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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4431-4449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234435

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study deals with the in vitro evaluation of the potential use of coordination compound-based zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBrCa). As BrCa is one of the most prevalent cancer types and TNBrCa treatment is difficult due to poor prognosis and a high metastasis rate, finding a more reliable treatment option should be of the utmost interest. Methods: Prepared by reacting zinc carboxylates (formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, valerate) and hexamethylenetetramine, 4 distinct coordination compounds were further subjected to two modes of conversion into ZnO NPs - ultrasonication with oleic acid or heating of pure precursors in an air atmosphere. After detailed characterization, the resulting ZnO NPs were subjected to in vitro testing of cytotoxicity toward TNBrCa and normal breast epithelial cells. Further, their biocompatibility was evaluated. Results: The resulting ZnO NPs provide distinct morphological features, size, biocompatibility, and selective cytotoxicity toward TNBrCa cells. They internalize into two types of TNBrCa cells and imbalance their redox homeostasis, influencing their metabolism, morphology, and ultimately leading to their death via apoptosis or necrosis. Conclusion: The crucial properties of ZnO NPs seem to be their morphology, size, and zinc content. The ZnO NPs with the most preferential values of all three properties show great promise for a future potential use in the therapy of TNBrCa.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063642

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of the disease with poor clinical outcomes and limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint blockade (CP) has surged to the forefront of cancer therapies with widespread clinical success in a variety of cancer types. However, the percentage of TNBC patients that benefit from CP as a monotherapy is low, and clinical trials have shown the need for combined therapeutic modalities. Specifically, there has been interest in combining CP therapy with radiation therapy where clinical studies primarily with external beam have suggested their therapeutic synergy, contributing to the development of anti-tumor immunity. Here, we have developed a therapeutic platform combining radionuclide therapy (RT) and immunotherapy utilizing a radiolabeled biomolecule and CP in an E0771 murine TNBC tumor model. Survival studies show that while neither monotherapy is able to improve therapeutic outcomes, the combination of RT + CP extended overall survival. Histologic analysis showed that RT + CP increased necrotic tissue within the tumor and decreased levels of F4/80+ macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood also showed that RT + CP suppressed macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, both of which actively contribute to immune escape and tumor relapse.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/radioterapia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070254

RESUMO

We evaluated the utility of optical redox imaging (ORI) to identify the therapeutic response of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) under various drug treatments. Cultured HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with FK866 (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) inhibitor), FX11 (lactate dehydrogenase A inhibitor), paclitaxel, and their combinations were subjected to ORI, followed by imaging fluorescently labeled reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell growth inhibition was measured by a cell viability assay. We found that both cell lines experienced significant NADH decrease and redox ratio (Fp/(NADH+Fp)) increase due to FK866 treatment; however, HCC1806 was much more responsive than MDA-MB-231. We further studied HCC1806 with the main findings: (i) nicotinamide riboside (NR) partially restored NADH in FK866-treated cells; (ii) FX11 induced an over 3-fold NADH increase in FK866 or FK866+NR pretreated cells; (iii) FK866 combined with paclitaxel caused synergistic increases in both Fp and the redox ratio; (iv) FK866 sensitized cells to paclitaxel treatments, which agrees with the redox changes detected by ORI; (v) Fp and the redox ratio positively correlated with cell growth inhibition; and (vi) Fp and NADH positively correlated with ROS level. Our study supports the utility of ORI for detecting the treatment responses of TNBC to Nampt inhibition and the sensitization effects on standard chemotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Citocinas , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/enzimologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e25878, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087829

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The study aimed to explore the value of ultrasound (US) texture analysis in the differential diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC.Retrospective analysis was done on 93 patients with breast cancer (35 patients with TNBC and 38 patients with non-TNBC) who were admitted to Taizhou people's hospital from July 2015 to June 2019. All lesions were pathologically proven at surgery. US images of all patients were collected. Texture analysis of US images was performed using MaZda software package. The differences between textural features in TNBC and non-TNBC were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to compare the diagnostic performance of textural parameters showing significant difference.Five optimal texture feature parameters were extracted from gray level run-length matrix, including gray level non-uniformity (GLNU) in horizontal direction, vertical gray level non-uniformity, GLNU in the 45 degree direction, run length non-uniformity in 135 degree direction, GLNU in the 135 degree direction. All these texture parameters were statistically higher in TNBC than in non-TNBC (P <.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that at a threshold of 268.9068, GLNU in horizontal direction exhibited best diagnostic performance for differentiating TNBC from non-TNBC. Logistic regression model established based on all these parameters showed a sensitivity of 69.3%, specificity of 91.4% and area under the curve of 0.834.US texture features were significantly different between TNBC and non-TNBC, US texture analysis can be used for preliminary differentiation of TNBC from non-TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068008

RESUMO

A major contributing factor in triple-negative breast cancer progression is its ability to evade immune surveillance. One mechanism for this immunosuppression is through ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which facilitates myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment in tumors, which generate cytokines TGF-ß and IL-10 and induce regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which are immunosuppressive and enhance tumor progression. Hence, enhancing the immune system in breast tumors could be a strategy for anticancer therapeutics. The present study evaluated the immune response of atovaquone, an antiprotozoal drug, in three independent breast-tumor models. Our results demonstrated that oral administration of atovaquone reduced HCC1806, CI66 and 4T1 paclitaxel-resistant (4T1-PR) breast-tumor growth by 45%, 70% and 42%, respectively. MDSCs, TGF-ß, IL-10 and Tregs of blood and tumors were analyzed from all of these in vivo models. Our results demonstrated that atovaquone treatment in mice bearing HCC1806 tumors reduced MDSCs from tumor and blood by 70% and 30%, respectively. We also observed a 25% reduction in tumor MDSCs in atovaquone-treated mice bearing CI66 and 4T1-PR tumors. In addition, a decrease in TGF-ß and IL-10 in tumor lysates was observed in atovaquone-treated mice with a reduction in tumor Tregs. Moreover, a significant reduction in the expression of RPS19 was found in tumors treated with atovaquone.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Atovaquona/farmacologia , Imunossupressão , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071360

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer lacking targeted therapy. Here, we evaluated the anti-cancer activity of APR-246, a P53 activator, and CX-5461, a RNA polymerase I inhibitor, in the treatment of TNBC cells. We tested the efficacy of individual and combination therapy of CX-5461 and APR-246 in vitro, using a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Using publicly available breast cancer datasets, we found that components of RNA Pol I are predominately upregulated in basal-like breast cancer, compared to other subtypes, and this upregulation is associated with poor overall and relapse-free survival. Notably, we found that the treatment of breast cancer cells lines with CX-5461 significantly hampered cell proliferation and synergistically enhanced the efficacy of APR-246. The combination treatment significantly induced apoptosis that is associated with cleaved PARP and Caspase 3 along with Annexin V positivity. Likewise, we also found that combination treatment significantly induced DNA damage and replication stress in these cells. Our data provide a novel combination strategy by utilizing APR-246 in combination CX-5461 in killing TNBC cells that can be further developed into more effective therapy in TNBC therapeutic armamentarium.


Assuntos
Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , RNA Polimerase I/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070750

RESUMO

The immune system is a fine modulator of the tumor biology supporting or inhibiting its progression, growth, invasion and conveys the pharmacological treatment effect. Tumors, on their side, have developed escaping mechanisms from the immune system action ranging from the direct secretion of biochemical signals to an indirect reaction, in which the cellular actors of the tumor microenvironment (TME) collaborate to mechanically condition the extracellular matrix (ECM) making it inhospitable to immune cells. TME is composed of several cell lines besides cancer cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, and innate immunity cells. These populations interface with each other to prepare a conservative response, capable of evading the defense mechanisms implemented by the host's immune system. The presence or absence, in particular, of cytotoxic CD8+ cells in the vicinity of the main tumor mass, is able to predict, respectively, the success or failure of drug therapy. Among various mechanisms of immunescaping, in this study, we characterized the modulation of the phenotypic profile of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in resting and activated states, in response to the mechanical pressure exerted by a three-dimensional in vitro system, able to recapitulate the rheological and stiffness properties of the tumor ECM.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/genética , 5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Módulo de Elasticidade , Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mecanotransdução Celular , Modelos Biológicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Fenótipo , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Reologia , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070901

RESUMO

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs) are major components of the glycocalyx. The secreted GAG and CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid (HA), and the cell surface PG syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) modulate the expression and activity of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules, acting as critical regulators of tumor cell behavior. Here, we studied the effect of Sdc-1 siRNA depletion and HA treatment on hallmark processes of cancer in breast cancer cell lines of different levels of aggressiveness. We analyzed HA synthesis, and parameters relevant to tumor progression, including the stem cell phenotype, Wnt signaling constituents, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and angiogenic markers in luminal MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Sdc-1 knockdown enhanced HAS-2 synthesis and HA binding in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Sdc-1-depleted MDA-MB-231 cells showed a reduced CD24-/CD44+ population. Furthermore, Sdc-1 depletion was associated with survival signals in both cell lines, affecting cell cycle progression and apoptosis evasion. These changes were linked to the altered expression of KLF4, MSI2, and miR-10b and differential changes in Erk, Akt, and PTEN signaling. We conclude that Sdc-1 knockdown differentially affects HA metabolism in luminal and triple-negative breast cancer model cell lines and impacts the stem phenotype, cell survival, and angiogenic factors.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicocálix/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Sindecana-1/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Antígeno CD24/genética , Antígeno CD24/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Glicocálix/química , Glicocálix/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Hialuronan Sintases/genética , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Sindecana-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066763

RESUMO

Oral contraceptives (OCs) are widely used due to their efficiency in preventing unplanned pregnancies and treating several human illnesses. Despite their medical value, the toxicity of OCs remains a public concern. Previous studies indicate the carcinogenic potential of synthetic sex hormones and their link to the development and progression of hormone-dependent malignancies such as breast cancer. However, little is known about their influence on the evolution of triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC), a malignancy defined by the absence of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. This study reveals that the active ingredients of modern OCs, 17ß-Ethinylestradiol, Levonorgestrel, and their combination induce differential effects in MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells. The most relevant behavioral changes occurred after the 24 h treatment with 17ß-Ethinylestradiol, summarized as follows: (i) decreased cell viability (64.32% at 10 µM); (ii) cell roundness and loss of confluence; (iii) apoptotic aspect of cell nuclei (fragmentation, membrane blebbing); and (iv) inhibited cell migration, suggesting a potential anticancer effect. Conversely, Levonorgestrel was generally associated with a proliferative activity. The association of the two OCs exerted similar effects as 17ß-Ethinylestradiol but was less effective. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the hormones' cytotoxic mechanism of action on TNBC cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/farmacologia , Anticoncepcionais Orais Sintéticos/farmacologia , Etinilestradiol/farmacologia , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
Cancer Sci ; 112(7): 2714-2727, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939216

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, while the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and virulent subtype in breast cancers. Compared with luminal type breast cancers, which could be well controlled by endocrine treatment, TNBC is worse in prognosis and lack of effective targeted therapy. Thus, it would be interesting and meaningful to identify novel therapeutic targets for TNBC treatments. Recent genomic data showed the activation of Hippo/YAP signaling in TNBC, indicating its critical roles in TNBC carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Hippo/YAP signaling could subject to several kinds of protein modifications, including ubiquitination and phosphorylation. Quite a few studies have demonstrated these modifications, which controlled YAP protein stability and turnover, played critical role in Hippo signaling activation In our current study, we identified ZNF213 as a negative modifier for Hippo/YAP axis. ZNF213 depletion promoted TNBC cell migration and invasion, which could be rescued by further YAP silencing. ZNF213 knocking down facilitated YAP protein stability and Hippo target gene expression, including CTGF and CYR61. Further mechanism studies demonstrated that ZNF213 associated with YAP and facilitated YAP K48-linked poly-ubiquitination at several YAP lysine sites (K252, K254, K321 and K497). Besides, the clinical data showed that ZNF213 negatively correlated with YAP protein level and Hippo target gene expression in TNBC samples. ZNF213 expression correlated with good prognosis in TNBC patients. Our data provided novel insights in YAP proteolytic regulation and TNBC progression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Proteína Rica em Cisteína 61/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/deficiência , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ubiquitinação
11.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2247-2256, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Adjuvant therapeutic options are limited for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Thus, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of the newly synthesized antineoplastic agent 1,4,5-Oxathiazinane-4,4-dioxide (OTD) on TNBC cells as a potential cancer therapeutic strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TNBC primary BT-20 and metastatic MDA-MB-231 cell lines were treated with increasing concentrations of OTD for various time periods to assess cell viability. Cell necrosis, apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, and ROS generation were evaluated using assay kits or specific inhibitors. RESULTS: Treatment with OTD resulted in a dose- and time-dependent cell death of TNBC BT-20 and MDA-MB-231 cells. OTD also dose-dependently arrested TNBC cell proliferation. Notably, treatment with OTD induced both necrosis and apoptosis of TNBC cells, while the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK partially attenuated OTD-induced cell death. Importantly, abrogated OTD-induced cell death was observed in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), whereas enhanced OTD-induced cell death was observed after the addition of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor BSO, indicating OTD-induced killing of TNBC cells via a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism. CONCLUSION: OTD is strongly cytotoxic to both primary and metastatic TNBC cells, possibly by inducing multiple cell death pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
12.
J Med Chem ; 64(10): 6720-6729, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961424

RESUMO

As c-MYC is one of the central players in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) oncogenesis, inhibiting c-MYC expression would be an effective anticancer strategy. Transcription-induced negative supercoiling is crucial in the regulation of c-MYC transcription, which facilitates the formation of a G4 structure in NHE III1 that can silence the transcription. However, topoisomerase 1 (Topo1) can dissipate this negative supercoiling, leading to continuous activation of c-MYC transcription. Thus, dual ligands targeting both Topo1 and c-MYC G4 appear to be significant in cancer therapy. In this study, a series of new dibenzoquinoxaline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for both Topo1 and c-MYC inhibition. Among them, 5 was identified as the most promising dual ligand, which could effectively inhibit Topo1 activity and strongly stabilize c-MYC G4, thereby inhibiting cancer cell growth. Accordingly, this work suggests that this dual-targeting strategy may be effective in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/química , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Quinoxalinas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Transplante Heterólogo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930025, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Aberrant DNA methylation is an important biological regulatory mechanism in malignant tumors. However, it remains underutilized for establishing prognostic models for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Methylation data and expression data downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to identify differentially methylated sites (DMSs). The prognosis-related DMSs were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis. Functional enrichment was analyzed using DAVID. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING. Finally, a methylation-based prognostic signature was constructed using LASSO method and further validated in 2 validation cohorts. RESULTS Firstly, we identified 743 DMSs corresponding to 332 genes, including 357 hypermethylated sites and 386 hypomethylated sites. Furthermore, we selected 103 prognosis-related DMSs by univariate Cox regression. Using a LASSO algorithm, we established a 5-DMSs prognostic signature in TCGA-TNBC cohort, which could classify TNBC patients with significant survival difference (log-rank p=4.97E-03). Patients in the high-risk group had shorter overall survival than patients in the low-risk group. The excellent performance was validated in GSE78754 (HR=2.42, 95%CI: 1.27-4.59, log-rank P=0.0055). Moreover, for disease-free survival, the prognostic performance was verified in GSE141441 (HR=2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.44, log-rank P=0.0027). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the 5-DMSs signature could serve as an independent risk factor. CONCLUSIONS We constructed a 5-DMSs signature with excellent performance for the prediction of disease-free survival and overall survival, providing a guide for clinicians in directing personalized therapeutic regimen selection of TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética
14.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 19(5): 305-315, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989278

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer for which chemotherapy had been the only active treatment option once metastatic disease developed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now available to treat patients with advanced TNBC who have programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumors; these agents have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Additionally, long-term disease control can be achieved in a subset of patients. Continued investigations of ICIs and optimal combinations with chemotherapy and targeted agents to enhance the immune response are ongoing, along with studies aimed at identifying the patients most likely to benefit. For early-stage TNBC, the data to date on administering ICI-based combination therapies in the neoadjuvant setting are compelling and suggest that the benefit from immunotherapy does not depend on PD-L1 expression. This review will discuss the clinical trial data on ICIs as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with metastatic and early-stage TNBC.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2451-2457, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by increased recurrence and poor survival. Mounting evidence suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a role in carcinogenesis, however, little is known about the contribution of IL-10 to TNBC. The study evaluated the contribution of IL-10 promoter A-1082G (rs1800896), T-819C (rs3021097), A-592C (rs1800872) genotypes to the risk of TNBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: IL-10 genotypes were examined among 1,232 breast cancer patients and 1,232 controls and evaluated. RESULTS: The percentages of AG and GG for IL-10 A-1082G genotypes were higher in the breast cancer patient group than in the control group. The GG genotype carriers were of higher risk for breast cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.28-3.21, p=0.0021]. Interestingly, G allele carriers were of higher risk of TNBC (OR=1.25, 95%CI=1.07-1.46, p=0.0050). CONCLUSION: The G allele of IL-10 A-1082G genotype may serve as a predictor for TNBC risk. The finding should be validated in other populations.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interleucina-10/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
Anticancer Res ; 41(5): 2697-2709, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Prior studies have underlined the prognostic relevance of pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer. However, an accurate demonstration of treatment efficacy is dependent on its potential to predict long-term outcomes of recurrence and death, and this issue remains somewhat controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients with breast cancer (BC) treated with NAC followed by surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. After carrying out multivariable analyses, involving baseline characteristics (tumor stage, nodal status, histological grade, biological profile) and response status, we analysed the association between pCR and disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in various subtypes. Moreover, we investigated several residual disease-scoring combinations to check whether they could discriminate prognostic subsets according to their variable tumor range after NAC. RESULTS: Overall, factors associated with pCR were non-luminal subtype (p<0.001), high grade (p=0.001) and HER2-overexpression (p=0.001). Residual tumor and nodal stage after NAC significantly correlated with DFS (p=0.007) and OS (p<0.001). Similarly, pCR after NAC showed significantly better DFS (p=0.01), particularly for HER2-positive (p=0.003), triple-negative (p=0.019) and HER2-positive Luminal B profiles (p=0.019). However, there was no statistical difference in the OS among patients who had PCR, compared to absence of pCR (p=0.40). CONCLUSION: Extent of residual disease and evidence of regression provide helpful prognostic details in BC patients treated with NAC. Achieving pCR after NAC is related with significantly better DFS, with the potential of maximized breast and axillary conservation based on clinical response. The distribution of expertise in a cross-disciplinary setting could provide safe and favourable prognosis, while improving cosmetic outcomes and quality of life.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 820-832, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958794

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves pathological complete response in breast cancer. To understand why only a subset of tumors respond to ICB, patients with hormone receptor-positive or triple-negative breast cancer were treated with anti-PD1 before surgery. Paired pre- versus on-treatment biopsies from treatment-naive patients receiving anti-PD1 (n = 29) or patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy before anti-PD1 (n = 11) were subjected to single-cell transcriptome, T cell receptor and proteome profiling. One-third of tumors contained PD1-expressing T cells, which clonally expanded upon anti-PD1 treatment, irrespective of tumor subtype. Expansion mainly involved CD8+ T cells with pronounced expression of cytotoxic-activity (PRF1, GZMB), immune-cell homing (CXCL13) and exhaustion markers (HAVCR2, LAG3), and CD4+ T cells characterized by expression of T-helper-1 (IFNG) and follicular-helper (BCL6, CXCR5) markers. In pre-treatment biopsies, the relative frequency of immunoregulatory dendritic cells (PD-L1+), specific macrophage phenotypes (CCR2+ or MMP9+) and cancer cells exhibiting major histocompatibility complex class I/II expression correlated positively with T cell expansion. Conversely, undifferentiated pre-effector/memory T cells (TCF7+, GZMK+) or inhibitory macrophages (CX3CR1+, C3+) were inversely correlated with T cell expansion. Collectively, our data identify various immunophenotypes and associated gene sets that are positively or negatively correlated with T cell expansion following anti-PD1 treatment. We shed light on the heterogeneity in treatment response to anti-PD1 in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/imunologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/cirurgia
18.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 98: 102222, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023642

RESUMO

The neoadjuvant setting provides unquestionable clinical benefits for high-risk breast cancer (BC) patients, mainly in terms of expansion of locoregional treatment options and prognostic stratification. Additionally, it is also emerging as a strategical tool in the research field. In the present review, by focusing on HER2-positive and triple-negative subtypes, we examined the role of the neoadjuvant setting as a research platform to facilitate and rationalize the placement of escalation strategies, promote the adoption of biomarker-driven approaches for the investigation of de-escalated treatments, and foster the conduction of comprehensive translational analyses, thus ultimately aiming at pursuing treatment personalization. The solid prognostic role of pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant therapy, and its use as a surrogate endpoint to accelerate the drug approval process were discussed. In this context, available data on escalated treatment strategies capable of enhancing pathologic complete response (pCR) rate or improving prognosis of patients with residual disease (RD) after neoadjuvant treatment, were comprehensively reviewed. We also summarized evidence regarding the possibility of obtaining pCR with de-escalated strategies, with particular emphasis on the role of biomarker-driven approaches for patient selection. Pitfalls of the dichotomy of pCR/RD were also deepened, and data on alternative/complementary biomarkers with a possible clinical relevance in this regard were reviewed.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
19.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(5): 1245-1247, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018861

RESUMO

The present analysis was conducted to assess the pharmacological costs of atezolizumab as first-line treatment in triple negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Pivotal phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) was considered. Nine hundred and two patients were included. Differences in costs between the 2 arms (atezolizumab plus nabpaclitaxel versus placebo plus nab-paclitaxel) was 17 398 €, with a cost of 7564 €per month of OS-gain in the overall population and 2485 €per month of OS-gain in PD-L1-positive (≥1) population. Combining pharmacological costs of drugs with the measure of efficacy represented by the OS, atezolizumab could be considered cost-effective in first-line treatment for triple-negative mBC only in PD-L1-positive population, but a reduction of costs is mandatory.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD011395, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer remains a challenge to treat. With emerging study results, it is important to interpret the available clinical data and apply the evidence offering the most effective treatment to the right patient. Poly(ADP Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are a new class of drug and their role in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer is being established. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, safety profile, and potential harms of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The primary outcome of interest was overall survival; secondary outcomes included progression-free survival, tumour response rate, quality of life, and adverse events. SEARCH METHODS: On 8 June 2020, we searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via OvidSP, Embase via OvidSP, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched proceedings from the major oncology conferences as well as scanned reference lists from eligible publications and contacted corresponding authors of trials for further information, where needed. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials on participants with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer comparing 1) chemotherapy in combination with PARP inhibitors, compared to the same chemotherapy without PARP inhibitors or 2) treatment with PARP inhibitors, compared to treatment with other chemotherapy. We included studies that reported on our primary outcome of overall survival and secondary outcomes including progression-free survival, tumour response rate, quality of life, and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures defined by Cochrane. Summary statistics for the endpoints used hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival and progression-free survival, and odds ratios (OR) for response rate (RR) and toxicity. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 49 articles for qualitative synthesis, describing five randomised controlled trials that were included in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). A sixth trial was assessed as eligible but had ended prematurely and no data were available for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Risk of bias was predominately low to unclear across all studies except in regards to performance bias (3/5 high risk) and detection bias for the outcomes of quality of life (2/2 high risk) and reporting of adverse events (3/5 high risk). High-certainty evidence shows there may be a small advantage in overall survival (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00; 4 studies; 1435 patients). High-certainty evidence shows that PARP inhibitors offer an improvement in PFS in locally advanced/metastatic HER2-negative, BRCA germline mutated breast cancer patients (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.71; 5 studies; 1474 patients). There was no statistical heterogeneity for these outcomes. Subgroup analyses for PFS outcomes based on trial level data were performed for triple-negative breast cancer, hormone-positive and/or HER2-positive breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations, and patients who had received prior chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer or not. The subgroup analyses showed a persistent PFS benefit regardless of the subgroup chosen. Pooled analysis shows PARP inhibitors likely result in a moderate improvement in tumour response rate compared to other treatment arms (66.9% vs 48.9%; RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.54; 5 studies; 1185 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The most common adverse events reported across all five studies included neutropenia, anaemia and fatigue. Grade 3 or higher adverse events probably occur no less frequently in patients receiving PARP inhibitors (59.4% for PARP arm versus 64.5% for non-PARP arm, RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; 5 studies; 1443 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Only two studies reported quality of life outcomes so this was not amenable to meta-analysis. However, both studies that did assess quality of life showed PARP inhibitors were superior compared to physician's choice of chemotherapy in terms of participant-reported outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In people with locally advanced or metastatic HER2-negative, BRCA germline mutated breast cancer, PARP inhibitors offer an improvement in progression-free survival, and likely improve overall survival and tumour response rates. This systematic review provides evidence supporting the use of PARP inhibitors as part of the therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients in this subgroup. The toxicity profile for PARP inhibitors is probably no worse than chemotherapy but more information is required regarding quality of life outcomes, highlighting the importance of collecting such data in future studies. Future studies should also be powered to detect clinically important differences in overall survival and could focus on the role of PARP inhibitors in other relevant breast cancer populations, including HER2-positive, BRCA-negative/homologous recombination repair-deficient and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PDL1) positive.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Viés , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
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