRC.


Assuntos
Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre) , Morte Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Autofagia/genética , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/genética , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116427, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484558

RESUMO

Uncertainty exists regarding the mechanisms by which hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) control CD8+T-cell migration into tumor microenvironments. Here, we found that HIF-1α knockdown or overexpression resulted in increased or decreased CXCL9, -10, and -11 expression in vitro, respectively. Gene Set Variation Analysis revealed that elevated HIF-1α levels correlated with a poor prognosis, severe pathological stage, and an absence of CD8+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. HIF-1α was inversely associated with pathways beneficial to anti-tumor immunotherapy and cytokine/chemokine function. In vivo, inhibiting HIF-1α or its upstream regulator BIRC2 significantly suppressed tumor growth and promoted CD8+ T-cell infiltration. CXCR3 neutralizing antibodies reversed these effects, implicating the involvement of CXCL9, -10, and -11/CXCR3 axis. The presence of HIF-1α weakened the upregulation of CXCL9, -10, and -11 by bleomycin and doxorubicin. Combining HIF-1α inhibition with bleomycin promoted CD8+ T-cell infiltration and tumor suppression in vivo. Moreover, doxorubicin could upregulate CXCL9, -10 and -11 by suppressing HIF-1α. Our findings highlight the potential of HIF-1α inhibition to improve CRC microenvironments and increase chemotherapy sensitivity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Humanos , Bleomicina , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Citocinas , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Nanoscale ; 16(14): 7185-7199, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506227

RESUMO

Theranostic nanoparticles hold promise for simultaneous imaging and therapy in colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen can be used as a target for these nanoparticles because it is overexpressed in most colorectal cancers. Affimer reagents are synthetic proteins capable of binding specific targets, with additional advantages over antibodies for targeting. We fabricated silica nanoparticles using a water-in-oil microemulsion technique, loaded them with the photosensitiser Foslip, and functionalised the surface with anti-CEA Affimers to facilitate fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of colorectal cancer. CEA-specific fluorescence imaging and phototoxicity were quantified in colorectal cancer cell lines and a LS174T murine xenograft colorectal cancer model. Anti-CEA targeted nanoparticles exhibited CEA-specific fluorescence in the LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cell lines when compared to control particles (p < 0.0001). No toxicity was observed in LS174T cancer mouse xenografts or other organs. Following photo-irradiation, the anti-CEA targeted particles caused significant cell death in LoVo (60%), LS174T (90%) and HCT116 (70%) compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) at 24 h in vivo showed a 4-fold reduction in tumour volume compared to control mouse xenografts (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrates the efficacy of targeted fluorescence imaging and PDT using Foslip nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimer nanoparticles in in vitro and in vivo colorectal cancer models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Mesoporfirinas , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico
14.
FEBS Open Bio ; 14(4): 695-720, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425293

RESUMO

The peptide mimetic, NC114, is a promising anticancer compound that specifically kills colorectal cancer cells without affecting normal colon epithelial cells. In our previous study, we observed that NC114 inhibited the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, with significant downregulation of both Ser 675-phosphorylated ß-catenin and its target genes, cyclin D1 and survivin. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for its cytotoxic effect has not yet been fully characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated that NC114 prevented cell cycle progression from S to G2/M phase by downregulating cell cycle-related gene expression, and also induced growth arrest in SW480 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. A novel covariation network analysis combined with transcriptome analysis revealed a series of signaling cascades affected by NC114 treatment, and identified protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) as important regulatory factors for NC114-induced growth arrest. NC114 treatment inhibits the activation of PKCδ and its kinase activity, which suppresses MEK/ERK signaling. Attenuated MEK/ERK signaling then results in a reduction in FOXM1 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of FOXM1 and ß-catenin. Consequently, formation of a T-cell factor-4 (TCF4)/ß-catenin transcription complex in the nucleus is inhibited and transcription of its target genes, such as cell cycle-related genes, is downregulated. The efficacy of NC114 on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft model. Collectively, elucidation of the mechanism by which NC114 induces growth arrest in colorectal cancer cells should provide a novel therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteína Forkhead Box M1 , Humanos , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2319055121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502695

RESUMO

Elevated cancer metabolism releases lactic acid and CO2 into the under-perfused tumor microenvironment, resulting in extracellular acidosis. The surviving cancer cells must adapt to this selection pressure; thus, targeting tumor acidosis is a rational therapeutic strategy to manage tumor growth. However, none of the major approved treatments are based explicitly on disrupting acid handling, signaling, or adaptations, possibly because the distinction between acid-sensitive and acid-resistant phenotypes is not clear. Here, we report pH-related phenotypes of sixty-eight colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by measuring i) extracellular acidification as a readout of acid production by fermentative metabolism and ii) growth of cell biomass over a range of extracellular pH (pHe) levels as a measure of the acid sensitivity of proliferation. Based on these measurements, CRC cell lines were grouped along two dimensions as "acid-sensitive"/"acid-resistant" versus "low metabolic acid production"/"high metabolic acid production." Strikingly, acid resistance was associated with the expression of CEACAM6 and CEACAM5 genes coding for two related cell-adhesion molecules, and among pH-regulating genes, of CA12. CEACAM5/6 protein levels were strongly induced by acidity, with a further induction under hypoxia in a subset of CRC lines. Lack of CEACAM6 (but not of CEACAM5) reduced cell growth and their ability to differentiate. Finally, CEACAM6 levels were strongly increased in human colorectal cancers from stage II and III patients, compared to matched samples from adjacent normal tissues. Thus, CEACAM6 is a marker of acid-resistant clones in colorectal cancer and a potential motif for targeting therapies to acidic regions within the tumors.


Assuntos
Acidose , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Acidose/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígenos CD/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/genética
16.
Exp Mol Med ; 56(3): 700-710, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486106

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a crucial role in cancer progression, but the relevance of the inflammasome remains unclear. Alu RNA was the first endogenous nucleic acid shown to activate the NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing 3) inflammasome. Here, we showed that Alu RNA can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1ß release in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Alu RNA is stored, transported and transferred to CRC cells by exosomes. Exosomal Alu RNA promotes tumorigenesis by inducing invasion, metastasis and EMT via NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Consistent with these data, we found that significantly increased Alu RNA expression correlates with the induction of NLRP3 priming in human CRC patients. Furthermore, the level of Alu RNA in circulating exosomes correlates with CRC progression in a preclinical model. These findings reveal the direct involvement of Alu RNA in cancer pathogenesis, and its presence in CRC cell-derived exosomes could be used as a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Exossomos , Humanos , RNA/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo
17.
Mol Cancer ; 23(1): 59, 2024 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are crucial in the targeted treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Anlotinib, a multi-target TKI, has previously been demonstrated to offer therapeutic benefits in previous studies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been implicated in CRC progression and their unique structural stability serves as promising biomarkers. The detailed molecular mechanisms and specific biomarkers related to circRNAs in the era of targeted therapies, however, remain obscure. METHODS: The whole transcriptome RNA sequencing and function experiments were conducted to identify candidate anlotinib-regulated circRNAs, whose mechanism was confirmed by molecular biology experiments. CircHAS2 was profiled in a library of patient-derived CRC organoids (n = 22) and patient-derived CRC tumors in mice. Furthermore, a prospective phase II clinical study of 14 advanced CRC patients with anlotinib-based therapy was commenced to verify drug sensitivity (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05262335). RESULTS: Anlotinib inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by downregulating circHAS2. CircHAS2 modulates CCNE2 activation by acting as a sponge for miR-1244, and binding to USP10 to facilitate p53 nuclear export as well as degradation. In parallel, circHAS2 serves as a potent biomarker predictive of anlotinib sensitivity, both in patient-derived organoids and xenograft models. Moreover, the efficacy of anlotinib inclusion into the treatment regimen yields meaningful clinical responses in patients with high levels of circHAS2. Our findings offer a promising targeted strategy for approximately 52.9% of advanced CRC patients who have high circHAS2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: CircHAS2 promotes cell proliferation via the miR-1244/CCNE2 and USP10/p53/CCNE2 bidirectional axes. Patient-derived organoids and xenograft models are employed to validate the sensitivity to anlotinib. Furthermore, our preliminary Phase II clinical study, involving advanced CRC patients treated with anlotinib, confirmed circHAS2 as a potential sensitivity marker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Indóis , MicroRNAs , Quinolinas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , RNA Circular/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Estudos Prospectivos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Biomarcadores , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo
18.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 323, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased mitochondrial activities contributing to cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis have been reported in different cancers; however, studies on the therapeutic targeting of mitochondria in regulating cell proliferation and invasiveness are limited. Because mitochondria are believed to have evolved through bacterial invasion in mammalian cells, antibiotics could provide an alternative approach to target mitochondria, especially in cancers with increased mitochondrial activities. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of bacteriostatic antibiotics in regulating the growth potential of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, which differ in their metastatic potential and mitochondrial functions. METHODS: A combination of viability, cell migration, and spheroid formation assays was used to measure the effect on metastatic potential. The effect on mitochondrial mechanisms was investigated by measuring mitochondrial DNA copy number by qPCR, biogenesis (by qPCR and immunoblotting), and functions by measuring reactive oxygen species, membrane potential, and ATP using standard methods. In addition, the effect on assembly and activities of respiratory chain (RC) complexes was determined using blue native gel electrophoresis and in-gel assays, respectively). Changes in metastatic and cell death signaling were measured by immunoblotting with specific marker proteins and compared between CRC cells. RESULTS: Both tigecycline and tetracycline effectively reduced the viability, migration, and spheroid-forming capacity of highly metastatic CRC cells. This increased sensitivity was attributed to reduced mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis, ATP content, membrane potential, and increased oxidative stress. Specifically, complex I assembly and activity were significantly inhibited by these antibiotics in high-metastatic cells. Significant down-regulation in the expression of mitochondrial-mediated survival pathways, such as phospho-AKT, cMYC, phospho-SRC, and phospho-FAK, and upregulation in cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) were observed, which contributed to the enhanced sensitivity of highly metastatic CRC cells toward these antibiotics. In addition, the combined treatment of the CRC chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin with tigecycline/tetracycline at physiological concentrations effectively sensitized these cells at early time points. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our study reports that bacterial antibiotics, such as tigecycline and tetracycline, target mitochondrial functions specifically mitochondrial complex I architecture and activity and would be useful in combination with cancer chemotherapeutics for high metastatic conditions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Animais , Humanos , Tigeciclina/metabolismo , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Apoptose , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
19.
Redox Biol ; 71: 103118, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490069

RESUMO

The induction of ferroptosis is promising for cancer therapy. However, the mechanisms enabling cancer cells to evade ferroptosis, particularly in low-cystine environments, remain elusive. Our study delves into the intricate regulatory mechanisms of Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) on Cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) under cystine deprivation stress, conferring resistance to ferroptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Additionally, our findings establish a positively correlation between this signaling axis and CRC progression, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target. Mechanistically, ATF3 positively regulates CBS to resist ferroptosis under cystine deprivation stress. In contrast, the suppression of CBS sensitizes CRC cells to ferroptosis through targeting the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Notably, our study highlights that the ATF3-CBS signaling axis enhances ferroptosis-based CRC cancer therapy. Collectively, the findings reveal that the ATF3-CBS signaling axis is the primary feedback pathway in ferroptosis, and blocking this axis could be a potential therapeutic approach for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Ferroptose , Humanos , Cistationina beta-Sintase/metabolismo , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 3 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Ferroptose/genética , Cistina , Carcinogênese/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 326: 117913, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360380

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kaempferia galanga Linn. is an aromatic medicinal herb with extensively applied in India, China, Malaysia and other South Asia countries for thousands of years. It has been mentioned to treat abdominal tumors. Ethyl cinnamate (EC), one of the main chemical constituents of the rhizome of K. galanga, exhibited nematocidal, sedative and vasorelaxant activities. However, its anti-angiogenic activity, and anti-tumor effect have not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-angiogenic mechanism of EC and its anti-tumor effect by suppressing angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro anti-angiogenic effect was evaluated using HUVECs model induced by VEGF and zebrafish model in vivo. The influence of the EC on phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling pathways were evaluated by western blotting assay. Molecule docking technology was conducted to explore the interaction between EC and VEGFR2. SPR assay was used for detecting the binding affinity between EC and VEGFR2. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of EC on anti-angiogenesis, VEGFR2 knockdown in HUVECs and examined the influence of the EC. Anti-tumor activity of EC was evaluated using colony formation assay and apoptosis assay. The inhibitory effect of EC on tumor growth was explored using HT29 colon cancer xenograft model. RESULTS: EC obviously inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of VEGF-induced HUVECs. EC also induced apoptosis of HUVECs. Moreover, it inhibited the development of vessel formation in zebrafish. Further investigations demonstrated that EC could suppress the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, and its downstream signaling pathways were altered in VEGF-induced HUVECs. EC formed a hydrogen bond to bind with the ATP binding site of the VEGFR2, and EC-VEGFR2 interaction was shown in SPR assay. The suppressive effect of EC on angiogenesis was abrogated after VEGFR2 knockdown in HUVECs. EC inhibited the colon cancer cells colony formation and induced apoptosis. In addition, EC suppressed tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft model, and no detectable hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. In addition, it inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, and its downstream signal pathways in tumor. CONCLUSIONS: EC could inhibit tumor growth in colon cancer by suppressing angiogenesis via VEGFR2 signaling pathway, and suggested EC as a promising candidate for colon cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Cinamatos , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Animais , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Movimento Celular , Transdução de Sinais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo
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