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1.
J Diabetes ; 16(5): e13555, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between macronutrient intake and diabetes is unclear. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey to explore the association between macronutrient intake trajectories and diabetes risk in this study. METHODS: We included 6755 participants who did not have diabetes at baseline and participated in at least three surveys. The energy supply ratio of carbohydrate, protein, and fat was further calculated from dietary data; different macronutrient trajectories were determined using multitrajectory models; and multiple Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between these trajectories and diabetes. RESULTS: We found three multitrajectories: decreased low carbohydrate-increased moderate protein-increased high fat (DLC-IMP-IHF), decreased high carbohydrate-moderate protein-increased low fat (DHC-MP-ILF), and balanced-macronutrients (BM). Compared to the BM trajectory, DHC-MP-ILF trajectories were significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.228, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.571-6.632), whereas no association between DLC-IMP-IHF trajectories and diabetes was found in our study (HR: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.351-1.392). CONCLUSIONS: The downward trend of high carbohydrate and the increasing trend of low fat increased the risk of diabetes in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta , Nutrientes , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Nutrientes/análise , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , População do Leste Asiático
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 363, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724910

RESUMO

Salinity stress is a significant challenge in agricultural production. When soil contains high salts, it can adversely affect plant growth and productivity due to the high concentration of soluble salts in the soil water. To overcome this issue, foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and gibberellic acid (GA3) can be productive amendments. Both can potentially improve the plant's growth attributes and flowering, which are imperative in improving growth and yield. However, limited literature is available on their combined use in canola to mitigate salinity stress. That's why the current study investigates the impact of different levels of MJ (at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mM MJ) and GA3 (0GA3 and 5 mg/L GA3) on canola cultivated in salt-affected soils. Applying all the treatments in four replicates. Results indicate that the application of 0.8 mM MJ with 5 mg/L GA3 significantly enhances shoot length (23.29%), shoot dry weight (24.77%), number of leaves per plant (24.93%), number of flowering branches (26.11%), chlorophyll a (31.44%), chlorophyll b (20.28%) and total chlorophyll (27.66%) and shoot total soluble carbohydrates (22.53%) over control. Treatment with 0.8 mM MJ and 5 mg/L GA3 resulted in a decrease in shoot proline (48.17%), MDA (81.41%), SOD (50.59%), POD (14.81%) while increase in N (10.38%), P (15.22%), and K (8.05%) compared to control in canola under salinity stress. In conclusion, 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 can improve canola growth under salinity stress. More investigations are recommended at the field level to declare 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 as the best amendment for alleviating salinity stress in different crops.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antioxidantes , Brassica napus , Ciclopentanos , Giberelinas , Oxilipinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Solo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(19): e38090, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728475

RESUMO

Observational research suggests that the evidence linking dietary nutrient intake (encompassing minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is both inconsistent and limited. This study aims to explore the potential causal relationship between dietary nutrients and T2D. Causal estimation utilized Mendelian randomization techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to dietary nutrients were identified from existing genome-wide association studies and used as instrumental variables. Genome-wide association studies data pertinent to T2D were sourced from the DIMANTE consortium and the FinnGen database. Techniques including inverse variance weighting (IVW), weighted mode, weighted median, and Mendelian randomization-Egger were employed for causal inference, complemented by sensitivity analysis. Genetically predicted higher phenylalanine (IVW: odds ratio = 1.10 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.17, P = 1.5 × 10-3, q_pval = 3.4 × 10-2) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (IVW: odds ratio = 1.001 95% confidence interval 1.0006-1.003, P = 3.7 × 10-3, q_pval = 4.1 × 10-2) levels were directly associated with T2D risk. Conversely, no causal relationships between other nutrients and T2D were established. We hypothesize that phenylalanine and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid contribute to the pathogenesis of T2D. Clinically, the use of foods with high phenylalanine content may pose potential risks for patients with a heightened risk of T2D. Our study provides evidence supporting a causal link between dietary nutrient intake and the development of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Nutrientes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenilalanina/sangue
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(4): 156, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727858

RESUMO

The current study aimed to determine the polyphenol compounds in Nigella sativa (NS) and Eruca sativa (ES) seeds, and evaluate the impact of their addition either as a sole additive or in combination on the growth performance, digestibility, some rumen and blood parameters and antioxidative status of Barki lambs. Forty-eight male lambs (27.18 ± 0.22 kg, 5-6 months), were divided into 4 balanced groups. The experimental diets were randomly distributed to the control group (CON); fed alfalfa hay plus concentrate feed mixture at a ratio of 30:70% without additives, while, NSD, ESD, and NESD groups: fed CON diet plus 2% NS, 2% ES or 1% NS + 1% ES, respectively as a ratio from total mixed ration (TMR). Results indicated that rutin and catechin were the most phenolic compounds observed either in NS or ES seeds. The NS and ES-supplemented groups recorded the highest (P < 0.05) values for dry matter digestibility, nutritive values, average daily gain, and the best feed conversion ratio. However, growth performance, nutritive value, and all nutrient digestibility except for dry matter were not significantly altered with the NESD group. Concentrations of ruminal NH3-N and TVFA were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced with the NESD group, with no significant differences in pH values among different groups. Values of blood parameters showed significant increases in WBCs, PCV, and T-AOC, and decreases in cholesterol, triglycerides, and MDA with the addition of NS and ES seeds or both. Therefore, the addition of NS and ES seeds is recommended to improve lambs' health and antioxidant status.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nigella sativa , Sementes , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Nigella sativa/química , Ração Animal/análise , Masculino , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo
5.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114338, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729719

RESUMO

Women with the extremely prevalent polycystic ovary syndromegather multiple cardiovascular risk factors and chronic subclinical inflammation. Interactions between diet, adiposity, and gut microbiota modulate intestinal permeabilityand bacterial product translocation, and may contribute to the chronic inflammation process associated with the polycystic ovary syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to address the effects of obesity, functional hyperandrogenism, and diverse oral macronutrients on intestinal permeabilityby measuring circulating markers of gut barrier dysfunction and endotoxemia. Participants included 17 non-hyperandrogenic control women, 17 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 19 men that were submitted to glucose, lipid, and protein oral loads. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, plasma soluble CD14, succinate, zonulin family peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-2 were determined at fasting and after oral challenges. Macronutrient challenges induced diverse changes on circulating intestinal permeabilitybiomarkers in the acute postprancial period, with lipids and proteins showing the most unfavorable and favorable effects, respectively. Particularly, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, zonulin family peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-2 responses were deregulated by the presence of obesity after glucose and lipid challenges. Obese subjects showed higher fasting intestinal permeabilitybiomarkers levels than non-obese individuals, except for plasma soluble CD14. The polycystic ovary syndromeexacerbated the effect of obesity further increasing fasting glucagon-like peptide-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and succinate concentrations. We observed specific interactions of the polycystic ovary syndromewith obesity in the postprandial response of succinate, zonulin family peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-2. In summary, obesity and polycystic ovary syndromemodify the effect of diverse macronutrients on the gut barrier, and alsoinfluence intestinal permeabilityat fasting,contributing to the morbidity of functional hyperandrogenism by inducing endotoxemia and subclinical chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Jejum , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Obesidade , Permeabilidade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Feminino , Adulto , Jejum/sangue , Masculino , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nutrientes , Adulto Jovem , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Endotoxemia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/sangue , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta , Glucose/metabolismo , Função da Barreira Intestinal , Proteínas de Transporte , Precursores de Proteínas
6.
Food Res Int ; 186: 114363, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729725

RESUMO

This study evaluates the impact of high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) on the physicochemical properties and in-vitro digestibility of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Various ultrasound durations (0-60 min) were applied to assess changes in color attributes, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), total protein content, and in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD). Results indicated HIU maximumly increased TAC, TFC, TPC, and peptide content before digestion by 7.28 % (US60), 3.00 % (US30), 32.43 % (US10), and 18.93 % (US60), respectively. While HIU reduced total protein content, it enhanced IVPD by up to 12.24 % (US30). Color attributes electron microscopy reflected structural changes in the cod samples, suggesting the effectiveness of HIU in altering protein structures. These findings highlight HIU's potential as a non-thermal technique for improving the sensory and nutritional quality of Atlantic cod, offering valuable insights for the seafood processing industry and consumers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Gadus morhua , Valor Nutritivo , Alimentos Marinhos , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Flavonoides/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Paladar , Cor
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 490, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691199

RESUMO

Forest-savanna transition zones of West Africa are uniquely characterized by forest groves, forest patches, or forest islands, the importance of which for sustainable resource management and their potential for carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling is often underrated. Our study conducted a comparative analysis of the soil organic carbon and nutrient characteristics of the Anogeissus groves in the old Opara forest reserve and their adjoining arable lands. We established 30 sampling frames of 100 m × 100 m plots with 15 frames per land use type. For each sampling frame, six observation points were randomly selected, and composite soil samples were collected at soil depths of 0-20 cm and 20-50 cm per observation point. Our results showed Anogeissus groves and their adjoining arable lands to exist on similar landscapes while the groves have enriched soil morphological characteristics (e.g., soil color), higher soil organic carbon (SOC), and better nutrient characteristics. There were strong positive relationships between SOC, effective cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and calcium, zinc, electrical conductivity, and copper. The significant soil organic matter accumulation in the groves accounts for the overall improved soil characteristics over the adjoining arable lands. Preserving the groves and similar African ecosystems may be important in climate regulation, resources and biodiversity conservation, and ethnopharmacology for rural communities. Thus, a question arises: should more land be set aside for ecological conservation or for agricultural productivity?


Assuntos
Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Solo , Solo/química , Nigéria , Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Nutrientes/análise , Agricultura
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 539, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733446

RESUMO

Primary production is an important driver of marine carbon storage. Besides the major nutrient elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon, primary production also depends on the availability of nutrient-type metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mo) and the absence of toxicologically relevant metals (e.g., Ni, Pb). Especially in coastal oceans, carbon storage and export to the open ocean is highly variable and influenced by anthropogenic eutrophication and pollution. To model future changes in coastal carbon storage processes, a solid baseline of nutrient and metal concentrations is crucial. The North Sea is an important shelf sea, influenced by riverine, atmospheric, Baltic Sea, and North Atlantic inputs. We measured the concentrations of dissolved nutrients (NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, and SiO44-) and 26 metals in 337 water samples from various depths within the entire North Sea and Skagerrak. A principal component analysis enabled us to categorize the analytes into three groups according to their predominant behavior: tracers for seawater (e.g., Mo, U, V), recycling (e.g., NO3-, PO43-, SiO44-), and riverine or anthropogenic input (e.g., Ni, Cu, Gd). The results further indicate an increasing P-limitation and increasing anthropogenic gadolinium input into the German Bight.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo , Água do Mar , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Mar do Norte , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água do Mar/química , Fósforo/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Metais/análise , Eutrofização
9.
Cancer Res ; 84(10): 1543-1545, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745495

RESUMO

Nutrient stress accompanies several stages of tumor progression, including metastasis formation. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, and it has been associated with stress tolerance and anchorage-independent cell survival. Adaptive responses are required to support cancer cell survival under these conditions. In this issue of Cancer Research, Nam and colleagues showed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor integrin ß3 was upregulated in lung cancer cells in response to nutrient starvation, resulting in increased cell survival that was independent from ECM binding. Delving into the molecular mechanisms responsible for this, the authors found that integrin ß3 promoted glutamine metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by activating a Src/AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathway. Importantly, in vivo experiments confirmed that OXPHOS inhibition suppressed tumor initiation in an orthotopic model of lung cancer, while ß3 knockout completely abrogated tumor initiation. These observations indicate that targeting signaling pathways downstream of αvß3 could represent a promising therapeutic avenue to prevent lung cancer progression and metastasis. See related article by Nam et al., p. 1630.


Assuntos
Integrina alfaVbeta3 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Animais , Transdução de Sinais , Camundongos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Estresse Fisiológico , Nutrientes/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10679-10691, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695770

RESUMO

There has been a dramatic surge in the prevalence of food allergy (FA) that cannot be explained solely by genetics, identifying mechanisms of sensitization that are driven by environmental factors has become increasingly important. Diet, gut microbiota, and their metabolites have been shown to play an important role in the development of FA. In this review, we discuss the latest epidemiological evidence on the impact of two major dietary patterns and key nutrients in early life on the risk of offspring developing FA. The Western diet typically includes high sugar and high fat, which may affect the immune system of offspring and increase susceptibility to FA. In contrast, the Mediterranean diet is rich in fiber, which may reduce the risk of FA in offspring. Furthermore, we explore the potential mechanisms by which maternal dietary nutrients during a window of opportunity (pregnancy, birth, and lactation) influences the susceptibility of offspring to FA through multi-interface crosstalk. Finally, we discuss the limitations and gaps in the available evidence regarding the relationship between maternal dietary nutrients and the risk of FA in offspring. This review provides novel perspective on the regulation of offspring FA by maternal diet and nutrients.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Nutrientes , Humanos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Gravidez , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal
11.
J Cell Biol ; 223(8)2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722822

RESUMO

Cell growth is required for cell cycle progression. The amount of growth required for cell cycle progression is reduced in poor nutrients, which leads to a reduction in cell size. In budding yeast, nutrients can influence cell size by modulating the extent of bud growth, which occurs predominantly in mitosis. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify proteins that modulate bud growth in response to nutrient availability. This led to the discovery that nutrients regulate numerous components of the mitotic exit network (MEN), which controls exit from mitosis. A key component of the MEN undergoes gradual multisite phosphorylation during bud growth that is dependent upon bud growth and correlated with the extent of growth. Furthermore, activation of the MEN is sufficient to override a growth requirement for mitotic exit. The data suggest a model in which the MEN ensures that mitotic exit occurs only when an appropriate amount of bud growth has occurred.


Assuntos
Mitose , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2350785, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725230

RESUMO

Interactions between diet and gastrointestinal microbiota influence health status and outcomes. Evaluating these relationships requires accurate quantification of dietary variables relevant to microbial metabolism, however current dietary assessment methods focus on dietary components relevant to human digestion only. The aim of this study was to synthesize research on foods and nutrients that influence human gut microbiota and thereby identify knowledge gaps to inform dietary assessment advancements toward better understanding of diet-microbiota interactions. Thirty-eight systematic reviews and 106 primary studies reported on human diet-microbiota associations. Dietary factors altering colonic microbiota included dietary patterns, macronutrients, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and food additives. Reported diet-microbiota associations were dominated by routinely analyzed nutrients, which are absorbed from the small intestine but analyzed for correlation to stool microbiota. Dietary derived microbiota-relevant nutrients are more challenging to quantify and underrepresented in included studies. This evidence synthesis highlights advancements needed, including opportunities for expansion of food composition databases to include microbiota-relevant data, particularly for human intervention studies. These advances in dietary assessment methodology will facilitate translation of microbiota-specific nutrition therapy to practice.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3818, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740760

RESUMO

The growing disparity between the demand for transplants and the available donor supply, coupled with an aging donor population and increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, highlights the urgent need for the development of platforms enabling reconditioning, repair, and regeneration of deceased donor organs. This necessitates the ability to preserve metabolically active kidneys ex vivo for days. However, current kidney normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) approaches allow metabolic preservation only for hours. Here we show that human kidneys discarded for transplantation can be preserved in a metabolically active state up to 4 days when perfused with a cell-free perfusate supplemented with TCA cycle intermediates at subnormothermia (25 °C). Using spatially resolved isotope tracing we demonstrate preserved metabolic fluxes in the kidney microenvironment up to Day 4 of perfusion. Beyond Day 4, significant changes were observed in renal cell populations through spatial lipidomics, and increases in injury markers such as LDH, NGAL and oxidized lipids. Finally, we demonstrate that perfused kidneys maintain functional parameters up to Day 4. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that this approach enables metabolic and functional preservation of human kidneys over multiple days, establishing a solid foundation for future clinical investigations.


Assuntos
Rim , Preservação de Órgãos , Perfusão , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Livre de Células , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Adulto , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Idoso
14.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 88, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the bloom season, the colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis forms complex aggregates which include a diverse microbiome within an exopolymer matrix. Early research postulated a simple mutualism existing with bacteria benefitting from the rich source of fixed carbon and Microcystis receiving recycled nutrients. Researchers have since hypothesized that Microcystis aggregates represent a community of synergistic and interacting species, an interactome, each with unique metabolic capabilities that are critical to the growth, maintenance, and demise of Microcystis blooms. Research has also shown that aggregate-associated bacteria are taxonomically different from free-living bacteria in the surrounding water. Moreover, research has identified little overlap in functional potential between Microcystis and members of its microbiome, further supporting the interactome concept. However, we still lack verification of general interaction and know little about the taxa and metabolic pathways supporting nutrient and metabolite cycling within Microcystis aggregates. RESULTS: During a 7-month study of bacterial communities comparing free-living and aggregate-associated bacteria in Lake Taihu, China, we found that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria were significantly more abundant within Microcystis aggregates than in free-living samples, suggesting a possible functional role for AAP bacteria in overall aggregate community function. We then analyzed gene composition in 102 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of bloom-microbiome bacteria from 10 lakes spanning four continents, compared with 12 complete Microcystis genomes which revealed that microbiome bacteria and Microcystis possessed complementary biochemical pathways that could serve in C, N, S, and P cycling. Mapping published transcripts from Microcystis blooms onto a comprehensive AAP and non-AAP bacteria MAG database (226 MAGs) indicated that observed high levels of expression of genes involved in nutrient cycling pathways were in AAP bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong corroboration of the hypothesized Microcystis interactome and the first evidence that AAP bacteria may play an important role in nutrient cycling within Microcystis aggregate microbiomes. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Lagos , Microbiota , Microcystis , Microcystis/genética , Microcystis/metabolismo , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Lagos/microbiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Processos Fototróficos , Aerobiose , Eutrofização , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 517, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38710902

RESUMO

Nowadays, the introduction of nutrients caused by human activities is considered an environmental issue and a significant problem in river basins and coastal ecosystems. In this study, the concentration of nutrients ( NO 3 - and PO 4 3 - ) in the surface water sources of the Maroon-Jarahi watershed in the southwest of Iran was determined, and the pollution status and health risk assessment were done. The average concentration of nitrate and phosphate in Ludab, Maroon, Zard, Allah, Jarahi rivers, and Shadegan wetland were obtained at 2.25-0.59, 4.59-1.84, 4.07-2.02, 5.40-2.81, 11.51-4.67, 21.63 and 6.20 (mg/l), respectively. A comparison of the results with the World Health Organization (WHO) limit showed that nitrate was lower than in all stations, but phosphate was higher than the limit in some stations of the Maroon, Allah, Jarahi rivers, and Shadegan wetland. Calculation of linear regression analysis showed significant positive relationships between nitrate and phosphate in all surface water sources (except Ludab) and based on the N/P ratio, nitrogen was estimated as the limiting factor in phytoplankton growth (N/P < 16). The evaluation of the status of the Nutrient pollution index (NPI) was observed as: Shadegan > Jarahi > Allah > Maroon > Zard > Ludab that the Jarahi River and Shadegan wetland were in the medium pollution class (1 < NPI ≤ 3) and other waterbodies were in the non-polluted to low pollution state (NPI < 1). Calculation of the chronic daily intake (CDI) showed that water body nutrients cause more non-carcinogenic health risks through the oral route than dermal exposure, and according to HI, children's health is more at risk than adults. Findings showed that surface water resources especially downstream of the Maroon-Jarahi watershed are at eutrophication risk, and to control the nearby human activities and as a result increase the nutrients in these water resources, measures should be taken.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Irã (Geográfico) , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Rios/química , Nitratos/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Recursos Hídricos
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302638, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718016

RESUMO

Hydroponics offers a promising approach to help alleviate pressure on food security for urban residents. It requires minimal space and uses less resources, but management can be complex. Microscale Smart Hydroponics (MSH) systems leverage IoT systems to simplify hydroponics management for home users. Previous work in nutrient management has produced systems that use expensive sensing methods or utilized lower cost methods at the expense of accuracy. This study presents a novel inexpensive nutrient management system for MSH applications that utilises a novel waterproofed, IoT spectroscopy sensor (AS7265x) in a transflective application. The sensor is submerged in a hydroponic solution to monitor the nutrients and MSH system predicts the of nutrients in the hydroponic solution and recommends an adjustment quantity in mL. A three-phase model building process was carried out resulting in significant MLR models for predicting the mL, with an R2 of 0.997. An experiment evaluated the system's performance using the trained models with a 30-day grow of lettuce in a real-world setting, comparing the results of the management system to a control group. The sensor system successfully adjusted and maintained nutrient levels, resulting in plant growth that outperformed the control group. The results of the models in actual deployment showed a strong, significant correlation of 0.77 with the traditional method of measuring the electrical conductivity of nutrients. This novel nutrient management system has the potential to transform the way nutrients are monitored in hydroponics. By simplifying nutrient management, this system can encourage the adoption of hydroponics, contributing to food security and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Hidroponia , Nutrientes , Hidroponia/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Análise Espectral/métodos , Lactuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Segurança Alimentar
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10097, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698154

RESUMO

To explore the impacts of continuous Ganoderma lucidum cultivation on soil physicochemical factors, soil enzyme activity, and the metabolome of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies, this study conducted two consecutive years of cultivation on the same plot of land. Soil physicochemical factors and enzyme activity were assessed, alongside non-targeted metabolomic analysis of the Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies under continuous cultivation. The findings unveiled that in the surface soil layer (0-15 cm), there was a declining trend in organic matter, ammonium nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, pH, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase, whereas nitrate nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), and salt content exhibited an upward trend. Conversely, in the deeper soil layer (15-30 cm), organic matter, ammonium nitrogen, available potassium, alkaline phosphatase, and sucrase demonstrated a decreasing trend, while nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus, pH, EC, salt content, polyphenol oxidase, and soil peroxidase showed an increasing trend. Metabolomic analysis of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies distinguished 64 significantly different metabolites between the GCK and GT groups, with 39 components having markedly higher relative contents in GCK and 25 components having significantly lower relative contents in GCK compared to GT. Moreover, among these metabolites, there were more types with higher contents in the fruiting bodies harvested in the first year (GCK) compared to those harvested in the second year (GT), with pronounced differences. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that GCK exhibited more complex metabolic pathways compared to GT. The metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies were predominantly influenced by soil physicochemical factors and soil enzyme activity. In the surface soil layer (0-15 cm), the metabolome was significantly affected by soil pH, soil organic matter, available phosphorus, and soil alkaline phosphatase, while in the deeper soil layer (15-30 cm), differences in the Ganoderma lucidum metabolome were more influenced by soil alkaline phosphatase, soil catalase, pH, nitrate nitrogen, and soil sucrase.


Assuntos
Carpóforos , Reishi , Solo , Reishi/metabolismo , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Ecol Evol Physiol ; 97(1): 1-10, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717367

RESUMO

AbstractThe availability of environmental nutrients is an existential constraint for heterotrophic organisms and is thus expected to impact numerous biochemical and physiological features. The continuously proliferative polyp stage of colonial hydroids provides a useful model to study these features, allowing genetically identical replicates to be compared. Two groups of colonies of Eirene sp., defined by different feeding treatments, were grown by explanting the same founder colony onto cover glass. Colonies of both treatments were allowed to grow continuously by explanting them onto new cover glass as they reached the edge of the existing surface. The nutrient-abundant polyps grew faster and produced more clumped or "sheet-like" colonies. Compared to the founder colony, the nutrient-abundant colonies exhibited more mutations (i.e., single-nucleotide polymorphisms) than the nutrient-scarce colonies. Nevertheless, these differences were not commensurate with the differences in growth. Using a polarographic electrode, we found that the nutrient-abundant colonies exhibited lower rates of oxygen uptake relative to total protein. The probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and fluorescent microscopy allowed visualization of the mitochondrion-rich cells at the base of the polyps and showed that the nutrient-abundant colonies exhibited greater amounts of reactive oxygen species than the nutrient-scarce colonies. Parallels to the Warburg effect-aerobic glycolysis, diminished oxygen uptake, and lactate secretion-found in human cancers and other proliferative cells may be suggested. However, little is known about anaerobic metabolism in cnidarians. Examination of oxygen uptake suggests an anaerobic threshold at a roughly 1-mg/L oxygen concentration. Nutrient-abundant colonies may respond more dramatically to this threshold than nutrient-scarce colonies.


Assuntos
Hidrozoários , Nutrientes , Animais , Nutrientes/metabolismo
19.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(5): 142, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695936

RESUMO

Rosacea is a common inflammatory skin condition displaying symptoms like flushing, erythema, papules, and pustules. Oral antibiotics, despite long-term adverse effects, are often used due to topical treatment limitations, underscoring the need for cost-effective choices like dietary modifications. Our review investigates the role of vitamins and minerals in rosacea, and provides evidence-based recommendations for supplementation and topical treatment of these nutrients for rosacea. An online search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov from 1998 to 2023. Included studies were summarized and assessed for quality and relevance in rosacea management. Varied outcomes emerged concerning the impact of essential vitamins and minerals on rosacea treatment. Vitamin A derivatives, specifically oral isotretinoin, demonstrated significant efficacy, with a 90% reduction in lesions, complete remission in 24% of patients, and marked improvement in 57% of patients. Vitamin B3 derivatives, such as topical 1-methylnicotinamide 0.25% and NADH 1%, improved symptoms in 76.4% (26/34) and 80% of patients, respectively. Outcomes for vitamin D, vitamin C, and zinc supplementation varied across studies. However, zinc sulfate solution 5% significantly reduced acne rosacea severity for patients with 40% and 60% exhibiting a moderate or good response, respectively. Omega-3 fatty acids showed significant improvement in alleviating xerophthalmia in 64% of patients with ocular rosacea. Vitamins and minerals hold potential in managing rosacea symptoms, offering a safe and cost-effective alternative or adjunctive treatment option. Currently, there are no established recommendations regarding their supplementation for rosacea. Studies assessing serum levels of vitamins and minerals in relation to rosacea are warranted, as this avenue holds potential for future advancements in the field.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Rosácea , Vitaminas , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Rosácea/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 503, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700640

RESUMO

Soil fertility (SF) is a crucial factor that directly impacts the performance and quality of crop production. To investigate the SF status in agricultural lands of winter wheat in Khuzestan province, 811 samples were collected from the soil surface (0-25 cm). Eleven soil properties, i.e., electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), available phosphorus (Pav), exchangeable potassium (Kex), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and soil pH, were measured in the samples. The Nutrient Index Value (NIV) was calculated based on wheat nutritional requirements. The results indicated that 100%, 93%, and 74% of the study areas for CCE, pH, and EC fell into the low, moderate, and moderate to high NIV classes, respectively. Also, 25% of the area is classified as low fertility (NIV < 1.67), 75% falls under medium fertility (1.67 < NIV value < 2.33), and none in high fertility (NIV value > 2.33). Assessment of the mean wheat yield (AWY) and its comparison with NIV showed that the highest yield was in the Ramhormoz region (5200 kg.ha-1), while the lowest yield was in the Hendijan region (3000 kg.ha-1) with the lowest EC rate in the study area. Elevated levels of salinity and CCE in soils had the most negative impact on irrigated WY, while Pav, TN, and Mn availability showed significant effects on crop production. Therefore, implementing SF management practices is essential for both quantitative and qualitative improvement in irrigated wheat production in Khuzestan province.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Solo , Triticum , Solo/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Agricultura/métodos , Nutrientes/análise , Carbono/análise
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