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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1040, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social norms continue to be entrenched in Uganda. Understanding social norms helps to uncover the underlying drivers that influence attitudes and behavior towards contraceptive access and use. This study therefore seeks to investigate the factors that influence the social norm - access to contraception by adolescent girls - in six districts in Uganda. DATA AND METHODS: Using data from a community cross-sectional survey in six districts (Amudat, Kaberamaido, Kasese, Moroto, Tororo and Pader) in Uganda, a binary logistic regression model was fitted to examine the variation in individual beliefs and socio-economic and demographic factors on 'allowing adolescent girls to access contraception in a community' - we refer to as a social norm. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that a higher proportion of respondents hold social norms that inhibit adolescent girls from accessing contraception in the community. After controlling for all variables, the likelihood for adolescent girls to be allowed access to contraception in the community was higher among respondents living in Kaberamaido (OR = 2.58; 95 %CI = 1.23-5.39), Kasese (OR = 2.62; 95 %CI = 1.25-5.47), Pader (OR = 4.35; 95 %CI = 2.15-8.79) and Tororo (OR = 9.44; 95 %CI = 4.59-19.37), those aged 30-34 years likely (OR = 1.73; 95 %CI = 1.03-2.91). However, the likelihood for respondents living in Moroto to agree that adolescent girls are allowed to access contraception was lower (OR = 0.27; 95 %CI = 0.11-0.68) compared to respondents living in Amudat. Respondents who were not formally employed (OR = 0.63; 95 %CI = 0.43-0.91), and those who agreed that withdrawal prevents pregnancy (OR = 0.45; 95 %CI = 0.35-0.57) were less likely to agree that adolescent girls are allowed to access contraception in the community. Respondents who agreed that a girl who is sexually active can use contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy (OR = 1.84; 95 %CI = 1.33-2.53), unmarried women or girls should have access to contraception (OR = 2.15; 95 %CI = 1.61-2.88), married women or girls should have access to contraception (OR = 1.55; 95 %CI = 0.99-2.39) and women know where to obtain contraception for prevention against pregnancy (OR = 2.35; 95 %CI = 1.19-4.65) were more likely to agree that adolescent girls are allowed to access contraception. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the need for context specific ASRH programs that take into account the differences in attitudes and social norms that affect access and use of contraception by adolescents.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Atitude , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Uganda
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256624, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559821

RESUMO

Laws not only affect behavior due to changes in material payoffs, but they may also change the perception individuals have of social norms, either by shifting them directly or by providing information on these norms. Using detailed daily survey data and exploiting the introduction of lockdown measures in the UK in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis, we provide causal evidence that the law drastically changed the perception of the norms regarding social distancing behaviors. We show that this effect of laws on perceived norms is mostly driven by an informational channel and that the intervention made perceptions of social norms converge to the actual prevalent norm.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Percepção , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Reino Unido
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4205-4216, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586272

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a human rights violation and a serious global public health problem. This study investigated factors associated with IPV in female survivors in Colombia. Four focus group discussions with female survivors of IPV and 15 key informant interviews with professionals from psychological, social and legal services and community leaders were conducted in Cali and Tuluá. Participant recruitment was via purposive sampling. Transcripts were analysed manually taking a social constructivist standpoint and a content analysis approach. Factors associated with IPV were divided into four themes: cultural beliefs, jealousy, alcohol abuse, and personal history of IPV. The first theme was divided into: patriarchy, gender roles, normalisation of violence, and unawareness of rights, economic dependence, and 'men own women'. The sub-themes were all inter-related and underpinned by patriarchal values. IPV was described as a sociocultural construction formed by patriarchal values ingrained in community and societal norms and individual processes. Therefore, academia, governmental and non-governmental bodies and society are urged to together, create preventative, context specific strategies for individuals, communities and societies.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Colômbia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Normas Sociais
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5452, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526490

RESUMO

Social norms can help solve pressing societal challenges, from mitigating climate change to reducing the spread of infectious diseases. Despite their relevance, how norms shape cooperation among strangers remains insufficiently understood. Influential theories also suggest that the level of threat faced by different societies plays a key role in the strength of the norms that cultures evolve. Still little causal evidence has been collected. Here we deal with this dual challenge using a 30-day collective-risk social dilemma experiment to measure norm change in a controlled setting. We ask whether a looming risk of collective loss increases the strength of cooperative social norms that may avert it. We find that social norms predict cooperation, causally affect behavior, and that higher risk leads to stronger social norms that are more resistant to erosion when the risk changes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the causal effect of social norms in promoting cooperation and their role in making behavior resilient in the face of exogenous change.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103390, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390931

RESUMO

While body modifications have increasingly gained acceptance and popularity, how different subpopulations aesthetically appreciate tattoos remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the conceptual structure underlying tattoo aesthetics, focusing on the effects of internalized social norms and expertise. Using a timed free-listing task, three groups (≤49 years, ≥50 years, and experts) comprising 497 participants were asked to write down adjectives that could describe tattoo aesthetics. Statistical analyses of frequency, cognitive salience indices, co-occurrence dimensions, semantic dimensions, similarity measures, and valences were applied and, to directly compare the three groups, a generalized Procrustes analysis was applied. The variance and complexity with which individuals verbally expressed their perceived aesthetic appeal of tattoos were highlighted. However, the results do not reveal a unified concept of beauty, nor do they present a clear bipolar dimension of beautiful/ugly for two of the three groups. Nevertheless, the concept of beauty was found to be prominent in tattoo aesthetics, and aesthetic and descriptive-evaluative dimensions were identified, with terms such as beautiful, ugly, multicolored, and interesting being the most notable adjectives, although not with the highest valence. Possible factors explaining the intracultural differences between the three groups are also discussed.


Assuntos
Tatuagem , Beleza , Estética , Humanos , Semântica , Normas Sociais
8.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 205-248, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405780

RESUMO

This Article presents the first comprehensive analysis of the contribution of behavioral science to the legal response to the COVID-19 pandemic. At the descriptive level, the Article shows how different psychological phenomena such as loss aversion and cultural cognition influenced the way policymakers and the public perceived the pandemic, and how such phenomena affected the design of laws and regulations responding to COVID-19. At the normative level, the Article compares nudges (i.e., choice-preserving, behaviorally informed tools that encourage people to behave as desired) and mandates (i.e., obligations backed by sanctions that dictate to people how they must behave). The Article argues that mandates rather than nudges should serve in most cases as the primary legal tool used to regulate behavior during a pandemic. Nonetheless, this Article highlights ways in which nudges can complement mandates.


Assuntos
Ciências do Comportamento , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Formulação de Políticas , Políticas de Controle Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Viés , Humanos , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2 , Cognição Social , Normas Sociais
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046613, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore the beliefs, attitudes and social norms of Dutch adolescents with regard to smoking and sports. In addition, we examine whether there are differences between adolescents at sports clubs with versus without an outdoor smoke-free policy (SFP). DESIGN: Qualitative design in the form of focus group interviews. SETTING: Focus group interviews (n=27) were conducted at 16 sports clubs in the Netherlands. Soccer, tennis, field hockey and korfball clubs were included. Focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using MAXQDA. PARTICIPANTS: 180 adolescents aged 13-18 years old were included in the study. All participants signed an informed consent form. For participants younger than 16 years, parental consent was required. RESULTS: With respect to smoking in relation to sports, participants had mostly negative beliefs (ie, smoking has a negative effect on health and sports performance), attitudes (ie, sports and smoking are activities that do not fit together; at sports clubs smoking is not appropriate), and social norms (ie, it is not normal to smoke at sports clubs). The same beliefs, attitudes and social norms were expressed by participants at both sports clubs with and without an outdoor SFP. However, argumentation against smoking was more detailed and more consistent among participants at sports clubs with an outdoor SFP. CONCLUSION: Adolescents have negative beliefs, attitudes and social norms with regard to smoking in relationship to sports. Outdoor SFP at sports clubs might reinforce these negative associations. These findings point to the potential importance of sports in the prevention of adolescent smoking.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Esportes , Adolescente , Atitude , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fumar
10.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113332, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351285

RESUMO

Bottom-up solutions targeting individual energy conservation behaviors can play an important role in mitigating climate change and other environmental problems. Information interventions using social comparisons have proven generally effective at improving conservation behaviors, yet are largely suboptimal and sometimes fail when not adequately designed for their specific context. Environmental managers and policy makers need guidance on behavioral intervention design to maximize effectiveness. This article reports the results of a randomized control trial field experiment that used social comparisons to influence individual electricity conservation behaviors in a unique experimental setting with homogeneous residential units and no economic incentive for subjects to conserve. Two treatment groups receiving information feedback with different social comparison reference points exhibited an average treatment effect of 6 % relative to a control group that did not receive feedback. Moreover, treated subjects whose baseline behavior was more proximate to their relevant comparison group norm exhibited stronger response to the treatment (greater than 10 %) than treated subjects whose baseline behavior was more distant from the relevant norm. These results demonstrate that individuals may be more responsive to social norms when provided with a relevant norm that is more proximate to their baseline behavior. Our findings have important practical implications for optimal design and implementation of behavioral interventions to improve environmental management and achieve energy policy goals.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Comparação Social , Humanos , Motivação , Comportamento Social , Normas Sociais
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444984

RESUMO

Diet diversity has an important role in the prevention and treatment of anemia. Based on formative research in the community and the theory of normative social behavior, we designed an intervention to improve diet diversity among women of reproductive age. Our study, the Reduction in Anemia through Normative Innovations (RANI) Project, investigated the effect of a social norms-based intervention on diet diversity among women of reproductive age. We randomized villages in Odisha, India, into treatment or control arms, with a minimum of one village buffer between them. We assessed exposure to the intervention by frequency of self-reported images seen from the participatory learning modules, videos watched, and number of hemoglobin tests administered. We assessed diet diversity with the Food and Agriculture Organization's Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression to examine the associations between intervention and diet diversity, adjusting for covariates. Compared with baseline, diet diversity score increased in both treatment and control groups. The odds of having a diverse diet was 47% higher in the treatment group. Higher level of exposure to the RANI intervention was associated with a better diet diversity score, indicating that the intervention was effective in improving diet quality.


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação em Saúde/métodos , População Rural , Marketing Social , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Lesbian Stud ; 25(4): 279-294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423738

RESUMO

This article, by illustrating coming-out stories of lesbians and their families, inspired by and extending Amy Brainer's theorization of LGBT family of origin relationships based on her studies in Taiwan, critically revisits the dominant coming-out discourses in the LGBT activism and research in contemporary mainland China. I first argue that, although the belief that the Western-rooted idea of coming out and Chinese family traditions are incompatible is influential within China's LGBT activist circles, what is seldom recognized is that "chugui", the Chinese translation of "coming out", has already become a local term. However, grassroots but creative definitions of "chugui", such as "to cultivate a better parent-child relationship", is rejected by LGBT activist elites. I then point out an imbalance in China's LGBT research that mainly pays attention to strategies of not coming out to parents, which actually underestimates parents' agency and even otherizes parents in the name of "filial piety". Rather, the emerging liberalistic ideal of family relationships, especially mother-daughter relationships, enables coming-out practices to become intersubjective journeys for both LGBT children and their parents to rethink gender and sexuality. Finally, I criticize the narrowly defined "family", or "home", in China's dominant coming-out discourses, which disproportionately focuses on one's family of origin and presumes it as a heteronormative fortress. I call for studies that recognize queer empathy and solidarity in a family of origin and connects one's experiences in her family of origin with her later life in chosen families, which may be the family of origin of her child(ren).


Assuntos
Relações Familiares , Homossexualidade Feminina , Autorrevelação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(10): 1551-1558, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use among college students is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, such usage is especially dangerous given that the virus can be deadly for those with impaired respiratory systems. A small but growing body of research suggests that social norms may predict e-cigarette use. However, one's perception of e-cigarette use behaviors (descriptive norms) and approval by peers (injunctive norms) have yet to be studied in college students. The overarching purpose of this study is to determine whether descriptive and injunctive norms for e-cigarette use contribute unique variance to past 30-day e-cigarette use. Methods: Using a sample of 191 students (138 women) surveyed from introductory-level courses at a university in the northeastern United States, we explored the relationships between student demographic characteristics, alcohol use, binge drinking, COVID-19 non-compliant party attendance on and off campus, and social norms with past 30-day e-cigarette use using sequential regression. Two models were utilized to determine if descriptive and injunctive e-cigarette use norms predicted e-cigarette use after controlling for demographic characteristics in the social norms model, and above and beyond demographics and COVID-19 noncompliant party attendance, alcohol use, and binge drinking in the party behaviors model. Results: The results demonstrated that descriptive and injunctive norms for e-cigarette use significantly predicted e-cigarette use in both models, controlling for all covariates. Conclusions/Importance: Findings highlight the importance of social norms in predicting e-cigarette use during the COVID-19 pandemic, identifying areas for prevention and intervention for public health officials and higher education administrators.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , New England/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Grupo Associado , SARS-CoV-2 , Normas Sociais , Universidades
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281036

RESUMO

A large university in Queensland, Australia with a diverse staff and student community introduced a campus wide smoke-free policy in 2016. The purpose of this enquiry was to understand attitudes about a new smoke-free policy, its potential impact and the shift in social norms and organizational culture to inform the next phase of implementation. An electronic survey was distributed to all staff and students approximately 12 weeks after the smoke-free policy was implemented. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions about demographics, smoking behaviour, attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control, awareness of the smoke-free policy, and attitudes towards the effect of a completely smoke-free campus on quality of life, learning and enrolment. The survey was completed by 641 university staff and students. Respondents reported seeking out (80.4%) and socialising in smoke-free environments (86.6%) and supported smoke-free buildings (96.1%), indoor areas (91.6%), and outdoor areas (79%). The results revealed overwhelming support for a completely smoke-free campus (83%) and minority support for designated smoking areas (31%). Overall, respondents reflected positively towards a campus wide smoke-free policy. These findings suggest Queensland's early adoption of tobacco control laws influenced the social environment, de-normalised smoking, changed behaviour, preference for smoke-free environments and shifted social norms. These findings provide convincing evidence for organisational change and suggest health promotion policy makers should progress the implementation of smoke-free policies nationally across the higher education sector.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Austrália , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Qualidade de Vida , Queensland , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Normas Sociais , Estudantes , Universidades
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e042032, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312191

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Girl child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) persists in South Asia, with long-term consequences for girls. CARE's Tipping Point Initiative (TPI) addresses the causes of CEFM by challenging repressive gender norms and inequalities. The TPI engages different participant groups on programmatic topics and supports community dialogue to build girls' agency, shift inequitable power relations, and change community norms sustaining CEFM. METHODS/ANALYSIS: The Nepal TPI impact evaluation has an integrated, mixed-methods design. The quantitative evaluation is a three-arm, cluster randomised controlled trial (control; Tipping Point Programme (TPP); TPP+ with emphasised social norms change). Fifty-four clusters of ~200 households were selected from two districts (27:27) with probability proportional to size and randomised. A household census ascertained eligible study participants, including unmarried girls and boys 12-16 years (1242:1242) and women and men 25+ years (270:270). Baseline participation was 1134 girls, 1154 boys, 270 women and 270 men. Questionnaires covered agency; social networks/norms; and discrimination/violence. Thirty in-depth interviews, 8 key-informant interviews and 32 focus group discussions were held across eight TPP/TPP+ clusters. Guides covered gender roles/aspirations; marriage decisions; girls' safety/mobility; collective action; perceived shifts in child marriage; and norms about girls. Monitoring involves qualitative interviews, focus groups and session/event observations over two visits. Qualitative analyses follow a modified grounded theory approach. Quantitative analyses apply intention to treat, regression-based difference-in-difference strategies to assess impacts on primary (married, marriage hazard) and secondary outcomes, targeted endline tracing and regression-based methods to address potential selection bias. ETHICS/DISSEMINATION: The Nepal Social Welfare Council approved CARE Nepal to operate in the study districts. Emory (IRB00109419) and the Nepal Health Research Council (161-2019) approved the study. We follow UNICEF and CARE guidelines for ethical research involving children and gender-based violence. Study materials are here or available on request. We will share findings through clinicaltrials.gov, CARE reports/briefs and publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04015856.


Assuntos
Casamento , Normas Sociais , Ásia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205011

RESUMO

We present a study that looks at the relationship between the ethical climate, considered as a set of social norms, and judgments and behaviors in the workplace. In this case we think that an ethical rule reflecting the climate is only actualized in conduct and/or decisions if the rule is applicable, is shared, and is the subject of social expectations. A total of 277 professionals responded to a questionnaire measuring the normativity of three ethical rules, socio-moral judgment, trust in supervisors, turnover intention, and discrimination as well as abusive supervision. The results confirm our hypothesis. This leads to a different view of how the ethical climate is measured and constructed in the workplace.


Assuntos
Intenção , Local de Trabalho , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Normas Sociais
19.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 34(5): 487-502, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A unique feature of the global coronavirus pandemic has been the widespread adoption of mask-wearing as a public health measure to minimize the risk of contagion. Little is known about the effects of increased mask-wearing on social interactions, social anxiety, or overall mental health. OBJECTIVES: Explore the potential effects of mask-wearing on social anxiety. DESIGN: We review existing literatures to highlight three preselected sets of factors that may be important in shaping the effects of mask-wearing on social anxiety. These are: (a) people's perceptions of the social norms associated with wearing masks; (b) people's experiences of the degree to which masks prevent accurate interpretation of social and emotional cues; and (c) people's use of masks as a type of safety behavior that enables self-concealment. METHODS: APA PsycNet and PubMed were searched principally between September and November 2020 for articles describing the relationship between social anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, ambiguous feedback, and safety behavior use and for research on the relationship between mask-wearing and social norms and social interactions. Information identified as relevant from articles of interest was extracted and included in our review. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The effects of mask-wearing on social anxiety are likely to be substantial and clinically relevant.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Interação Social , Normas Sociais
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099578

RESUMO

What is an effective vaccination policy to end the COVID-19 pandemic? We address this question in a model of the dynamics of policy effectiveness drawing upon the results of a large panel survey implemented in Germany during the first and second waves of the pandemic. We observe increased opposition to vaccinations were they to be legally required. In contrast, for voluntary vaccinations, there was higher and undiminished support. We find that public distrust undermines vaccine acceptance, and is associated with a belief that the vaccine is ineffective and, if enforced, compromises individual freedom. We model how the willingness to be vaccinated may vary over time in response to the fraction of the population already vaccinated and whether vaccination has occurred voluntarily or not. A negative effect of enforcement on vaccine acceptance (of the magnitude observed in our panel or even considerably smaller) could result in a large increase in the numbers that would have to be vaccinated unwillingly in order to reach a herd-immunity target. Costly errors may be avoided if policy makers understand that citizens' preferences are not fixed but will be affected both by the crowding-out effect of enforcement and by conformism. Our findings have broad policy applicability beyond COVID-19 to cases in which voluntary citizen compliance is essential because state capacities are limited and because effectiveness may depend on the ways that the policies themselves alter citizens' beliefs and preferences.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Aglomeração , Conformidade Social , Normas Sociais , Vacinação , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Imunológicos , Motivação
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