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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(13): 1057-1063, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561301

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of deep neuromuscular blockade (DNMB) combined with low pneumoperitoneum pressure anesthesia strategy on postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial. One hundred and twenty patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from December 1, 2022 to May 31, 2023 were selected and randomly divided into two groups by random number table method. Moderate neuromuscular blockade [train of four stimulations count (TOFC)=1-2] was maintained in patients of the control group (group C, n=60) and pneumoperitoneum pressure level was set at 15 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). DNMB [post-tonic stimulation count (PTC)=1-2] was maintained in patients of the DNMB combined with low pneumoperitoneum pressuregroup (group D, n=60) and pneumoperitoneum pressure level was set at 10 mmHg. The primary measurement was incidence of moderate to severe pain at 1 h after surgery. The secondary measurements the included incidence of moderate to severe pain at 1, 2, 3, 5 d and 3 months after surgery, the incidence of rescue analgesic drug use, the doses of sufentanil in analgesic pumps, surgical rating scale (SRS) score, the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular block, postoperative recovery [evaluated with length of post anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, time of first exhaust and defecation after surgery and length of hospital stay] and postoperative inflammation conditions [evaluated with serum concentration of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 at 1 d and 3 d after surgery]. Results: The incidence of moderate to severe pain in group D 1 h after surgery was 13.3% (8/60), lower than 30.0% (18/60) of group C (P<0.05). The incidence of rescue analgesia in group D at 1 h and 1 d after surgery were 13.3% (8/60) and 4.2% (5/120), respectively, lower than 30.0% (18/60) and 12.5% (15/120) of group C (both P<0.05). The IL-1ß level in group D was (4.1±1.8)ng/L at 1 d after surgery, which was lower than (4.9±2.6) ng/L of group C (P=0.048). The IL-6 level in group D was (2.0±0.7)ng/L at 3 d after surgery, which was lower than (2.4±1.1) ng/L of group C (P=0.018). There was no significant difference in the doses of sufentanil in analgesic pumps, intraoperative SRS score, incidence of neuromuscular block residue, time spent in PACU, time of first exhaust and defecation after surgery, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and length of hospitalization between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: DNMB combined with low pneumoperitoneum pressure anesthesia strategy alleviates the early-stage pain in patients after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Cirurgia Colorretal , Laparoscopia , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Nitrocompostos , Pneumoperitônio , Humanos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Sufentanil , Cirurgia Colorretal/métodos , Interleucina-6 , Laparoscopia/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Analgésicos
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105808, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582580

RESUMO

Growing evidences have shown that the decline in honey bee populations is mainly caused by the combination of multiple stressors. However, the impacts of parasitic Nosema ceranae to host fitness during long-term pesticide exposure-induced stress is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to a sublethal dose of dinotefuran, in the presence or absence of N. ceranae, was examined in terms of survival, food consumption, detoxification enzyme activities and gut microbial community. The interaction between dinotefuran and Nosema ceranae on the survival of honey bee was synergistic. Co-exposure to dinotefuran and N. ceranae led to less food consumption and greater changes of enzyme activities involved in defenses against oxidative stress. Particularly, N. ceranae and dinotefuran-N. ceranae co-exposure significantly impacted the gut microbiota structure and richness in adult honey bees, while dinotefuran alone did not show significant alternation of core gut microbiota compared to the control group. We herein demonstrated that chronical exposure to dinotefuran decreases honey bee's survival but is not steadily associated with the gut microbiota dysbiosis; by contrast, N. ceranae parasitism plays a dominant role in the combination in influencing the gut microbial community of the host honey bee. Our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of combinatorial effects between biotic and abiotic stressors on one of the most important pollinators, honey bees.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Guanidinas , Nitrocompostos , Nosema , Abelhas , Animais , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8291, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594566

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have been designed to act selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, nAChRs are also expressed in vertebrate immune cells, so NEOs may interfere with the immune system in exposed non-target animals. The present study shows that NEOs: imidacloprid and thiacloprid, and their main metabolites: desnitro-imidacloprid and thiacloprid amide, at sub-micromolar concentrations ranging from 2.25 to 20 µM, affect the immune cells of fish. This was found both in primary cultures of leukocytes isolated from the carp head kidney and in the continuous adherent carp monocyte/macrophage cell line. Moreover, the results revealed that the studied pesticides and metabolites generate oxidative stress in carp immune cells and that this is one of the most important mechanisms of neonicotinoid immunotoxicity. Significant increases were observed in the formation of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA). The antioxidant status alteration was linked with decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Importantly, the metabolites: desnitro-imidacloprid and thiacloprid amide showed significantly higher cytotoxicity towards fish leukocytes than their parent compounds, imidacloprid and thiacloprid, which emphasizes the importance of including intermediate metabolites in toxicology studies.


Assuntos
Carpas , Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Tiazinas , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Amidas
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612597

RESUMO

Despite significant progress in modern medicine and pharmacology, damage to the nervous system with various etiologies still poses a challenge to doctors and scientists. Injuries lead to neuroimmunological changes in the central nervous system (CNS), which may result in both secondary damage and the development of tactile and thermal hypersensitivity. In our review, based on the analysis of many experimental and clinical studies, we indicate that the mechanisms occurring both at the level of the brain after direct damage and at the level of the spinal cord after peripheral nerve damage have a common immunological basis. This suggests that there are opportunities for similar pharmacological therapeutic interventions in the damage of various etiologies. Experimental data indicate that after CNS/PNS damage, the levels of 16 among the 28 CC-family chemokines, i.e., CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL6, CCL7, CCL8, CCL9, CCL11, CCL12, CCL17, CCL19, CCL20, CCL21, and CCL22, increase in the brain and/or spinal cord and have strong proinflammatory and/or pronociceptive effects. According to the available literature data, further investigation is still needed for understanding the role of the remaining chemokines, especially six of them which were found in humans but not in mice/rats, i.e., CCL13, CCL14, CCL15, CCL16, CCL18, and CCL23. Over the past several years, the results of studies in which available pharmacological tools were used indicated that blocking individual receptors, e.g., CCR1 (J113863 and BX513), CCR2 (RS504393, CCX872, INCB3344, and AZ889), CCR3 (SB328437), CCR4 (C021 and AZD-2098), and CCR5 (maraviroc, AZD-5672, and TAK-220), has beneficial effects after damage to both the CNS and PNS. Recently, experimental data have proved that blockades exerted by double antagonists CCR1/3 (UCB 35625) and CCR2/5 (cenicriviroc) have very good anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. In addition, both single (J113863, RS504393, SB328437, C021, and maraviroc) and dual (cenicriviroc) chemokine receptor antagonists enhanced the analgesic effect of opioid drugs. This review will display the evidence that a multidirectional strategy based on the modulation of neuronal-glial-immune interactions can significantly improve the health of patients after CNS and PNS damage by changing the activity of chemokines belonging to the CC family. Moreover, in the case of pain, the combined administration of such antagonists with opioid drugs could reduce therapeutic doses and minimize the risk of complications.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Imidazóis , Naftalenos , Nitrocompostos , Sulfóxidos , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos , Maraviroc , Sistema Nervoso Central , Sistema Nervoso Periférico
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 98, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For decades, various agrochemicals have been successfully repurposed for mosquito control. However, preexisting resistance caused in larval and adult populations by unintentional pesticide exposure or other cross-resistance mechanisms poses a challenge to the efficacy of this strategy. A better understanding of larval adaptation to the lethal and sublethal effects of residual pesticides in aquatic habitats would provide vital information for assessing the efficacy of repurposed agrochemicals against mosquitoes. METHODS: We reared field-collected mosquito larvae in water containing a concentration of agrochemical causing 100% mortality in susceptible mosquitoes after 24 h (lethal concentration). Using this experimental setup, we tested the effect of lethal concentrations of a pyrrole (chlorfenapyr, 0.10 mg/l), a pyrethroid (deltamethrin, 1.5 mg/l), and three neonicotinoids including imidacloprid (0.075 mg/l), acetamiprid (0.15 mg/l), and clothianidin (0.035 mg/l) on mortality rates, growth, and survival in third-instar larvae of the two sibling species Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii collected from Yaoundé, Cameroon. RESULTS: We found that An. gambiae and An. coluzzii larvae were susceptible to chlorfenapyr and were killed within 24 h by a nominal concentration of 0.10 mg/l. Consistent with strong resistance, deltamethrin induced low mortality in both species. Lethal concentrations of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and clothianidin strongly inhibited survival, growth, and emergence in An. coluzzii larvae. By contrast, depending on the active ingredient and the population tested, 5-60% of immature stages of An. gambiae were able to grow and emerge in water containing a lethal concentration of neonicotinoids, suggesting cross-resistance to this class of insecticides. CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate susceptibility profiles observed in adults and suggest that unintentional pesticide exposure or other cross-resistance processes could contribute to the development of resistance to neonicotinoids in some Anopheles populations.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Guanidinas , Inseticidas , Nitrilas , Nitrocompostos , Piretrinas , Tiazóis , Animais , Água , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores , Camarões/epidemiologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 199: 105772, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458665

RESUMO

Phagocytosis "offense" is a crucial process to protect the organism from diseases and the effects of foreign particles. Insects rely on the innate immune system and thus any hindrance to phagocytosis may greatly affect their resistance to diseases and response to pathogens. The European honeybee, a valuable species due to its economic and environmental contribution, is being challenged by colony collapse disorder leading to its decline. Exposure to multiple factors including pesticides like imidacloprid and amitraz may negatively alter their immune response and ultimately make them more susceptible to diseases. In this study, we compare the effect of different concentrations and mixtures of imidacloprid and amitraz with different concentrations of the immune stimulant, zymosan A. Results show that imidacloprid and amitraz have a synergistic negative effect on phagocytosis. The lowered phagocytosis induces significantly higher hemocyte viability suggesting a negatively correlated protective mechanism "defense" from pesticide-associated damage but may not be protective from pathogens.


Assuntos
Hemócitos , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Praguicidas , Toluidinas , Abelhas , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Fagocitose , Praguicidas/toxicidade
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(10): 5153-5164, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427964

RESUMO

Being a destructive pest worldwide, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci has evolved resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides. The third-generation neonicotinoid dinotefuran has commonly been applied to the control of the whitefly, but its underlying mechanism is currently unknown. On the base of our transcriptome data, here we aim to investigate whether the cytochrome P450 CYP6EM1 underlies dinotefuran resistance in the whitefly. Compared to the susceptible strain, the CYP6EM1 gene was found to be highly expressed in both laboratory and field dinotefuran-resistant populations. Upon exposure to dinotefuran, the mRNA levels of CYP6EM1 were increased. These results demonstrate the involvement of this gene in dinotefuran resistance. Loss and gain of functional studies in vivo were conducted through RNAi and transgenic Drosophila melanogaster assays, confirming the role of CYP6EM1 in conferring such resistance. In a metabolism assay in vitro, the CYP6EM1 protein could metabolize 28.11% of dinotefuran with a possible dinotefuran-dm-NNO metabolite via UPLC-QTOF/MS. Docking of dinotefuran to the CYP6EM1 protein showed a good binding affinity, with an energy of less than -6.0 kcal/mol. Overall, these results provide compelling evidence that CYP6EM1 plays a crucial role in the metabolic resistance of B. tabaci to dinotefuran. Our work provides new insights into the mechanism underlying neonicotinoid resistance and applied knowledge that can contribute to sustainable control of a global pest such as whitefly.


Assuntos
Guanidinas , Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo
8.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466325

RESUMO

Imidacloprid is a global health threat that severely poisons the economically and ecologically important honeybee pollinator, Apis mellifera. However, its effects on developing bee larvae remain largely unexplored. Our pilot study showed that imidacloprid causes developmental delay in bee larvae, but the underlying toxicological mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we exposed bee larvae to imidacloprid at environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.7, 1.2, 3.1, and 377 ppb. There was a marked dose-dependent delay in larval development, characterized by reductions in body mass, width, and growth index. However, imidacloprid did not affect on larval survival and food consumption. The primary toxicological effects induced by elevated concentrations of imidacloprid (377 ppb) included inhibition of neural transmission gene expression, induction of oxidative stress, gut structural damage, and apoptosis, inhibition of developmental regulatory hormones and genes, suppression of gene expression levels involved in proteolysis, amino acid transport, protein synthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis energy production. In addition, we found that the larvae may use antioxidant defenses and P450 detoxification mechanisms to mitigate the effects of imidacloprid. Ultimately, this study provides the first evidence that environmentally exposed imidacloprid can affect the growth and development of bee larvae by disrupting molting regulation and limiting the metabolism and utilization of dietary nutrients and energy. These findings have broader implications for studies assessing pesticide hazards in other juvenile animals.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Muda , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Abelhas , Animais , Larva , Projetos Piloto , Nutrientes
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5671-5681, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442746

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids have been widely used to control pests with remarkable effectiveness. Excessive insecticides have led to serious insect resistance. Mutations of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are one of the reasons for neonicotinoid resistance conferred in various agricultural pests. Two mutations, V65I and V104I, were found in the nAChR ß1 subunit of two neonicotinoid-resistant aphid populations. However, the specific functions of the two mutations remain unclear. In this study, we cloned and identified four nAChR subunits (α1, α2, α8, and ß1) of thrips and found them to be highly homologous to the nAChR subunits of other insects. Subsequently, we successfully expressed two subtypes nAChR (α1/α2/α8/ß1 and α1/α8/ß1) by coinjecting three cofactors for the first time in thrips, and α1/α8/ß1 showed abundant current rapidly. Acetylcholine, neonicotinoids, and sulfoxaflor exhibited different activation capacities for the two subtypes of nAChRs. Finally, V65I was found to significantly reduce the binding ability of nAChR to neonicotinoids and sulfoxaflor through electrophysiology and computer simulations. V104I caused a decrease in agonist affinity (pEC50) but an increase in the efficacy (Imax) of nAChR against neonicotinoids and reduced the binding ability of nAChR to sulfoxaflor. This study provides theoretical and technical support for studying the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid resistance in pests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Piridinas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Compostos de Enxofre , Animais , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Mutação , Nitrocompostos
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(12): 6167-6177, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500001

RESUMO

Antibiotics can be accidentally introduced into farmland by wastewater irrigation, and the environmental effects are still unclear. In this study, the effects of oxytetracycline on the residue of imidacloprid in soil and radishes were investigated. Besides, the rhizosphere microbiome and radish metabolome were analyzed. It showed that the persistence of imidacloprid in soil was unchanged, but the content of olefin-imidacloprid was increased by oxytetracycline. The residue of imidacloprid in radishes was increased by nearly 1.5 times, and the hazard index of imidacloprid was significantly raised by 1.5-4 times. Oxytetracycline remodeled the rhizosphere microbiome, including Actinobe, Elusimic, and Firmicutes, and influenced the metabolome of radishes. Especially, some amino acid metabolic pathways in radish were downregulated, which might be involved in imidacloprid degradation. It can be assumed that oxytetracycline increased the imidacloprid residue in radish through disturbing the plant-rhizosphere microbiome holobiont and, thus, increased the pesticide dietary risk.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Oxitetraciclina , Raphanus , Raphanus/química , Oxitetraciclina/metabolismo , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química
11.
J Huntingtons Dis ; 13(1): 55-66, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489193

RESUMO

Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction caused by a mutant huntingtin protein. Compromised metabolic activity resulting from systemic administration of the mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), is known to mimic the pathology of HD and induce HD-like symptoms in rats. N-hexanoic-Tyr-Ile-(6)-amino hexanoic amide (PNB-0408), also known as Dihexa, has been shown to have neuroprotective and procognitive properties in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Given the mechanism of action and success in other neurodegenerative diseases, we felt it an appropriate compound to investigate further for HD. Objective: The present study was designed to test if PNB-0408, an angiotensin IV analog, could attenuate 3-NP-induced HD-like symptoms in rats and serve as a potential therapeutic agent. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups consisting of a "vehicle" group, a "3-NP" group, and a "3-NP + PNB-0408" group. PNB-0408 was administered along with chronic exposure to 3-NP. Animal body weight, motor function, and cognitive abilities were measured for five weeks, before euthanasia and histopathological analysis. Results: Exposure to 3-NP decreased the amount of weight rats gained, impaired spatial learning and memory consolidation, and led to marked motor dysfunction. From our observations and analysis, PNB-0408 did not protect rats from the deficits induced by 3-NP neurotoxicity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PNB-0408 may not be an efficacious treatment strategy for preventing 3-NP-induced HD-like symptoms in a preclinical model. These data highlight the need for further research of this compound in alternate models and/or alternative approaches to managing this disorder.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/análogos & derivados , Doença de Huntington , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Doença de Huntington/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Propionatos/toxicidade , Propionatos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças
12.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 54(3): 194-213, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470098

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid pesticides are utilized against an extensive range of insects. A growing body of evidence supports that these neuro-active insecticides are classified as toxicants in invertebrates. However, there is limited published data regarding their toxicity in vertebrates and mammals. the current systematic review is focused on the up-to-date knowledge available for several neonicotinoid pesticides and their non-acute toxicity on rodents and human physiology. Oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) of seven neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram) was initially identified. Subsequently, a screening of the literature was conducted to collect information about non-acute exposure to these insecticides. 99 studies were included and assessed for their risk of bias and level of evidence according to the Office of Health and Translation (OHAT) framework. All the 99 included papers indicate evidence of reproductive toxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress induction with a high level of evidence in the health effect of rodents and a moderate level of evidence for human health. The most studied type of these insecticides among 99 papers was imidacloprid (55 papers), followed by acetamiprid (22 papers), clothianidin (21 papers), and thiacloprid (11 papers). While 10 of 99 papers assessed the relationship between clothianidin, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram, showing evidence of liver injury, dysfunctions of oxidative stress markers in the reproductive system, and intestinal toxicity. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the potential risks caused by neonicotinoid insecticides to humans and rodents with salient health effects. However, further research is needed to better emphasize and understand the patho-physiological mechanisms of these insecticides, taking into account various factors that can influence their toxicity.


Assuntos
Guanidinas , Inseticidas , Tiazinas , Tiazóis , Animais , Humanos , Tiametoxam , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Oxazinas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Mamíferos
13.
Parasitol Res ; 123(3): 162, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492070

RESUMO

Toxocara canis (T. canis) is a gastrointestinal nematode in dogs, and its larvae also infect humans, causing severe larval migratory disease. Anthelmintic drugs have become the primary means to combat T. canis. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ) was tested against all the internal stages of T. canis, including L3 larval stage in vitro experiments and gastrointestinal worm in vivo experiments. In the in vitro experiment, after treatment with NTZ at 7.81 and 62.5 µg/mL for 12 h, the larval mortality efficacy reached 90.0 and 100.0%, respectively. In the in vivo experiments, 100 mg/kg NTZ possessed good anthelmintic efficacy against T. canis, with an egg per gram (EPG) reduction of 99.19%, and 90.00% of dogs cleared with residual worms. These results were comparable to those of the positive control drug. The highest anthelmintic efficacy was observed in the group treated with 150 mg/kg NTZ. Based on faecal egg counts, the number of T. canis eggs decreased by 100.00%, and the percentage of dogs cleared with residual worms achieved 90.00% after 7 days of treatment in the 150-mg/kg NTZ treatment group. In general, NTZ showed great potential to be applied as an anthelmintic against T. canis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Cão , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 923: 171455, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438029

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticides have been frequently detected in natural aquatic environments. Nevertheless, the distribution of NEOs in artificial environments is not clear. The Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal in the world. The northern Jiangsu segment of the Grand Canal was selected to study the spatiotemporal variation and source of eight NEOs in the canal water and assess their ecological and health risks. The total NEO concentration in the canal water was 12-289 ng L-1 in the dry season and 18-373 ng L-1 in the wet season, which were within the concentration range in other 11 natural rivers worldwide. The average total NEO concentrations were not statistically different between the seasons; only the concentrations of imidaclothiz, thiacloprid (THI), acetamiprid, and dinotefuran were different. At city scale, the total NEO concentration in the dry season showed a decreasing trend along the water flow from Xuzhou City to Yangzhou City. The total NEO concentrations were found to be positively correlated with the sown area of farm crops and the rural labour force, indicating the agricultural influence on the spatial distribution of NEO concentrations. In the wet season, relatively high NEO concentrations were distributed in downstream sites under the influence of artificial regulation. The primary contributor to the NEO inputs into the canal was the nonpoint source in the dry and wet seasons, with a relative contribution of 68 %. THI, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxan would produce chronic ecological risks in both seasons. Further consideration needs to be given to the above four NEOs and NEO mixtures. The human health risks that NEOs posed by drinking water were assessed based on the chronic daily intake (CDI). The maximum CDI for adults and children was lower than the reference doses. This suggested public health would not be at risk from canal water consumption.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Tiazinas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Pequim , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Água , Rios , China
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133986, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493632

RESUMO

Adverse health outcomes due to the inhalation of pesticide residues in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) are gaining global attention. Quantitative health risk assessments of pesticide inhalation exposure highlight the need to understand the bioaccessibility of pesticide residues. Herein, the inhalation bioaccessibility of imidacloprid in PM was determined using three commonly used in vitro lung modeling methods (Artificial Lysosomal Fluid, Gamble Solution, and Simulated Lung Fluid). To validate its feasibility and effectiveness, we evaluated the bioavailability of imidacloprid using a mouse nasal instillation assay. The in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility of imidacloprid was extracted using Gamble Solution with a solid-liquid ratio of 1/1000, an oscillation rate of 150 r/min, and an extraction time of 24 h, showed a strong linear correlation with its in vivo liver-based bioavailability (R2 =0.8928). Moreover, the margin of exposure was incorporated into the inhalation exposure risk assessment, considering both formulations and nozzles. The inhalation unit exposure of imidacloprid for residents was 0.95-4.09 ng/m3. The margin of exposure for imidacloprid was determined to be acceptable when considering inhalation bioaccessibility. Taken together, these results indicate that the inhalation bioaccessibility of pesticides should be incorporated into assessments of human health risks posed by PM particles.


Assuntos
Nitrocompostos , Material Particulado , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134020, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521037

RESUMO

Dinotefuran is a chiral neonicotinoid that is widely distributed in environmental matrices, but its health risks to different organisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the neurotoxic responses of honeybee/cotton aphid nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to chiral dinotefuran at the enantiomeric scale and demonstrated the microscopic mechanism of species selectivity in nAChR-mediated enantioselective neurotoxicity. The findings indicated that (S)-dinotefuran had a higher affinity for honeybee nAChR than (R)-dinotefuran whereas both enantiomers exhibited similar bioactivity toward cotton aphid nAChR. The results of dynamic neurotoxic processes indicated the association of conformational changes induced by chiral dinotefuran with its macroscopic neurotoxicity, and (R)-dinotefuran, which exhibit low toxicity to honeybee, was found to induce significant conformational changes in the enantioselective neurotoxic reaction, as supported by the average root-mean-square fluctuation (0.35 nm). Energy decomposition results indicated that electrostatic contribution (ΔGele) is the critical energy term that leads to substantial enantioselectivity, and both Trp-51 (-2.57 kcal mol-1) and Arg-75 (-4.86 kcal mol-1), which form a hydrogen-bond network, are crucial residues in mediating the species selectivity for enantioselective neurotoxic responses. Clearly, this study provides experimental evidence for a comprehensive assessment of the health hazards of chiral dinotefuran.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Abelhas , Estereoisomerismo , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/química , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Guanidinas/química , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/química
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479676

RESUMO

To assess the impact of glyphosate and 2,4-D herbicides, as well as the insecticide imidacloprid, both individually and in combination, the gills of adult zebrafish were used due to their intimate interaction with chemicals diluted in water. Bioassays were performed exposing the animals to the different pesticides and their mixture for 96 h. The behavior of the fish was analyzed, a histological examination of the gills was carried out, and the genotoxic effects were also analyzed by means of the comet assay (CA) and the change in the expression profiles of genes involved in the pathways of the oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis. The length traveled and the average speed of the control fish, compared to those exposed to the pesticides and mainly those exposed to the mixture, were significantly greater. All the groups exposed individually exhibited a decrease in thigmotaxis time, indicating a reduction in the behavior of protecting themselves from predators. Histological analysis revealed significant differences in the structures of the gill tissues. The quantification of the histological lesions showed mild lesions in the fish exposed to imidacloprid, moderate to severe lesions for glyphosate, and severe lesions in the case of 2,4-D and the mixture of pesticides. The CA revealed the sensitivity of gill cells to DNA damage following exposure to glyphosate, 2,4-D, imidacloprid and the mixture. Finally, both genes involved in the oxidative stress pathway and those related to the cell apoptosis pathway were overexpressed, while the ogg1 gene, involved in DNA repair, was downregulated.


Assuntos
Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , 60658 , Dano ao DNA , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 393: 110957, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513929

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inheritable autosomal-dominant disorder that targets mainly the striatum. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induces obvious deleterious behavioral, neurochemical, and histological effects similar to the symptoms of HD. Our study aimed to examine the neuroprotective activity of tropisetron, an alpha-7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7nAChR) agonist, against neurotoxic events associated with 3-NP-induced HD in rats. Forty-eight rats were randomly allocated into four groups. Group I received normal saline, while Groups II, III and IV received 3-NP for 2 weeks. In addition, Group III and IV were treated with tropisetron 1 h after 3-NP administration. Meanwhile, Group IV received methyllycaconitine (MLA), an α-7nAChR antagonist, 30 min before tropisetron administration. Treatment with tropisetron improved motor deficits as confirmed by the behavioral tests and restored normal histopathological features of the striatum. Moreover, tropisetron showed an anti-oxidant activity via increasing the activities of SDH and HO-1 as well as Nrf2 expression along with reducing MDA level. Tropisetron also markedly upregulated the protein expression of p-PI3K and p-Akt which in turn hampered JAK2/NF-κB inflammatory cascade. In addition, tropisetron showed an anti-apoptotic activity through boosting the expression of Bcl-2 and reducing Bax expression and caspase-3 level. Interestingly, all the aforementioned effects of tropisetron were blocked by pre-administration of MLA, which confirms that such neuroprotective effects are mediated via activating of α-7nAChR. In conclusion, tropisetron showed a neuroprotective activity against 3-NP-induced HD via activating PI3K/Akt signaling and suppressing JAK2/NF-κB inflammatory axis. Thus, repositioning of tropisetron could represent a promising therapeutic strategy in management of HD.


Assuntos
Doença de Huntington , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Ratos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Propionatos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tropizetrona/uso terapêutico
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133910, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432095

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have indeed become the most widely used insecticides worldwide. Concerns have been raised about their potential impact on newborns due to maternal exposure and their unique neurotoxic mode of action. However, it is still poorly understood whether in utero exposure of pregnant women to environmental NEOs and their metabolites can cause carryover effects on vulnerable newborns and subsequent health consequences. In this study, we determined the concentrations of 13 NEOs and their metabolites in the first urine collected from 92 newborns, both preterm and full-term, in southern China during 2020 and 2021. NEOs and their metabolites were identified in 91 urine samples, with over 93% of samples containing a cocktail of these compounds, confirming their maternal-fetal transfer. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, imidaclothiz, clothianidin and flonicamid were the most commonly detected analytes, with detection frequencies of 59-87% and medians of 0.024-0.291 ng/mL in the urine. The relative abundance of imidaclothiz was significantly higher in preterm newborns, those with head circumferences below 33 cm, birth lengths less than 47 cm, and weights below 2500 g (p < 0.05). When comparing newborns in the 2nd quartile of imidaclothiz concentrations with those in the 1st quartile, we observed a significant increase in the odds of preterm outcomes in the unadjusted model (odds ratio = 3.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-10.3). These results suggest that exposure to elevated concentrations of imidaclothiz may be associated with preterm birth.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Nascimento Prematuro , Tiazóis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , China , Nitrocompostos
20.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133930, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452673

RESUMO

Dinotefuran, a neonicotinoid insecticide, may impact nontarget organisms such as Decapoda P. vannamei shrimp with nervous systems similar to insects. Exposing shrimp to low dinotefuran concentrations (6, 60, and 600 µg/L) for 21 days affected growth, hepatosomatic index, and survival. Biomarkers erythromycin-N-demethylase, alanine aminotransferase, and catalase increased in all exposed groups, while glutathione S-transferase is the opposite; aminopyrin-N-demethylase, malondialdehyde, and aspartate aminotransferase increased at 60 and 600 µg/L. Concentration-dependent effects on gut microbiota altered the abundance of bacterial groups, increased potentially pathogenic and oxidative stress-resistant phenotypes, and decreased biofilm formation. Gram-positive/negative microbiota changed significantly. Metabolite differences between the exposed and control groups were identified using mass spectrometry and KEGG pathway enrichment. N-acetylcystathionine showed potential as a reliable dinotefuran metabolic marker. Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) results indicated high connectivity of cruecdysone in the metabolite network and significant enrichment at 600 µg/L dinotefuran. The WGCNA results revealed a highly significant negative correlation between two key metabolites, caldine and indican, and the gut microbiota within co-expression modules. Overall, the risk of dinotefuran exposure to non-target organisms in aquatic environments still requires further attention.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Guanidinas , Nitrocompostos , Penaeidae , Animais , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/metabolismo , Oxirredutases N-Desmetilantes/farmacologia
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