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1.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1872): 20210412, 2023 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688389

RESUMO

People's attitudes towards social norms play a crucial role in understanding group behaviour. Norm psychology accounts focus on processes of norm internalization that influence people's norm-following attitudes but pay considerably less attention to social identity and group identification processes. Social identity theory in contrast studies group identity but works with a relatively thin and instrumental notion of social norms. We argue that to best understand both sets of phenomena, it is important to integrate the insights of both approaches. Social status, social identity and social norms are considered separate phenomena in evolutionary accounts. We discuss assumptions and views that support this separation, and suggest an integrated view of our own. We argue that we should be open to the early origins of human social complexity, and conjecture that the longer that the human social world involved multi-level societies the more probable it is that norm psychology and social identity interacted in rich ways. This article is part of the theme issue 'Human socio-cultural evolution in light of evolutionary transitions'.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Identificação Social , Humanos , Atitude , Normas Sociais
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 853, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646767

RESUMO

Many consider moral decisions to follow an internal "moral compass", resistant to social pressures. Here we examine how social influence shapes moral decisions under risk, and how it operates in different decision contexts. We employed an adapted Asian Disease Paradigm where participants chose between certain losses/gains and probabilistic losses/gains in a series of moral (lives) or financial (money) decisions. We assessed participants' own risk preferences before and after exposing them to social norms that are generally risk-averse or risk-seeking. Our results showed that participants robustly shifted their own choices towards the observed risk preferences. This conformity holds even after a re-testing in three days. Interestingly, in the monetary domain, risk-averse norms have more influence on choices in the loss frame, whereas risk-seeking norms have more influence in the gain frame, presumably because norms that contradict default behavior are most informative. In the moral domain, risk-averse as opposed to risk-seeking norms are more effective in the loss frame but in the gain frame different norms are equally effective. Taken together, our results demonstrate conformity in risk preferences across contexts and highlight unique features of decisions and conformity in moral and monetary domains.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Normas Sociais , Comportamento Social , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Tomada de Decisões
3.
Maturitas ; 167: 99-104, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335853

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a devastating and disproportionate impact on the elderly population. As the virus has swept through the world, already vulnerable elderly populations worldwide have faced a far greater burden of deaths and severe disease, crippling isolation, widespread societal stigma, and wide-ranging practical difficulties in maintaining access to basic health care and social services - all of which have had significant detrimental effects on their mental and physical wellbeing. In this paper, we present an overview of aging and COVID-19 from the interrelated perspectives of underlying biological mechanisms, physical manifestations, societal aspects, and health services related to the excess risk observed among the elderly population. We conclude that to tackle future pandemics in an efficient manner, it is essential to reform national health systems and response strategies from an age perspective. As the global population continues to age, elderly-focused health services should be integrated into the global health systems and global strategies, especially in low- and middle-income countries with historically underfunded public health infrastructure and insufficient gerontological care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Normas Sociais , Envelhecimento , Biologia
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 232: 103801, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on underage drinking reveals several factors that expose children to alcohol consumption, ranging from a child's personality to contextual factors. We examined societal and cultural norms that expose children to the early age of onset for alcohol use, and how community members perceive child alcohol consumption. METHODS: Three focus group discussions were conducted with 36 religious leaders, elders, and locality officials; and semi-structured interviews were held with 11 women who sell alcoholic drinks near schools. RESULTS: The findings showed nine underlying norms and assumptions that contribute to alcohol provision to minors. These norms and assumptions are mostly related to the knowledge gap regarding how alcohol harms children (and adults) and the perception of the social norms that support the drinking culture as unproblematic. CONCLUSION: Effective intervention and educational programs should aim at addressing the basic knowledge gap about alcoholic drinks and alcohol use disorder. In addition, challenging the harmful child-rearing practices and the feeling of resignation in life in these communities is necessary. Suggestions for short-term training and long-term educational programs are provided.


Assuntos
População Rural , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Etiópia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Normas Sociais
5.
Chaos ; 32(11): 113117, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456315

RESUMO

A vast body of experiments share the view that social norms are major factors for the emergence of fairness in a population of individuals playing the dictator game (DG). Recently, to explore which social norms are conducive to sustaining cooperation has obtained considerable concern. However, thus, far few studies have investigated how social norms influence the evolution of fairness by means of indirect reciprocity. In this study, we propose an indirect reciprocal model of the DG and consider that an individual can be assigned as the dictator due to its good reputation. We investigate the "leading eight" norms and all second-order social norms by a two-timescale theoretical analysis. We show that when role assignment is based on reputation, four of the "leading eight" norms, including stern judging and simple standing, lead to a high level of fairness, which increases with the selection intensity. Our work also reveals that not only the correct treatment of making a fair split with good recipients but also distinguishing unjustified unfair split from justified unfair split matters in elevating the level of fairness.


Assuntos
Normas Sociais , Humanos
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(12): e26038, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451279

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transactional sex or material exchange for sex is associated with HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa. The motivations for engaging in transactional sex vary from the fulfilment of basic needs, to enhancing social status or for romantic reasons with the expectation that men should provide. Transactional sex is also associated with HIV risk behaviours, such as multiple sexual partners and other determinants of HIV risk, including partner violence and abuse, alcohol consumption and inconsistent condom use. METHODS: We use data from a mixed-method, cluster randomised controlled trial of the Ujana Salama cash "plus" intervention in rural Tanzania. The data are from the first and third rounds of data collection (2017-2019). The impact evaluation consisted of a parallel mixed-methods design where the quantitative and qualitative data collection occurred simultaneously, and integration of the findings was done during the discussion. We first examine contextual factors associated with transactional sex using multivariable logistic regression models and then estimate whether the "plus" intervention reduced transactional sex among adolescent girls and young women using analysis of covariance. We used thematic content analysis for analysing qualitative transcripts. RESULTS: The prevalence of transactional sex among unmarried adolescent girls and young women at round 3 was 26%. Findings show that increasing age is a risk factor for transactional sex (OR = 1.80; 95% CI: [1.50, 2.17]), staying in school was negatively associated with engagement in transactional sex (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: [0.14, 0.40]). The cash plus intervention showed no impacts on reducing transactional sex (ß = 0.003, p = 0.905). CONCLUSIONS: The mechanisms of impact for a cash plus intervention on transactional sex are complex; economic insecurity is an important driver of transactional sex and HIV infection, but psychosocial factors and gendered social norms need consideration in intervention development. Our findings suggest that combination prevention interventions to address the structural drivers of HIV infection should focus on efforts to increase school enrolment and completion.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Normas Sociais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Coleta de Dados
7.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0275383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574375

RESUMO

We study policies aimed at discouraging behavior that produces negative externalities, and their differential gender impact. Using driving as an application, we carry out an experiment where slowest vehicles are the safest choice, whereas faster driving speeds lead to higher potential payoffs but higher probabilities of accidents. Faster speeds have a personal benefit but create a negative externality. We consider four experimental policy conditions: a baseline situation, a framing condition in which drivers are suggested that driving fast violates a social norm, and two punishment conditions, one exogenous and one endogenous. We find that the most effective policies use different framing and endogenously determined punishment mechanisms (to fast drivers by other drivers). These policies are only effective for female drivers which leads to substantial gender payoff differences. Our data suggest that these results arise from differences in social norms across genders, thus opening the way to designing more effective policies.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais , Políticas , Punição , Acidentes de Trânsito
8.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604981, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36506712

RESUMO

Objectives: Poor hand hygiene among healthcare workers is an important driver of infectious disease transmission. Although social norms are considered a key determinant of hand hygiene behaviour, little is known about them among healthcare workers. This study describes hand hygiene social norms among health workers, assesses their predictors, and tests if social expectations increased during the early stages of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers from 77 countries (n = 1,233) from April to August 2020 assessing healthcare workers' hand hygiene social expectations, personal normative beliefs, punishment and reward, and demographic factors. Linear regressions and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the responses. Results: We find high social expectations, personal beliefs, punishment, and rewards. Doctors tend to have lower social expectations than other occupation groups (e.g., nurses/midwives) and older respondents have higher social expectations. Social expectations increased during our survey, which may have been driven by COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hand hygiene social norms are strong among healthcare workers with variation across occupation and age; their strength increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. These have implications for behaviour change in healthcare environments that could leverage more norm-targeting interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Normas Sociais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde
9.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 19(6): 700-729, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530195

RESUMO

Purpose: Domestic violence (DV) is a significant public health problem in India, with women disproportionately impacted. This study a) identified risk and protective correlates of DV and, b) barriers and facilitators for seeking and receiving help for DV among women in India. Methods: A systematic search of 5 databases was performed to identify correlates of DV in the quantitative literature. The search resulted in inclusion of 68 studies for synthesis. For qualitative exploration, data were collected from 27 women in India. Results: While factors such as social norms and attitudes supportive of DV were both risk correlates and barriers to addressing DV, omen's empowerment, financial independence and informal sources of support were both protective correlates of DV as well as facilitators in addressing DV. Conclusions: Strong efforts in India are needed to reduce DV-related risk factors and strengthen protective factors and enhance access to care for women in abusive relationships.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Feminino , Humanos , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Índia , Fatores de Risco , Normas Sociais
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 505, 2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36482372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) refers to behavior by an intimate partner that can cause physical, sexual, or psychological harm; is a common global public health issue requiring immediate attention. IPV is the most common form of violence in rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan. METHODS: This qualitative phenomenological study collected 46 in-depth interviews from married women who experienced IPV in the rural areas of South Punjab. A semi-structured interview guide was used for data collection. These women were selected through a snowball sampling technique from October 2018 to March 2019. Researchers accessed the study setting with the help of gatekeepers (Lady Health Workers and Village Heads). The interviews were audio-recorded in the local language (Saraiki) and were translated into English. The data were analyzed using the thematic inductive analysis technique. RESULTS: The study has presented multifaceted factors of IPV by using the socio-ecological framework in rural areas of South Punjab, Pakistan. The current study introduced culturally contextualized terminologies of "protection," "physical submissiveness," "mental delicacy," and "social security". For married women, culturally embedded terms became the primary cause of IPV. In addition, the study also highlighted some of the cultural terminologies (such as run-mureed, watta-satta, beghairat, izzat, etc.) that are ubiquitous in the local context that sometimes intensifies IPV in the family and community sphere. Furthermore, the study discussed how gender-based inequalities trigger a status quo that ultimately creates power discrimination between spouses, which perpetuates violence in the domestic context. CONCLUSIONS: Gender-prejudiced roles and expectations imposed by orthodoxy, misinterpretations of Islamic teachings, and dominant patriarchy can be contested through awareness campaigns among the public, and gender sensitization drives among public institutions of police and judiciary. Education and employment-based can lead to women's empowerment and help to challenge the orthodox anti-feminist societal norms and the role of kinship-based networks in the family and community sphere.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Violência , Normas Sociais , Cônjuges
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378631

RESUMO

Compared to other species, the extent of human cooperation is unparalleled. Such cooperation is coordinated between community members via social norms. Developmental research has demonstrated that very young children are sensitive to social norms, and that social norms are internalized by middle childhood. Most research on social norm acquisition has focused on norms that modulated intra-group cooperation. Yet around the world, multi-ethnic communities also cooperate, and this cooperation is often shaped by distinct inter-group social norms. In the present study, we will investigate whether inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic social norm acquisition follows the same, or distinct, developmental trajectories. Specifically, we will work with BaYaka foragers and Bandongo fisher-farmers who inhabit multi-ethnic villages in the Republic of the Congo. In these villages, inter-ethnic cooperation is regulated by sharing norms. Through interviews with adult participants, we will provide the first descriptive account of the timing and mechanism by which BaYaka and Bandongo learn to share with out-group members. Children (5-17 years) and adults (17+ years) will also participate in a modified Dictator Game to investigate the developmental trajectories of children's intra- and inter-ethnic sharing choices. Based on our ethnographic knowledge of the participating communities, we predict that children's intra-ethnic sharing choices in the Dictator Game will match those of adults at an earlier age than their inter-ethnic sharing choices. We will analyze our data using logistic Bayesian modelling.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Congo , Teorema de Bayes , Normas Sociais , Etnicidade
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277508, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383514

RESUMO

Adequate social functioning during childhood requires context-appropriate social decision-making. To make such decisions, children rely on their social norms, conceptualized as cognitive models of shared expectations. Since social norms are dynamic, children must adapt their models of shared expectations and modify their behavior in line with their social environment. This study aimed to investigate children's abilities to use social information to adapt their fairness norm and to identify the computational mechanism governing this process. Thirty children (7-11 years, M = 7.9 SD = 0.85, 11 girls) played the role of Responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game-a two-player game based on the fairness norm-in which they had to choose to accept or reject offers from different Proposers. Norm adaptation was assessed by comparing rejection rates before and after a conditioning block in which children received several low offers. Computational models were compared to test which best explains children's behavior during the game. Mean rejection rate decreased significantly after receiving several low offers suggesting that children have the ability to dynamically update their fairness norm and adapt to changing social environments. Model-based analyses suggest that this process involves the computation of norm-prediction errors. This is the first study on norm adaptation capacities in school-aged children that uses a computational approach. Children use implicit social information to adapt their fairness norm to changing environments and this process appears to be supported by a computational mechanism in which norm-prediction errors are used to update norms.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Social , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Normas Sociais , Simulação por Computador , Jogos Experimentais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361045

RESUMO

Littering by visitors has led to severe challenges for rubbish collection in urban parks. One way to solve this problem is to encourage visitors to put rubbish in the bin. The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanism that drives people's use of bins in urban parks. The theoretical model of stimulus-organism-response is used to test the influence of stimuli (personal and social norms) on people's psychology (facilitators and inhibitors), thereby producing responses (the use of bins). In this study, we used a purposeful sampling method. Overall, 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 356 valid questionnaires were collected from visitors to the Shanghai City Park in China. The data were analysed using structural equations. The results show that personal and social norms have a significant impact on visitors' internal psychological state (facilitators and inhibitors). More specifically, personal and social norms are positively correlated with facilitators and negatively correlated with inhibitors. They have a significant positive impact on people's use of bins. We also found that facilitators and inhibitors partially mediate the relationship between norms and behaviours. The study suggests park managers should introduce various measures to influence people's personal norms and cultivate people's awareness of their obligation, responsibility, and commitment to the environment, and managers should also show visitors the consequences of not properly disposing of their rubbish as well as place more rubbish bins in key areas.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Normas Sociais , Humanos , China , Cidades , Comportamento Social , Recreação
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18974, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411291

RESUMO

Societal challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic have the quality of a social dilemma, in that they compel people to choose between acting in their own interests or the interests of a larger collective. Empirical evidence shows that the choices people make in a social dilemma are influenced by how this decision is framed. In four studies, we examined how context of an epidemic influences resource allocation decisions in a nested social dilemma task, where participants share resources between themselves, their subgroup, and a larger collective. Participants consistently allocated more resources to the collective in the context of the Ebola epidemic than in the context of a neighborhood improvement project, and these choices were strongly associated with prescriptive social norms. Together, the findings provide an experimental demonstration that the context of a quickly spreading disease encourages people to act more prosocially.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Normas Sociais , Alocação de Recursos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360617

RESUMO

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, improving the public's understanding of the increased efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines through scientific risk communication campaigns, promoting the public's acceptance and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines, and forming collective actions at the social level will deeply impact on the effect of COVID-19 prevention in various countries, which is also a key factor that governments need to address urgently. Previous research on risk communication has mostly focused on microscopic perspectives of how to stimulate individual self-protection behaviors by awakening threat and efficacy perceptions; however, a lack of observation of social collective actions means there is a risk of failure regarding COVID-19 epidemic reduction and prevention. In this regard, this study was based on the issue of vaccination in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic through a highly regulated and controlled research experiment in China (n = 165), which was designed to examine the impact of two risk communication frameworks, appealing to individual fears and appealing to social norms, on the public's acceptance and recommendations of COVID-19 vaccines, thus outlining the path of action from individual protection to collective epidemic prevention. Both the "fear appeals" framework and the "social norms" framework were found to have a positive effect on the Chinese public's vaccination acceptance. Specifically, social norms information may increase vaccination acceptance by enhancing the public's perceptions of social responsibility, while fear appeals information may reduce their perceptions of threat and social pressure to get the vaccine. Female and highly educated groups were more likely to refuse to recommend vaccination after reading the risk communication information. These results can be a useful supplement to the theory and practice of risk communication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Normas Sociais , Vacinação , Comunicação , Medo
16.
Prev Med ; 164: 107334, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334686

RESUMO

Existing studies of the impact of home rules on youth's vulnerability to e-cigarette use were based on cross-sectional data, youth or parent reports alone, as well as youth's perceptions and susceptibility. This study capitalizes on the restricted-use data of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study to examine the longitudinal association between home rules for e-cigarette use and youth's vulnerability including initiation of use and regular use two years later. Secondary analysis was conducted on 1203 parent-youth pairs who participated in both Wave 4 (2016-2018) and Wave 5 (2018-2019) assessment of the PATH Study and while the youth were age 12-16 at Wave 4. Linear and logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between having a strict home rule for e-cigarette use at Wave 4 and the youth's outcomes including perceived social norms, expectancies, susceptibility, initiation of use, and regular use of e-cigarettes at Wave 5, controlling for parent and youth factors. The results show that having a strict home rule for e-cigarette use was associated with youth's heightened level of perceived injunctive norms (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01), higher expectancy of harmfulness (ß = 0.28, p < 0.01) and lower odds for regular e-cigarette use (OR = 0.36, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings of this study support the potential protective effects of implementing a strict home rule for e-cigarette use. Future intervention efforts may promote parents' awareness of the potential protective effects of a strict home e-cigarette rule on youth's normative belief, harm expectancy, and behavior of e-cigarette use.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Normas Sociais , Cognição
17.
Prev Med ; 164: 107322, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330870

RESUMO

Over 20% of women aged 50-64 in Britain have not attended cervical screening within the recommended 5-year interval. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of five messages, informed using strategies from the Behaviour Change Wheel, on strength of intention to attend cervical screening in women aged 50-64 with weak positive intentions to be screened when next invited. Women were randomised (2:2:1), into one of two intervention groups or a control group. The control group saw basic information about cervical screening. Intervention group 1 saw a social norms message and an outcome expectancy message. Intervention group 2 saw a risk reduction message and a response efficacy message. There was further randomisation within the two intervention groups (1:1) to test the effectiveness of message framing and age-targeted information. Lastly, both intervention groups were randomised (1:1) to see a message acknowledging the possible discomfort associated with screening and offering support, or the support message only. Data were included from 475 women, collected using an online survey in March 2022. Adjusting for baseline intention, social norms (p = .84), outcome expectancy (p = .51), risk reduction (p = .19), response efficacy (p = .23) and discomfort acknowledgement messages (p = .71) had no effect on intention strength. However, there was a significant increase in intention after reading multiple messages. These results suggest that although no single message has a significant impact on intentions, when combined, they may act together to increase intention strength. Further research will understand the impact of these messages when combined in information materials.


Assuntos
Intenção , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Humanos , Reino Unido , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Normas Sociais
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276936, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adherence to behavioral measures such as physical distancing are key to mitigating the effects of viral pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Adherence depends in part on people's perception of what others do (descriptive norms) or approve of (injunctive norms). This study examines the effects that exposure to images depicting people following or breaking physical distancing rules have on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms and subsequent adherence behavior. METHODS: An online between-subjects experiment (n = 315) was conducted, in which participants were exposed to a set of five photographs of different public spaces in which people either did or did not adhere to physical distancing rules (pre-registration: https://www.osf.io/uek2p). Participants' adherence behavior was measured using a triangulation of measures (incentivized online behavioral task, vignettes, intention measure). Perceptions of relevant social norms were also measured. RESULTS: Mann-Whitney tests showed no effects of condition on perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms or on adherence behavior. Linear regressions showed that both component paths of the indirect effect (condition on norm perceptions, and norm perceptions on adherence behavior) were non-significant, hence mediation analyses were not conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to images of people following (compared to breaking) physical distancing rules did not affect adherence to such rules or perceived norms. We surmise that a single exposure to such images, especially in the context of COVID-19, is insufficient to affect behavior. We therefore recommend performing a comparable experiment in which participants are exposed repeatedly to images showing people (non)adhering to a specific behavior in a particular context for a longer period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Intenção
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0265839, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264867

RESUMO

People perform pro-environmental behaviors not only out of intrinsic motivation, but also due to external factors such as expected social approval or financial gain. To the extent that people use their own motivations to infer the motivation of others, people may view descriptive norms favoring pro-environmental behavior as extrinsically motivated. This may in turn decrease the normative influence of the norm, as conformity can be negatively affected by perceptions that others are conforming mindlessly. While descriptive norms generally promote pro-environmental behavior change, the influential power of descriptive norms varies between studies. One possible explanation for these inconclusive findings is that people interpret others' behavior as either intrinsically- or extrinsically motivated. We propose that pro-environmental descriptive norms will be more influential when attributing others' pro-environmental behavior as intrinsically (e.g., pleasure of contributing to the environment) rather than extrinsically, motivated (e.g., fear of social disapproval). In two experiments (N = 1326), we compared participants' intention to purchase pro-environmental products between four conditions: control condition vs intrinsic norm vs extrinsic norm (Exp. 1) vs injunctive norm (Exp. 2). Results consistently found a significant increase in pro-environmental purchase intention in the intrinsic norm condition compared to both extrinsic norm condition (Exp. 2) and no-information control condition (Exp. 1 & 2). These studies highlight that attribution of behavior is vital for the adoption of pro-environmental norms.


Assuntos
Intenção , Motivação , Humanos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Normas Sociais
20.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276162, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260609

RESUMO

Our eating behaviors are highly influenced by those of individuals surrounding us and the groups we belong to. The first goal of this experiment was to determine how social norms that encourage (pro-) vs. discourage (anti-) unhealthy eating influence people's intentions and motivations to eat unhealthily. Since these norms can be conveyed by one's group in a manner that either promotes group members' autonomy (i.e., collective autonomy support), or pressures them into eating certain foods (i.e., collective control), the experiment also tests which of these types of messages promotes the highest conformity to group norms. Hence, the second goal of this experiment was to investigate this synergetic effect of pro- vs anti-unhealthy eating norms and of collective autonomy support vs. collective control on participants' unhealthy eating intentions and their motivations for unhealthy eating. An experimental study (N = 341) using a 2 (eating norm: pro-unhealthy eating norm vs. anti-unhealthy eating norm) x 3 (type of group support: collective autonomy support vs. collective control vs. no support) design was conducted. Results showed that pro-unhealthy eating norms increased participants' intentions to eat salty and fatty food, but also their amotivation (i.e., lack of motivation) for unhealthy eating relative to anti-unhealthy eating norms. In addition, when pro-unhealthy eating was encouraged in a controlling (vs. in an autonomy supportive) manner, participants reported higher intentions to eat tofu tacos. Finally, when pro-unhealthy eating was promoted by supporting group members' autonomy, participants reported higher integrated regulation, i.e., a highly internalized motivation, for unhealthy eating. These results demonstrate that eating norms do not impact all types of unhealthy food consumption in the same manner, and that collective control may be motivating in uncertain contexts; furthermore, when individuals' autonomy is supported and promoted by other group members, they are more susceptible to integrate unhealthy eating in their life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Normas Sociais , Humanos , Intenção , Comportamento Social , Motivação , Ingestão de Alimentos
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