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1.
Clin Lab ; 68(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the correlation between preoperative serum albumin-globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognosis of patients undergoing low rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A total of 152 patients treated from June 2013 to June 2015 were selected. They were divided into survival group (n = 128) and death group (n = 24). Their general clinical data and preoperative and postoperative serum albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) levels, and AGR were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for influencing factors for postoperative death. A nomogram prediction model was established based on independent risk factors. The predictive value of AGR for clinical outcomes was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the optimal cut-off value was obtained. The correlation between AGR and postoperative clinical outcomes was analyzed. The patients were divided into group A and B according to cut-off value, survival curves were plotted by Kaplan-Meier method, and 5-year survival rates were compared. RESULTS: There were significant differences in tumor stage, cell differentiation, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, chemotherapy, preoperative ALB, GLB, and AGR between the two groups, which were all independent risk factors for death. After operation, ALB and AGR significantly declined and were significantly lower in the death group than those in the survival group. The death group had significantly higher GLB level than that of the survival group. The optimal cut-off value of AGR for predicting death was 1.73. AGR was significantly correlated with postoperative clinical outcomes. The survival rate of patients with AGR > 1.73 significantly exceeded that of cases with AGR ≤ 1.73. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative serum AGR is an independent risk factor for the postoperative clinical outcomes of patients with low rectal cancer and has a high predictive value. Lower AGR indicates higher risk of postoperative death.


Assuntos
Globulinas , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983809

RESUMO

A 61-year-old woman developed neorectal prolapse after laparoscopic low anterior resection, total mesorectal excision with partial intersphincteric resection and handsewn coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer. She presented with a 3 cm full thickness reducible prolapse, with associated anal pain and bleeding. A perineal stapled prolapse resection was performed to address the rectal prolapse, with satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Prolapso Retal , Canal Anal/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Períneo/cirurgia , Prolapso , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Prolapso Retal/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
In Vivo ; 36(1): 439-445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of surgical site infection (SSI) prevention approaches in rectal cancer surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1,408 patients who underwent elective rectal cancer surgery between 1995 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: control group (group A, n=245), SSI prevention intervention group (group B, n=516), and laparoscopic or robotic surgery group (group C, n=647). The groups were compared in terms of SSI and anastomotic leakage (AL) incidences, and risk factors for SSI were investigated. RESULTS: The overall SSI and AL rates were 19.4% and 3.6%, respectively. These rates were significantly lower in Group C (9.3%, 1.7%), compared to Groups A (40.0%, 6.1%) and B (22.5%, 3.5%). Abdominoperineal resection, open surgery, operation time, intraoperative bleeding, lack of absorbable sutures, lack of mechanical bowel preparation, and lack of oral antibiotics were independently associated with SSI. CONCLUSION: SSI reduction after rectal cancer surgery was achieved through various intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais , Fístula Anastomótica , Humanos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
4.
World J Surg Oncol ; 20(1): 5, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathological extramural venous invasion (EMVI) is defined as the active invasion of malignant cells into veins beyond the muscularis propria in colorectal cancer. It is associated with poor prognosis and increases the risk of disease recurrence. Specific findings on MRI (termed MRI-EMVI) are reportedly associated with pathological EMVI. In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors for lateral lymph node (LLN) metastasis related to rectal cancer and to evaluate whether MRI-EMVI could be a new and useful imaging biomarker to help LLN metastasis diagnosis besides LLN size. METHODS: We investigated 67 patients who underwent rectal resection and LLN dissection for rectal cancer. We evaluated MRI-EMVI grading score and examined the relationship between MRI-EMVI and LLN metastasis. RESULTS: Pathological LLN metastasis was detected in 18 cases (26.9%), and MRI-EMVI was observed in 32 cases (47.8%). Patients were divided into two cohorts, according to LLN metastasis. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that higher risk of LLN metastasis was significantly associated with MRI-EMVI (P = 0.0112) and a short lateral lymph node axis (≥ 5 mm) (P = 0.0002). The positive likelihood ratios of MRI-EMVI alone, LLN size alone, and the combination of both factors were 2.12, 4.84, and 16.33, respectively. Patients negative for both showed better 2-year relapse-free survival compared to other patients (84.4% vs. 62.1%, P = 0.0374). CONCLUSIONS: MRI-EMVI was a useful imaging biomarker for identifying LLN metastasis in patients with rectal cancer. The combination of MRI-EMVI and LLN size can improve diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Retais , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 155-164, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Impact of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced upper rectal adenocarcinoma (LAURC) is debated. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes between LAURC and locally advanced sigmoid and recto-sigmoid junction cancer (LASC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 149 consecutive patients [42 CRT/LAURC, 16 upfront surgery (US/LAURC) and 91 LASC]. Partial mesorectum excision (PME) was performed for all LAURC. Pathology results as well as short-and-long-term outcomes were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: Overall mortality was nil. Morbidity was comparable (CRT/LAURC 23.8% vs. LASC: 20.8% vs. US/LAURC: 37.5%, p=0.2354). CRT was associated with a reduced risk of positive circumferential margin (CRT/LAURC: 9.5% vs. US/LAURC: 18.7%, p<0.0001). Recurrence rate, 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were similar between the three groups. CONCLUSION: CRT and PME did not improve LAURC oncological outcomes but were associated with improved margins. CRT for LAURC was not associated with increased morbidity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Oncol Rep ; 47(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935061

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer, with high morbidity and mortality rates. In particular, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is difficult to treat and has a high recurrence rate. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) is one of the standard treatment programs of LARC. If the response to treatment and prognosis in patients with LARC can be predicted, it will guide clinical decision­making. Radiomics is characterized by the extraction of high­dimensional quantitative features from medical imaging data, followed by data analysis and model construction, which can be used for tumor diagnosis, staging, prediction of treatment response and prognosis. In recent years, a number of studies have assessed the role of radiomics in NCRT for LARC. MRI­based radiomics provides valuable data and is expected to become an imaging biomarker for predicting treatment response and prognosis. The potential of radiomics to guide personalized medicine is widely recognized; however, current limitations and challenges prevent its application to clinical decision­making. The present review summarizes the applications, limitations and prospects of MRI­based radiomics in LARC.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Prognóstico
8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 213: 106493, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Segmentation of rectal cancerous regions using 2D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images is a critical step in radiation therapy. The shape of rectal cancer has significant variations and the shape of some surrounding organs is similar to that of rectal cancer; these conditions significantly affect the segmentation accuracy of rectal cancer and lead to incorrect segmentation. Therefore, automatic segmentation of rectal cancer is urgently needed, and it is a great challenge. For this task, the existing deep learning-based approaches have two shortcomings: 1) The U-Net network plays an important role in the field of medical segmentation. However, the designs of encoders and decoders in traditional U-Net networks are relatively simple and cannot extract good features, resulting in incorrect segmentation results. 2) Conventional neural networks extract high-level features that often do not include sufficient high-resolution contour information, resulting in ambiguity in contour segmentation. In this paper, we propose an improved U-Net network based on contour prediction, aiming at effective segmentation of rectal cancer. METHODS: We designed a new U-Net network by improving the traditional U-Net network. We made four improvements: 1) We replaced the encoders with the SENet network. 2) A global pooling layer was added after the last encoder. 3) We added the Spatial and Channel Squeeze & Excitation (SCSE) attention mechanism module to each decoder. 4) We concatenated the output results of each decoder. In addition, the model implemented content segmentation and contour segmentation for rectal cancer in parallel, so that both the content and contour information was learned by the network to enhance the segmentation accuracy. RESULTS: Our data were obtained from the Shanxi Provincial Cancer Hospital and included 3773 2D MRI rectal cancer images. The proposed method achieved an Mean Intersection over Union of 0.894 (MIoU) on the test set. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, our method had the best performance on the test set, and its MIoU metric was 0.123 higher than that of the second-best model. At the same time, the effectiveness of the improvements to our method was demonstrated through ablation experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Our method can help radiologists to segment effectively, save their time and energy, and enable them to focus on cases that are not easily segmented because of the complex shape of rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Radiologistas , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia
9.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(1): 46-54, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897711

RESUMO

Adoption of multimodality treatment approach for rectal cancer has resulted in significant improvements in oncologic outcomes. The roles of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery in rectal cancer treatment are continuously evolving with the goal of achieving the best possible oncologic and functional outcome while minimizing treatment toxicity. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent trials focusing on organ-sparing treatment strategies and the optimal selection of patients for neoadjuvant radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
10.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(1): 30-37, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess rectal cancer aggressiveness using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and to investigate their relationship with patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical information and Pelvic MR scans of 106 consecutive patients with primary rectal cancer (RC) were analyzed. Clinical symptoms, age, sex, tumor location, and patient´s survival were recorded. The variables investigated by MR were: depth or mural/extramural tumor involvement, distance to mesorectal margin, lymph node involvement, vascular, peritoneal or sphincter complex infiltration. The association between imaging features and disease-free survival (DFS) was also assessed using a Kaplan-Meier model. Differences between survival curves were tested for significance using the Mantel-Cox LogRank test. RESULTS: The final study population was 106 patients (65 males, 41 females). The median age was 69.5 years (range, 39-92 years). No significant differences were found between death risk and sex, age or tumor location (p>0,05). However, the relative risk (RR) of tumor mortality increased significantly with the presence of the variables: vascular infiltration (×5), T4 tumors (× 4.57), N2 lymph node involvement (more than 3 affected nodes × 4.11) and mesorectal fascia involvement (× 3,77). CONCLUSION: Tumor extension, number of pathological lymph nodes, mesorectal fascia involvement and vascular infiltration values obtained on initial MR imaging staging showed a significant difference for disease-free survival in RC at six years of control.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Anticancer Res ; 42(1): 211-216, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969727

RESUMO

AIM: Anastomotic leakage represents the most fearful complication in colorectal surgery. Important risk factors for leakage are low anastomoses and preoperative radiotherapy. Many surgeons often unnecessarily perform a protective ileostomy, increasing costs and necessitating a second operation for recanalization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of indocyanine green in assessing bowel perfusion, even in cases of a low anastomosis on tissue treated with radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two groups of patients were selected: Group A (risky group) with only low extraperitoneal rectal tumors (<8 cm) previously treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy; group B (no risk group) with only intraperitoneal rectal tumors (>8 cm), not previously treated with neoadjuvant therapy. Clinical postoperative outcome, morbidity, mortality and anastomotic leakage were compared between these two groups. RESULTS: In group A, comprised of 35 patients, the overall complication rate was 8.6%, with two patients developing anastomotic leakage (5.7%). In group B, comprised of 53 patients, the overall complication rate was 17% with four cases with anastomotic leakage (7.5%). No statistical difference was observed for conversion rate, general complications, or anastomotic leakage. No statistical differences were observed in clinical variables except for American Society of Anesthesiologist score (p=0.04). Patients who developed complications during radiotherapy had no significant differences in postoperative outcomes compared with other patients. CONCLUSION: Indocyanine green appears to be safe and effective in assessing the perfusion of colorectal anastomoses, even in the highest-risk cases, potentially reducing the rate of ileostomy. The main limitation remains the lack of a universally replicable standard assessment.


Assuntos
Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Laparoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Protectomia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia
14.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): 46-54, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the functional impact after transanal total mesorectal excision. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate function and health-related quality of life among patients with rectal cancer treated with transanal total mesorectal excision. DESIGN: Consecutive patients treated between 2016 and 2018 were selected. Their function and quality of life were studied preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months after surgery. SETTING: This is a prospective case series. PATIENTS: Patients were eligible if they had primary anastomosis, their diverting stoma had been reversed, and they did not have anastomotic leakage. Forty-five patients were finally included. A total of 31 (68.8%) and 32 patients (71.1%) completed the 3- and 12-month surveys. INTERVENTIONS: Standard transanal total mesorectal excision was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was functional and quality-of-life outcomes using validated questionnaires. Secondary end points included values obtained with endoanal ultrasounds, anorectal manometries, and rectal sensation testing. RESULTS: Wexner and Low Anterior Resection Syndrome scores significantly increased 3 months after surgery but returned to baseline values at 12 months. The rate of "major low anterior resection syndrome" at the end of follow-up was 25.0% (+11.7% compared with baseline, p = 0.314). Sexual and urinary functions remained stable throughout the study, although a meaningful clinical improvement was detected in male sexual interest. Among quality-of-life domains, all deteriorations returned to baseline values 12 months after surgery, except worsening of flatulence symptoms, and improvement in insomnia and constipation. At 12 months, an expected decrease in the mean width of the internal sphincter, the anal resting pressure, and the tenesmus threshold volume was found. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its small sample size, the absence of a comparative group, and significant missing data in female sexual difficulty and in ultrasounds and manometries at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing transanal total mesorectal excision report acceptable quality-of-life and functional outcomes 12 months after surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B541. RESULTADOS FUNCIONALES Y CALIDAD DE VIDA DE LOS PACIENTES DESPUS DE LA ESCISIN MESORRECTAL TOTAL TRANSANAL PARA CNCER DE RECTO UN ESTUDIO PROSPECTIVO OBSERVACIONAL: ANTECEDENTES:Pocos estudios han abordado el impacto funcional después de la escisión mesorrectal total transanal.OBJETIVO:Evaluar la función y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con cáncer de recto tratados con escisión mesorrectal total transanal.DISEÑO:Se seleccionaron pacientes consecutivos tratados entre 2016 y 2018. Se estudió su función y calidad de vida, en la etapa preoperatoria, a los tres y doce meses postoperatorios.METODO:Serie de casos prospectivos.PACIENTES:Los pacientes eran incluidos en presencia de anastomosis primaria, cierre del estoma de derivación y en ausencia de fuga anastomótica. Finalmente se incluyeron cuarenta y cinco pacientes. Un total de 31 (68,8%) y 32 pacientes (71,1%) completaron las encuestas de tres y doce meses, respectivamente.INTERVENCIONES:Escisión mesorrectal total transanal estándar.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO:Los criterio de evaluación principal fueron los resultados funcionales y de calidad de vida mediante cuestionarios previamente validados. Los criterios de evaluación secundarios incluyeron los valores obtenidos con ecografía endoanal, manometría anorrectal y prueba de sensibilidad rectal.RESULTADOS:La escala de Wexner y el síndrome de resección anterior baja aumentaron significativamente tres meses después de la cirugía, pero volvieron a los valores iniciales a los doce meses. La tasa de "síndrome de resección anterior inferior grave" al final del seguimiento fue del 25,0% (+ 11,7% en comparación con el valor inicial, p = 0,314). La función sexual y urinaria se mantuvo estable durante todo el estudio, aunque se detectó una mejora clínica significativa en la libido masculina. Entre los criterios que evalúan la calidad de vida, todas las alteraciones en la misma volvieron a los valores iniciales, doce meses después de la cirugía, excepto el aumento de flatulencia, la mejoría del insomnio y el estreñimiento. A los doce meses, se encontró una disminución esperada en el grosor medio del esfínter interno, la presión anal en reposo y el volumen umbral para la presencia de tenesmo.LIMITACIONES:Tamaño de muestra limitado, ausencia de un grupo comparativo, falta significativa de datos para identificar la dificultad para la actividad sexual femenina y el efectuar ecografía y manometría a los tres meses.CONCLUSIONES:Los pacientes sometidos a escisión mesorrectal total transanal refieren una calidad de vida y resultados funcionales aceptables a los doce meses después de la cirugía. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B541.


Assuntos
Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Cirurgia Endoscópica Transanal/métodos , Idoso , Canal Anal/diagnóstico por imagem , Canal Anal/fisiologia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Endossonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Retais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Micção/fisiologia
16.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): 66-75, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A permanent stoma is an unintended consequence that cannot be avoided completely after intersphincteric resection for ultralow rectal cancer. Unfortunately, its incidence and risk factors have been poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the cumulative incidence and risk factors of permanent stoma after intersphincteric resection for ultralow rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at a colorectal surgery referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 185 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric resection with diverting ileostomy from 2011 to 2019 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the incidence of and risk factors for the permanent stoma. The secondary outcome included differences in stoma formation between patients with partial, subtotal, and total intersphincteric resection. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 40 months (range, 6-107 months), 26 of 185 patients eventually required a permanent stoma, accounting for a 5-year cumulative incidence of 17.4%. The causes of permanent stoma were anastomotic morbidity (46.2%, 12/26), local recurrence (19.2%, 5/26), distant metastasis (19.2%, 5/26), fecal incontinence (3.8%, 1/26), perioperative mortality (3.8%, 1/26), patients' refusal (3.8%, 1/26), and poor general condition (3.8%, 1/26). Although the incidence of permanent stoma was significantly different between the intersphincteric resection groups (partial vs subtotal vs total: 8.3% vs 20% vs 25.8%, p = 0.02), it was not an independent predictor of stoma formation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that anastomotic leakage (OR = 5.29; p = 0.001) and anastomotic stricture (OR = 5.13; p = 0.002) were independently predictive of permanent stoma. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its retrospective nature and single-center data. CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year cumulative incidence of permanent stoma was 17.4%. Anastomotic complications were identified as risk factors. Patients should be informed of the risks and benefits when contemplating the ultimate sphincter-sparing surgery. It might be preferable to decrease the probability of permanent stoma by further minimizing anastomotic complications. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B704. INCIDENCIA ACUMULADA Y FACTORES DE RIESGO DE ESTOMA PERMANENTE DESPUS DE UNA RESECCIN INTERESFNTRICA EN CNCER RECTAL ULTRA BAJO: ANTECEDENTES:La necesidad de efectuar un estoma permanente es la consecuencia no intencional e inevitable por completo después de una resección interesfintérica en presencia de un cáncer rectal ultra bajo. Desafortunadamente, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo se han definido en una forma limitada.OBJETIVO:El objetivo fue determinar la incidencia acumulada y los factores de riesgo para la necesidad de efectuar un estoma permanente después de la resección intersfintérica de un cáncer rectal ultra bajo.DISEÑO:El presente estudio es un análisis retrospectivo de la información obtenida.ESCENARIO:Centro de referencia de cirugía colo-rectal.PACIENTES:Se incluyeron un total de 185 pacientes consecutivos que se sometieron a resección intersfintérica de un cáncer rectal ultra bajo con ileostomía de derivación de 2011 a 2019.MEDICION DE RESULTADOS:El resultado principal fue la identificación de la incidencia y los factores de riesgo para la presencia de un estoma permanente. En forma secundaria se describieron los resultados de las diferentes técnicas de la formación de un estoma entre los pacientes con resección interesfintérica parcial, subtotal o total.RESULTADOS:Posterior a una media de seguimiento de cuarenta meses (rango de 6 a 107), 26 de 185 pacientes requirieron en forma eventual un estoma permanente, lo que equivale a una incidencia acumulada a cinco años de 17.4 %. Las causas para dejar un estoma permanente fueron morbilidad de la anastomosis (46.2%, 12/26), recurrencia local (19.2%, 5/26), metástasis a distancia (19.2%, 5/26), incontinencia fecal (3.8%, 1/26), mortalidad perioperatoria (3.8%, 1/26), rechazo del paciente (3.8%, 1/26), y malas condiciones generales (3.8%, 1/26). Aunque la incidencia de un estoma permanente fue significativamente diferente entre los grupos de resección interesfintérica (parcial vs subtotal vs total: 8.3% vs 20% vs 25.8%, p = 0.02), no se consideró un factor predictor independiente para la formación de estoma. En el análisis multivariado se demostró que la fuga anatomótica (OR = 5.29; p = 0.001) y la estenosis anastomótica (OR = 5.13; p = 0.002) fueron factores independientes para predecir la necesidad de un estoma permanente.LIMITACIONES:La naturaleza retrospectiva del estudio y la información proveniente de un solo centro.CONCLUSIONES:La incidencia acumulada a cinco años de estoma permantente fue de 17.4%. Se consideran a las complicaciones anastomóticas como factores de riesgo. Los pacientes deberán ser informados de los riesgos y beneficios cuando se considere la posibilidad de efectuar una cirugía preservadora de esfínteres finalmente. Puede ser preferible disminuir la probabilidad de dejar un estoma permanente tratando de minimizar la posibilidad de complicaciones de la anastomosis. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B704.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/cirurgia , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estomas Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Constrição Patológica/epidemiologia , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ileostomia/métodos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estomas Cirúrgicos/patologia
17.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): 93-99, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the efficacy of acupuncture in bowel dysfunction treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the potential value of acupuncture in the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome. DESIGN: This was an open-design pilot study. SETTINGS: This was a single-center study. PATIENTS: Nine (5 female) patients with major low anterior resection syndrome were included. INTERVENTIONS: All patients underwent acupuncture by a trained specialist once a week for 10 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bowel function was assessed by using the low anterior resection syndrome score and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center bowel function instrument before the procedure, just after finishing the course of acupuncture, and 6 months after the treatment. RESULTS: The average age was 56.44 (50-65; SD ±5.4). Median age was 56 years. At the end of the procedure, all patients reported significant improvement in low anterior resection syndrome symptoms: the average low anterior resection syndrome score before acupuncture was 39 (±2.7), after acupuncture it was 30.3 (±10.6), and 6 months after acupuncture it was 7.22 (±10.244; p < 0.000). The average Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center bowel function instrument score before acupuncture was 55.33 (±11.55), after the procedure it was 60 (±14.97), and 6 months later it was 70.22 (±12.2; p < 0.000). LIMITATIONS: The small sample size and the fact that this is a single-center nonblinded study are limitations of this work. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture may be effective in low anterior resection syndrome treatment and needs further evaluation. The procedure is safe and feasible. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B700. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03916549. EL PAPEL DE LA ACUPUNTURA TRADICIONAL EN EL TRATAMIENTO DEL SNDROME DE RESECCIN ANTERIOR BAJA UN ESTUDIO PILOTO: ANTECEDENTES:Existe evidencia limitada sobre la eficacia de la acupuntura para el tratamiento de la disfunción intestinal.OBJETIVO:El objetivo de este estudio piloto fue investigar el valor potencial de la acupuntura en el tratamiento del síndrome de resección anterior baja.DISEÑO:Este fue un estudio piloto de diseño abiertoAJUSTES:Este fue un estudio en un solo centroPACIENTES:Fueron incluidos nueve pacientes con síndrome de resección anterior baja (muy sintomáticos), cinco de ellos eran mujeresINTERVENCIONES:Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con acupuntura, una vez a la semana durante diez semanas por un especialista capacitado.PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO:La función intestinal fue evaluada, antes del procedimiento, justo al finalizar el ciclo de acupuntura y a los seis meses, utilizando la puntuación (score) para el síndrome de resección anterior baja y el instrumento de función intestinal del Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.RESULTADOS:La edad media fue 56,44 (50 - 65) (DE ± 5,4). Edad mediana 56 años. Al final del procedimiento, todos los pacientes manifestaron una mejoría significativa de los síntomas del síndrome de resección anterior baja: La puntuación promedio del síndrome de resección anterior baja antes de la acupuntura fue 39 (± 2,7), después de - 30,3 (± 10,6) y 6 meses después de 7,22 (± 10,244) (p <0,000). El puntaje promedio del instrumento de función intestinal del Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center antes de la acupuntura fue 55.33 (± 11.55), después del procedimiento 60 (± 14.97) y 6 meses después 70.22 (± 12.2) (p <0,000).LIMITACIONES:Tamaño de muestra pequeño, estudio no cegado en un solo centro.CONCLUSIONES:La acupuntura puede ser eficaz en el tratamiento del síndrome de resección anterior baja, pero es necesario continuar evaluando su utilidad. El procedimiento es seguro y factible. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B700.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Defecação/fisiologia , Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Idoso , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Segurança , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 146: 110106, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of region of interest (ROI) selection of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for predicting lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor response after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pre- and post-CRT MRI and surgery were prospectively enrolled. The exclusion criteria included nonresectable and/or metastatic disease and loss of follow-up. Pathological stage was determined using ypTNM stage and tumor regression grade. Slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion-related diffusion fraction (f), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and their percentage changes (Δ%) were evaluated by two readers using whole-volume, single-slice and small samples ROI methods. Risk factors including carcinoembryonic antigen, post-CRT T-staging, extramural venous invasion and IVIM parameters were evaluated through multivariate analyses. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to evaluate diagnostic performance. Duration of follow-up was two-year. Recurrence-free survival of patients with LNM and tumor response was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement were good for pre- and post-CRT three ROI methods (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.581-0.953). Whole-volume ROI-derived Δ%D was an independent risk factor for LNM, non-pathological complete response (non-pCR) and poor response (odds ratio, 0.940, 0.952, 0.805, respectively; all p < 0.001). Whole-volume ROI-derived Δ%D showed best AUC of 0.810, 0.851 and 0.903 for LNM, non-pCR and poor response (cutoff value, 31.8%, 54.5%, 52.8%, respectively). Patients with post-CRT LNM showed reduction in 2-year recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.253). CONCLUSIONS: Whole-volume ROI-derived Δ%D provided high diagnostic performance for evaluating post-CRT LNM and tumor response. Patients with post-CRT LNM showed earlier recurrence.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Retais , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Movimento (Física) , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Reto
20.
J Int Med Res ; 49(12): 3000605211065942, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is the most serious postoperative complication following anterior resection for rectal cancer. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of active drainage for the management of AL. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using information from a database of patients who underwent colorectal resection without a defunctioning ileostomy at our center between September 2013 and January 2021. We identified 122 cases with definitive AL who did not require revision emergent laparotomy. Among these patients, we evaluated those who received active drainage to replace the original passive drainage. RESULTS: There were 62 cases in the active drainage group and 60 cases in the passive drainage group. The active drainage group had a shorter mean AL spontaneous resolution time (26.9 ± 3.3 vs. 32.2 ± 4.8 days) and lower average hospitalization costs (82,680.6 vs. 92,299.3 renminbi (RMB)) compared with the passive drainage group, respectively. Moreover, seven patients in the passive drainage group subsequently underwent diverting stoma to resolve the Al, while all ALs resolved spontaneously after replacing the passive drainage with active drainage. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that active drainage may accelerate the spontaneous resolution of AL.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica , Neoplasias Retais , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/terapia , Drenagem , Humanos , Ileostomia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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