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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(656): eabn7571, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921474

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype associated with early metastatic recurrence and worse patient outcomes. TNBC tumors express molecular markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but its requirement during spontaneous TNBC metastasis in vivo remains incompletely understood. We demonstrated that spontaneous TNBC tumors from a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), multiple patient-derived xenografts, and archival patient samples exhibited large populations in vivo of hybrid E/M cells that lead invasion ex vivo while expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. The mesenchymal marker vimentin promoted invasion and repressed metastatic outgrowth. We next tested the requirement for five EMT transcription factors and observed distinct patterns of utilization during invasion and colony formation. These differences suggested a sequential activation of multiple EMT molecular programs during the metastatic cascade. Consistent with this model, our longitudinal single-cell RNA analysis detected three different EMT-related molecular patterns. We observed cancer cells progressing from epithelial to hybrid E/M and strongly mesenchymal patterns during invasion and from epithelial to a hybrid E/M pattern during colony formation. We next investigated the relative epithelial versus mesenchymal state of cancer cells in both GEMM and patient metastases. In both contexts, we observed heterogeneity between and within metastases in the same individual. We observed a complex spectrum of epithelial, hybrid E/M, and mesenchymal cell states within metastases, suggesting that there are multiple successful molecular strategies for distant organ colonization. Together, our results demonstrate an important and complex role for EMT programs during TNBC metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Vimentina
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(29): 2290-2294, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927061

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of the degrees of myelosuppression on the curative effect and prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The clinical, pathological and follow-up data of 206 patients with triple negative breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel combined with epirubicin combined with cyclophosphamide regimen in the Department of Breast Surgery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to December 2018 were collected retrospectively. All were female, aged 28-71 (47.8±10.7) years. According to the WHO classification standard of acute and subacute toxicity of anticancer drugs, the patients were divided into 98 cases in the mild group (0-Ⅱ degree) and 108 cases in the severe group (Ⅲ-Ⅳ degree) according to the degree of bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy. The baseline clinicopathological features, pathological complete remission rate (PCR) and objective remission rate (ORR) of the two groups were compared. The survival curve was drawn by Kaplan Meier method, and the differences of disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) between the two groups were analyzed by log rank test. Cox regression risk model was used to analyze the related factors affecting the survival of the patients. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline clinicopathological characteristics of patients between the two groups, such as age, physical status score, menopausal status, body mass index, histological grade, clinical T stage, clinical N stage and Ki-67 index (all P>0.05). The severe group had higher PCR, longer median DFS and median DMFS than the mild group [50.9%(55/108) vs 36.7%(36/98); not reached vs 72 months; not reached vs 84 months] (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in ORR, LRFS and OS between the two groups [89.8%(97/108) vs 81.6%(80/98); both not reached; both not reached] (all P>0.05). The degree of bone marrow suppression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was an influential factor of DFS in TNBC patients (P=0.025). Compared with mild myelosuppression group, severe myelosuppression group had better disease-free survival prognosis (HR=0.571, 95%CI: 0.349-0.934). Conclusion: The prognosis of grade Ⅲ/Ⅳ myelosuppression is better than grade 0/Ⅰ/Ⅱ myelosuppression in patients with triple-negative breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TEC regimen, which is helpful for judging efficacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(8): 617-624, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953756

RESUMO

According to the classification presented by Lehmann BD (2016), triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors with four specific subtypes: basal-like (subtype 1 and subtype 2), mesenchymal, and luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtypes. The basal-like subtypes of carcinomas predominate in this group, accounting for up to 80% of all cases. Despite the significantly lower proportions of mesenchymal and LAR variants in the group of breast carcinomas with a TNBC profile, such tumors are characterized by aggressive biological behavior. To this end, the LAR subtype is of particular interest, since the literature on such tumors presents different and even contradictory data concerning the disease course and prognosis. This review is devoted to the analysis of the relevant literature, reflecting the main results of studies on the molecular properties and clinical features of the disease course of LAR-type TNBC carcinomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955463

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is a process that drives breast cancer (BC) progression and metastasis, which is linked to the altered inflammatory process, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In targeting inflammatory angiogenesis, natural compounds are a promising option for managing BC. Thus, this study was designed to determine the natural alkaloid sanguinarine (SANG) potential for its antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The cytotoxic effect of SANG was examined in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cell models at a low molecular level. In this study, SANG remarkably inhibited the inflammatory mediator chemokine CCL2 in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Furthermore, qRT-PCR confirmed with Western analysis studies showed that mRNA CCL2 repression was concurrent with reducing its main regulator IKBKE and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins in both TNBC cell lines. The total ERK1/2 protein was inhibited in the more responsive MDA-MB-231 cells. SANG exhibited a higher potential to inhibit cell migration in MDA-MB-231 cells compared to MDA-MB-468 cells. Data obtained in this study suggest a unique antiangiogenic and antimetastatic effect of SANG in the MDA-MB-231 cell model. These effects are related to the compound's ability to inhibit the angiogenic CCL2 and impact the ERK1/2 pathway. Therefore, SANG use may be recommended as a component of the therapeutic strategy for TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955613

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an immunologically heterogenous disease that lacks clinically actionable targets and is more likely to progress to metastatic disease than other types of breast cancer. Tumor ablation has been used to increase response rates to checkpoint inhibitors, which remain low for TNBC patients. We hypothesized that tumor ablation could produce an anti-tumor response without using checkpoint inhibitors if immunosuppression (i.e., Tregs, tumor acidosis) was subdued. Tumors were primed with sodium bicarbonate (200 mM p.o.) to reduce tumor acidosis and low-dose cyclophosphamide (100-200 mg/kg i.p.) to deplete regulatory T cells, as has been shown independently in previous studies. A novel injectable ablative was then used to necrose the tumor, release tumor antigens, and initiate an immune event that could create an abscopal effect. This combination of bicarbonate, cyclophosphamide, and ablation, called "BiCyclA", was tested in three syngeneic models of TNBC: E0771 (C57BL/6), 67NR (BALB/c), and 4T1-Luc (BALB/c). In E0771 and 67NR, BiCyclA therapy significantly reduced tumor growth and cured 5/7 and 6/10 mice 50 days after treatment respectively. In the metastatic 4T1-Luc tumors, for which surgery and checkpoint inhibitors fail, BiCyclA cured 5/10 mice of primary tumors and lung metastases. Notably, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to be crucial for the anti-metastatic response, and cured mice were able to resist tumor rechallenge, suggesting production of immune memory. Reduction of tumor acidity and regulatory T cells with ablation is a simple yet effective therapy for local and systemic tumor control with broad applicability as it is not limited by expensive supplies.


Assuntos
Acidose , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955813

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the poorest prognosis of all breast cancer subtypes. Recently, the activation of NF-κB, which is involved in the growth and survival of malignant tumors, has been demonstrated in TNBC, suggesting that NF-κB may serve as a new therapeutic target. In the present study, we examined whether dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an NF-κB inhibitor, induces apoptosis in TNBC cells and enhances the apoptosis-inducing effect of paclitaxel and adriamycin. Cell survival was analyzed by the trypan blue assay and apoptosis assay. Protein detection was examined by immunoblotting. The activation of NF-κB p65 was correlated with poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. DMF induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells at concentrations that were non-cytotoxic to the normal mammary cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, DMF inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation and Survivin, XIAP, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 expression in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells. Moreover, DMF enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of paclitaxel and adriamycin in MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DMF may be an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of TNBC, in which NF-κB is constitutively active. DMF may also be useful as an adjuvant therapy to conventional anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955836

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis and the absence of targeted therapy. c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is considered a molecular target for anticancer drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) recognizing c-Kit are used for the treatment of c-Kit-expressing tumors. However, the expression, function, and therapeutic potential of c-Kit have been little explored in TNBC. Here, we studied the expression and effects of c-Kit in TNBC through in vitro and in silico analysis, and evaluated the response to TKIs targeting c-Kit. Analysis of TNBC cells showed the expression of functional c-Kit at the cell membrane. The stimulation of c-Kit with its ligand induced the activation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2, increasing cell migration, but had no effect on cell proliferation or response to Doxorubicin. Analysis of public datasets showed that the expression of c-Kit in tumors was not associated with patient survival. Finally, TNBC cells were susceptible to TKIs, in particular the effect of Nilotinib was stronger than Doxorubicin in all cell lines. In conclusion, TNBC cells express functional c-Kit, which is a targetable molecule, and show a strong response to Nilotinib that may be considered a candidate drug for the treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
8.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956870

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most lethal diseases in the world, and the development and improvement of treatments used in cancer therapies are extremely important for a better quality of life for patients. In view of the current problems in drug administration such as low solubility and adverse effects, the activity of a solid lipid nanoparticle containing docetaxel (SLN-DTX), a drug already used in conventional therapies, was evaluated in a cell line (MDA-MB-231) of one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer with the worst prognosis, triple-negative breast cancer. Viability tests indicated that SLN-DTX has a greater dependence on the treatment dose when compared to the free drug, which indicates a more controlled release of the drug, and both reduced viability by around 50% at a concentration of 1 µg/mL after 72 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal and light microscopy analyses indicated that after treatment the cells enter a mitotic catastrophe, characteristic of antimitotic drugs that usually make cells progress to death or senescence. Cells treated with both DTX and SLN-DTX showed significant inhibition of mobility, 73.6% and 66.5% when treated with SLN-DTX and DTX, respectively, compared to the 11.4% of the control after 72 h, characteristics that are very relevant in tumor development and progression. SLN-DTX demonstrated its great potential as a nanocarrier by maintaining and improving the drug's action in the MDA-MB-231 cell line.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lipossomos , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 886, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a high-risk factor for development and poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which was considered as a high malignant and poor clinical outcome breast cancer subtype. TNBC proliferation and migration regulated by obesity is complex. Here, we studied effects of cytokines secreted from adipose tissue on development of TNBC. METHODS: Forty postmenopausal cases by Yuebei People's Hospital of Shaoguan with stage I/IIA TNBC were enrolled. Cytokine concentrations were examined using ELISA analysis. Proliferation and migration of TNBC cell lines were performed using CCK8 assays and Transwell tests. The Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test, two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test and two-tailed unpaired t test were performed using GraphPad Prism 8.4.2. RESULTS: Survival analysis indicated that obese patients with TNBC had worse disease free survival (DFS) as compared with normal weight group (Hazard Ratio 4.393, 95% confidence interval (CI) of ratio 1.071-18.02, p < 0.05). Obese patients with TNBC had severe insulin resistance and high plasma triglycerides. However, plasma adiponectin concentration was decreased and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentration was increased in obese TNBC patients as compared with the nonobese group. The similar results were found in the cytokine secretion from adipose tissues and insulin-resistant adipocytes. The secretion of adipose tissue from obese TNBC patients could promote proliferation and migration of TNBC cell lines, including MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453 and HCC38 cells. These TNBC cell lines co-incubated with insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes or supplementing these cytokines medium also exhibited increase of proliferative and migratory capacity. CONCLUSION: TNBC patients with obesity had worse prognosis compared with the normal weight groups. Alteration of cytokines secreted from adipose tissues mediated proliferation and migration of TNBC, leading to tumor progression in TNBC patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Insulinas/metabolismo , Processos Neoplásicos , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 30, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910055

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a very heterogeneous disease and refers to a subgroup of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical, pathological and molecular features of TNBC. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 56 cases of TNBC diagnosed in the Department of Pathology at the Farhat Hached University Hospital over a period of three years (2018-2020). The incidence of TNBC was 5.62% and the mean age of the patients was 50.36 years. The most frequent reason for consultation was the discovery of breast nodules (98.21%). The diagnosis of TNBC was confirmed in 24 cases (42.86%) based on the analysis of mastectomy specimens. Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) was the most common histological type (47 cases; 82.5%). Mean tumor size was 35.5 mm. SBR grading was only specified in 42 cases (73.68%). Grade III was the most predominant type (78.6%, n = 33). The notion of lymph node metastasis was found in 44 reports and lymph node invasion was reported in 19 patients (43.2%). Immunohistochemical study showed that all patients were hormone receptor-negative (RO and RP) with no Her2 overexpression (n = 56; 100). This study results are generally in agreement with literature data. Despite recent molecular classifications, there is no clinically verified diagnostic test allowing for clear therapeutic standardization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Receptores de Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
11.
Theranostics ; 12(12): 5299-5316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910803

RESUMO

Rationale: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered one of the highest-risk subtypes of breast cancer and has dismal prognosis. The management of aggressive TNBC remains a formidable challenge. Tumor microenvironment (TME), with the unique features, which can serve as the "soil" for the growth and survival of tumor cells (the "seeds"), plays an important regulatory role in the occurrence, proliferation and metastasis of tumors. Catalytic tumor therapy, which can destroy the homeostasis of TME, affect the occurrence and progress of tumors in an all-round way and further magnify chemotherapy, is a quite potential tactic for TNBC-treatment. Methods: Herein, accurate programmed multifunctional cascade nano-missiles (GOx+L-Arg-NM/PTX-NM) composed of novel intelligent all-in-one "nano-rocket" (the drug delivery system) and "ammunitions" (the therapeutic agents) are innovatively constructed by mimicking the functionalities of military precision-guided missiles. Ammunitions can be precisely and effectively transported to the core region of TNBC (the "battlefield") by organic modification on the surface of nano-rocket via chemical means. Once successfully internalized by TNBC cells, the nano-missiles can automatically trigger relevant cascade reactions without external stimulation, prominently disrupt the homeostasis of TME, and produce a "bomb-like" attack on tumors, further promoting the chemotherapy. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo investigations indicated that the innovative nano-missiles could deliver ammunitions to the core area of TNBC to the utmost extent, dramatically ablate tumor and restrain tumor metastasis via orchestrated multimodal synergistic starvation/oxidation/gas/chemotherapy. Conclusion: The well-designed multifunctional nano-missiles may emerge as a new paradigm to suppress the malignant proliferation and metastasis of TNBC, offering a promising approach for the next generation cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
12.
Theranostics ; 12(13): 5727-5743, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966596

RESUMO

RNA N6 -methyladenosine (m6A) modification and its regulators fine tune gene expression and contribute to tumorigenesis. This study aims to uncover the essential role and the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of the m6A reader YTHDC1 in promoting triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) metastasis. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo models were employed to determine the pathological function of YTHDC1 in TNBC metastasis. To identify bona fide YTHDC1 target RNAs, we conducted RNA-seq, m6A-seq, and RIP-seq, followed by integrative data analysis and validation assays. RESULTS: By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we found that elevated expression of YTHDC1 is positively correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Using a mammary fat pad mouse model of TNBC, YTHDC1 significantly promoted lung metastasis of TNBC cells. Through multiple transcriptome-wide sequencing and integrative data analysis, we revealed dysregulation of metastasis-related pathways following YTHDC1 depletion and identified SMAD3 as a bona fide YTHDC1 target RNA. Depletion of YTHDC1 caused nuclear retention of SMAD3 mRNA, leading to lower SMAD3 protein levels. Loss of YTHDC1 led to impaired TGF-ß-induced gene expression, leading to inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed TNBC cell migration and invasion. SMAD3 overexpression was able to restore the response to TGF-ß in YTHDC1 depleted TNBC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the oncogenic role of YTHDC1 is mediated through its recognition of m6A as m6A-binding defective mutants of YTHDC1 were unable to rescue the impaired cell migration and invasion of YTHDC1 knockout TNBC cells. CONCLUSIONS: We show that YTHDC1 plays a critical oncogenic role in TNBC metastasis through promoting the nuclear export and expression of SMAD3 to augment the TGF-ß signaling cascade. Overall, our study demonstrates that YTHDC1 is vital for TNBC progression by enhancing TNBC cell survival and TGF-ß-mediated EMT via SMAD3 to enable the formation of distant metastasis and highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting the YTHDC1/m6A/SMAD3 axis for TNBC treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , RNA , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273044, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960749

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by excessive accumulation of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs consist of a heterogeneous population with high plasticity and are associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. Moreover, breast cancer cells can secrete factors that influence TAM polarization. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the crosstalk between cancer cells and macrophages in the context of TNBC. Cytokine-polarized M2 macrophage were used as control. Distinct from the classical M2 macrophage, TAMs generated from TNBC-conditioned media upregulated both M1- and M2-associated genes, and secreted both the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin IL-10 and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor- α. Theses TNBC-induced TAMs exert aggressive behavior of TNBC cells. Consistently, TCGA and MTABRIC analyses of human breast cancer revealed upregulation of M1- associated genes in TNBC comparing with non-TNBC. Among these M1-associated genes, CXCL10 and IL1B were revealed to be independent prognostic factors for disease progression. In conclusion, TNBC cells induce macrophage polarization with a mixture of M1 and M2 phenotypes. These cancer-induced TAMs further enhance tumor cell growth and aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos , Fenótipo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
14.
Curr Oncol ; 29(7): 4748-4767, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877237

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a worse prognosis and remains the most challenging breast cancer subtype to treat. This is largely related to the heterogeneity of this disease and the lack of reliable oncological targets. In this review, we discuss the current standard-of-care treatment options for metastatic TNBC, including recent advances with the use of immunotherapy, PARP inhibitors and antibody-drug conjugates. This review also explores new agents and novel combinations arising in the field for the treatment of advanced TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Prognóstico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
15.
Curr Oncol ; 29(7): 4791-4798, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877240

RESUMO

Metastatic ureteral tumors arising from a primary breast carcinoma are extremely rare. They present with hematuria and radiological findings compatible with obstructive ureteral phenomena. We present a case of an 87-year-old woman with a history of lymphoma and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), during an emergency admission for peptic ulcer, developed macroscopic hematuria. Radiologic and endoscopic investigations revealed a remarkable stenosis at the lower segment of the right ureter, attributed to metastases from her breast carcinoma. We report this case with the aim to make both oncologists and urologists aware of this rare condition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Ureter , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hematúria/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Ureter/patologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271090, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802566

RESUMO

Women with metastatic breast cancer have a disheartening 5-year survival rate of only 28%. CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) is a metastasis suppressor that functions as a transcription factor, and in an estrogen-dependent model of rat breast cancer, it repressed the expression of genes that promote breast cancer progression and metastasis. In this report, we set out to determine the expression level of CREB3L1 across different human breast cancer subtypes and determine whether CREB3L1 functions as a metastasis suppressor, particularly in triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). CREB3L1 expression was generally increased in luminal A, luminal B and HER2 breast cancers, but significantly reduced in a high proportion (75%) of TNBCs. Two luminal A (HCC1428, T47D) and two basal TNBC (HCC1806, HCC70) CREB3L1-deficient breast cancer cell lines were characterized as compared to their corresponding HA-CREB3L1-expressing counterparts. HA-CREB3L1 expression significantly reduced both cell migration and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar but had no impact on cell proliferation rates as compared to the CREB3L1-deficient parental cell lines. Restoration of CREB3L1 expression in HCC1806 cells was also sufficient to reduce mammary fat pad tumor formation and lung metastases in mouse xenograft models of breast cancer as compared to the parental HCC1806 cells. These results strongly support a metastasis suppressor role for CREB3L1 in human luminal A and TNBCs. Further, the ability to identify the subset of luminal A (7%) and TNBCs (75%) that are CREB3L1-deficient provides opportunities to stratify patients that would benefit from additional treatments to treat their more metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
17.
Theranostics ; 12(10): 4564-4580, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35832090

RESUMO

Background: Since T cell exclusion contributes to tumor immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance, how to improve T cell infiltration into solid tumors becomes an urgent challenge. Methods: We employed deep learning to profile the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples from TCGA datasets and noticed that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways were enriched in the immune-excluded phenotype of TNBC. Erdafitinib, a selective FGFR inhibitor, was then used to investigate the effect of FGFR blockade on TIME landscape of TNBC syngeneic mouse models by flow cytometry, mass cytometry (CyTOF) and RNA sequencing. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and transwell migration assay were carried out to detect the effect of FGFR blockade on cell proliferation and migration, respectively. Cytokine array, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence (IF) were employed to investigate the potential mechanism by which FGFR inhibition enhanced T cell infiltration. Results: Blocking FGFR pathway by Erdafitinib markedly suppressed tumor growth with increased T cell infiltration in immunocompetent mouse models of TNBC. Mechanistically, FGFR blockade inhibited cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) proliferation, migration and secretion of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) by down-regulating MAPK/ERK pathway in CAFs, thus promoting T cell infiltration by breaking physical and chemical barriers built by CAFs in TIME. Furthermore, we observed that FGFR inhibition combined with immune checkpoint blockade therapy (ICT) greatly improved the therapeutic response of TNBC tumor models. Conclusions: FGFR blockade enhanced ICT response by turning immune "cold" tumor into "hot" tumor, providing remarkable implications of FGFR inhibitors as adjuvant agents for combinatorial immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Linfócitos T , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Theranostics ; 12(11): 5086-5102, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836797

RESUMO

Background: The up-regulation of PD-L1 is recognized as an adaption of cancer cells to evade immune surveillance and attack. However, the intrinsic mechanisms of the induction of PD-L1 by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in tumor microenvironment remain incompletely characterized. Ubiquitin ligase E3 component N-recognition protein 5 (UBR5) has a critical role in tumorigenesis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by triggering specific immune responses to the tumor. Dual targeting of UBR5 and PD-L1 exhibited superior therapeutic benefits in a preclinical TNBC model in short term. Methods: The regulation of UBR5 to PD-L1 upon IFN-γ stimulation was evaluated through in UBR5 deficiency, reconstitution or overexpression cell line models by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and RNA-seq. The effects of PD-L1 regulation by UBR5 and double blockade of both genes were evaluated in mouse TNBC model. Luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore the transcription factors involved in the regulation of UBR5 to PD-L1. Results: E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5 plays a key role in IFN-γ-induced PDL1 transcription in TNBC in an E3 ubiquitination activity-independent manner. RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analyses reveal that UBR5 globally affects the genes in the IFN-γ-induced signaling pathway. Through its poly adenylate binding (PABC) domain, UBR5 enhances the transactivation of PDL1 by upregulating protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR), and PKR's downstream factors including signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). Restoration of PD-L1 expression in UBR5-deficient tumor cells recoups their malignancy in vivo, whereas CRISPR/Cas9-mediated simultaneous abrogation of UBR5 and PD-L1 expression yields synergistic therapeutic benefits than either blockade alone, with a strong impact on the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions: This study identifies a novel regulator of PDL1 transcription, elucidates the underlying molecular mechanisms and provides a strong rationale for combination cancer immunotherapies targeting UBR5 and PD-L1.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(6): 1023-1028, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813302

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the third most common female cancer in Taiwan. EZH2 plays an important role in cancer development through transcriptional repression by chromatin remodeling. However, the expression of EZH2 in breast cancer is highly correlated with tumorigenesis, and patient survival is not matched to TNBC. Furthermore, it has not been determined if specific EZH2 genetic variants are associated with breast cancer risk. In this paper, we evaluated the survival of different types of breast cancer. The results indicated that a lower expression of EZH2 led to poor survival of TNBC patients. Therefore, we aimed at studying the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of EZH2 and susceptibility to TNBC in Taiwan. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of EZH2 (rs6950683, rs2302427, rs3757441, and rs41277434) were analyzed by real-time PCR genotyping in 176 patients with TNBC and 1000 cancer-free controls. The results showed that TNBC patients under 60 years old who carried a TC or CC genotype at EZH2 rs6950683 and re3757441 had a tumor size of 20 mm or smaller (T1). Thus, this study is the first to examine the age and mutant genes associated with EZH2 SNPs in TNBC progression and development in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8118909, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35845949

RESUMO

The CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 6 (CMTM6) plays an extremely important role of the programed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) protein. Our study is aimed at investigating the expression of CMTM6 and PD-L1 proteins in triple-negative breast cancer and their correlation with the clinical pathological data of patients. We selected 89 cases of triple-negative breast cancer and 62 cases of normal breast tissue specimens. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect the expression levels of CMTM6 and PD-L1 and to carefully study differences in their expression. The expression of CMTM6 and PD-L1 in TNBC was higher than that in normal breast tissue, and the expression of the two was positively correlated (p < 0.05). In TNBC, CMTM6 expression is positively correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, Ki67 proliferation index, and TNM stage (p < 0.05). PD-L1 expression is positively correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, Ki67 proliferation index, TNM stage, and vascular infiltration (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the positive expression of CMTM6 and PD-L1 had no correlation with the survival rate of patients (p > 0.05). According to KM-plotter, we found that a higher CMTM6 expression was positively related with relapse-free survival rate of patients (p < 0.05). A higher PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with relapse-free, overall, and distant metastasis survival rate of patients (p < 0.05). In timer database, we found a positive correlation between the expression of CMTM6 and PD-L1 in triple-negative breast cancer. Both CMTM6 and PD-L1 are highly expressed in TNBC, and their expressions are positively related. In the future, the two gene might become targets for the treatment of TNBC, providing a basis of clinical treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67 , Metástase Linfática , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
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