Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.263
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371819

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of soy isoflavones may protect against breast cancer, but causal relationships can only be established by experimental trials. Thus, we aimed to provide a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of an isoflavone intake on risk factors of breast cancer in healthy subjects. After a systematic literature search in PubMed, 18 different RCTs with pre- and/or postmenopausal women were included and investigated for details according to the PRISMA guideline. In these studies, isoflavones were provided by soy food or supplements in amounts between 36.5-235 mg/d for a period of 1-36 months. Breast density, estrogens including precursors, metabolites, estrogen response such as length of menstrual cycle, and markers of proliferation and inflammation were considered. However, in most studies, differences were not detectable between isoflavone and control/placebo treatment despite a good adherence to isoflavone treatment, irrespective of the kind of intervention, the dose of isoflavones used, and the duration of isoflavone treatment. However, the lack of significant changes in most studies does not prove the lack of effects as a sample size calculation was often missing. Taking into account the risk of bias and methodological limitations, there is little evidence that isoflavone treatment modulates risk factors of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. Future studies should calculate the sample size to detect possible effects and consider methodological details to improve the study quality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Alimentos de Soja , Adulto , Idoso , Viés , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26830, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: For five years after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster) in Japan, the proportion of patients with undiagnosed symptomatic breast cancer remained elevated in the coastal area of Fukushima. These individuals experienced a prolonged interval from first symptom recognition to initial medical consultation (hereafter referred to as the patient interval). We aimed to investigate how this prolonged patient interval affected disease staging.Using patient records, we retrospectively extracted females with newly and pathologically diagnosed breast cancer who initially presented to Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital from March 2011 to March 2016. We estimated the proportion with advanced-stage disease (III, IV) according to the patient interval duration (<3 months, 3-12 months, and 12 months plus). A cut-off patient interval value was determined based on the previous evidence with regards to impacts on survival prospects. Logistic regression approaches were used to fulfill the study outcome.The proportion of patients with advanced-stage disease was 10.3% for < 3 months (7/68), 18.2% for 3-12 months (2/11), and 66.7% for more than 12 months (12/18). We found a similar trend using the multivariate logistic regression analyses.Prolongation of the patient interval was associated with advanced-stage disease among female patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(7): ITC97-ITC112, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251902

RESUMO

This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of menopause, highlighting both hormonal and nonhormonal treatment options. In particular, the article focuses on recent data on the risks and benefits of hormone therapy to help clinicians better counsel their patients about decision making with regard to understanding and treating menopause symptoms.


Assuntos
Menopausa/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Fogachos/tratamento farmacológico , Fogachos/terapia , Humanos , Menopausa/sangue , Menopausa/psicologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Sudorese/fisiologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia
4.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(2): 141-150, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232007

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have evaluated the association between a history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk of breast cancer (BC), with controversial results. However, information regarding the population-attributable risk percent (PAR%) remains scarce. Objective: To estimate the association and the PAR% for BC and T2D, lifestyle and gynecologic factors in women in Mexico City. Methods: This case-control study was performed from May-December 2020. Women >40 years of age, from Mexico City, with a confirmed diagnosis for BC were included as cases. Controls were women with a BIRADS 1 or 2 mammography or an ultrasound clear of any BC suggestive findings. Results: A total of 134 cases and 134 controls were included. A higher risk for BC was identified among women who did not perform routine physical activity and those who had a history of hormonal contraceptive use > 5 years. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.0 (p = 0.22) in the first model. After adjustment, HRT was associated with an OR of 2.92 (p=0.492) in the second and an OR of 3.6 (p = 0.753) in the third model. T2D was associated with an OR of 1.04 (p = 0.96) in the first model; an OR of 0.65 (p = 0.65) in the second model and an OR of RMa 0.75(p = 0.79) for the third model. Conclusion: In this case-control study, there was no significant association identified between a T2D diagnosis and BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208264

RESUMO

Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging class of immunotherapeutic drugs. Their mechanism of action is two-fold: direct cell lysis and unmasking of the cancer through immunogenic cell death, which allows the immune system to recognize and eradicate tumours. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and is challenging to treat with immunotherapy modalities because it is classically an immunogenically "cold" tumour type. This provides an attractive niche for OV, given viruses have been shown to turn "cold" tumours "hot," thereby opening a plethora of treatment opportunities. There has been a number of pre-clinical attempts to explore the use of OV in breast cancer; however, these have not led to any meaningful clinical trials. This review considers both the potential and the barriers to OV in breast cancer, namely, the limitations of monotherapy and the scope for combination therapy, improving viral delivery and challenges specific to the breast cancer population (e.g., tumour subtype, menopausal status, age).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Genética , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207035

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women of Western countries and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The breast tumor microenvironment contains immune cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, and extracellular matrix. Among these cells, macrophages or tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major components of the breast cancer microenvironment. TAMs facilitate metastasis of the breast tumor and are responsible for poor clinical outcomes. High TAM density was also found liable for the poor prognosis of breast cancer. These observations make altering TAM function a potential therapeutic target to treat breast cancer. The present review summarizes the origin of TAMs, mechanisms of macrophage recruitment and polarization in the tumor, and the contributions of TAMs in tumor progression. We have also discussed our current knowledge about TAM-targeted therapies and the roles of miRNAs and exosomes in re-educating TAM function.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Comunicação Celular , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 189(2): 571-583, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224055

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Zinc has been suggested to be protective against breast cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. One reason for inconsistent findings in previous studies may be that zinc only influences the risk of developing certain subtypes of breast cancer. Our study is the first study assessing zinc levels in relation to the risk of different breast cancer subgroups, defined by their tumor characteristics. In addition, we analyze serum zinc as a marker of dietary intake. METHODS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a population-based cohort study that took place 1991-1996 in Malmö, Sweden. Until end of follow-up, 31 December 2013, 1186 incident cases were identified and matched to an equal number of controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer, and having a certain tumor characteristic, were estimated in quartiles of baseline serum zinc and zinc intake and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: No associations were found between zinc, measured in serum or diet pre-diagnostically, and breast cancer risk. The adjusted OR for breast cancer in serum zinc Q4 compared to Q1 was 1.09 (0.85-1.41) and in zinc intake Q4 versus Q1 was 0.97 (0.77-1.23). Moreover, there were no clear associations between zinc and any breast cancer characteristics. The kappa value, 0.025 (P = 0.022), showed poor agreement between serum zinc and zinc intake. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that there is no clear association between zinc and overall breast cancer risk or risk of different breast cancer subgroups. Finally, our results suggest that serum zinc is a poor marker of zinc intake.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Zinco
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 660, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079055

RESUMO

The female mammary epithelium undergoes reorganization during development, pregnancy, and menopause, linking higher risk with breast cancer development. To characterize these periods of complex remodeling, here we report integrated 50 K mouse and 24 K human mammary epithelial cell atlases obtained by single-cell RNA sequencing, which covers most lifetime stages. Our results indicate a putative trajectory that originates from embryonic mammary stem cells which differentiates into three epithelial lineages (basal, luminal hormone-sensing, and luminal alveolar), presumably arising from unipotent progenitors in postnatal glands. The lineage-specific genes infer cells of origin of breast cancer using The Cancer Genome Atlas data and single-cell RNA sequencing of human breast cancer, as well as the association of gland reorganization to different breast cancer subtypes. This comprehensive mammary cell gene expression atlas ( https://mouse-mammary-epithelium-integrated.cells.ucsc.edu ) presents insights into the impact of the internal and external stimuli on the mammary epithelium at an advanced resolution.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Mama/citologia , Mama/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/etiologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gravidez , RNA-Seq/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12239, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess sedentary work's contribution to breast cancer risk quantitatively using thorough research articles. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis using a registered protocol in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020204629). Literature from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane involving sedentary work and breast cancer risk was reviewed. We calculated the overall pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CI with a random-effect model from the included studies. Furthermore, we performed stratified analyses by characteristics of studies. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies (13 cohort studies and 18 case-control studies) were included in the analysis. The overall effect of the pooled analysis was an RR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08-1.23). The results were 1.20 (95% CI 1.10-1.30) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.23) for cohort and case-control studies. The effect of sedentary work did not seem to be consistently attenuated by controlling body mass index, menopausal status, or experience of hormone replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: The results from this meta-analysis suggest that sedentary behavior within the occupational domain was associated with a 15.5% increased risk of breast cancer. It is essential to reduce the sedentary time spent at work and to secure time for leisure-time physical activity among sedentary workers as a primary preventive measure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1219, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between reproductive factors and breast cancer (BC) risk has been investigated in previous studies. Considering the discrepancies in the results, the aim of this study was to estimate the causal effect of reproductive factors on BC risk in a case-control study using the double robust approach of targeted maximum likelihood estimation. METHODS: This is a causal reanalysis of a case-control study done between 2005 and 2008 in Shiraz, Iran, in which 787 confirmed BC cases and 928 controls were enrolled. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation along with super Learner were used to analyze the data, and risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), andpopulation attributable fraction (PAF) were reported. RESULTS: Our findings did not support parity and age at the first pregnancy as risk factors for BC. The risk of BC was higher among postmenopausal women (RR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (2.3, 4.6)), women with the age at first marriage ≥20 years (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.1)), and the history of oral contraceptive (OC) use (RR = 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.1)) or breastfeeding duration ≤60 months (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.5)). The PAF for menopause status, breastfeeding duration, and OC use were 40.3% (95% CI = 39.5, 40.6), 27.3% (95% CI = 23.1, 30.8) and 24.4% (95% CI = 10.5, 35.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women, and women with a higher age at first marriage, shorter duration of breastfeeding, and history of OC use are at the higher risk of BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Paridade , Gravidez , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065952

RESUMO

White adipose tissue (WAT) is a heterogeneous tissue that is composed of adipocytes and several non-adipocyte cell populations, including adipose progenitors, fibroblasts, endothelial and infiltrating immune cells [...].


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Adipogenia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos
12.
Int J Cancer ; 149(6): 1247-1256, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990967

RESUMO

Physical inactivity, high postmenopausal body mass index, alcohol consumption and use of menopausal hormone therapy are established risk factors for breast cancer. Less is known about whether these factors influence the risk of progression of benign and premalignant breast lesions to invasive breast cancer. This registry-based cohort study was based on women with a precancerous lesion who were followed for breast cancer. The cohort consisted of 11 270 women with a benign lesion, 972 women with hyperplasia with atypia and 2379 women with carcinoma in situ diagnosed and treated after participation in BreastScreen Norway, 2006-2016. Information on breast cancer risk factors was collected by a questionnaire administered with the invitation letter. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between breast cancer and physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking and menopausal hormone therapy, adjusted for age. During follow-up, 274 women with a benign lesion, 34 women with hyperplasia with atypia and 118 women with carcinoma in situ were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We observed an increased risk of breast cancer associated with use of menopausal hormone therapy for women with a benign or premalignant lesion. Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking showed suggestive increased risk of breast cancer among women with a benign lesion. We were only to a limited degree able to identify associations between modifiable risk factors of breast cancer and the disease among women with a precancerous lesion, and a larger study is needed to confirm or refute associations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma in Situ , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1125): 20210093, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989039

RESUMO

Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare and newly recognized subtype of T cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHLs) associated with breast implants.The mechanism involved in the development of this kind of lymphoma is still uncertain.BIA-ALCL is generally an indolent disease localized to the breast implant and its capsule and effectively treated with capsulectomy alone without chemotherapy.Clinically, BIA-ALCL may typically present a sudden-onset breast-swelling secondary to periimplant effusion. The minority of BIA-ALCL patients present a more aggressive mass-forming subtype, for which systemic therapy is mandatory.Despite the number of cases has recently increased, BIA-ALCL remains a rare disease described mainly in several case reports and small case series.Breast imaging, including mammography, ultrasound and breast MRI are routinely used in the screening of breast cancer; however, guidelines for the imaging and pathological diagnosis of this disease have only recently been proposed and included in the 2019 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) consensus guidelines for BIA-ALCL.The main purpose of this pictorial is to illustrate the MRI signs of BIA-ALCL and correlate them with the corresponding pathology features in order to improve the knowledge of the principals MRI features of this type of lymphoma.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/etiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 13039-13047, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962395

RESUMO

The association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and breast cancer risk has been widely reported in recent years, but there is still controversy about whether a pro-inflammatory diet is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the DII and breast cancer risk in pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library in January 2021 to identify articles reporting an association between the DII and breast cancer risk. A pooled analysis was conducted with 14 studies covering 312,885 participants. Overall, women in the most pro-inflammatory diet category were at greater risk for breast cancer than those in the most anti-inflammatory category (relative risk [RR]=1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.60, P<0.001). This association was strong in both pre-menopausal women (RR=1.87, 95% CI 1.17-2.99, P=0.001) and post-menopausal women (RR=1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.40, P<0.001). Thus, a strong and independent association was observed between a pro-inflammatory diet (assessed using the DII score) and breast cancer risk, irrespective of menopausal status. Further studies will be required to determine the relationship between a pro-inflammatory diet and different subtypes of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Dieta , Inflamação/etiologia , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: 1-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956493

RESUMO

In the care of patients with operable breast cancer, there has been a shift toward increasing use of neoadjuvant therapy. There are benefits to neoadjuvant therapy, such as monitoring for response, as well as an increased rate of breast conservation and reduction of potential morbidity associated with breast surgery, including axillary management. Among patients with highly proliferative tumors, such as HER2-positive or triple-negative breast cancer, those with residual disease are at higher risk of recurrence, which informs the recommended systemic therapy in the adjuvant setting. For instance, in patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HER2-targeted therapy, there is a role for adjuvant trastuzumab emtansine for those with residual disease at the time of surgery. The same holds true regarding the role of adjuvant capecitabine in patients with residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. With the added complexities of treating patients in the era of the COVID-19 outbreak, additional considerations are critical, including initiation of surgery within an appropriate time from completion of neoadjuvant therapy. National consensus guidelines on time to surgery must be developed to improve measurement and comparison across systems. In addition, there is emerging radiation treatment management research addressing a number of factors, including hypofractionation, role of proton beam therapy, safe omission of radiotherapy, and preoperative radiotherapy with or without drug combination. In this article, the multidisciplinary approach of treating patients with operable breast cancer is highlighted, with updates and future considerations described.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Comorbidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Perioperatória , Tempo para o Tratamento
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947079

RESUMO

Breast cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality in the female population. Despite the campaigns for early detection, the improvement in procedures and treatment, drastic improvement in survival rate is omitted. Discovery of aquaporins, at first described as cellular plumbing system, opened new insights in processes which contribute to cancer cell motility and proliferation. As we discover new pathways activated by aquaporins, the more we realize the complexity of biological processes and the necessity to fully understand the pathways affected by specific aquaporin in order to gain the desired outcome-remission of the disease. Among the 13 human aquaporins, AQP3 and AQP5 were shown to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer indicating their role in the development of this malignancy. Therefore, these two aquaporins will be discussed for their involvement in breast cancer development, regulation of oxidative stress and redox signalling pathways leading to possibly targeting them for new therapies.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Aquaporina 5/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquaporina 3/genética , Aquaporina 5/genética , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Theranostics ; 11(13): 6355-6369, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995662

RESUMO

Rationale: Dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway occurs frequently in cancers, providing an attractive therapeutic target for anticancer treatments. DEPTOR plays essential roles in regulation of cell proliferation and survival by directly modulating mTOR activity. However, whether DEPTOR regulates the growth of ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells remains unknown. Methods: DEPTOR expression was determined by TCGA data analysis and immunohistochemistry of human breast tissue microarrays. The membrane localization of DEPTOR was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. The interaction of DEPTOR with ErbB2 was determined by immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the biological significance of this interaction was assessed by ATPlite cell growth, clonogenic survival, and flow cytometry-based apoptosis assays. Results: DEPTOR promoted the proliferation and survival of ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells by directly interacting with and stabilizing ErbB2. Specifically, DEPTOR translocates to cell membrane and interacts with ErbB2 to disrupt ErbB2 polyubiquitination and degradation promoted by ß-TrCP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. DEPTOR knockdown destabilizes ErbB2 by shortening its protein half-life to inactivate ErbB2-PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, leading to the suppression of cell proliferation and survival by inducing apoptosis. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active ErbB2 mutant completely rescued the reduction in cell proliferation and survival by DEPTOR knockdown. Importantly, DEPTOR expression is increased in human breast cancer tissues and its overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. Moreover, DEPTOR is located on the cell membrane in ErbB2-positive breast cancer tissues, but not in tumor-adjacent normal tissues, indicating that DEPTOR may contribute to the oncogenic characteristics of ErbB2. Conclusions: Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which DEPTOR promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by stabilizing ErbB2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Domínios PDZ , Ligação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Estabilidade Proteica , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Frações Subcelulares , Ubiquitinação , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Contendo Repetições de beta-Transducina/metabolismo
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(7): 2035-2045, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA mutation carriers have an increased risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRBSO) is associated with a decrease in risk for tubal and ovarian cancer. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may increase breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer risk in the general population. This review analyses the published data on HRT and risk of cancer in BRCA mutation carriers with and without RRBSO. METHODS: We included all relevant articles published in English from 1995 to October 2020. Sources were identified through a search on PubMed and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: We included one case-control and one retrospective cohort study on ovarian and one case-control study on endometrial cancer risk and HRT in BRCA mutation carriers. Regarding breast cancer risk, one case-control study on BRCA mutation carriers with and without RRBSO and one case-control study, one Markov chain decision model, two prospective cohort studies, and one metaanalysis on carriers after RRBSO were included. For ovarian cancer, results were ambiguous. For breast cancer, most studies did not find an adverse effect associated with HRT. However, some of the studies found a risk modification associated with different formulations and duration of use. CONCLUSION: Although data are limited, HRT does not seem to have a relevant effect on cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. RRBSO should not be postponed to avoid subsequent HRT in this population. Adequate HRT after RRBSO should be offered to avoid chronic diseases resulting from low estrogen levels. However, further data on the safety of different formulations are needed.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
20.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(8): 803-813, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of established breast cancer risk factors and clinical characteristics of the first breast cancer in the development of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among postmenopausal women is unclear. METHODS: We identified 10,934 postmenopausal women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer between 1995 and 2011 in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. CBC was defined as a second primary breast cancer diagnosed in the contralateral breast ≥ 3 months after the first breast cancer. Exposures included pre-diagnosis risk factors (lifestyle, reproductive, family history) and clinical characteristics of the first breast cancer. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 6.8 years, 436 women developed CBC. We observed an increasing trend in CBC risk by age (p-trend = 0.002) and decreasing trend by year of diagnosis (p-trend = 0.001) of the first breast cancer. Additional risk factor associations were most pronounced for endocrine therapy (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.87) and family history of breast cancer (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80, restricted to invasive first breast cancer). No associations were found for lifestyle (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol) or reproductive factors (age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, age at menopause). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that clinical characteristics of the first breast cancer and family history of breast cancer, but not pre-diagnosis lifestyle and reproductive factors, are strongly associated with CBC risk among postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to understand how these factors contribute to CBC etiology and to identify further opportunities for prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...