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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 395-419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006366

RESUMO

Nuts are fruits composed of two parts: an inedible hard shell and an edible seed. Nuts are known as an energy-dense and nutrient-rich food source. In general, nuts are recognized as a good source of fat, fiber, and protein. Nuts are extremely beneficial parts of any diet since their consumption may lower risk for some diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. They are acknowledged for their low glycemic index owning to high unsaturated fat and protein content and relatively low carbohydrate content. They have been shown to increase cognitive function as well.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Nozes/química , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 80-85, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037771

RESUMO

The relationship between areca nut as a primary carcinogen and oral cancer has been widely concerned. Areca can change the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy in cells, and the levels of ROS and autophagy are closely related to the occurrence and development of tumors. This paper reviewed the relationships among areca nut, intracellular ROS, and autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Neoplasias Bucais , Fibrose Oral Submucosa , Areca , Humanos , Nozes , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 927-942, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910006

RESUMO

Nuts contain a vast array of phenolic compounds having important biological properties. They include substances allocated into the five major groups named phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic lignans, and stilbene derivatives. The complexity in composition does not allow for setting a universal extraction procedure suitable for extraction of all nut phenolics. The use of non-conventional extraction techniques, such as those based on microwave, ultrasound, and compressed fluids, combined with generally recognized as safe solvents is gaining major interest. With regard to the latter, ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixtures have proven to be effective as extracting solvents and allow for clean, safe, and low-cost extraction operations. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in biological properties of natural phenolic compounds, especially on their role in the prevention of several diseases in which oxidative stress reactions are involved. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on nut phenolic extraction and their chemical profiles and bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Nozes/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 221-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Autophagy can be either tumor promotive or suppressive. We previously identified an autophagy-inducing activity in the 30-100 kDa fraction of areca-nut-extract (ANE 30-100K) and showed that several tumor cells subjected to chronic ANE 30-100K stimulation (CAS) exhibited higher resistance against stressed environments including serum-free (SF) conditions in vitro. Herein, we aimed to assess whether CAS can also provide growth advantages for tumor cells in vivo and the therapeutic effect of autophagy inhibition on CAS-treated tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esophageal CE81T/VGH cells and nude mice were used as experimental models. Autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ), as well as another anticancer drug cisplatin (DDP), were chosen to challenge CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells expressed higher levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A/B-II (LC3-II) and beclin 1 proteins, and showed stronger resistance to SF and hypoxia conditions, that were mitigated by CQ or 3-MA in vitro. Furthermore, CAS-treated CE81T/VGH cells induced significantly larger tumors in mice, which were also attenuated by single 3-MA or CQ treatment. Finally, the combined treatment of 3-MA or CQ with DDP further up-regulated DDP-induced caspase-3 activity in vitro and exhibited synergistic anti-tumor effects on mice. CONCLUSION: CAS may up-regulate tumoral autophagy and provide growth advantage for tumors both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition alone or in combination with DDP may achieve positive therapy for tumors encountered with CAS.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Autofagia , Neoplasias/patologia , Nozes/química , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 500-508, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study a metabolomics-based approach was used to discriminate among different hazelnut cultivars and to trace their geographical origins. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic and sterolic compounds. RESULTS: Compounds were identified against an in-house database using accurate monoisotopic mass and isotopic patterns. The screening approach was designed to discern 15 hazelnut cultivars and to discriminate among the geographical origins of six cultivars from the four main growing regions (Chile, Georgia, Italy, and Turkey). This approach allowed more than 1000 polyphenols and sterols to be annotated. The metabolomics data were elaborated with both unsupervised (hierarchical clustering) and supervised (orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA) statistics. These multivariate statistical tools allowed hazelnut samples to be discriminated, considering both 'cultivar type' and 'geographical origin'. Flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols - VIP scores 1.34-1.49), phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamics - VIP scores 1.35-1.55) together with cholesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol derivatives (VIP scores 1.34-1.49) were the best markers to discriminate samples according to geographical origin. CONCLUSIONS: This work illustrates the potential of untargeted profiling of phenolics and sterols based on UHPLC-ESI/QTOF mass spectrometry to discriminate hazelnut and support authenticity and origin. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Corylus/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chile , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corylus/classificação , Corylus/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , República da Geórgia , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Nozes/classificação , Nozes/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/metabolismo , Turquia
6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 76-84, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107546

RESUMO

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/etiologia , Dieta , Nozes , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Sementes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 751-758, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861959

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of defatted walnut meal hydrolysate (DWMH) and tea polyphenols (TP) on learning improvement and to explain mechanistically why the combined treatments were more effective than either subject alone. In the step-down avoidance test and the Morris water maze test, codelivery of DWMH and TP was more effective than either individual supplement in reversing memory impairment in scopolamine-treated mice. Mixing with TP significantly facilitated the protective effects of DWMH or DWMH-derived peptides (cationic peptide P1 and anionic peptide P2) on H2O2-injured SH-SY5Y cells. Although combination treatment with TP and DWMH did not significantly alter systemic exposure to P1 or P2 in rats, it significantly increased the accumulation of the two peptides in the mouse brain. In addition, TP significantly improved cellular uptake of P1 and P2 by brain capillary endothelial cells, indicating that TP enhanced the blood-brain barrier permeation of DWMH-derived peptides. The proposed explanation for the advantage of combined treatment with TP and DWMH in reversing memory impairment was that TP enhanced both the protective effects of DWMH on nerve cells and the accumulation of DWMH in the brain. Our study can aid efforts to develop products and investigate the effects of nutrient combinations on brain disorders.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Juglans/química , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Camundongos , Nozes/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(4): 612-621, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745061

RESUMO

Problem: Areca nut (AN) chewing is common among Southeast Asian population. Use of AN products (with or without tobacco) have a multifaceted effect on physical health, especially on cardiovascular, nervous, gastrointestinal, metabolic, respiratory, and reproductive systems. AN is a known group 1 carcinogen and carries addictive potential. Varying degrees of AN-related substance use disorder (SUD) have been reported among AN chewers. There is a lacuna in awareness of the health risk of AN use, prevention, and cessation programs among AN users, particularly in those who have developed SUD. Existing Lacunae: The dynamic interaction of factors that promote AN use and later the risk of developing SUD at individual and community level has not been studied in depth. Understanding of the bio-psycho-socio-economic-cultural factors is necessary to identify the factors that prelude, promote, and reinforce AN usage. For managing AN-related conditions, including the several systemic disorders, there is a knowledge lacunae, among health care providers with respect to the pathophysiology of AN-related health issues, SUD, and nonavailability of structured, evidence-based cessation protocols. Solutions/Recommendations: This manuscript presents a model-map to study the dynamics of AN use and the impact of AN on health and health care system at individual as well as community level. The model proposed can help the health policymakers to create evidence-based awareness and cessation protocols for AN.


Assuntos
Areca , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Mastigação , Nozes
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 271, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant secondary metabolites and phytochemicals that exhibit strong bioactivities have potential to be developed as safe and efficient natural antimicrobials against food contamination and addressing antimicrobial resistance caused by the overuse of chemical synthetic preservative. In this study, the chemical composition, antibacterial activities and related mechanism of the extracts of the valonia and the shell of Quercus variabilis Blume were studied to determine its potential as a safe and efficient natural antimicrobial. METHODS: The phenolic compositions of valonia and shell extracts were determined by folin-ciocalteau colourimetric method, sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay and the aluminium chloride method and then further identified by the reverse-phase HPLC analysis. The antibacterial activities of valonia and shell extracts were evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method and agar dilution method. The related antibacterial mechanism was explored successively by the membrane of pathogens effect, phosphorous metabolism, whole-cell proteins and the microbial morphology under scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The n-butanol fraction and water fraction of valonia along with n-butanol fraction of the shell contains enrich phenolics including ellagic acid, theophylline, caffeic acid and tannin acid. The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia exhibited strong antibacterial activities against Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) with the DIZ values ranged from 10.89 ± 0.12 to 15.92 ± 0.44, which were greater than that of the Punica granatum (DIZ: 10.22 ± 0.18 and 10.30 ± 0.21). The MIC values of the n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus were 1.25 mg/ml and 0.625 mg/ml. The related antibacterial mechanism of n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia may be attributed to their strong impact on membrane permeability and cellular metabolism. Those extracts exhibited strong antibacterial activity according to inhibit the synthesis of bacterial proteins and seriously change morphological structure of bacterial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The n-butanol fraction and ethanol crude extracts of valonia had reasonably good antibacterial activities against S. paratyphi A and S. aureus. This study suggests possible application of valonia and shell as natural antimicrobials or preservatives for food and medical application.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercus/química , Salmonella paratyphi A/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella paratyphi A/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 526-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine nuts consumption in a sample of Chinese elderly residents. METHODS: Samples from 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study were used. A total of 5071 participants aged 60 years old and above were included in the final analysis. Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to collect dietary consumption data. Average daily nuts intake was calculated. Then compared with recommended intake level of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016). Logistic regression was applied to analyze key factors affecting the consumption of nuts intake. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of nuts consumption among elderly residents in 15 provinces was 17. 8%. The P90 nuts intake was 13. 6 g/d in the whole population and 16. 7 g/d in P50 in the consuming group. There were 81. 1% of the whole population achieved the recommendation of dietary guidelines. The Logistic analysis showed that the group of young age, high education level and urban residents had more nuts consumed. CONCLUSION: Nuts consumption rate was low among Chinese elderly residents. The intake was insufficient in the whole. Age, education level and area were key factors that influenced nuts consumption of the elderly.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Nozes , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1179-1188, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184643

RESUMO

Los patrones dietéticos ricos en antioxidantes podrían contribuir a la prevención y el tratamiento de las fases previas de demencia. Los frutos secos tienen una apreciable carga antioxidante y hay evidencia de sus efectos beneficiosos sobre la incidencia de varias enfermedades crónicas y las tasas de mortalidad general. Además, son ricos en ácidos grasos polinsaturados, que también parecen desempeñar un papel positivo en la neurogénesis. El objetivo de esta revisión fue resumir la evidencia de los estudios relacionados con los efectos del consumo de frutos secos sobre la función cognitiva en personas adultas. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos publicados en PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science. Un total de 19 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (siete transversales, cuatro de cohortes y ocho experimentales), que fueron extraídos y revisados de forma independiente por dos revisores. La evidencia proveniente de los estudios transversales y de cohortes resultó incierta, por la disparidad de resultados y su riesgo de sesgo. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de estudios experimentales se observó un efecto protector del consumo de frutos secos sobre alguna dimensión de la función cognitiva, y la calidad metodológica de estos fue aceptable. Además, los efectos parecen independientes del tipo de fruto seco, la cantidad ingerida, la edad y el estado basal de los consumidores. En resumen, estos resultados sugieren que incluir el consumo diario moderado de algún fruto seco en la dieta saludable de las personas adultas podría tener efectos beneficiosos sobre su función cognitiva. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios observacionales longitudinales y experimentales bien diseñados, que proporcionen firmeza a esta evidencia, hasta la fecha sugestiva y de una calidad moderadamente baja


Antioxidant-rich diet patterns could contribute to the prevention and treatment of early stages of dementia. Nuts have an appreciable antioxidant load and there is evidence of their positive effects on several chronic diseases incidence and death rates. Moreover, they are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which might also play a positive role in neurogenesis. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from studies related to the effects of nut consumption on cognitive function among adults. We conducted a systematic search of articles published in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (seven cross-sectional, four prospective cohorts and eight experimental); these were independently extracted and reviewed by two reviewers. The evidence from the cross-sectional and cohort studies was uncertain, due to the disparity of results and risk of bias. However, in most experimental studies a protective effect of nut consumption on some dimension of cognitive function was observed and the methodological quality of these studies was acceptable. In addition, the effects appear to be independent of nut type, amount of intake, age and baseline status of subjects. In summary, these results suggest that the inclusion of daily nut consumption in the healthy diet pattern of adults could have positive effects on their cognitive function. Nevertheless, more well-designed longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to provide strength to this suggestive evidence


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas de Nozes/administração & dosagem , Memória/fisiologia , Cognição , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Nozes , Demência/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle
12.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505873

RESUMO

In this work we report the synthesis of new hybrid nanomaterials in the core/shell/shell morphology, consisting of a magnetite core (Fe3O4) and two consecutive layers of oleic acid (OA) and phthalocyanine molecules, the latter derived from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). The synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticle was performed via co-precipitation procedure, followed by the nanoparticle coating with OA by hydrothermal method. The phthalocyanines anchorage on the Fe3O4/OA core/shell nanomaterial was performed by facile and effective sonication method. The as obtained Fe3O4/OA/phthalocyanine hybrids were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. TEM showed round-shaped nanomaterials with sizes in the range of 12-15 nm. Nanomaterials presented saturation magnetization (Ms) in the 1-16 emu/g and superparamagnetic behavior. Furthermore, it was observed that the thermal stability of the samples was directly affected by the insertion of different transition metals in the ring cavity of the phthalocyanine molecule.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Indóis/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nozes/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
13.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 893-908, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413241

RESUMO

Elaeagnus mollis oil (EMO), which is a type of plant oil, was extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels that is known as a precious woodyoilcrop in China. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of EMO on high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and explored relative regulation mechanism. The analysis of EMO fatty acids showed that EMO rich in unsaturated fatty acids (92.07%), such as linoleic acid (48.24%), oleic acid (34.20%) and linolenic acid (7.57%). In addition, supplementation of EMO could ameliorate the increase in body weight, fat weight, and abnormal serum lipids induced by high-fat diet. A further important implication is that the levels of serum ALT, serum AST, hepatic TG, TC, SOD, GSH/GSSG ration and MDA were improved after supplementing with EMO. All these changes may be due to the ability of EMO to inhibit fatty acid synthesis via reducing the mRNA expression of SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS, and elevate fatty acid oxidation by increasing the mRNA expression of PPARα and CPT-1. Meanwhile, our results also showed that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs could significantly increase after treating with EMO. In conclusion, the results suggested that EMO could be regarded as a healthy food for preventing NAFLD.


Assuntos
Elaeagnaceae/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6822-6832, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were found to alleviate acute hepatitis significantly. In this study, we purified and identified ACE inhibitory peptide from cashew to evaluate its protective role on alcohol-induced acute hepatitis in mice. RESULTS: The ACE inhibitory peptides were purified by using consecutive chromatographic techniques. One of these peptides (FETISFK) exhibited the highest ACE inhibition rate (91.04 ± 0.31%). In vivo, the results showed that ACE inhibitory peptide decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) caused by alcohol exposure. Moreover, it could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), and decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). It was also found to down-regulate markedly the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). It could also decrease the expression of ACE, angiotensin II (AngII) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R). CONCLUSION: These findings support the view that the ACE inhibitory peptide alleviated acute hepatitis by down-regulating the ACE-AngII-AT1 R axis, broadening the research approach to prevent acute hepatitis, and providing experimental data for the development and utilization of cashews. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Doença Aguda/terapia , Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Hepatite/enzimologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Nozes/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394749

RESUMO

Two new flavonoids, calquiquelignan M (1), calquiquelignan N (2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), were isolated from the nuts of Areca catechu (Palmae). The new structures, including absolute configurations, were established by a combination of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. The known compounds were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with reported in the literature. The flavonoids compounds (1-8) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity activities against three human cancer cell lines. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a moderate cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 values of 49.8 and 53.6 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Areca/química , Flavonoides/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454898

RESUMO

A reliable Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) method was developed for the determination of polar volatile components of commercial nut-based milk alternative drinks prior to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Under the optimum extraction conditions, a divinylbenzene (DVB)/Carboxen™ CAR)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber was used and 2 mL of sample was heated at 60 °C for 40 min under stirring, without salt addition. Ten compounds from different chemical classes (heptane, a-pinene, toluene, 2-methylpyrazine, 3-heptanone, heptanal, 2-octanone, 1-heptanol, benzaldehyde and 1-octanol) were chosen as model analytes for quantification. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were found to be 0.33-1.67 ng g-1 and 1-5 ng g-1, accordingly. Good linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained as well as a wide linear range. The proposed method was successfully applied to various beverages including almond milk, walnut milk, peanut milk and almond chocolate milk. More than 70 volatile compounds were detected in the different samples. Most of the detected volatiles were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. This technique can be used for the determination of volatile compounds in nut-based beverages, to detect compositional changes during storage and technological treatment used for their production.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Nozes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cetonas/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115056, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427004

RESUMO

A new purified polysaccharide (PNP40c-1) with a molecular weight of 2.06 × 105 Da was obtained from pine nuts (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.). Structural analysis indicated that PNP40c-1 is a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide composed of arabinose, rhamnose and glucose in a molar ratio of 2.98:1.00:0.52. The major backbone consisted of →3,4)-α-l-Arap(1→, →4)-α-l-Arap3Me(1→, →3)-α-l-Rhap(1→ and →6)-ß-d-Glcp(1→, and the side chain is ß-d-Glcp-(1→ linked at C4-position of →3,4)-α-l-Arap(1→. In addition, the hepatoprotective effect of PNP40c-1 was investigated by human hepatocyte cell line L02 treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Results suggested that PNP40c-1 could protect L02 cells from CCl4-induced damage by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), increasing the level of non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH), suppressing lipid perioxidation and further reducing the leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hence, PNP40c-1 could be a promising functional food to serve as hepatoprotective agent.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Nozes/química , Pinus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Carboidratos , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Talanta ; 205: 120100, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450412

RESUMO

An extraction method based on a multivariate analytical approach was developed for enhancement of the phenolic compounds in cashew nut extracts. The different extractor solvents (acetone, water, ethanol, and methanol) and their binary, ternary, and quaternary combinations were evaluated using a simplex-centroid design and surface response methodology. The special cubic model exhibits no lack of fit and explains 89.2% of the variance. The total phenolic measurements by the Folin-Ciocalteu method revealed the highest values for ethanol (5.93 mg GAE g-1) and acetone-methanol-ethanol ternary mixture (5.92 mg GAE g-1) extracts. ESI (-)-Q/TOFMS analyses combined with PCA and HCA revealed the presence of fatty acids, phospholipids, and sugars in the ternary mixture cashew extract, while for the ethanol extract only phenolic compounds, such as anacardic acids and derivatives, were found. The proposed approach was adequate to reach the optimal extractor which ethanol, a low-toxicity solvent, enabled the selective extraction of a high content of phenolic compounds from cashew nuts.


Assuntos
Ácidos Anacárdicos/análise , Anacardium/química , Nozes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Acetona/química , Ácidos Anacárdicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Etanol/química , Metanol/química , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
19.
J Plant Physiol ; 240: 153013, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374485

RESUMO

The HCN-induced seed dormancy release necessitates alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and radicle cell wall loosening. Little is known about the interaction of ROS metabolism with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes during HCN-induced seed dormancy release. Thus dormant walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels were exposed to HCN (4 h) and studied for redox metabolism and cell wall-modifying enzymes during 10 days of incubation (DI) i.e. before radicle emergence. HCN increased ROS especially in the embryonic axes (EAs) but decreased ROS-generating NADPH oxidase and ROS scavenging superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) with no effects on catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and cell wall-modifying enzymes activities in short term up to 2 DI. In long term roughly from 4 DI onwards, HCN-exposed EA displayed greater superoxide anions and enhanced activities of POX, APX, NADPH oxidase, cell wall peroxidase (CW-POX), ß- 1, 4-D glucanase, mannanase, polygacturonase and xylanase. Meanwhile HCN increased greater expression of POX and mannanase isoforms as revealed by in-gel activity assay. Except for higher activities of CAT, POX and APX, cotyledonary activities of CW-POX, mannanase and polygacturonase and to some extent ß- 1, 4-D glucanase remained unaffected by HCN. Thus short term ROS accumulation in HCN-treated EA is due to declined SOD and POX activities. In long term the enhanced activities of both NADPH oxidase: CW-POX couple and cell wall-modifying enzymes in EA bring about wall loosening in preparation for radicle emergence. Evidences for the simultaneous operation of both mechanisms are provided in walnut EAs during dormancy release.


Assuntos
Cianeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Juglans/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Juglans/efeitos dos fármacos , Nozes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nozes/fisiologia , Oxirredução
20.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(2): 169-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342953

RESUMO

Cadmium, a heavy metal with no physiological function in the human body, is considered a bio-hazard. It is also considered to be a potent neurotoxin. The primary sources of cadmium exposure are diet and cigarette smoke. It has been postulated that nutritional deficiencies can increase the risk of cadmium toxicity. Nuts provide essential nutrients which are necessary for the maintenance of brain health in humans. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of almond and walnut supplementation on cadmium-induced neurotoxicity. Cadmium was orally administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg weekly with or without the supplementation of almond and walnut in rats. Intensities of depression­ and anxiety-related behaviors were assessed by the forced swim test and light/dark transition test, respectively. Memory function was also evaluated by the elevated plus maze, Morris water maze and novel object recognition task. After four weeks of treatment it was observed that cadmium administration significantly induced depressogenic and anxiogenic behaviors. Memory function was also impaired by cadmium administration. Cadmium-treated rats exhibited reduced noradrenalin, dopamine and serotonin levels in the brain, whereas the levels of their respective metabolites were significantly increased. The dietary supplementation of almond and walnut at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly attenuated cadmium-induced depression, anxiety and memory impairments. Neurochemical aberrations also normalized following supplementation with these nuts in rats. The present study demonstrates that long-term supplementation with almond and walnut provides essential nutrients which may overcome nutritional deficiencies and thereby reduce heavy-metal intoxication.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Juglans , Memória/fisiologia , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Nozes , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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