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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12906, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839800

RESUMO

Only a third of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progress to dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Identifying biomarkers that distinguish individuals with MCI who will progress to DAT (MCI-Converters) from those who will not (MCI-Non-Converters) remains a key challenge in the field. In our study, we evaluate whether the individual rates of loss of volumes of the Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (EC) with age in the MCI stage can predict progression to DAT. Using data from 758 MCI patients in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Database, we employ Linear Mixed Effects (LME) models to estimate individual trajectories of regional brain volume loss over 12 years on average. Our approach involves three key analyses: (1) mapping age-related volume loss trajectories in MCI-Converters and Non-Converters, (2) using logistic regression to predict progression to DAT based on individual rates of hippocampal and EC volume loss, and (3) examining the relationship between individual estimates of these volumetric changes and cognitive decline across different cognitive functions-episodic memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function. We find that the loss of Hippocampal volume is significantly more rapid in MCI-Converters than Non-Converters, but find no such difference in EC volumes. We also find that the rate of hippocampal volume loss in the MCI stage is a significant predictor of conversion to DAT, while the rate of volume loss in the EC and other additional regions is not. Finally, individual estimates of rates of regional volume loss in both the Hippocampus and EC, and other additional regions, correlate strongly with individual rates of cognitive decline. Across all analyses, we find significant individual variation in the initial volumes and the rates of changes in volume with age in individuals with MCI. This study highlights the importance of personalized approaches in predicting AD progression, offering insights for future research and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Progressão da Doença , Hipocampo , Humanos , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tamanho do Órgão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12927, 2024 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839833

RESUMO

We aimed to characterize the cognitive profile of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) patients with cognitive complaints, exploring the influence of biological and psychological factors. Participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and cognitive complaints ≥ 8 weeks post-acute phase were included. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery (NPS) and health questionnaires were administered at inclusion and at 1, 3 and 6 months. Blood samples were collected at each visit, MRI scan at baseline and at 6 months, and, optionally, cerebrospinal fluid. Cognitive features were analyzed in relation to clinical, neuroimaging, and biochemical markers at inclusion and follow-up. Forty-nine participants, with a mean time from symptom onset of 10.4 months, showed attention-executive function (69%) and verbal memory (39%) impairment. Apathy (64%), moderate-severe anxiety (57%), and severe fatigue (35%) were prevalent. Visual memory (8%) correlated with total gray matter (GM) and subcortical GM volume. Neuronal damage and inflammation markers were within normal limits. Over time, cognitive test scores, depression, apathy, anxiety scores, MRI indexes, and fluid biomarkers remained stable, although fewer participants (50% vs. 75.5%; p = 0.012) exhibited abnormal cognitive evaluations at follow-up. Altered attention/executive and verbal memory, common in PACS, persisted in most subjects without association with structural abnormalities, elevated cytokines, or neuronal damage markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Ansiedade
3.
Brain Behav ; 14(6): e3583, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of neuroimaging in patients with primary headaches and the clinician-based rationale for requesting neuroimaging in China. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: This study included patients with primary headaches admitted to hospitals and clinicians in China. We identified whether neuroimaging was requested and the types of neuroimaging conducted. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study, and convenience sampling was used to recruit patients with primary headaches. Clinicians were interviewed using a combination of personal in-depth and topic-selection group interviews to explore why doctors requested neuroimaging. DATA COLLECTION: We searched for the diagnosis of primary headache in the outpatient and inpatient systems according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 code of patients admitted to six hospitals in three provincial capitals by 2022.We selected three public and three private hospitals with neurology specialties that treated a corresponding number of patients. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Among the 2263 patients recruited for this study, 1942 (89.75%) underwent neuroimaging. Of the patients, 1157 (51.13%) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 246 (10.87%) underwent both head computed tomography (CT) and MRI, and 628 (27.75%) underwent CT. Fifteen of the 16 interviewed clinicians did not issue a neuroimaging request for patients with primary headaches. Furthermore, we found that doctors issued a neuroimaging request for patients with primary headaches mostly, to exclude the risk of misdiagnosis, reduce uncertainty, avoid medical disputes, meet patients' medical needs, and complete hospital assessment indicators. CONCLUSIONS: For primary headaches, the probability of clinicians requesting neuroimaging was higher in China than in other countries. There is considerable room for improvement in determining appropriate strategies to reduce the use of low-value care for doctors and patients.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Humanos , China , Estudos Transversais , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Cefaleia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente
4.
Neurosurg Focus ; 56(6): E10, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hoffmann's sign testing is a commonly used physical examination in clinical practice for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying its occurrence and development have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore whether a positive Hoffmann's sign (PHS) in CSM patients is associated with spinal cord and brain remodeling and to identify potential neuroimaging biomarkers with diagnostic value. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with CSM and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent multimodal MRI. Based on the results of the Hoffmann's sign examination, patients were divided into two groups: those with a PHS (n = 38) and those with a negative Hoffmann's sign (NHS; n = 38). Quantification of spinal cord and brain structural and functional parameters of the participants was performed using various methods, including functional connectivity analysis, voxel-based morphometry, and atlas-based analysis based on functional MRI and structural MRI data. Furthermore, this study conducted a correlation analysis between neuroimaging metrics and neurological function and utilized a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm for the classification of PHS and NHS. RESULTS: In comparison with the NHS and HC groups, PHS patients exhibited significant reductions in the cross-sectional area and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the lateral corticospinal tract (CST), reticulospinal tract (RST), and fasciculus cuneatus, concomitant with bilateral reductions in the volume of the lateral pallidum. The functional connectivity analysis indicated a reduction in functional connectivity between the left lateral pallidum and the right angular gyrus in the PHS group. The correlation analysis indicated a significant positive association between the CST and RST FA and the volume of the left lateral pallidum in PHS patients. Furthermore, all three variables exhibited a positive correlation with the patients' motor function. Finally, using multimodal neuroimaging metrics in conjunction with the SVM algorithm, PHS and NHS were classified with an accuracy rate of 85.53%. CONCLUSIONS: This research revealed a correlation between structural damage to the pallidum and RST and the presence of Hoffmann's sign as well as the motor function in patients with CSM. Features based on neuroimaging indicators have the potential to serve as biomarkers for assessing the extent of neuronal damage in CSM patients.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Espondilose , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espondilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Clin Invest ; 134(11)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828729

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests a role of neuroinflammation in substance use disorders (SUDs). This Review presents findings from neuroimaging studies assessing brain markers of inflammation in vivo in individuals with SUDs. Most studies investigated the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) using PET; neuroimmune markers myo-inositol, choline-containing compounds, and N-acetyl aspartate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and fractional anisotropy using MRI. Study findings have contributed to a greater understanding of neuroimmune function in the pathophysiology of SUDs, including its temporal dynamics (i.e., acute versus chronic substance use) and new targets for SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/imunologia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neuroimagem/métodos , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943785, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879751

RESUMO

Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease that impairs blood supply to localized brain tissue regions due to various causes. This leads to ischemic and hypoxic lesions, necrosis of the brain tissue, and a variety of functional disorders. Abnormal cortical activation and functional connectivity occur in the brain after a stroke, but the activation patterns and functional reorganization are not well understood. Rehabilitation interventions can enhance functional recovery in stroke patients. However, clinicians require objective measures to support their practice, as outcome measures for functional recovery are based on scale scores. Furthermore, the most effective rehabilitation measures for treating patients are yet to be investigated. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging method that detects changes in cerebral hemodynamics during task performance. It is widely used in neurological research and clinical practice due to its safety, portability, high motion tolerance, and low cost. This paper briefly introduces the imaging principle and the advantages and disadvantages of fNIRS to summarize the application of fNIRS in post-stroke rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia
7.
J Affect Disord ; 360: 336-344, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of clinically-validated biomarkers or objective protocols hinders effective major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosis. Compared to healthy control (HC), MDD exhibits anomalies in plasma protein levels and neuroimaging presentations. Despite extensive machine learning studies in psychiatric diagnosis, a reliable tool integrating multi-modality data is still lacking. METHODS: In this study, blood samples from 100 MDD and 100 HC were analyzed, along with MRI images from 46 MDD and 49 HC. Here, we devised a novel algorithm, integrating graph neural networks and attention modules, for MDD diagnosis based on inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophic factors, and Orexin A levels in the blood samples. Model performance was assessed via accuracy and F1 value in 3-fold cross-validation, comparing with 9 traditional algorithms. We then applied our algorithm to a dataset containing both the aforementioned protein quantifications and neuroimages, evaluating if integrating neuroimages into the model improves performance. RESULTS: Compared to HC, MDD showed significant alterations in plasma protein levels and gray matter volume revealed by MRI. Our new algorithm exhibited superior performance, achieving an F1 value and accuracy of 0.9436 and 94.08 %, respectively. Integration of neuroimaging data enhanced our novel algorithm's performance, resulting in an improved F1 value and accuracy, reaching 0.9543 and 95.06 %. LIMITATIONS: This single-center study with a small sample size requires future evaluations on a larger test set for improved reliability. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to traditional machine learning models, our newly developed MDD diagnostic model exhibited superior performance and showed promising potential for inclusion in routine clinical diagnosis for MDD.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neuroimagem , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Algoritmos , Orexinas/sangue , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Aprendizado de Máquina , Atenção , Estudos de Casos e Controles
8.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(4): 5803-5825, 2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872559

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood developmental disorder. In recent years, pattern recognition methods have been increasingly applied to neuroimaging studies of ADHD. However, these methods often suffer from limited accuracy and interpretability, impeding their contribution to the identification of ADHD-related biomarkers. To address these limitations, we applied the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) results for the limbic system and cerebellar network as input data and conducted a binary hypothesis testing framework for ADHD biomarker detection. Our study on the ADHD-200 dataset at multiple sites resulted in an average classification accuracy of 93%, indicating strong discriminative power of the input brain regions between the ADHD and control groups. Moreover, our approach identified critical brain regions, including the thalamus, hippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum Crus 2, as biomarkers. Overall, this investigation uncovered potential ADHD biomarkers in the limbic system and cerebellar network through the use of ALFF realizing highly credible results, which can provide new insights for ADHD diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Biomarcadores , Cerebelo , Sistema Límbico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Humanos , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Sistema Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Límbico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo
9.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(6): 703-14, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867635

RESUMO

In this study, based on the neuroimaging literature Meta analysis retrieved from Neurosynth platform, the scalp stimulation targets for common psychiatric diseases are developed, which provided the stimulation target protocols of scalp acupuncture for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. The paper introduces the functions of the brain areas that are involved in each target and closely related to the diseases, and lists the therapeutic methods of common acupuncture/scalp acupuncture and common neuromodulation methods for each disease so as to provide the references for clinical practice. Based on the study results above, the paper further summarizes the overlapped stimulation targets undergoing the intervention with scalp acupuncture for common psychiatric diseases, and the potential relationship between these stimulation targets and treatments with acupuncture and moxibustion.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos Mentais , Neuroimagem , Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia
10.
Clin Lab ; 70(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects people above the age of 60 all around the world. As of now, the cause is unknown and there is no effective cure. The pathological changes of AD have occurred many years before the onset of the disease, and current treatment techniques can only delay the progression of the disease. Because disease-modifying therapies may be most beneficial in the early stages of AD, the clinical significance of an early diagnosis is emphasized. So far, a variety of imaging technologies and related biomarkers have been used to identify and monitor AD, but there are many imaging technologies; finding the most effective imaging technology can assist medical personnel in interpreting the early stages of AD and can also improve patient treatment opportunities. This is, therefore, the main purpose and back-ground of this study. METHODS: PubMed and other repositories were used in this study to conduct a literature search with various keywords, and relevant articles were reviewed. In this review, different neuroimaging techniques are reviewed which are considered advanced tools to help establish the diagnosis, and in addition, the diagnostic utility, advantages, and limitations of contemporary AD imaging techniques are discussed. RESULTS: The results of the literature review and synthesis show that the prevalence of several in vivo biomarkers helps distinguish affected individuals from healthy controls in the early stages of the disease. Additionally, each current imaging method has its advantages and disadvantages, so no single imaging method is the best diagnostic modality. CONCLUSIONS: This article also reviews and draws conclusions on better ways to use the imaging techniques to improve the likelihood of an early diagnosis of AD. It is suggested that future research could focus on expanding the use of imaging technologies and on identifying novel biomarkers manifesting the earliest stages of AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Biomarcadores , Diagnóstico Precoce , Neuroimagem , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 21(4): 5118-5137, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872529

RESUMO

Our actions and decisions in everyday life are heavily influenced by social interactions, which are dynamic feedback loops involving actions, reactions, and internal cognitive processes between individual agents. Social interactions induce interpersonal synchrony, which occurs at different biobehavioral levels and comprises behavioral, physiological, and neurological activities. Hyperscanning-a neuroimaging technique that simultaneously measures the activity of multiple brain regions-has provided a powerful second-person neuroscience tool for investigating the phase alignment of neural processes during interactive social behavior. Neural synchronization, revealed by hyperscanning, is a phenomenon called inter-brain synchrony- a process that purportedly facilitates social interactions by prompting appropriate anticipation of and responses to each other's social behaviors during ongoing shared interactions. In this review, I explored the therapeutic dual-brain approach using noninvasive brain stimulation to target inter-brain synchrony based on second-person neuroscience to modulate social interaction. Artificially inducing synchrony between the brains is a potential adjunct technique to physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and pain treatment- which are strongly influenced by the social interaction between the therapist and patient. Dual-brain approaches to personalize stimulation parameters must consider temporal, spatial, and oscillatory factors. Multiple data fusion analysis, the assessment of inter-brain plasticity, a closed-loop system, and a brain-to-brain interface can support personalized stimulation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Neurociências , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurociências/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Interação Social , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Psicoterapia/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Comportamento Social , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador
12.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880786

RESUMO

Neuroimaging is a popular method to map brain structural and functional patterns to complex human traits. Recently published observations cast doubt upon these prospects, particularly for prediction of cognitive traits from structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We leverage baseline data from thousands of children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study to inform the replication sample size required with univariate and multivariate methods across different imaging modalities to detect reproducible brain-behavior associations. We demonstrate that by applying multivariate methods to high-dimensional brain imaging data, we can capture lower dimensional patterns of structural and functional brain architecture that correlate robustly with cognitive phenotypes and are reproducible with only 41 individuals in the replication sample for working memory-related functional MRI, and ~ 100 subjects for structural and resting state MRI. Even with 100 random re-samplings of 100 subjects in discovery, prediction can be adequately powered with 66 subjects in replication for multivariate prediction of cognition with working memory task functional MRI. These results point to an important role for neuroimaging in translational neurodevelopmental research and showcase how findings in large samples can inform reproducible brain-behavior associations in small sample sizes that are at the heart of many research programs and grants.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Humanos , Adolescente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Cognição/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos
13.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(3): 256-267, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neurobiological basis of delusional disorder is less explored through neuroimaging techniques than in other psychotic disorders. This study aims to provide information about the neural origins of delusional disorder (DD) by examining the neuroanatomical features of some basal nuclei with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) texture analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty DD patients and 20 healthy individuals were included in the study. Globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nuclei were selected individually with a region of interest (ROI) on the axial MRI images. The entire texture analysis algorithm applied to all selected ROIs was done with an in-house software. Nuclei on both sides were taken as separate samples. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in terms of age and gender. The average "mean, median and maximum" values of all three nuclei were decreased in DD patients. The small putamen area and the differences detected in different tissue parameters for all three nuclei in delusional disorder patients indicate that they differ in delusional disorder from normal controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The differences detected in the texture parameters for all three nuclei indicate that there is something different in the DD from in the normal controls. Neuroimaging studies with larger samples and different techniques in the future may shed light on the etiology of delusional disorder.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado , Globo Pálido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Putamen , Esquizofrenia Paranoide , Humanos , Feminino , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/patologia , Masculino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Globo Pálido/patologia , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neuroimagem/métodos
14.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eadk6063, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865456

RESUMO

Schizophrenia lacks a clear definition at the neuroanatomical level, capturing the sites of origin and progress of this disorder. Using a network-theory approach called epicenter mapping on cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging from 1124 individuals with schizophrenia, we identified the most likely "source of origin" of the structural pathology. Our results suggest that the Broca's area and adjacent frontoinsular cortex may be the epicenters of neuroanatomical pathophysiology in schizophrenia. These epicenters can predict an individual's response to treatment for psychosis. In addition, cross-diagnostic similarities based on epicenter mapping over of 4000 individuals diagnosed with neurological, neurodevelopmental, or psychiatric disorders appear to be limited. When present, these similarities are restricted to bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We provide a comprehensive framework linking schizophrenia-specific epicenters to multiple levels of neurobiology, including cognitive processes, neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, and human brain gene expression. Epicenter mapping may be a reliable tool for identifying the potential onset sites of neural pathophysiology in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Esquizofrenia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 223, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trajectory of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children and adolescents, encompassing descending, stable, and ascending patterns, delineates their ADHD status as remission, persistence or late onset. However, the neural and genetic underpinnings governing the trajectory of ADHD remain inadequately elucidated. METHODS: In this study, we employed neuroimaging techniques, behavioral assessments, and genetic analyses on a cohort of 487 children aged 6-15 from the Children School Functions and Brain Development project at baseline and two follow-up tests for 1 year each (interval 1: 1.14 ± 0.32 years; interval 2: 1.14 ± 0.30 years). We applied a Latent class mixed model (LCMM) to identify the developmental trajectory of ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents, while investigating the neural correlates through gray matter volume (GMV) analysis and exploring the genetic underpinnings using polygenic risk scores (PRS). RESULTS: This study identified three distinct trajectories (ascending-high, stable-low, and descending-medium) of ADHD symptoms from childhood through adolescence. Utilizing the linear mixed-effects (LME) model, we discovered that attention hub regions served as the neural basis for these three developmental trajectories. These regions encompassed the left anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC), responsible for inhibitory control; the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL), which facilitated conscious focus on exogenous stimuli; and the bilateral middle frontal gyrus/precentral gyrus (MFG/PCG), accountable for regulating both dorsal and ventral attention networks while playing a crucial role in flexible modulation of endogenous and extrinsic attention. Furthermore, our findings revealed that individuals in the ascending-high group exhibited the highest PRS for ADHD, followed by those in the descending-medium group, with individuals in the stable-low group displaying the lowest PRS. Notably, both ascending-high and descending-medium groups had significantly higher PRS compared to the stable-low group. CONCLUSIONS: The developmental trajectory of ADHD symptoms in the general population throughout childhood and adolescence can be reliably classified into ascending-high, stable-low, and descending-medium groups. The bilateral MFG/PCG, left ACC/mPFC, and right IPL may serve as crucial brain regions involved in attention processing, potentially determining these trajectories. Furthermore, the ascending-high pattern of ADHD symptoms exhibited the highest PRS for ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Neuroimagem , Estudos de Coortes
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4803, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839876

RESUMO

Our current understanding of the spread and neurodegenerative effects of tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) during the early stages of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is limited by the presence of confounding non-AD pathologies and the two-dimensional (2-D) nature of conventional histology studies. Here, we combine ex vivo MRI and serial histological imaging from 25 human MTL specimens to present a detailed, 3-D characterization of quantitative NFT burden measures in the space of a high-resolution, ex vivo atlas with cytoarchitecturally-defined subregion labels, that can be used to inform future in vivo neuroimaging studies. Average maps show a clear anterior to poster gradient in NFT distribution and a precise, spatial pattern with highest levels of NFTs found not just within the transentorhinal region but also the cornu ammonis (CA1) subfield. Additionally, we identify granular MTL regions where measures of neurodegeneration are likely to be linked to NFTs specifically, and thus potentially more sensitive as early AD biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares , Lobo Temporal , Proteínas tau , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/metabolismo , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento post mortem
17.
Neurobiol Dis ; 198: 106560, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulse control disorders (ICD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly multifactorial in etiology and has intricate neural mechanisms. Our multimodal neuroimaging study aimed to investigate the specific patterns of structure-function-neurotransmitter interactions underlying ICD. METHODS: Thirty PD patients with ICD (PD-ICD), 30 without ICD (PD-NICD) and 32 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Gyrification and perivascular spaces (PVS) were computed to capture the alternations of cortical surface morphology and glymphatic function. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were performed to identify the corresponding functional changes. Further, JuSpace toolbox were employed for cross-modal correlations to evaluate whether the spatial patterns of functional alterations in ICD patients were associated with specific neurotransmitter system. RESULTS: Compared to PD-NICD, PD-ICD patients showed hypogyrification and enlarged PVS volume fraction in the left orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG), as well as decreased FC between interhemispheric OFG. The interhemispheric OFG connectivity reduction was associated with spatial distribution of µ-opioid pathway (r = -0.186, p = 0.029, false discovery rate corrected). ICD severity was positively associated with the PVS volume fraction of left OFG (r = 0.422, p = 0.032). Furthermore, gyrification index (LGI) and percent PVS (pPVS) in OFG and their combined indicator showed good performance in differentiating PD-ICD from PD-NICD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that the co-altered structure-function-neurotransmitter interactions of OFG might be involved in the pathogenesis of ICD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/patologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contrast enhancement of intracranial aneurysm wall during MRI with targeted visualization of vascular wall correlates with previous aneurysm rupture and, according to some data, may be a predictor of further rupture of unruptured aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze possible causes of aneurysm contrast enhancement considering morphological data of aneurysm walls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 44 patients with intracranial aneurysms who underwent preoperative MRI between November 2020 and September 2022. Each aneurysm was assessed regarding contrast enhancement pattern. Microsurgical treatment of aneurysm was accompanied by resection of its wall for subsequent histological and immunohistochemical analysis regarding thrombosis, inflammation and neovascularization. Specimens were subjected to histological and immunochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was valuable to estimate inflammatory markers CD68 and CD3, as well as neurovascularization marker SD31. RESULTS: Aneurysms with contrast-enhanced walls were characterized by higher number of CD3+, CD68+, CD31+ cells and parietal clots. Intensity of contrast enhancement correlated with aneurysm wall abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Contrast enhancement of aneurysm wall can characterize various morphological abnormalities.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/análise , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Adulto , Meios de Contraste , Antígenos CD/análise , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Aneurisma Roto/patologia , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/análise , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Complexo CD3/análise , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Molécula CD68
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