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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 253, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many parts of the world, including Iran, walnut (Juglans regia L.) production is limited by late-spring frosts. Therefore, the use of late-leafing walnuts in areas with late-spring frost is the most important method to improve yield. In the present study, the phenotypic diversity of 141 seedling genotypes of walnut available in the Senejan area, Arak region, Markazi province, Iran was studied based on morphological traits to obtain superior late-leafing genotypes in the cropping seasons of 2022 and 2023. RESULTS: Based on the results of the analysis of variance, the studied genotypes showed a significant variation in terms of most of the studied morphological and pomological traits. Therefore, it is possible to choose genotypes for different values ​​of a trait. Kernel weight showed positive and significant correlations with leaf length (r = 0.32), leaf width (r = 0.33), petiole length (r = 0.26), terminal leaflet length (r = 0.34), terminal leaflet width (r = 0.21), nut length (r = 0.48), nut width (r = 0.73), nut weight (r = 0.83), kernel length (r = 0.64), and kernel width (r = 0.89). The 46 out of 141 studied genotypes were late-leafing and were analyzed separately. Among late-leafing genotypes, the length of the nut was in the range of 29.33-48.50 mm, the width of the nut was in the range of 27.51-39.89 mm, and nut weight was in the range of 8.18-16.06 g. The thickness of shell was in the range of 1.11-2.60 mm. Also, kernel length ranged from 21.97-34.84 mm, kernel width ranged from 21.10-31.09 mm, and kernel weight ranged from 3.10-7.97 g. CONCLUSIONS: Based on important and commercial traits in walnut breeding programs, such as nut weight, kernel weight, kernel percentage, kernel color, and ease of kernel removal from nuts, 15 genotypes, including no. 92, 91, 31, 38, 33, 18, 93, 3, 58, 108, 16, 70, 15, 82, and 32 were superior and could be used in walnut breeding programs in line with the introduction of new cultivars and the revival of traditional walnut orchards to commercialize them.


Assuntos
Juglans , Juglans/genética , Nozes/anatomia & histologia , Nozes/genética , Árvores , Plântula/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612622

RESUMO

Aspergillus species create major postharvest problems due to the food losses caused by their mere presence and the hazardous mycotoxins they produce, such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). These mycotoxins are mainly produced by A. flavus and A. carbonarius, respectively. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method for the two aforementioned species based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The primers were designed to target genes belonging to the mycotoxin clusters pks and aflT for A. carbonarius and A. flavus, respectively. Result visualization was carried out in real time via the detection of fluorescent signals. The method developed showed high sensitivity and specificity, with detection limits of 0.3 and 0.03 pg/reaction of purified DNA of A. carbonarius and A. flavus, respectively. The assays were further implemented on inoculated nuts, including pistachios and almonds, after one-step crude DNA extraction. These tests revealed a detection level of 0.5 spore/g that shows the effectiveness of LAMP as a rapid method for detecting potentially toxigenic Aspergillus spp. directly in food. The validation of the assays included tests on a larger scale that further confirmed their sensitivity and specificity, as well as enabling the production of ready-to-use LAMP prototype kits. These kits are easy to use and aim to simplify the screening of food samples in order to monitor the presence of specific Aspergillus contaminations.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Micotoxinas , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Nozes , DNA
3.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612981

RESUMO

The consumption of macadamia nuts has increased due to their cardioprotective and antioxidant properties. However, this rise is consistent with an increase in the cases of macadamia nut allergy, leading to severe reactions. Although two Macadamia integrifolia allergens (Mac i 1 and Mac i 2) have been identified in Australian and Japanese patients, the allergenic sensitization patterns in Western European populations, particularly in Spain, remain unclear. For this purpose, seven patients with macadamia nut allergy were recruited in Spain. Macadamia nut protein extracts were prepared and, together with hazelnut and walnut extracts, were used in Western blot and inhibition assays. IgE-reactive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Immunoblotting assays revealed various IgE-binding proteins in macadamia nut extracts. Mass spectrometry identified three new allergens: an oleosin, a pectin acetylesterase, and an aspartyl protease. Cross-reactivity studies showed that hazelnut extract but not walnut extract inhibited macadamia nut oleosin-specific IgE binding. This suggests that oleosin could be used as marker for macadamia-hazelnut cross-reactivity. The results show an allergenic profile in the Spanish cohort different from that previously detected in Australian and Japanese populations. The distinct sensitization profiles observed highlight the potential influence of dietary habits and environmental factors exposure on allergenicity.


Assuntos
Corylus , Juglans , Hipersensibilidade a Noz , Humanos , Alérgenos , Nozes , Macadamia , Austrália , Imunoglobulina E
4.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114200, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609207

RESUMO

Various species of Southern African plants and their edible seeds have gained huge importance due to positive health aspects, and there is increasing interest to introduce such seeds as Novel Food on the international market. Especially the seeds of Schinziophyton rautanenii (manketti) and Guibourtia coleosperma (ushivi) could have great potential as a food and food ingredient. Hence, extensive analyses on the chemical composition of manketti nuts and ushivi beans including the analysis of total solids, protein and fat content, soluble carbohydrates, ash, total and free amino acids, biogenic amines and polyamines, fatty acid profile as well as the content of certain B-vitamins and tocopherols were performed. Results obtained showed a valuable nutritional composition, e.g., a true protein content of 22.6% with a ratio of essential amino acids to total amino acid composition of 48% in manketti nuts, while ushivi beans had a true protein content of 8.2% with a similar ratio of essential to total amino acids (45%). Lipid content was 54.1% in manketti nuts, ushivi beans had a value of 7.7%. In both, linoleic acid was the most abundant. Furthermore, ushivi beans had high amounts of vitamin B1 and B2.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Fabaceae , Nozes , Sementes , África Austral , Aminoácidos
5.
Food Res Int ; 184: 114230, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609219

RESUMO

This study explored differences in microbial lipid metabolites among sunflower seeds, soybeans, and walnuts. The matrices were subjected to in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation. Defatted digested materials and fiber/phenolics extracted therefrom were added to sunflower oil (SO) and also fermented. Targeted and untargeted lipidomics were employed to monitor and tentatively identify linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Walnut fermentation produced the highest free fatty acids (FFAs), LA, and conjugated LAs (CLAs). Defatted digested walnuts added to SO boosted FFAs and CLAs production; the addition of fibre boosted CLAs, whereas the addition of phenolics only increased 9e,11z-CLA and 10e,12z-CLA. Several di-/tri-hydroxy-C18-FAs, reported as microbial LA metabolites for the first time, were annotated. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant impacts of food matrix presence and type on lipidomics and C18-FAs. Our findings highlight how the food matrices affect CLA production from dietary lipids, emphasizing the role of food context in microbial lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Juglans , Fermentação , Nozes , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Ácido Linoleico , Fenóis , Óleo de Girassol , Colo
6.
Food Res Int ; 181: 114110, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448109

RESUMO

Cashew nut testa (CNT) is an underutilized cashew by-product rich in polyphenols. The applications of CNT are limited due to its astringency, less solubility, and instability of polyphenols during the processing. Nanoencapsulation was used to overcome these limitations. ß-cyclodextrin alone and in combination with whey protein isolate (WPI) was used for nano-complex preparation. The WPI/CD-CNT nano-complex powder showed higher encapsulation efficiency (86.9%) and yield (70.5-80%) compared to CD-CNT powder. Both the spray-dried powders showed improved thermal stability, higher solubility (97%), less moisture content, and increased DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities indicating potential food and agricultural applications. In addition, the nano-complex powders showed a controlled release of core bio-actives under gastric and intestinal pH compared to the non-encapsulated CNT phenolic extract. Degradation kinetics studies of the CNT extract after thermal and light treatments were also discussed. Both the nano-complexes showed high stability under light and thermal treatment. The results suggest that valorization of CNT can be done through nano-complex preparation and WPI and ß-CD are efficient carrier materials for the encapsulation of polyphenols with potential applications in food and agriculture.


Assuntos
Anacardium , Antioxidantes , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Nozes , Pós , Fenóis , Polifenóis , Extratos Vegetais
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300008, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442094

RESUMO

In Pinus pinea, cone to pine nut yield (total pine nut weight expressed as percentage of cone weight), an important crop trait, is decreasing worldwide. This phenomenon is of great concern, since the nuts of this species are highly demanded. Cone weight, seed and pine nut morphometry, and pine nut yield were monitored in a non-native area in Chile for 10 years. For this purpose, 560 cones, and the seeds and pine nuts contained in them, were counted, measured and weighed in a multi-environment study involving seven plantations. Seed and pine nut damage was evaluated. Two contrasting categories of cone weight (heavy/light) were defined. Cone to pine nut yield (PY) and other traits were calculated and compared between categories using a mixed linear model. Regression trees were used to explain PY variability. Cone weight was higher than in the species' native range (474 g vs 300 g on average). Pine nut number per cone and PY were significantly higher in the heavy cone category than in the light cone category (125 vs 89 units, and 4.05 vs 3.62%, respectively), The percentage of damaged seeds was lower in heavy than in light cones (9.0% vs 15.9%). Thus, PY depended on seed and pine nut morphometry as well as on seed health. Management practices, such as fertilization and irrigation, could be used to boost production of heavy cones and consequently increase PY.


Assuntos
Nozes , Pinus , Sementes , Chile , Modelos Lineares
8.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 357-366, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464597

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous research has consistently shown that self-perception of aging (SPA) is an important predictor of health and longevity, while Chinese rural elderly patients with hypertension had poorer SPA. Whether it was associated with their mortality kept unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term mortality and analyze the association between SPA and this mortality in the specific context of rural elderly patients with hypertension. Patients and Methods: This study is a longitudinal investigation of the mortality in elderly patients with hypertension in rural Suzhou, China. Sociodemographic and clinical data, SPA, and six-year mortality were investigated. We used binary logistic regression and subgroup analyses to assess the effect of SPA at baseline on six-year mortality. Results: A total of 280 hypertensive patients aged 60 years and older participated in the study, of whom 21 died, with a six-year mortality rate of 7.5%. After controlling for covariates, the "Emotional representation" dimension (OR=2.824, 95% CI:1.034-7.712) in SPA remained a risk factor for death. In subgroup analyses of the group aged 75 years and older, high scores on the "Timeline cyclical" (OR=14.125, 95% CI: 1.258-158.593) and "Emotional representations" (OR=2.567, 95% CI:1.066-6.182) dimensions were associated with a higher risk of death, while weekly nut intake may have mitigated the negative SPA effect on mortality. Conclusion: Poorer self-perception of aging was associated with a high risk of mortality in rural elderly patients with hypertension, while the habit of weekly nut intake might help reduce this risk in the group aged 75 years or older.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Nozes , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Autoimagem
9.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474823

RESUMO

Areca catechu L. is a widely cultivated tropical crop in Southeast Asia, and its fruit, areca nut, has been consumed as a traditional Chinese medicinal material for more than 10,000 years, although it has recently attracted widespread attention due to potential hazards. Areca nut holds a significant position in traditional medicine in many areas and ranks first among the four southern medicines in China. Numerous bioactive compounds have been identified in areca nuts, including alkaloids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, and fatty acids, which exhibit diverse bioactive functions, such as anti-bacterial, deworming, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. Furthermore, they also display beneficial impacts targeting the nervous, digestive, and endocrine systems. This review summarizes the pharmacological functions and underlying mechanisms of the bioactive ingredients in areca nut. This helps to ascertain the beneficial components of areca nut, discover its medicinal potential, and guide the utilization of the areca nut.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Areca , Nozes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional
10.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114141, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519173

RESUMO

Walnut kernels are prone to oxidation and rancidity due to their rich lipid composition, but the existing evaluation indicators are not sensitive enough to promote their industrial development. This study aims to investigate the potential markers in oxidative rancidity walnut kernels using lipidomics and volatolomics. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity of walnut kernels significantly decreased after oxidation, with the decreasing of total phenolic content from 36276.34 mg GAE/kg to 31281.53 mg GAE/kg, the DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activity from 89.25% to 73.54%, and 61.69% to 43.73%, respectively. The activities of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipase (LPS) increased by 6.08-fold and 0.33-fold, respectively. By combining volatolomics and chemometrics methods, it was found that significant differences existed in the content of hexanal, caproic acid, 1-pentanol, (E)-2-octenal, and 2-heptanenal before and after walnut kernel oxidation (VIP > 1). Based on the results of lipidomics, it can be concluded that the above five compounds can serve as characteristic markers for walnut kernel oxidative rancidity, mainly produced through glycerol phospholipid (GPL), glyceride, linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA) metabolism pathways. Possible mechanisms of lipid degradation in oxidized walnut kernels were also proposed, providing technical support for the storage, preservation, and high-value utilization of walnut kernels.


Assuntos
Juglans , Juglans/química , Lipidômica , Nozes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido alfa-Linolênico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430604

RESUMO

Typically, bioactive peptides were uncovered from complex hydrolysates using sequential bioassay-guided fractionation. To increase the efficiency of bioactive peptide screening, a simple and convenient tandem bioassay-guided fractionation based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) was conducted to screen the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from the hydrolysate of Inca nut cake protein (INCP). The so-called SCX-RP SPE system was constructed by assembling SCX (strong cation exchange) and RP (reversed phase) SPE cartridges. Using this tandem SCX-RP SPE, the INCP digested with combined gastrointestinal protease (INCP GP) was fractionated into 30 fractions. The fraction F11 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity among 30 fractions. The ACE IC50 of fraction F11 was calculated to be 6.6 ± 0.5 µg/mL. The ACEI activity of fraction F11 was stronger than the INCP GP hydrolysate (ACE IC50 of 12.7 ± 0.4 µg/mL). The tandem SCX-RP SPE fractionation reduced the number of ACE inhibitory (ACEI) peptide candidates from 127 peptides in the INCP GP hydrolysate to only ten peptides in fraction F11. Subsequently, WALPTQSW (WW-8) and WLPTKSW (WW-7) from fraction F11 were synthesized, and their ACE IC50 was determined to be 4.7 ± 0.1 and 7.9 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitory and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities of WALPTQSW (WW-8) were also explored to give IC50 values of 131.7 ± 5.2 and 191.8 ± 7.0 µM, respectively. The molecular docking and inhibition mechanism studies indicated that WW-8 inhibited ACE and DPP4 as competitive and non-competitive inhibitors, respectively. The pre-incubation experiment of WW-8 toward ACE and DPP4 demonstrated that WW-8 was a true-inhibitor type. Additionally, the amount of WW-8 was quantified to be 5.8 ± 0.2 and 35 ± 0.4 µg per milligram hydrolysate and fraction F11, respectively. This study demonstrated tandem bioassay-guided SCX-RP SPE fractionation efficiently screened ACEI peptide derived from INCP GP hydrolysate, adding more value to Inca nut cake (a leftover of the oil industry) as a bioactive peptide precursor.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Nozes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Extração em Fase Sólida , Peptidil Dipeptidase A
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(5): 148, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539025

RESUMO

Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) is the main causal agent of chestnut brown rot on sweet chestnut worldwide. The rotting of nuts leads to alterations in the organoleptic qualities and decreased fruit production, resulting in significant economic losses. In 2021, there was an important outbreak of chestnut rot in southern Galicia (Spanish northwest). The profile of secondary metabolites from G. smithogilvyi was studied, especially to determine its capability for producing mycotoxins, as happens with other rotting fungi, due to the possible consequences on the safety of chestnut consumption. Secondary metabolites produced by isolates of G. smithogilvyi growing in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Three metabolites with interesting pharmacological and phyto-toxicological properties were identified based on their exact mass and fragmentation patterns, namely adenosine, oxasetin, and phytosphingosine. The capacity of G. smithogilvyi to produce adenosine in PDA cultures was assessed, finding concentrations ranging from 176 to 834 µg/kg. Similarly, the production of mycotoxins was ruled out, indicating that the consumption of chestnuts with necrotic lesions does not pose a health risk to the consumer in terms of mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Micotoxinas , Nozes , Adenosina , Meios de Cultura
13.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542965

RESUMO

In Asian regions, areca nuts are tropical fruits that are extensively consumed. The areca nut contains a lot of polyphenols and its safety is unknown. In this research, we investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and areca nut polyphenols (ANP) on normal RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that LPS stimulated adverse effects in normal cells by affecting cytokine production. The GO analysis results mainly affected DNA repair, cell division, and enzyme activities. In the KEGG analysis results, the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, which is related to NF-κB, MAPK, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, is the most significant. In the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) results, significant sub-networks in all three groups were shown to be related to cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. Collectively, our findings showed a comprehensive understanding of LPS-induced toxicity and the protective effects of ANP by RNA sequencing.


Assuntos
Areca , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Nozes , Citocinas , Células RAW 264.7 , Polifenóis/farmacologia
14.
Food Chem ; 446: 138856, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430765

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the effects of various sodium alginate (ALG) concentrations (0.2%-0.8%) on the functional and physicochemical characteristics of succinylated walnut glutenin (GLU-SA). The results showed that acylation decreased the particle size and zeta potential of walnut glutenin (GLU) by 122- and 0.27-fold, respectively. In addition, the protein structure unfolded, providing conditions for glycosylation. After GLU-SA was combined with ALG, the surface hydrophobicity decreased and the net negative charge and disulfide bond content increased. The protein structure was analyzed by FTIR, Endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy, and SEM, and ALG prompted GLU-SA cross-linking to form a stable three-dimensional network structure. The results indicated that dual modification improved the functional properties of the complex, especially its potential protein gel and emulsifying properties. This research provide theoretical support and a technical reference for expanding the application of GLU in the processing of protein and oil products.


Assuntos
Juglans , Juglans/química , Glicosilação , Glutens/química , Nozes/química
15.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 78(4): 927-935, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nuts are nutrient-dense foods rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals. The present prebirth cohort study examined the association between maternal nut intake during pregnancy and the risk of childhood behavioral problems in 5-year-old Japanese children. METHODS: Study subjects were 1199 mother-child pairs. Dietary intake was assessed using a diet history questionnaire. Emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, peer problems, and low prosocial behavior were assessed using the parent-reported version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustments were made for a priori-selected nondietary confounders and potentially related dietary factors. RESULTS: Compared with mothers who had not eaten nuts during pregnancy, mothers who had eaten nuts had a significantly reduced risk of peer problems in children; the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.97). There were no measurable associations between maternal consumption of nuts during pregnancy and the risk of childhood emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, and low prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal consumption of nuts during pregnancy may be associated with a decreased risk of peer problems in 5-year-old children.


Assuntos
Nozes , Comportamento Problema , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Japão , Mães
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118012, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447614

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chemosensory qualities of botanical drugs are important cues for anticipating physiologic consequences. Whether a botanical drug is used for both, food and medicine, or only as medicine depends on taste preferences, nutritional content, cultural background, and the individual and overall epidemiological context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We subjected 540 botanical drugs described in De Materia Medica having at least one oral medical application to a tasting panel. The 540 drugs were grouped into those only used for medicine (388) and those also used for food (152). The associations with chemosensory qualities and therapeutic indications were compared across the two groups. We considered 22 experimentally assessed chemosensory qualities and 39 categories of therapeutic use groups. We wanted to know, 1): which chemosensory qualities increase the probability of an orally applied botanical drug to be also used for food ? 2): which chemosensory qualities augment the probability of an orally applied botanical drug to be only used for medicine? and 3): whether there are differences in therapeutic indications between orally applied botanical drugs also used for food (food drugs) and botanical drugs applied exclusively for medicinal purposes (non-food drugs) and, if yes, how the differences can be explained. RESULTS: Chemosensory qualities augmenting the probability of an orally applied botanical drug to be also used for food were sweet, starchy, salty, burning/hot, fruity, nutty, and cooling. Therapeutics used for diarrhoea, as libido modulators, purgatives, laxatives, for expelling parasites, breast and lactation and increasing diuresis, were preferentially sourced from food drugs while drugs used for liver and jaundice, vaginal discharge and humoral management showed significant negative associations with food dugs in ancient Greek-Roman materia medica. CONCLUSION: Therapeutics used for ailments of body organs involved in the digestion of food and the excretion of waste products showed a tendency to be sourced from food drugs. Arguably, the daily consumption of food offered the possibility for observing post-prandial physiologic and pharmacologic effects which led to a high therapeutic versatility of food drugs and the possibility to understand benefits of taste and flavour qualities. The difference in chemosensory qualities between food drugs and non-food drugs is demarcating the organoleptic requirements of food rather than that of medicine.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Plantas Medicinais , Feminino , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional , Nozes
17.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113750, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309857

RESUMO

Hydroxy- and peroxy-triacylglycerols are common products of lipid peroxidation formed during oil storage or heating or as enzymatic oxidation product of arachidonic acid as signaling molecules in mammals. In this study, oxygenated triacylglycerides (TAG) were identified in pistachio oil based on reverse phase(RP), high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (HPLC- ESI -MS). 20 novel lipid plant metabolites, classified based on their fragment spectra into a hydroxy (TAG-OH), an epoxy (TAG-O), and hydroperoxide (TAG-OOH) groups. We believe that this class of compounds has been for the first time observed as genuine secondary plant metabolites in a natural source in this case pistachio lipids of dietary relevance.


Assuntos
Pistacia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/química , Nozes/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Mamíferos
18.
Food Chem ; 443: 138424, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301551

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to find optimum conditions to valorize chestnut shell bioactive compounds with coloring pigments through microwave-assisted extraction. With this aim, response surface methodology with central composite design was used. Microwave power (800 W), extraction time (12 min) and solvent concentration (NaOH: 0.115 mol/L) were determined as the optimum conditions to maximize the responses like color value, total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity. In the optimized extract (OE), characterization of brown melanin like pigments were assessed by Spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and major phenolics were identified as; gallic acid, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin as 0.53, 0.48, 0.46, 0.46, 0.14 mg/g dried weight (dw) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, respectively. In terms of antibacterial activity, OE inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, chestnut shells were successfully processed into natural coloring agents that were possessing strong brown color properties as well as high bioactive potential.


Assuntos
Catequina , Extratos Vegetais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Nozes/química , Solventes/química , Catequina/análise
19.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(2): 545-554, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412327

RESUMO

Several pests affect coffee (Coffea spp., Rubiaceae) and macadamia, Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche (Proteaceae) in Hawaii. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most damaging to coffee, while the tropical nut borer, Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is one of the worst pests of macadamia. This paper investigates the potential efficacy of a long-lasting insecticide-incorporated net (LLIN) under laboratory conditions to manage these pests. The LLIN (40 denier with mesh size 625 knots/in²), incorporated with α-cypermethrin (0.34%), was excised into 100 mm circles and inserted in 100 mm Petri dishes. Nets with the same quality but without insecticides were used as control treatments. Twenty beetles (H. obscurus or H. hampei) each were placed on the treated and non-treated netting at 4 treatment or exposure hours-1, 6, 12, and 24-with 5 replicates. Subsequently, the beetles were ranked alive, affected, or dead. The results showed that the LLIN with α-cypermethrin had significant lethal and sub-lethal effects on both Hypothenemus species, causing over 90% mortality after 24 h of exposure and paralysis after 1, 6, and 12 h of exposure. The highest lethality value was recorded after 24 h of exposure for both H. obscurus and H. hampei. The LT50 of H. obscurus and H. hampei was 18.78 min and 2.15 h, respectively, while the LT90 values were 32.11 and 20.67 h. These results imply the potential effectiveness of LLINs with α-cypermethrin for management of H. obscurus and H. hampei, but field studies are warranted for optimization.


Assuntos
Coffea , Besouros , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Nozes
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 109, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The color of endopleura is a vital factor in determining the economic value and aesthetics appeal of nut. Walnuts (Juglans) are a key source of edible nuts, high in proteins, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates. Walnut had a variety endopleura color as yellow, red, and purple. However, the regulation of walnut endopleura color remains little known. RESULTS: To understand the process of coloration in endopleura, we performed the integrative analysis of transcriptomes and metabolomes at two developmental stages of walnut endopleura. We obtained total of 4,950 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 794 metabolites from walnut endopleura, which are involved in flavonoid and phenolic biosynthesis pathways. The enrichment analysis revealed that the cinnamic acid, coniferyl alcohol, naringenin, and naringenin-7-O-glucoside were important metabolites in the development process of walnut endopleura. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed that the DEGs and differentially regulated metabolites (DRMs) were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis and phenolic metabolic pathways. Through co-expression analysis, CHS (chalcone synthase), CHI (chalcone isomerase), CCR (cinnamoyl CoA reductase), CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase), COMT (catechol-Omethyl transferase), and 4CL (4-coumaroyl: CoA-ligase) may be the key genes that potentially regulate walnut endopleura color in flavonoid biosynthesis and phenolic metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study illuminates the metabolic pathways and candidate genes that underlie the endopleura coloration in walnuts, lay the foundation for further study and provides insights into controlling nut's colour.


Assuntos
Juglans , Nozes , Nozes/química , Transcriptoma , Juglans/genética , Frutas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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