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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2853, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565883

RESUMO

Aberrant glycosylation is a crucial strategy employed by cancer cells to evade cellular immunity. However, it's unclear whether homologous recombination (HR) status-dependent glycosylation can be therapeutically explored. Here, we show that the inhibition of branched N-glycans sensitizes HR-proficient, but not HR-deficient, epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). In contrast to fucosylation whose inhibition sensitizes EOCs to anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy regardless of HR-status, we observe an enrichment of branched N-glycans on HR-proficient compared to HR-deficient EOCs. Mechanistically, BRCA1/2 transcriptionally promotes the expression of MGAT5, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing branched N-glycans. The branched N-glycans on HR-proficient tumors augment their resistance to anti-PD-L1 by enhancing its binding with PD-1 on CD8+ T cells. In orthotopic, syngeneic EOC models in female mice, inhibiting branched N-glycans using 2-Deoxy-D-glucose sensitizes HR-proficient, but not HR-deficient EOCs, to anti-PD-L1. These findings indicate branched N-glycans as promising therapeutic targets whose inhibition sensitizes HR-proficient EOCs to ICB by overcoming immune evasion.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo
2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 485, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths. One of the major challenges in treating ovarian cancer with chemotherapy is managing the resistance developed by cancer cells to drugs, while also minimizing the side effects caused by these agents In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of a combination of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), with cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer(OVCAR-3). METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of ALA, cisplatin and paclitaxel on OVCAR-3 cells were determined. Four groups were formed: Control, ALA, Cisplatin + Paclitaxel, ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel. The effects of single and combined therapy on cell migration, invasion and colony formation were analyzed. Changes in the expression of genes related to apoptosis, cell adhesion and cell cycle were analyzed with Real-time polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The oxidative stress index and The Annexin V test were performed. RESULTS: The reduction in rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR(RICTOR) expression in the ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel group was found statistically significant(p < 0.05). The decrease in MMP-9 and - 11 expressions the ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel group was statistically significant(p < 0.05). The lowest values for mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) proteins were found in the ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel group. No colony formation was observed in the Cisplatin + Paclitaxel and ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel groups. The lowest wound healing at 24 h was seen in the ALA + Cisplatin + Paclitaxel group. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first one to investigate the combined treatment of ALA, Cisplatin, Paclitaxel on OVCAR-3. While ALA alone was not effective, combined therapy with ALA, has been found to reduce cell invasion, especially wound healing in the first 24 h, along with tumor cell adhesion.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Ácido Tióctico , Humanos , Feminino , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Apoptose , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7992, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580676

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-targeting drugs are increasingly being incorporated into therapeutic paradigms for non-breast cancers, yet studies on HER2 expression in ovarian cancer (OC) are inadequate. Here, we studied the HER2 status and dynamic changes in OC by reviewing the records of patients who underwent HER2 testing at a single institution. Clinical parameters, including histology, BRCA status, and immunohistochemistry (IHC), were evaluated alongside HER2 expression, timing, and anatomical location. Among 200 patients, 28% and 6% exhibited expression scores of 2+ and 3+, respectively. HER2 3+ scores were observed in 23%, 11%, 9%, and 5% of mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and high-grade serous tumors, respectively, and were exclusively identified in BRCA-wildtype, mismatch repair-proficient, or PD-L1-low-expressing tumors. The TP53 mutation rate was low, whereas ARID1A, KRAS, and PIK3CA mutations were relatively more prevalent with HER2 scores of 2+ or 3+ than with 0 or 1+. Four of the five tumors with an HER2 3+ score exhibited ERBB2 amplification. Among 19 patients who underwent multiple time-lagged biopsies, 11 showed increased HER2 expression in subsequent biopsies. Patients with HER2-overexpressing OC exhibited distinct histological, IHC, and genomic profiles. HER2-targeting agents are potential options for BRCA-wildtype patients, particularly as later lines of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Receptor ErbB-2 , Humanos , Feminino , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2860, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570491

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is genetically unstable and characterised by the presence of subclones with distinct genotypes. Intratumoural heterogeneity is linked to recurrence, chemotherapy resistance, and poor prognosis. Here, we use spatial transcriptomics to identify HGSOC subclones and study their association with infiltrating cell populations. Visium spatial transcriptomics reveals multiple tumour subclones with different copy number alterations present within individual tumour sections. These subclones differentially express various ligands and receptors and are predicted to differentially associate with different stromal and immune cell populations. In one sample, CosMx single molecule imaging reveals subclones differentially associating with immune cell populations, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Cell-to-cell communication analysis identifies subclone-specific signalling to stromal and immune cells and multiple subclone-specific autocrine loops. Our study highlights the high degree of subclonal heterogeneity in HGSOC and suggests that subclone-specific ligand and receptor expression patterns likely modulate how HGSOC cells interact with their local microenvironment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Feminino , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA
5.
Cancer Med ; 13(7): e7149, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been increasingly used in the treatment of ovarian cancer, with BRCA positivity and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) being common biomarkers used for predicting their efficacy. However, given the limitations of these biomarkers, new ones need to be explored. METHODS: This retrospective study included 181 ovarian cancer patients who received olaparib or niraparib at two independent hospitals in Japan between May 2018 and December 2022. Clinical information and blood sampling data were collected. Patient characteristics, treatment history, and predictability of treatment duration based on blood data before treatment initiation were examined. RESULTS: High-grade serous carcinoma, BRCA positivity, HRD, and maintenance therapy after recurrence treatment were observed more frequently in the olaparib group than in the niraparib group. The most common reasons for treatment interruption were anemia, fatigue, and nausea in the olaparib group and thrombocytopenia in the niraparib group. Regarding response to olaparib treatment, complete response to the most recent treatment, maintenance therapy after the first chemotherapy, high-grade serous carcinoma, and germline BRCA positivity were observed significantly more frequently among responders than among non-responders. Furthermore, neutrophil counts were significantly higher among responders than among non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammation-related blood data, such as neutrophil count, obtained at the initial pre-treatment visit might serve as potential predictors for prolonged olaparib treatment. While this study offers valuable insights into potential indicators for prolonged olaparib treatment, it underscores the need for more expansive research to strengthen our understanding of PARP inhibitors and optimize treatment strategies in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Japão , Ribose/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mutação , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Biomarcadores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos
6.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(4): e23676, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561971

RESUMO

Although the treatment of ovarian cancer has made great progress, there are still many patients who are not timely detected and given targeted therapy due to unknown pathogenesis. Recent studies have found that hsa_circ_0015326 is upregulated in ovarian cancer and is involved in the proliferation, invasion, and migration of ovarian cancer cells. However, whether hsa_circ_0015326 can be used as a new target of ovarian cancer needs further investigation. Therefore, the effect of hsa_circ_0015326 on epithelial ovarian cancer was investigated in this study. At first, si-hsa_circ_0015326 lentivirus was transfected into epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Then real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect hsa_circ_0015326 level. The proliferation of ovarian cancer cells was detected by CCK-8 assay. The horizontal and vertical migration abilities of the cells were detected by wound-healing assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Transwell assay was also used to determine the invasion rate. As for the apoptosis rate, it was assessed by flow cytometry. As a result, the expression level of hsa_circ_0015326 in A2780 and SKOV3 was found to be higher than that in IOSE-80. However, after transfecting si-hsa_circ_0015326 and si-NC into the cells, the proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities of A2780 and SKOV3 cells in the si-hsa_circ_0015326 group were significantly reduced in comparison to those in the si-NC and mock groups, while their apoptosis rates were elevated. Collectively, silencing hsa_circ_0015326 bears the capability of inhibiting the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells while increasing apoptosis rate. It can be concluded that hsa_circ_0015326 promotes the malignant biological activities of epithelial ovarian cancer cells.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , RNA/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Apoptose , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Movimento Celular
7.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 70, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aims to evaluating the subsequent management and outcomes after first-line PARPi progression in Chinese ovarian cancer population. METHODS: Clinical and pathologic variables, treatment modalities, and outcomes were assessed. We investigated the subsequent management and outcomes after first-line PARPi progression. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) parameters were evaluated to determine the response to subsequent chemotherapy. For the survival analyses, progression-free survival 1 (PFS1), PFS2, overall survival (OS) and PFS2 - PFS1 were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients received PARPi maintenance treatment after first-line chemotherapy during the study period in our center. 44 of them (35.5%) experienced a recurrence. The median duration of PARPi in these patients was 11.1 months (range: 1.2-75.1 months). A total of 40 patients (40/44, 90.9%) received subsequent chemotherapy with 35 (35/44, 79.5%) and 5 (5/44, 11.4%) patients received platinum-based and non-platinum-based chemotherapy in our center. 2 patients (4.5%) received target therapy and other 2 patients (4.5%) received best supportive care. 27.3% (12/44) patients received secondary cytoreduction surgery (SCS). After subsequent chemotherapy, 14 patients received PARPi retreatment as maintenance therapy. In patients who received platinum-based regimens (n = 35), 23 of 35 patients (65.7%) had complete/partial response (CR/PR), 8 of 35 (22.9%) had stable disease (SD), and 4 of 35 (12.1%) had progressive disease (PD). The ORR and DCR of patients who received subsequent chemotherapy was 65.7% and 88.6%, respectively. 15 patients (57.7%, 15/26) were reported to be platinum resistant with a platinum-free interval (PFI) of < 6 months in patients whose platinum sensitivity of the second line platinum-based regimens was evaluable. Patients who received SCS after PARPi resistant associated with a borderline better PFS2 (median PFS2: 41.9 vs. 29.2 months, P = 0.051) and a non-significantly increased PFS2-PFS1 (median PFS2-PFS1: 12.2 vs. 9.8 months, P = 0.551). Patients with a PFI ≥ 12 months had a significantly better PFS2 (median PFS2: 37.0 vs. 25.3 months, P < 0.001) and a tendency towards a better PFS2-PFS1 than those with a PFI < 12 months (median PFS2-PFS1: 11.2 vs. 8.5 months, P = 0.334). A better PFS2 was observed in patients who received second PARPi maintenance therapy (median PFS2 of 35.4 vs. 28.8 months); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.200). A better PFS2-PFS1 was observed in patients who received second PARPi maintenance therapy (median PFS2-PFS1: 13.6 vs. 8.9 months, P = 0.002) than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, some degree of resistance to standard subsequent platinum and non-platinum chemotherapy is noted in the entire cohort. A trend towards higher benefit from subsequent chemotherapy after first-line PARP inhibitors progression was observed in the PFI ≥ 12 months subgroup than those with PFI < 12 months. PARPi retreatment as maintenance therapy and SCS can be offered to some patients with PARPi resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Humanos , Feminino , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida , Platina/farmacologia , Platina/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 3071-3086, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562611

RESUMO

Introduction: The high mortality rate of malignant ovarian cancer is attributed to the absence of effective early diagnosis methods. The LHRH receptor is specifically overexpressed in most ovarian cancers, and the integrin αvß3 receptor is also overexpressed on the surface of ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we designed LHRH analogues (LHRHa)/RGD co-modified paclitaxel liposomes (LHRHa-RGD-LP-PTX) to target LHRH receptor-positive ovarian cancers more effectively and enhance the anti-ovarian cancer effects. Methods: LHRHa-RGD-LP-PTX liposomes were prepared using the thin film hydration method. The morphology, physicochemical properties, cellular uptake, and cell viability were assessed. Additionally, the cellular uptake mechanism of the modified liposomes was investigated using various endocytic inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of the formulations on tumor spheroids was observed under a microscope. The co-localization with lysosomes was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the in vivo tumor-targeting ability of the formulations was assessed using the IVIS fluorescent imaging system. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of the formulations was evaluated in the armpits of BALB/c nude mice. Results: The results indicated that LHRHa-RGD-LP-PTX significantly enhanced cellular uptake in A2780 cells, increased cytotoxicity, and hand a more potent inhibitory effect on tumor spheroids of A2780 cells. It also showed enhanced co-localization with endosomes or lysosome in A2780 cells, improved tumor-targeting capability, and demonstrated an enhanced anti-tumor effect in LHRHR-positive ovarian cancers. Conclusion: The designed LHRHa-RGD-LP-PTX liposomes significantly enhanced the tumor-targeting ability and therapeutic efficacy for LHRH receptor-positive ovarian cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Lipossomos/química , Receptores LHRH , Integrina alfaVbeta3 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos Nus , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Oligopeptídeos/química
9.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 77, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our explorative study assessed a panel of molecules for their association with epithelial ovarian carcinomas and their prognostic implications. The panel included tissue expression of VEGF-C, COX-2, Ki-67 and eNOS alongside plasma levels of VEGF-C and nitric oxide. METHODS: 130 cases were enrolled in the study. Plasma levels were quantified by ELISA and tissue expressions were scored by immunohistochemistry. The Chi square and Fischer's exact test were applied to examine the impact of markers on clinicopathological factors. Non-parametric Spearman's rank correlation test was applied to define the association among test factors. RESULTS: Plasma VEGF-C levels and COX-2 tissue expression strongly predicted recurrence and poor prognosis (< 0.001). Tissue Ki-67 was strongly indicative of late-stage disease (< 0.001). The aforementioned markers significantly associated with clinicopathological factors. Nuclear staining of VEGF-C was intriguing and was observed to correlate with high grade-stage malignancies, highly elevated plasma VEGF-C, and with recurrence. eNOS tissue expression showed no significant impact while nitric oxide associated positively with ascites levels. Tissue expression of VEGF-C did not associate significantly with poor prognosis although the expression was highly upregulated in most of the cases. CONCLUSION: Plasma VEGF-C holds immense promise as a prognostic marker and the nuclear staining of VEGF-C seems to have some significant implication in molecular carcinogenesis and is a novel finding that commands further robust scrutiny. We present a first such study that assesses a set of biomarkers for prognostic implications in clinical management of epithelial ovarian carcinomas in a pan-Indian (Asian) population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Antígeno Ki-67 , Óxido Nítrico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(4): 247, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575576

RESUMO

The primary site of metastasis for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the peritoneum, and it occurs through a multistep process that begins with adhesive contacts between cancer cells and mesothelial cells. Despite evidence that Notch signaling has a role in ovarian cancer, it is unclear how exactly it contributes to ovarian cancer omental metastasis, as well as the cellular dynamics and intrinsic pathways that drive this tropism. Here we show that tumor cells produced the Notch ligand Jagged2 is a clinically and functionally critical mediator of ovarian cancer omental metastasis by activating the Notch signaling in single-layered omental mesothelial cells. In turn, Jagged2 promotes tumor growth and therapeutic resistance by stimulating IL-6 release from mesothelial cells. Additionally, Jagged2 is a potent downstream mediator of the omental metastasis cytokine TGF-ß that is released during omental destruction. Importantly, therapeutic inhibition of Jagged2-mediated omental metastasis was significantly improved by directly disrupting the Notch pathway in omental mesothelial cells. These findings highlight the key role of Jagged2 to the functional interplay between the TGF-ß and the Notch signaling pathways during the metastatic process of ovarian cancer cells to the omentum and identify the Notch signaling molecule as a precision therapeutic target for ovarian cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Neoplasias Peritoneais , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais , Feminino , Humanos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
11.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 20(1): 454-456, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554362

RESUMO

INRODUCTION: Mucinous cystic neoplasms are rare tumors. They may originate from either ovaries, pancreas, or other intra-abdominal sites, but rarely from the mesentery. CASE HISTORY: A 22-year-old nulliparaous woman, who had undergone laparascopic bilateral cystectomy for recurrent ovarian mass, presented with pain in abdomen, backache, and menstrual irregularities. Provisionally diagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, she underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sigmoid colectomy. However, the histopathological examination revealed mucinous cystic neoplasm of the mesentery. DISCUSSION: Thus, complete resection of the cysts with meticulous gross and histopathological examination remains the gold standard to differentiate mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the mesentery from its mimics, especially malignant counterparts, enabling clinicians to adequately manage such patients. Here, we present a case of recurrent MCN of mesentery (mesocolon), mimicking as ovarian carcinoma confirmed on histopathological examination, in a young adult.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Mucocele , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Mesentério/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Mucocele/patologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2805, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555285

RESUMO

The multi-cohort phase 2 trial NCT02203513 was designed to evaluate the clinical activity of the CHK1 inhibitor (CHK1i) prexasertib in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. Here we report the activity of CHK1i in platinum-resistant high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) with measurable and biopsiable disease (cohort 5), or without biopsiable disease (cohort 6). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary outcomes were safety and progression-free survival (PFS). 49 heavily pretreated patients were enrolled (24 in cohort 5, 25 in cohort 6). Among the 39 RECISTv1.1-evaluable patients, ORR was 33.3% in cohort 5 and 28.6% in cohort 6. Primary endpoint was not evaluable due to early stop of the trial. The median PFS was 4 months in cohort 5 and 6 months in cohort 6. Toxicity was manageable. Translational research was an exploratory endpoint. Potential biomarkers were investigated using pre-treatment fresh biopsies and serial blood samples. Transcriptomic analysis revealed high levels of DNA replication-related genes (POLA1, POLE, GINS3) associated with lack of clinical benefit [defined post-hoc as PFS < 6 months]. Subsequent preclinical experiments demonstrated significant cytotoxicity of POLA1 silencing in combination with CHK1i in platinum-resistant HGSOC cell line models. Therefore, POLA1 expression may be predictive for CHK1i resistance, and the concurrent POLA1 inhibition may improve the efficacy of CHK1i monotherapy in this hard-to-treat population, deserving further investigation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Pirazinas , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona
13.
Anticancer Res ; 44(4): 1399-1407, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The prognosis of ovarian cancer (OC) patients is especially poor for patients with chemotherapy resistance. Anlotinib, a novel multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has shown encouraging clinical efficacy in several tumor types. The aim of the present study was to examine the inhibitory efficacy and mechanism of anlotinib on the proliferation and chemosensitivity of OC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effects of Anlotinib on SKOV3 and OVCAR3 OC cells were examined using CCK-8 cell-viability, colony-formation, flow-cytometry, transwell-migration and sphere-formation assays. A xenograft mouse model was used for in vivo studies. RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to detect gene expression. RESULTS: Molecular targets of anlotinib were elevated in OC patient tumors. Anlotinib significantly inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Anlotinib enhanced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatinum both in vitro and in vivo. Anlotinib suppressed sphere formation and the stemness phenotype of OC cells by inhibiting NOTCH2 expression. CONCLUSION: Anlotinib inhibits ovarian cancer and enhances cisplatinum sensitivity, suggesting its future clinical promise.


Assuntos
Indóis , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Quinolinas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor Notch2/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 73(5): 80, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554167

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy has seen significant success in the last decade for cancer management by enhancing endogenous cancer immunity. However, immunotherapies developed thus far have seen limited success in the majority of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) ovarian cancer patients. This is largely due to the highly immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment of HGSC and late-stage identification. Thus, novel treatment interventions are needed to overcome this immunosuppression and complement existing immunotherapies. Here, we have identified through analysis of > 600 human HGSC tumours a critical role for Let-7i in modulating the tumoural immune network. Tumoural expression of Let-7i had high positive correlation with anti-cancer immune signatures in HGSC patients. Confirming this role, enforced Let-7i expression in murine HGSC tumours resulted in a significant decrease in tumour burden with a significant increase in tumour T cell numbers in tumours. In concert with the improved tumoural immunity, Let-7i treatment also significantly increased CD86 expression in antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the draining lymph nodes, indicating enhanced APC activity. Collectively, our findings highlight an important role of Let-7i in anti-tumour immunity and its potential use for inducing an anti-tumour effect in HGSC.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 61, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a major factor contributing to the high mortality rate of ovarian cancer, making the treatment of this disease challenging. However, the molecular mechanism underlying LNM in ovarian cancer is still not well understood, posing a significant obstacle to overcome. RESULTS: Through data mining from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases, we have identified MEOX1 as a specific gene associated with LNM in ovarian cancer. The expression of MEOX1 was found to be relatively high in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma, and its higher expression were associated with increased tumor grade and poorer clinical prognosis for ovarian cancer patients. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that MEOX1 exhibited the highest mRNA levels among all cancer types in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and pathway analysis demonstrated that MEOX1 was involved in various LNM-related biological activities, such as lymphangiogenesis, lymphatic vessel formation during metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), G2/M checkpoint, degradation of extracellular matrix, and collagen formation. Additionally, the expression of MEOX1 was positively correlated with the expression of numerous prolymphangiogenic factors in ovarian cancer. To validate our findings, we conducted experiments using clinical tissue specimens and cell lines, which confirmed that MEOX1 was highly expressed in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) tissues and various ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, SKOV3, HO8910, and OVCAR5) compared to normal ovarian tissues and normal ovarian epithelial cell line IOSE-80, respectively. Notably, we observed a higher protein level of MEOX1 in tumor tissues of LNM-positive HGSOC compared to LNM-negative HGSOC. Moreover, our fundamental experiments demonstrated that suppression of MEOX1 led to inhibitory effects on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and EMT, while overexpression of MEOX1 enhanced the proliferation and EMT capacities of ovarian cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that MEOX1 plays a role in the lymph node metastasis of ovarian cancer by regulating multiple biological activities, including the proliferation and EMT of ovarian cancer, lymphangiogenesis, and ECM remodeling. Our findings suggest that MEOX1 could serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer with LNM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metástase Linfática , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Proliferação de Células , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio
16.
Cancer Res ; 84(6): 793-795, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486481

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the deadliest subtype of ovarian cancer. While PARP inhibitors (PARPi) have transformed the care of advanced HGSOC, PARPi resistance poses a major limitation to their clinical utility. DNA damage checkpoint signaling via ATR kinase can counteract PARPi-induced replication stress, making ATR an attractive therapeutic target in PARPi-resistant tumors. However, ATR inhibitor (ATRi) efficacy in the clinic is low, emphasizing the need for suitable combination treatments. In this issue of Cancer Research, Huang and colleagues uncovered cytotoxic synergism between inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway and ATR based on high-throughput screening for ATRi drug combinations in PARPi-resistant HGSOC cells. Dual inhibition of ATR and AKT resulted in aberrant replication stress and cell death, which was attributed in part to impaired resolution of replication-stalling RNA:DNA hybrids (R loops). The authors identified the DNA/RNA helicase DHX9 as a clinically relevant candidate effector of R loop resolution in HGSOC. AKT interacted with and recruited DHX9 to R loops, where it complemented ATR in facilitating their removal. Underlining the therapeutic potential relevance of these findings, combined inhibition of ATR and AKT caused near complete tumor regression in HGSOC xenograft models, and elevated AKT/DHX9 levels correlated with poor survival in patients with HGSOC. Of note, the genotoxic consequences of dual ATRi/AKTi treatment extended beyond PARPi-resistant tumors and are likely to affect genome integrity beyond R loops. The work by Huang and colleagues thus provides compelling rationale for the exploration of combined targeting of the AKT and ATR pathways as a potentially broadly applicable treatment of advanced HGSOC. See related article by Huang et al., p. 887.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Estruturas R-Loop , Humanos , Feminino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , DNA
17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298127, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian Cancer (OC) stands as the most lethal gynecological malignancy, presenting an urgent clinical challenge in the quest to improve response rates. One approach to address this challenge is through drug repurposing, exemplified by the investigation of metabolic-modulating drugs such as Metformin (MTF) and Simvastatin (SIM). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms contributing to the potential synergistic anti-cancer effects between MTF and SIM on ovarian cancer cells. METHODS: We assessed the effects of the combination on the proliferation and viability of two cell lines OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3. IC50 concentrations of MTF and SIM were determined using a proliferation assay, followed by subtoxic concentrations to explore the potential synergistic effects on the viability of both cell lines. Transcriptomic analysis was conducted on OVCAR-3 treated cells, and the findings were validated by assessing the expression levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) through real-time PCR in both cell lines SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity analysis guided the selection of treatment concentrations as such MTF 10 mM and SIM 5 µM. The combined treatment of MTF and SIM demonstrated a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and viability in both cell lines. In OVCAR-3, exclusive identification of 507 DEGs was seen in the combination arm. Upregulation of FOXO3, RhoA, and TNFα, along with downregulation of PIK3R1, SKP2, and ATP6V1D levels, was observed in OVCAR-3 treated cells. Real-time PCR validation confirmed the consistency of expression levels for the mentioned DEGs. CONCLUSION: Our data strongly supports the presence of synergy between MTF and SIM in OC cells. The combination's effect is associated with the dysregulation of genes in the key regulators AMPK and mTOR alongside other interconnected pathways.


Assuntos
Metformina , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6280, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491077

RESUMO

Amiodarone repositioning in cancer treatment is promising, however toxicity limits seem to arise, constraining its exploitability. Notably, amiodarone has been investigated for the treatment of ovarian cancer, a tumour known for metastasizing within the peritoneal cavity. This is associated with an increase of fatty acid oxidation, which strongly depends on CPT1A, a transport protein which has been found overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Amiodarone is an inhibitor of CPT1A but its role still has to be explored. Therefore, in the present study, amiodarone was tested on ovarian cancer cell lines with a focus on lipid alteration, confirming its activity. Moreover, considering that drug delivery systems could lower drug side effects, microfluidics was employed for the development of drug delivery systems of amiodarone obtaining simultaneously liposomes with a high payload and amiodarone particles. Prior to amiodarone loading, microfluidics production was optimized in term of temperature and flow rate ratio. Moreover, stability over time of particles was evaluated. In vitro tests confirmed the efficacy of the drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Amiodarona , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Amiodarona/farmacologia , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Microfluídica , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
19.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 280, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer (OC) is distinguished by its aggressive nature and the limited efficacy of current treatment strategies. Recent studies have emphasized the significant role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in OC development and progression. METHODS: Employing sophisticated machine learning techniques on bulk transcriptomic datasets, we identified fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7), derived from CAFs, as a potential oncogenic factor. We investigated the relationship between FGF7 expression and various clinical parameters. A series of in vitro experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effect of CAFs-derived FGF7 on OC cell activities, such as proliferation, migration, and invasion. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis was also conducted to elucidate the interaction between FGF7 and its receptor. Detailed mechanistic investigations sought to clarify the pathways through which FGF7 fosters OC progression. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that higher FGF7 levels correlate with advanced tumor stages, increased vascular invasion, and poorer prognosis. CAFs-derived FGF7 significantly enhanced OC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Single-cell analysis and in vitro studies revealed that CAFs-derived FGF7 inhibits the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) via FGFR2 interaction. Activation of the FGF7/HIF-1α pathway resulted in the upregulation of mesenchymal markers and downregulation of epithelial markers. Importantly, in vivo treatment with neutralizing antibodies targeting CAFs-derived FGF7 substantially reduced tumor growth. CONCLUSION: Neutralizing FGF7 in the medium or inhibiting HIF-1α signaling reversed the effects of FGF7-mediated EMT, emphasizing the dependence of FGF7-mediated EMT on HIF-1α activation. These findings suggest that targeting the FGF7/HIF-1α/EMT axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to intervene in OC progression.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Movimento Celular/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2528, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514660

RESUMO

Intratumoral tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) have been associated with improved outcome in various cohorts of patients with cancer, reflecting their contribution to the development of tumor-targeting immunity. Here, we demonstrate that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) contains distinct immune aggregates with varying degrees of organization and maturation. Specifically, mature TLSs (mTLS) as forming only in 16% of HGSOCs with relatively elevated tumor mutational burden (TMB) are associated with an increased intratumoral density of CD8+ effector T (TEFF) cells and TIM3+PD1+, hence poorly immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-sensitive, CD8+ T cells. Conversely, CD8+ T cells from immunologically hot tumors like non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) are enriched in ICI-responsive TCF1+ PD1+ T cells. Spatial B-cell profiling identifies patterns of in situ maturation and differentiation associated with mTLSs. Moreover, B-cell depletion promotes signs of a dysfunctional CD8+ T cell compartment among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from freshly isolated HGSOC and NSCLC biopsies. Taken together, our data demonstrate that - at odds with NSCLC - HGSOC is associated with a low density of follicular helper T cells and thus develops a limited number of mTLS that might be insufficient to preserve a ICI-sensitive TCF1+PD1+ CD8+ T cell phenotype. These findings point to key quantitative and qualitative differences between mTLSs in ICI-responsive vs ICI-irresponsive neoplasms that may guide the development of alternative immunotherapies for patients with HGSOC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias , Humanos , Feminino , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Fenótipo , Microambiente Tumoral
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