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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131050, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537615

RESUMO

Vitamin B3, derived primarily from plant sources, is an essential nutrient for humans. Torreya grandis is rich in vitamin B3, however, the mechanism underlying the biosynthesis and regulation of vitamin B3 in T. grandis remains unclear. A systematic transcriptomic investigation was thus conducted to identify the gene expression pattern of vitamin B3 biosynthesis in 10 T. grandis cultivars. The findings suggest that biosynthesis occurs mainly via the aspartate pathway. Expression and correlation analyses indicate that aspartate oxidase (AOX) and quinolinate synthase (QS) may play important roles in vitamin B3 accumulation. Furthermore, co-expression network and ethephon treatments indicate that the ethylene response factor (ERF) may be involved in the regulation of vitamin B3 biosynthesis in T. grandis nuts. Our findings not only help to elucidate the biosynthesis of vitamin B3, but also provide valuable resource material for future genomic research and molecular-assisted breeding to develop genotypes with higher vitamin B3 levels.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Etilenos , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Nozes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitaminas
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 130893, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808757

RESUMO

Nuts have long been known for their health benefits which are mainly contributed by their lipid components. However, the spatial distribution of lipids in nuts has not been firmly established. In this study, desorption electrospray ionization combined with ion mobility and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion modes was applied to visualize spatially the lipids in eight edible nuts, namely almonds, hazelnuts, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, peach seeds, bitter almonds, and Chinese dwarf cherry seeds. The glycerophospholipids were first imaged in nuts in the negative ion mode, while the glycerolipids and phosphatidylcholines were mainly detected in the positive ion mode. In total 87 characterized components, including 47 glycerophospholipids, 24 glycerolipids, eight alkyl phenolic acids, three fatty acid acyl metabolites, four oligosaccharides, and amygdalin, were visualized in the eight nuts, and the collision cross-sectional values of these components were obtained. The outer shell of the nut cotyledon concentrated more abundant components than the center, while for the hydrolyzed glycerophospholipids, the reverse was observed. The results provide a more comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the location of the diverse metabolite profiles in nuts and of their relationship to their respective health benefits.


Assuntos
Juglans , Nozes , Estudos Transversais , Lipidômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131338, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808766

RESUMO

Almond (Prunus dulcis) represents a potential allergenic hazard that should be included in Allergen Control Plans. In this study, sandwich ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), using amandin (Pru du 6) as the target protein, were developed to detect almond in processed food and validated according to international guides. ELISA could detect 2 ng/mL and LFIA 30 ng/mL of pure amandin. No cross-reactivity was found on a panel of 50 food commodities with the exception of Pecan nut, Brazil nut and chestnut for which the cross-reactivity was lower than 0.02%. Furthermore, ELISA and LFIA were able to detect 0.12 and 0.70 ppm of almond protein in foods spiked with almond extract whereas 0.20 and 2.0 ppm could be detected in baked cookies incurred with almond, respectively. Both techniques could be applied for food manufacturers and control agencies for monitoring the presence of almond traces in food and working surfaces.


Assuntos
Prunus dulcis , Alérgenos , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoensaio , Nozes
4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131207, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634585

RESUMO

Se is an essential element in mammals. We review how its bioavailability in soil and the ability of plants to accumulate Se in foods depends on the soil Se profile (including levels and formats), besides to describe how the various selenoproteins have important biochemical functions in the body and directly impact human health. Owing to its favorable characteristics, the scientific community has investigated selenomethionine in most nut matrices. Among nuts, Brazil nuts have been highlighted as one of the richest sources of bioavailable Se. We summarize the most commonly used analytical methods for Se species and total Se determination in nuts. We also discuss the chemical forms of Se metabolized by mammals, human biochemistry and health outcomes from daily dietary intake of Se from Brazil nuts. These findings may facilitate the understanding of the importance of adequate dietary Se intake and enable researchers to define methods to determine Se species.


Assuntos
Bertholletia , Selênio , Humanos , Nozes , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Selenoproteínas
5.
Food Chem ; 369: 130961, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479012

RESUMO

Walnut kernels are health-promoting nuts, which are mainly attributed to polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, and phytosterols. However, the information concerning benefits of walnut proteins are limited. In this study, endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, superoxide dismutases, catalases, and phospholipases with respective relative abundance of 2.730, 1.728, 0.477, 3.148, 0.743, and 0.173‰ were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. These endogenous proteases exhibited activity in a broad pH range of 2-6.5, and optimal at pH 4.5 and 50 °C. Aspartic endopeptidases were predominant endopeptidases, followed by cysteine ones. There were two types of aspartic endopeptidases, one (not inhibited by pepstatin A) exerted activity at pH 2-3 and the other (inhibited by pepstatin A) optimal at pH 4.5. Carboxypeptidases were optimal at pH 4.5, and aminopeptidases exerted activity at pH near 6.5. These endogenous proteases assisted the digestion of walnut proteins, and soaking, especially peeling, greatly improved the in vitro digestibility.


Assuntos
Juglans , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases , Carboxipeptidases , Nozes , Peptídeo Hidrolases
6.
Food Chem ; 368: 130836, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411862

RESUMO

The postharvest ripening stage is necessary for Torreya grandis (T. grandis) nuts to complete aromatic synthesis, which requires appropriate temperature and relative humidity (RH). Currently, scarce information is available regarding the changes in aroma profiles in T. grandis nuts and the relationship with their response to different environmental conditions. Therefore, the interaction of temperature (20 °C or 30 °C) and relative humidity (70% RH or 90% RH) was investigated on aromatic substances after harvest. The results showed that 56 aromatic components were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and mainly divided into five categories, among which terpenes were the most abundant (56.2-86.7%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that both temperature and humidity can affect the aroma composition, and terpenes were mainly influenced by humidity. Specifically, d-limonene occupied the largest proportion of terpenes (63.0-90.8%) and was significantly upregulated by high humidity.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Umidade , Odorantes , Temperatura
7.
Food Chem ; 368: 130819, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411865

RESUMO

Squalene and ß-sitosterol are health-benefit compounds due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been reported that the content of these bioactive compounds is relatively high in Torreya grandis nuts. However, it is not yet known what changes in squalene and ß-sitosterol accumulation occur during the special post-ripening process of T. grandis nuts and the effect of the well-known ripening hormone ethylene on the regulatory mechanism of their biosynthetic pathways. Thus, we performed transcriptome and metabolite analyses. The results showed that ethylene not only promoted the post-ripening process but also enhanced the accumulation of squalene by inducing gene expression in the mevalonate pathway. At the same time, ethylene treatment also promoted the accumulation of other sterols but inhibited gene expression in the ß-sitosterol biosynthesis pathway. In addition, co-expression and correlation analysis suggested a framework for the transcriptional regulation of squalene and ß-sitosterol biosynthesis genes under ethylene treatment.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Etilenos , Frutas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Sitosteroides , Esqualeno
8.
Food Chem ; 369: 130672, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450513

RESUMO

In this study, mineral composition, centesimal composition and lead were evaluated in pine nut seeds (raw and cooked) from five Brazilian states. Mineral composition was determined by ICP OES and lead by GF AAS. The results for minerals were evaluated by Boxplot, PCA and HCA, using the R software. Average minerals in raw and cooked samples (mg 100 g-1) were: 15.2 and 10.8 (Ca), 0.168 and 0.113 (Cu), 0.506 and 0.330 (Fe), 536 and 420 (K), 51.3 and 40.6 (Mg), 0.373 and 0.208 (Mn), 132 and 102 (P) and 0.746 and 0.520 (Zn). The average centesimal composition (raw and cooked) was: 53.5 and 47.2% (moisture), 1.76 and 1.26% (ash), 3.90 and 3.53% (protein), 40.8 and 48.0% (carbohydrate) and 179 and 206 kcal/100 g (total caloric value) and Pb was not detected. The chemometric analysis showed a distinction of raw and cooked samples due to significant nutrient losses after thermal processing.


Assuntos
Araucaria , Nozes , Análise de Dados , Minerais , Sementes
9.
Food Chem ; 370: 130975, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507207

RESUMO

Hickory (Carya cathayensis) nuts contain higher amount of lipids, and possess high nutritional value and substantial health benefits. However, their lipid composition and dynamic changes during embryogenesis have not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, lipidomics profile and lipid dynamic changes during embryonic development were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Totally, 544 kinds of lipids were identified in mature hickory nuts with higher proportions of glycerolipids (59.94%) and glycerophospholipids (38.66%). Notably, diacylglycerols showed gradual uptrends, which corresponded with total glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid at middle and late stage of embryogenesis, suggesting the pivotal role of diacylglycerols in the accumulation of glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Moreover, triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines had high relative content with abundance of unsaturated fatty acids, specifically oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, localized mainly at sn-2 lipid position. Together, our study provides innovative perspectives for studying the nutritional benefits of hickory nut lipids.


Assuntos
Carya , Cromatografia Líquida , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Lipidômica , Nozes , Ácido Oleico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13796-13809, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763422

RESUMO

A high-throughput lipid profiling platform adopting an accurate quantification strategy was built based on Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Lipid components of fresh walnut during postharvest storage were determined, and the fatty acid distributions in triacylglycerol and polar lipids were also characterized. A total of 554 individual lipids in fresh walnut were mainly glycerolipids (56.7%), glycerophospholipids (32.4%), and sphingolipids (11%). With the progress of postharvest storage, 16 lipid subclasses in the stored walnut sample were significantly degraded, in which 34 lipids changed significantly between the fresh and stored groups. The sphingolipid metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, and linoleic acid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched. The oxidation and degradation mechanism of linoleic acid in walnut kernel during postharvest storage was proposed. The established lipidomics platform can supply reliable and traceable lipid profiling data, help to improve the understanding of lipid degradation in fresh walnut, and offer a framework for analyzing lipid metabolisms in other tree nuts.


Assuntos
Juglans , Lipidômica , Ácidos Graxos , Lipídeos , Nozes
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684607

RESUMO

Nuts are characterized by high nutritional value and are recommended as a part of a healthy diet. At the same time, toxic elements could also be found in them. In this research, we measured the content of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in a wide variety of edible nuts. To determine the As content, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied. Cd and Pb were detected by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry analytical technique (ETAAS) with Zeeman background correction, while atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS) with the amalgamation technique in the case of Hg was used. The study material consisted of 120 samples without replications (10 for each subgroup) including the following nuts: Almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecan nuts, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Indicators such as the target hazard quotient (THQ), cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI) were used to assess the health risk. The highest median As, Cd, Pb and Hg contents were observed for pistachios (192.42 µg/kg), pine nuts (238.40 µg/kg), peanuts (82.06 µg/kg) and pecans (82.06 µg/kg), respectively. The exceedance of the established limits was found in the case of Pb for nine samples: macadamia nuts (221.49 µg/kg; 2350.94 µg/kg; 2581.43 µg/kg), pine nuts (266.33 µg/kg), peanuts (1353.80 µg/kg) and pecans (2689.13 µg/kg, 2758.26 µg/kg, 2992.29 µg/kg and 3169.41 µg/kg). Extremely high (>2500 µg/kg) Pb content was found in 33% of studied pecans imported from the USA. The health risk indicators did not identify increased health risk. This research is significant considering the food safety issues and indicates the need to regularly control the content of toxic elements in food, as well as to establish the specific limits for heavy metals content in nuts. The chemometric analysis included cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Cluster analysis made it possible to distinguish four subgroups on the basis of the ability to accumulate toxic elements: pine nuts, pecans, pistachios and other analysed nuts. PCA indicated primarily factor 1, distinguishing mainly pecans, macadamia nuts and peanuts. Chemometric analysis can be a useful tool in estimating the ability of different nut species to accumulate contaminants.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Nozes/química , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Testes de Toxicidade
12.
Adv Nutr ; 12(5): 2035-2036, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595504
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5958, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645820

RESUMO

Understanding the functional potential of the gut microbiome is of primary importance for the design of innovative strategies for allergy treatment and prevention. Here we report the gut microbiome features of 90 children affected by food (FA) or respiratory (RA) allergies and 30 age-matched, healthy controls (CT). We identify specific microbial signatures in the gut microbiome of allergic children, such as higher abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and a depletion of Bifidobacterium longum, Bacteroides dorei, B. vulgatus and fiber-degrading taxa. The metagenome of allergic children shows a pro-inflammatory potential, with an enrichment of genes involved in the production of bacterial lipo-polysaccharides and urease. We demonstrate that specific gut microbiome signatures at baseline can be predictable of immune tolerance acquisition. Finally, a strain-level selection occurring in the gut microbiome of allergic subjects is identified. R. gnavus strains enriched in FA and RA showed lower ability to degrade fiber, and genes involved in the production of a pro-inflammatory polysaccharide. We demonstrate that a gut microbiome dysbiosis occurs in allergic children, with R. gnavus emerging as a main player in pediatric allergy. These findings may open new strategies in the development of innovative preventive and therapeutic approaches. Trial: NCT04750980.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/microbiologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium longum/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Alérgenos Animais/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos Animais/imunologia , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/isolamento & purificação , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Nozes/efeitos adversos , Nozes/imunologia , Pólen/química , Pólen/imunologia , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Urease/biossíntese
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684580

RESUMO

The association between nuts intake and cognitive function is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between habitual nuts consumption and cognition among Qatari adults. Data from 1000 participants aged >20 years who attended Qatar Biobank (QBB) were used. Nuts consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples were measured for magnesium, lipids and glucose. Mean reaction time (MRT) was used as an indicator of cognitive function. Linear regression was used to assess the association. A total of 21.1% of the participants reported consuming nuts ≥4-6 times/week (high consumption) while 40.2% reported consuming ≤1 time/month (low consumption). The mean MRT was 715.6 milliseconds (SD 204.1). An inverse association was found between nuts consumption and MRT. Compared to those with a low consumption, high consumption of nuts had a regression coefficient of -36.9 (95% CI -68.1 to -5.8) after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The inverse association between nuts and MRT was mainly seen among those >50 years. There was an interaction between nuts consumption and hypertension. The association between nuts consumption and MRT was not mediated by hypertension, diabetes, or serum magnesium. Habitual higher consumption of nuts is positively associated with cognitive function, especially among old adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Nozes , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Catar/epidemiologia , Tempo de Reação
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641422

RESUMO

Terminalia catappa L. (tropical almond) is a nutritious fruit found mainly in the tropics. This study is aimed to establish the naturally biotransformed molecules and identify the probiotic agents facilitating the fermentation. The aqueous extracts from both the unfermented and fermented T. catappa nuts were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Syringol (6.03%), glutamine (1.71%), methyl laurate (1.79%), methyl palmitate (1.53%), palmitic acid (5.20%), palmitoleic acid (2.80%), and methyl oleate (2.97%) were detected in the unfermented nuts of the T. catappa. Additionally, two of these natural compounds (palmitic acid (4.19%) and palmitoleic acid (1.48%)) survived the fermentation process to emerge in the fermented seeds. The other natural compounds were biotransformed into 2,3-butanediol (1.81%), butyric acid (16.20%), propane-1,3-diol (19.66%), neoheptanol (2.89%), 2-piperidinone (6.63%), palmitoleic acid (1.18%), formamide, n-(p-hydroxyphenethyl)- (2.80%), and cis-vaccenic acid (1.69%) that newly emerged in the fermented seeds. The phytochemical compounds are likely carbon sources for the organisms facilitating the biotransformed molecules and product production. Four (4) potential probiotic bacteria strains, namely, Probt B1a, Probt B2a, Probt B4a, and Probt B4b, were isolated from the fermented nut. Enterococcus faecum, and Enterococcus faecalis were the organisms identified as driving the fermentation of the seeds. All strains were gram-positive, catalase-negative, and non-hemolytic, which suggests their harmless nature. N-(p-hydroxyphenethyl)-) was associated with fermentation for the first time, and neoheptanol was discovered as the main alcoholic molecule formed during the fermentation of the seeds. This fermentation is a handy tool for bio-transforming compounds in raw food sources into compounds with nutritious and therapeutic potentials.


Assuntos
Fatores Biológicos/química , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/química , Terminalia/química , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química
16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential synergistic effects of olive oil releasing 2-oleoylglycerol and hydrolyzed pine nut oil containing 20% pinolenic acid on GLP-1 secretion, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and appetite in healthy individuals, when delivered to the small intestine as potential agonists of GPR119, FFA1 and FFA4. METHODS: Nine overweight/obese individuals completed three 6-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in a crossover design. At -30 min, participants consumed either: no oil, 6 g of hydrolyzed pine nut oil (PNO-FFA), or a combination of 3 g hydrolyzed pine nut oil and 3 g olive oil (PNO-OO) in delayed-release capsules. Repeated measures of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin, subjective appetite and gastrointestinal tolerability were done. RESULTS: PNO-FFA augmented GLP-1 secretion from 0-360 min compared to no oil and PNO-OO (p < 0.01). GIP secretion was increased from 240-360 min after both PNO-FFA and PNO-OO versus no oil (p < 0.01). Both oil treatments suppressed subjective appetite by reducing hunger and prospective food consumption and increasing satiety (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In support of previous findings, 6 g of delayed-release hydrolyzed pine nut oil enhanced postprandial GLP-1 secretion and reduced appetite. However, no synergistic effect of combining hydrolyzed pine nut oil and olive oil on GLP-1 secretion was observed. These results need further evaluation in long-term studies including effects on bodyweight and insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Incretinas/sangue , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Pinus , Período Pós-Prandial
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578913

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD), is the major cause of mortality for Americans. Nuts have been shown to improve a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of incidence of stroke, CAD, and CVD mortality in the prospective Million Veterans Program (MVP). A total of 179,827 MVP participants enrolled between 2011 and 2018 were free of CVD prior to assessment of nut consumption via the food frequency questionnaire. Incident stroke and CVD events were ascertained from the Veterans Affairs electronic medical health records and the National Death Index. We used the Cox regression model to compute multivariable adjusted hazard ratios. Over the 3.5-year median follow-up, 3362 new cases of ischemic stroke were identified. When compared with participants who rarely or never consumed nuts, those consuming nuts ≥ 5 times per week were 19% less likely to experience a stroke (95% CI: 8% to 28%); 22% less likely to suffer from CAD (95% CI: 16% to 28%); and 24% less likely to die from CVD (95% CI: 7% to 37%). Consumption of peanut butter was not associated with risk of stroke. Increased dietary intake of nuts, but not peanut butter, was associated with a lower risk of stroke, CAD, and CVD death.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Nozes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576912

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with a multifaceted pathogenesis. This fact has long halted the development of effective anti-AD drugs. Recently, a therapeutic strategy based on the exploitation of Brazilian biodiversity was set with the aim of discovering new disease-modifying and safe drugs for AD. In this review, we will illustrate our efforts in developing new molecules derived from Brazilian cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), a natural oil and a byproduct of cashew nut food processing, with a high content of phenolic lipids. The rational modification of their structures has emerged as a successful medicinal chemistry approach to the development of novel anti-AD lead candidates. The biological profile of the newly developed CNSL derivatives towards validated AD targets will be discussed together with the role of these molecular targets in the context of AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Anacardium , Nozes , Fenóis
19.
Obes Rev ; 22(11): e13330, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494363

RESUMO

Nuts are recommended for cardiovascular health, yet concerns remain that nuts may contribute to weight gain due to their high energy density. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohorts and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to update the evidence, provide a dose-response analysis, and assess differences in nut type, comparator and more in subgroup analyses. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane were searched, along with manual searches. Data from eligible studies were pooled using meta-analysis methods. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I2 statistic). Certainty of the evidence was assessed by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Six prospective cohort studies (7 unique cohorts, n = 569,910) and 86 RCTs (114 comparisons, n = 5873) met eligibility criteria. Nuts were associated with lower incidence of overweight/obesity (RR 0.93 [95% CI 0.88 to 0.98] P < 0.001, "moderate" certainty of evidence) in prospective cohorts. RCTs presented no adverse effect of nuts on body weight (MD 0.09 kg, [95% CI -0.09 to 0.27 kg] P < 0.001, "high" certainty of evidence). Meta-regression showed that higher nut intake was associated with reductions in body weight and body fat. Current evidence demonstrates the concern that nut consumption contributes to increased adiposity appears unwarranted.


Assuntos
Nozes , Obesidade , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110578, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507726

RESUMO

Food allergies are one of the major health concerns worldwide and have been increasing at an alarming rate in recent times. The elimination of food allergenicity has been an important issue in current research on food. Irradiation is a typical nonthermal treatment technology that can effectively reduce the allergenicity of food, showing great application prospects in improving the quality and safety of foods. In this review, the mechanism and remarkable features of irradiation in the elimination of food allergens are mainly introduced, and the research progress on reducing the allergenicity of animal foods (milk, egg, fish and shrimp) and plant foods (soybean, peanut, wheat and nuts) using irradiation is summarized. Furthermore, the influencing factors for irradiation in the elimination of food allergens are analyzed and further research directions of irradiation desensitization technology are also discussed. This article aims to provide a reference for promoting the application of irradiation technology in improving the safety of foods.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Alérgenos , Animais , Arachis , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Nozes , Alimentos Marinhos
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