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1.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(2): 374-380, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ingestion of multiple high-powered neodymium rare-earth magnets poses a significant risk for gastrointestinal (GI) injury such as bowel perforation or ischemia. Given the rising incidence of rare earth magnetic ingestions and the corresponding increase in serious injuries in children, published guidelines recommend urgent endoscopic removal of all magnets within endoscopic reach in cases involving ingestions of two or more magnets. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do management patterns for multiple magnet ingestion align with current practice guidelines, and does hospital length of stay (LOS) differ based on the initial emergency department (ED) approach? METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patient encounters reported to the New Jersey Poison Information and Education System (NJPIES) between January 2021 and April 2022 involving multiple magnet ingestion. Potential cases were retrieved from the NJPIES TOXICALL® database, using substance codes relating to magnet or foreign body ingestion. Two-sample T tests were used to determine the statistical difference in the hospital LOS between the group of patients receiving early emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) versus those receiving expectant management on initial presentation. RESULTS: There was a difference in the average LOS of 2.7 days (p = 0.023) longer in the expectant management group with no medical complications in either group. Twenty-five percent or 2 out of 8 cases deviated from guidelines. CONCLUSION: The initial ED decision to pursue expectant management instead of attempting emergent EGD removal of magnets may result in prolonged hospitalization, increased risk for readmission, and delayed definitive removal of magnets due to nonprogression along the GI tract.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Imãs , Criança , Humanos , Imãs/efeitos adversos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trato Gastrointestinal/lesões , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Ingestão de Alimentos
3.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 155(3): 204-212, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to reduced services of private dental practices. The public emergency clinic of Rutgers School of Dental Medicine (RSDM) (Newark, NJ) faced changing demands during various periods of the pandemic. METHODS: Records of patients visiting the emergency clinic at RSDM during 3 distinct periods (prelockdown, lockdown, teledentistry) from January 10, 2020, through June 30, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Qualitative and quantitative attributes pertaining to patient encounters were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1,799 records were included in this study. Patient visits increased during the early lockdown but were reduced after the implementation of teledentistry. Trends were noted in patient volume, reasons for visits, treatment needs, symptoms, diagnostic methodology, prescription use, and final disposition of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown affected emergency dental clinic services at RSDM. Teledentistry visits played a key role in screening patients and in facilitating the delivery of oral health care and timely follow-ups to patients who needed urgent in-person emergency visits. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Data gathered will lead to a better understanding of patients seen in the emergency clinic and can help with long-term planning for both institutional and smaller outpatient clinics during public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Atenção à Saúde
4.
J Transcult Nurs ; 35(2): 125-133, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38111158

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asian Indians (AIs), the second largest immigrant population in the United States, are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at a lower age and body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social determinants of health (SDOH) and the diagnosis of T2DM among AIs in New Jersey (NJ). METHODOLOGY: This was a secondary data analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in NJ from 2013 to 2017. Statistical analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Among 1,132 AIs, 16% had T2DM or prediabetes (PDM) and 69.2% were overweight or obese. The risk for T2DM was significantly associated with internet use, older age, having medical check-ups, and having a personal doctor (p ≤ .05). DISCUSSION: These findings inform culturally congruent care by underscoring the importance of weight management, earlier screening, and provider involvement in diabetes prevention strategies for AIs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso , Índice de Massa Corporal
5.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0294170, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Asians are a rapidly growing population in the United States. Breast cancer is a major concern among South Asian American women, who are an understudied population. We established the South Asian Breast Cancer (SABCa) study in New Jersey during early 2020 to gain insights into their breast cancer-related health attitudes. Shortly after we started planning for the study, the COVID-19 disease spread throughout the world. In this paper, we describe our experiences and lessons learned from recruiting study participants by partnering with New Jersey's community organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design. We contacted 12 community organizations and 7 (58%) disseminated our study information. However, these organizations became considerably busy with pandemic-related needs. Therefore, we had to pivot to alternative recruitment strategies through community radio, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey's Community Outreach and Engagement Program, and Rutgers Cooperative Extension's community health programs. We recruited participants through these alternative strategies, obtained written informed consent, and collected demographic information using a structured survey. RESULTS: Twenty five women expressed interest in the study, of which 22 (88%) participated. Nine (41%) participants learned about the study through the radio, 5 (23%) through these participants, 1 (4.5%) through a non-radio community organization, and 7 (32%) through community health programs. Two (9%) participants heard about the study from their spouse. All participants were born outside the US, their average age was 52.4 years (range: 39-72 years), and they have lived in the US for an average of 26 years (range: 5-51 years). CONCLUSION: Pivoting to alternative strategies were crucial for successful recruitment. Findings suggest the significant potential of broadcast media for community-based recruitment. Family dynamics and the community's trust in our partners also encouraged participation. Such strategies must be considered when working with understudied populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , New Jersey/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais
6.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 16(11): 595-600, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37908146

RESUMO

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey (New Brunswick, NJ) is committed to providing cancer prevention education, outreach, and clinical services in our catchment area (CA). Our approach to cancer prevention includes ongoing surveillance to better understand the CA cancer burden and opportunities for intervention, leveraging community partnerships, and vigorously engaging diverse communities to understand and address their needs. This approach considers individual, sociocultural, environmental, biologic, system, and policy-level factors with an equity lens. Rutgers Cancer Institute has had substantial impact on cancer prevention (risk reduction, screening, and early detection) over the past five years, including the development of a CA data dashboard advancing implementation of evidence-based cancer control actions by leveraging 357 healthcare and community partners (with 522 partner sites). Furthermore, we provided professional education (attendance 19,397), technical assistance to community organizations (1,875 support sessions), educational outreach for community members (87,000+ through direct education), facilitated access to preventive services (e.g., 60,000+ screenings resulting in the detection of >2,000 malignant and premalignant lesions), contributed to advances in health policy and population-level improvements in risk reduction behaviors, screening, and incidence. With longer-term data, we will assess the impact of our cancer prevention efforts on cancer incidence, downward shifts in stage at diagnosis, mortality, and disparities.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Neoplasias , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Atenção à Saúde
7.
Viruses ; 15(11)2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005925

RESUMO

Advances in viral discovery techniques have led to the identification of numerous novel viruses in human samples. However, the low prevalence of certain viruses in humans raises doubts about their association with our species. To ascertain the authenticity of a virus as a genuine human-infecting agent, it can be useful to investigate the diversification of its lineage within hominines, the group encompassing humans and African great apes. Building upon this rationale, we examined the case of the New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV; Alphapolyomavirus terdecihominis), which has only been detected in a single patient thus far. In this study, we obtained and analyzed sequences from closely related viruses infecting all African great ape species. We show that NJPyV nests within the diversity of these viruses and that its lineage placement is compatible with an ancient origin in humans, despite its apparent rarity in human populations.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Infecções por Polyomavirus , Polyomavirus , Animais , Humanos , Polyomavirus/genética , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Filogenia
8.
Viruses ; 15(8)2023 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37632041

RESUMO

New Jersey was among the first states impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with one of the highest overall death rates in the nation. Nevertheless, relatively few reports have been published focusing specifically on New Jersey. Here we report on molecular, clinical, and epidemiologic observations, from the largest healthcare network in the state, in a cohort of vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We conducted molecular surveillance of SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swabs collected in nine hospitals from December 2020 through June 2022, using both whole genome sequencing (WGS) and a real-time RT-PCR screening assay targeting spike protein mutations found in variants of concern (VOCs) within our region. De-identified clinical data were obtained retrospectively, including demographics, COVID-19 vaccination status, ICU admission, ventilator support, mortality, and medical history. Statistical analyses were performed to identify associations between SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccination status, clinical outcomes, and medical risk factors. A total of 5007 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swabs were successfully screened and/or sequenced. Variant screening identified three predominant VOCs, including Alpha (n = 714), Delta (n = 1877), and Omicron (n = 1802). Omicron isolates were further sub-typed as BA.1 (n = 899), BA.2 (n = 853), or BA.4/BA.5 (n = 50); the remaining 614 isolates were classified as "Other". Approximately 31.5% (1577/5007) of the samples were associated with vaccine breakthrough infections, which increased in frequency following the emergence of Delta and Omicron. Severe clinical outcomes included ICU admission (336/5007 = 6.7%), ventilator support (236/5007 = 4.7%), and mortality (430/5007 = 8.6%), with increasing age being the most significant contributor to each (p < 0.001). Unvaccinated individuals accounted for 79.7% (268/336) of ICU admissions, 78.3% (185/236) of ventilator cases, and 74.4% (320/430) of deaths. Highly significant (p < 0.001) increases in mortality were observed in individuals with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, but not with obesity, thyroid disease, or respiratory disease. Significant differences (p < 0.001) in clinical outcomes were also noted between SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2. Vaccination was associated with significantly improved clinical outcomes in our study, despite an increase in breakthrough infections associated with waning immunity, greater antigenic variability, or both. Underlying comorbidities contributed significantly to mortality in both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, with increasing risk based on the total number of comorbidities. Real-time RT-PCR-based screening facilitated timely identification of predominant variants using a minimal number of spike protein mutations, with faster turnaround time and reduced cost compared to WGS. Continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants will likely require ongoing surveillance for new VOCs, with real-time assessment of clinical impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/genética , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Infecções Irruptivas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37444160

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19, has impacted countless aspects of everyday life since it was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in March of 2020. From societal to economic impacts, COVID-19 and its variants will leave a lasting impact on our society and the world. During the height of the pandemic, it became increasingly evident that indices, such as the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), were instrumental in predicting vulnerabilities within a community. The CDC's SVI provides important estimates on which communities will be more susceptible to 'hazard events' by compiling a variety of data from the U.S. Census and the American Community Survey. The CDC's SVI does not directly consider the susceptibility of a community to a global pandemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, due to the four themes and 15 factors that contribute to the index. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop a COVID-19 Vulnerability Index, or CVI, to evaluate a community's susceptibility to future pandemics. With 15 factors considered for CDC's SVI, 26 other factors were also considered for the development of the CVI that covered themes such as socioeconomic status, environmental factors, healthcare capacity, epidemiological factors, and disability. All factors were equally weighted to calculate the CVI based on New Jersey. The CVI was validated by comparing index results to real-world COVID-19 data from New Jersey's 21 counties and CDC's SVI. The results present a stronger positive linear relationship between the CVI and the New Jersey COVID-19 mortality/population and infection/population than there is with the SVI. The results of this study indicate that Essex County has the highest CVI, and Hunterdon County has the lowest CVI. This is due to factors such as disparity in wealth, population density, minority status, and housing conditions, as well as other factors that were used to compose the CVI. The implications of this research will provide a critical tool for decision makers to utilize in allocating resources should another global pandemic occur. This CVI, developed through this research, can be used at the county, state, and global levels to help measure the vulnerability to future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Censos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
10.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(6): 902-905, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37499096

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the need for effective infectious disease prevention and mitigation efforts within childcare and educational settings, supported by local health departments and state agencies. During the pandemic, rapidly evolving guidance, increased surveillance burden, and the vastly increased volume of inquiries from communities and local health departments led to the development of a state-level childcare and educational consortium in New Jersey. The consortium works with state-level partners to support infectious disease prevention and mitigation efforts of educational entities and local health departments.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Criança , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Cuidado da Criança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 664, 2023 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is extensive literature on correlates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among cancer survivors, there has been less attention paid to the role of socioeconomic disadvantage and survivorship care transition experiences in HRQoL. There are few large cohort studies that include a comprehensive set of correlates to obtain a full picture of what is associated with survivors' HRQ0L. This cohort study of recent cancer survivors in New Jersey aimed to explore the association between social determinants of health, health history, health behaviors, survivorship care experiences, and psychosocial factors in HRQoL. METHODS: Eligible survivors were residents of New Jersey diagnosed with genitourinary, female breast, gynecologic, colorectal, lung, melanoma, or thyroid cancers. Participants completed measures of social determinants, health behaviors, survivorship care experiences, psychosocial factors, and HRQoL. Separate multiple regression models predicting HRQoL were conducted for each of the five domains (social determinants, health history, health behaviors, survivorship care experiences, psychosocial factors). Variables attaining statistical significance were included in a hierarchical multiple regression arranged by the five domains. RESULTS: 864 cancer survivors completed the survey. Lower global HRQoL was associated with being unemployed, more comorbidities, a less healthy diet, lower preparedness for survivorship, more unmet support needs, and higher fear about cancer recurrence. Two psychosocial factors, unmet support needs and fear of recurrence, played the most important role in HRQoL, accounting for more than 20% of the variance. Both unmet support needs and fear of recurrence were significant correlates of physical, functional, and emotional HRQoL domains. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions seeking to improve cancer survivors' HRQoL may benefit from improving coordinated management of comorbid medical problems, fostering a healthier diet, addressing unmet support needs, and reducing survivors' fears about cancer recurrence.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Humanos , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 328: 115977, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37301107

RESUMO

Ethnic enclaves are neighborhoods with high concentrations of individuals of the same ethnic origin. Researchers have hypothesized that residence in ethnic enclaves may contribute to cancer outcomes through detrimental or protective pathways. A limitation of previous work, however, is their cross-sectional approach whereby an individual's residence at the time of diagnosis was used to capture residence in an ethnic enclave at a single point in time. This study addresses this limitation by adopting a longitudinal approach to investigating the association between the duration of residence in an ethnic enclave and the colon cancer (CC) stage at diagnosis. Colon cancer incidence cases diagnosed between 2006 and 2014, for Hispanics aged 18 years and older from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (NJSCR) were linked to residential histories obtained from a commercial database LexisNexis, Inc. We examined associations between residence in an enclave and stage at diagnosis using binary and multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, primary payer, and marital status. Among the 1076 Hispanics diagnosed with invasive colon cancer in New Jersey from 2006 to 2014, 48.4% lived in a Hispanic enclave at the time of diagnosis. Over the ten years preceding CC diagnosis, 32.6% lived in an enclave for the entire period. We found that Hispanics living in an ethnic enclave at diagnosis had significantly lower odds of distant-stage CC than Hispanics not living in an enclave at the time of diagnosis. Additionally, we found a significant association between living in an enclave for an extended period (e.g., over ten years) and lower odds of being diagnosed with distant stage CC. Integrating residential histories opens research possibilities to examine how minorities' residential mobility and residence in enclaves affect cancer diagnosis over time.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Hispânico ou Latino , Características de Residência , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/etnologia , Etnicidade , Incidência , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
13.
J Opioid Manag ; 19(2): 133-137, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37270420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In New Jersey, politicians have emphasized the need to attenuate the ongoing opioid epidemic as opioid use disorder can lead to addiction and, in many cases, mortality. New legislation (New Jersey Senate Bill 3) was enacted in 2017 to reduce opioid prescription from 30 days to 5 days for acute pain in both inpatient and outpatient healthcare settings. Therefore, we sought to evaluate if the enactment of the bill influenced the consumption of opioid pain medication at an American College of Surgeons-verified Level I Trauma Center. METHODS: Patients from 2016 to 2018 were compared for differences in average daily inpatient morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) consumption and injury severity score (ISS), among other parameters. To ensure that changes in pain medication did not affect the quality of pain management, we compared their average pain ratings. RESULTS: Although the average ISS in 2018 was higher than that in 2016 (10.6 ± 0.2 vs 9.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.001), opioid consumption decreased in 2018 without increasing the average pain rating for patients with an ISS of 9 and 10. More specifically, the average daily inpatient MMEs consumption dropped from 14.1 ± 0.5 in 2016 to 8.8 ± 0.3 in 2018 (p < 0.001). Even among patients with an average ISS >15, the total MMEs consumed per person decreased in 2018 (116.0 ± 14.0 vs 59.4 ± 7.6, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall, opioid consumption was lower in 2018 without negatively affecting the quality of pain management. This suggests that the implementation of the new legislation has successfully reduced inpatient opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(6): 662, 2023 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169998

RESUMO

Snake fungal disease, caused by Ophidiomyces ophidiicola, is recognized as a potential concern for North American snakes. We tested skin swabs from Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus) in the New Jersey pinelands for the presence of O. ophidiicola before emergence from hibernation. We used qPCR to test the collected swabs for the presence of O. ophidiicola, then determined pathogen prevalence as a function of sampling year, sampling location (skin lesion, healthy ventral skin, healthy head skin) sex, and age. There were no temporal trends in O. ophidiicola detection percentages on snakes, which varied from 58 to 83% in different years. Ophidiomyces ophidiicola detection on snakes was highest in swabs of skin lesions (71%) and lowest in head swabs (29%). Males had higher prevalence than females (82% versus 62%). The fungus was not detected in hatchling snakes (age 0) in the fall, but 75% of juveniles tested positive at the end of hibernation (age 1 year). We also screened hibernacula soil samples for the presence of O. ophidiicola. Where snakes hibernated, 69% of soil samples were positive for O. ophidiicola, and 85% of snakes lying on positive soil samples also tested positive for the pathogen. Although a high proportion of snakes (73%) tested positive for O. ophidiicola during our 4-year study, the snakes appeared healthy except for small skin lesions. We conclude that O. ophidiicola prevalence is high on hibernating Northern Pine Snakes and in the hibernacula soil, with a strong association between snakes and positive adjacent soil. This is the first demonstration that snakes likely become infected during hibernation.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Micoses , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Serpentes/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia
15.
J Surg Res ; 288: 350-361, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37060861

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population data on longitudinal trends for cholecystectomies and their outcomes are scarce. We evaluated the incidence and case fatality rate of emergency and ambulatory cholecystectomies in New Jersey (NJ) and whether the Medicaid expansion changed trends. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective population cohort design was used to study the incidence of cholecystectomies and their case fatality rate from 2009 to 2018. Using linear and logistic regression we explored the trends of incidence and the odds of case fatality after versus before the January 1, 2014 Medicaid expansion. RESULTS: Overall, 93,423 emergency cholecystectomies were performed, with 644 fatalities; 87,239 ambulatory cholecystectomies were performed, with fewer than 10 fatalities. The 2009 to 2018 annual incidence of emergency cholecystectomies dropped markedly from 114.8 to 77.5 per 100,000 NJ population (P < 0.0001); ambulatory cholecystectomies increased from 93.5 to 95.6 per 100,000 (P = 0.053). The incidence of emergency cholecystectomies dropped more after than before Medicaid expansion (P < 0.0001). The odds ratio for case fatality among those undergoing emergency cholecystectomies after versus before expansion was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72-0.99). This decrease in case fatality, apparent only in those over age 65, was not explained by the addition of Medicaid. CONCLUSIONS: A marked decrease in the incidence of emergency cholecystectomies occurred after Medicaid expansion, which was not accounted for by a minimal increase in the incidence of ambulatory cholecystectomies. Case fatality from emergency cholecystectomy decreased over time due to factors other than Medicaid. Further work is needed to reconcile these findings with the previously reported lack of decrease in overall gallstone disease mortality in NJ.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Medicaid , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Colecistectomia/efeitos adversos , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , New Jersey/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(9): e026954, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37119072

RESUMO

Background In 1998, President Clinton launched a federal initiative to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. The impact on the outcomes of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction has not been well studied. Methods and Results ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction outcomes from 1994 to 2015 were studied in 7942 Black, 27 665 Hispanic, and 88 727 White patients with first admission of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction using the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System. Logistic regressions were used to assess mortality adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and interventional procedures. There was an overall rise from 1994 to 2015 in the use of percutaneous coronary interventions in all 3 groups. Before 1998, White patients received more percutaneous coronary interventions compared with Black and Hispanic patients (P<0.05). After 1998, the disparity in use of percutaneous coronary interventions in Black and Hispanic patients was greatly reduced compared with White patients, and the difference reversed in favor of Hispanic patients after 2005 (P<0.05). There was an overall downward trend of in-hospital mortality without evidence of disparity among Black, Hispanic, and White patients. A linear regression model was used with a change point in 1998. Before 1998, the slope of 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was not statistically significant. After 1998, the mortality showed negative slopes for all 3 groups, however, with lower overall crude mortality for Hispanic patients compared with Black and White patients (P<0.0001). Conclusions The initiative launched in 1998 may have contributed to a reduction in percutaneous coronary intervention usage disparity in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Short- and long-term mortality decreased in all 3 groups, but more in the Hispanic population.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos
17.
J Wildl Dis ; 59(2): 234-244, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36996083

RESUMO

A popular species in the pet trade, and therefore in the illegal wildlife trade, the diamond-backed terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin terrapin, population has seen significant declines. Associated with the illegal wildlife trade, occasions arise in which terrapins are confiscated, and no standard operating procedures exist for repatriation into the wild. To develop such procedures, an understanding of the pathogens circulating in the wild diamond-backed terrapin population in New Jersey is needed. We sampled 30 wild female diamond-backed terrapins for herpesvirus, Mycoplasmopsis, ranavirus, and intestinal and blood parasites and performed white blood cell counts and differentials and evaluated biochemistry values. Terrapins had an average age of 10 yr (8-15 yr), and 70% were gravid at the time of sampling. Thirty-three percent of the sampled northern diamond-backed terrapins were positive for Mycoplasmopsis sp., and all were negative for ranavirus and herpesviruses. Occasional blood parasites were found, and few intestinal parasites were noted. There was no significant difference between gravid status and any of the blood parameters (P<0.05). Blood chemistry values appeared to vary according to feeding activity; no differences were noted in the values in relation to gravid status. Four terrapins had heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios above 4.5, significantly higher than the other terrapins sampled, which may indicate inflammation. Two of the four had Mycoplasmopsis, one sample was contaminated by other bacteria and was discarded, and one was negative. No significant difference was found between Mycoplasmopsis infection status and H:L ratio (P=0.926). Our findings, though conducted on a small number of female terrapins at a specific time point, provide data on the pathogens that may be circulating in this population, adding to the current body of knowledge and helping to guide decision making for the reintroduction of confiscated diamond-backed terrapins into New Jersey's wild population.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Feminino , Animais , New Jersey/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2252371, 2023 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692882

RESUMO

Importance: There are limited data about how lifestyle factors are associated with breast cancer prognosis among Black or African American women because most of the evidence is based on studies of White breast cancer survivors. Objective: To examine the association of prediagnostic cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of Black breast cancer survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included 1926 Black or African American breast cancer survivors who received a diagnosis from June 6, 2005, to May 21, 2019, identified in 10 counties in New Jersey through rapid case ascertainment by the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Statistical analysis was conducted from January 1, 2021, to August 1, 2022. Exposures: Information on prediagnostic cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and additional covariates was collected during in-person interviews. The covariates examined included smoking status at the time of breast cancer diagnosis (currently smoking at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, formerly smoking, or never smoking), smoking duration (number of years smoking), smoking intensity (cigarettes smoked per day), number of pack-years of smoking, and regular alcohol consumption the year before diagnosis (categorized as nondrinkers, ≤3 drinks per week, or >3 drinks per week). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included breast cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. Results: Among the 1926 women in the study, the mean (SD) age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54.4 (10.8) years. During 13 464 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up, 6.7 years [range, 0.5-16.0 years]), there were 337 deaths, of which 187 (55.5%) were breast cancer related. Compared with never smokers, current smokers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis had a 52% increased risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.02), which was most pronounced for those with 10 or more pack-years of smoking (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34-2.53). Similar findings were observed for breast cancer-specific mortality (current smokers vs never smokers: HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.87-1.85), although they were not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality (>3 drinks per week vs nondrinkers: HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.73-1.51) or breast cancer-specific mortality (>3 drinks per week vs nondrinkers: HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.67-1.67). Conclusions and Relevance: This population-based cohort study of Black breast cancer survivors suggests that current smoking at the time of diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly among women with greater pack-years of smoking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Fumar Cigarros , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
19.
J Surg Res ; 284: 264-268, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the early surge of COVID-19 in New Jersey (NJ), a statewide executive order (EO) to stay-at-home was instituted on March 22, 2020. We hypothesized that the EO would result in a decreased number of trauma admissions, length of stay, and resources utilized in trauma patients at NJ trauma centers. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved, retrospective, multicenter study, trauma registries at three level one trauma centers in NJ were queried from March 22 to June 14 in 2020 and compared to the same timeframe the year prior. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained including demographics, select preexisting conditions, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, resources utilized, and outcomes. RESULTS: 1859 trauma patients were evaluated during the EO versus 2201 the year prior. During the EO, trauma patients were less likely to be transferred from another hospital (21% versus 29% P < 0.05), more likely to have a penetrating mechanism (16% versus 12% P < 0.05), were equally likely to require a procedure (P = 0.44) and had similar injury severity score (5 [interquartile range [IQR] 1-9] versus 5 [IQR 1-9], P = 0.73). There was no significant difference in ventilator days (0 [IQR 0-1] versus 0 [IQR 0-2] P = 0.08), intensive care unit days (2 [IQR 0-4] versus 2 [IQR 0-3] P = 0.99), or length of stay (2 [IQR 1-5] versus 2 [IQR 1-6] P = 0.73). Patients were more likely to be sent home than to rehabilitation or long-term acute care hospital during the EO (81% versus 78%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The 2020 COVID-19 EO was associated with a significantly different epidemiology with a higher rate of penetrating injury during the EO, and similar volume of injured patients evaluated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Incidência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Centros de Traumatologia , Tempo de Internação
20.
Health Place ; 79: 102959, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535075

RESUMO

Much research has analyzed the spatial patterns of drug overdose events and identified features of the environment associated with heightened overdose levels. Generally absent from the literature are studies that analyze how unique trajectories of overdoses vary over time. We address this gap in the literature through an analysis of drug overdoses occurring in Passaic County, New Jersey from 2015 through 2019. A group-based trajectory analysis classifies block groups according to their overdose trends. A mixed-effects panel negative binomial regression model then examines the built environment and neighborhood characteristics associated with overall overdose levels. Results indicate that Passaic County block groups can be classified across three groups based upon their overdose levels over the study period: low and stable, low with moderate increase, and elevated and increasing. While the largest effects were observed for concentrated disadvantage in the regression analysis, most variables positively associated with overdose levels were built environment measures.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Características da Vizinhança , New Jersey/epidemiologia
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