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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122758, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986373

RESUMO

Cultivating sand-consolidating cyanobacteria using wastewater has unique advantages on both nutrients recycling and ecological restoration by transferring excessive nutrients from wastewaters to desert areas. Although previous study showed that sand-consolidating cyanobacterium well adapted to synthetic domestic wastewater, no study has been carried out on actual wastewater. This study aims to investigate the sand-consolidating cyanobacterial biomass production and nutrients removal by cultivating Scytonema hyalinum in the municipal wastewater under different temperatures. The results showed that biomass accumulation increased with temperature from 20 â„ƒ to 30 â„ƒ, while severely depressed at 35 â„ƒ. More than 81.63% sCOD, 90.64% TDN and 97.08% TDP were removed by day 30 under each temperature except for 35℃. The inoculation of S. hyalinum strongly regulated the native wastewater bacterial community. These results indicated that sand-consolidating cyanobacterium S. hyalinum well adapted to municipal wastewater and temperature had remarkable effects on cyanobacterial biomass accumulation, nutrients removal and wastewater native bacterial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Águas Residuárias , Biomassa , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Areia , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122823, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987489

RESUMO

Rapid development of livestock industry produces large amount of livestock manure rich in nutrients, organic matters, antibiotics, and heavy metals, thus imposes great harms to human and environment, if the manure is not suitably treated. Biological removal and recovery of nutrients from manure as agriculture fertilizer is attractive due to low cost and simple operation. This review offers an overview of recent development in biological nutrient removal and recovery from livestock manure. Livestock manure is divided into solid manure and liquid manure. Composting and anaerobic digestion of solid manure are fully discussed and important parameters are investigated. Then various processes of nutrient removal and recovery from liquid manure are summarized. Brief economic sustainability and eco-environmental effects are carried out. Finally, current challenges and future prospects in this field are analyzed.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Esterco , Animais , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Gado , Nutrientes
3.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 545-554, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943632

RESUMO

Preventing malnutrition through consuming nutritionally appropriate resources represents a challenge for foraging animals. This is due to often high variation in the nutritional quality of available resources. Foragers consequently need to evaluate different food sources. However, even the same food source can provide a plethora of nutritional and non-nutritional cues, which could serve for quality assessment. We show that bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, overcome this challenge by relying on lipids as nutritional cue when selecting pollen. The bees 'prioritised' lipid perception in learning experiments and avoided lipid consumption in feeding experiments, which supported survival and reproduction. In contrast, survival and reproduction were severely reduced by increased lipid contents. Our study highlights the importance of fat regulation for pollen foraging bumblebees. It also reveals that nutrient perception, nutrient regulation and reproductive fitness can be linked, which represents an effective strategy enabling quick foraging decisions that prevent malnutrition and maximise fitness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pólen , Animais , Abelhas , Nutrientes , Reprodução
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 300: 122594, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901774

RESUMO

The optimization of the BG-11 culture medium nutrients using complex statistical design followed by incremental illumination was planned to stimulate the Haematococcus pluvialis growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Based on the Plackett-Burman design results, MgSO4·7H2O, H3BO3, and Na2CO3 were identified as critical components to improve the biomass and astaxanthin productivity. Using central composite design, their initial critical concentrations in the green stage were found as 57.5, 6.2 and 53.0 mg/L, while for the red stage, the 138.3, 8.5 and 41.0 mg/L, recorded as optimum respectively. Using the optimum media, growth and astaxanthin accumulation at the end of the phototrophic and photoinduction stages were boosted by 17 and 54% respectively. The results of scale-up coupled with incremental illumination in phototrophic stage revealed the biomass and astaxanthin concentration improved 50% and 60% over the BG-11 media under constant light intensity. Also, different optimum culture medium formula for green and red stages was proposed.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Biomassa , Luz , Nutrientes , Xantofilas
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122543, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927456

RESUMO

This research investigated the use of an innovative polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane configuration coupled to electrodialysis for the in-situ removal of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) from a mixed culture bioreactor. It was shown that by stacking the PTFE membranes to increase the active membrane surface area, shortened VFA recovery times was seen. The addition of electrodialysis to the PTFE membrane stack enabled the continuous extraction of VFAs from fermentation media whilst retaining essential nutrients and organic compounds in the diluate stream. Ammonium, phosphate and nitrate remained in the diluate chamber and did not cross the PTFE membrane stack. Up to 98% of total VFA recovery was achieved with the PTFE and electrodialysis system. The process was shown to extract from a reservoir of low VFA concentration to a reservoir with a VFA concentration 10 times higher. These results show that the addition of electrodialysis to PTFE provides a robust solution for the in-situ extraction of VFAs from fermentation media within bioreactors to support the demand for sustainable fuels and green chemical feedstocks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Politetrafluoretileno , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nutrientes , Esgotos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122733, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935644

RESUMO

Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) has been proved to improve silage fermentation but the exact reason is unclear yet. Fermentation quality, protein preservation, antioxidant activity and bacterial community of stylo and alfalfa ensiled with 5%, 10% dry MOL, stylo or alfalfa were investigated. The present results showed that mixing MOL led to the decrease of pH (5.15 vs 4.76, 5.71 vs 4.57 for stylo and alfalfa, respectively), butyric acid (15.1, 28.3 g/kg DM vs not detected), ammonia-N (111 vs 50.7, 351 vs 100 g/kg total N) contents, and the increase of lactic acid content (8.70 vs 13.0, 0.23 vs 14.0 g/kg DM) and antioxidant activity relative to the control. The relative abundance of Clostridium was lowered (55.4% to 1.69%, 8.34% to 0.57%), whereas Lactobacillus was increased (14.9% to 63.2%, 11.7% to 23.5%). In conclusion, nutrients in MOL help to improve protein preservation and nutritional value of high-moisture stylo and alfalfa silage.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Silagem , Fermentação , Medicago sativa , Nutrientes
7.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 114-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940618

RESUMO

Malnutrition can significantly affect oral health, and poor oral health in turn can result in malnutrition. This co-dependent relationship, therefore, relies on good nutritional health promoting good oral health and vice versa. A diet lacking nutrients can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity through altered tissue homeostasis, reduced resistance to microbial biofilm, and a decrease in tissue healing. It may also affect the development of the oral cavity. In the absence of contributing factors, health professionals should consider poor nutritional status with periodontitis, poor healing response to surgical procedures, or recurrent oral disease. This is particularly evident amongst elderly patients and patients in long-stay care. The role of nutrition in oral health and its effects on the immune system and inflammatory pathways has attracted a recent increase in research. This chapter will explore the oral manifestations that can occur with nutritional deficiencies, the association of periodontitis with nutritional deficiencies in vitamins C and D, and the effect of vitamin D deficiency and tooth development.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Dieta , Humanos , Nutrientes , Vitaminas
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 282-292, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957406

RESUMO

Brown tide that occurred in Qinhuangdao coastal waters from 2009 to 2015 caused huge losses of local marine aquaculture and coastal tourism, with devastating effects on marine ecosystems. Nutrients are important biogenic elements for algal growth. It is of great significance to examine the fluctuation characteristics of nutrients in the process of brown tide to understand the nutritional mechanism of brown tide. Based on the survey data of 30 stations located in Qinhuangdao coastal area from April to June 2014, we analyzed nutrient characteristics during the occurrence of brown tide and its relationship with the population dynamics of Aureococcus anophagefferens. The results showed that the concentration of dissolved nitrogen (DN) in April, May and June 2014 was 265.65, 355.36 and 323.71 µg·L-1 respectively, and the concentration of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was 196.98, 242.88 and 177.69 µg·L-1, accounting for 74.2%, 68.3% and 54.9% of DN, respectively. The concentration of dissolved phosphorus (DP) in April, May and June was 15.95, 11.39 and 11.14 µg·L-1 respectively. In April and May, PO43--P accounted for a large proportion of the DP, 74.8% and 80.9% respectively. In June, the proportion of PO43--P in DP fell to 33.8%, and the proportion of dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in DP rose to 66.2%. The concentration of SiO32--Si in April, May and June was 70.95, 181.13 and 120.68 µg·L-1, respectively. Except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in May and DON, the distribution of other nutrients had clear characteristics that it decreased gradually from inshore to the offshore, with the relatively high concentrations in river mouth. Through R-factor analysis and nutrient structure analysis, it was found that in April, brown tide was at the development stage, and DOP might be the main driving factor for the growth of A. anophagefferens. In May, brown tide was at the maintenance stage, and water temperature became the main controlling factor. When water temperature was higher than 12 ℃, brown tide could occur. In June, brown tide began to decay, and PO43--P had greater effects on the community structure of phytoplankton. DON was the important factor causing the outbreak of brown tide, with a concentration threshold of 150 µg·L-1 and the ratio DON/DIN being greater than 1.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água do Mar , China , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122631, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902639

RESUMO

Over the last years, an increasing concern has emerged regarding the eco-friendly management of wastewater. Apart from the role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment, the increasing need of the recovery of the resources contained in wastewater, such as nutrients and water, should be highlighted. This would allow for transforming a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) into a sustainable technological system. The objective of this review is to propose a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) as a novel technology that contributes to the circularity of the wastewater treatment sector according to the principles of circular economy. In this regard, this paper aims to consider the MBBR process as the initial step for water reuse, and nutrient removal and recovery, within the circular economy model.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Nutrientes , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 299: 122552, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923812

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of temperature and volatile solids (VS) ratio of feedstock to inoculum (F/I ratio) on methane (CH4) production and the solubility of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), cooper (Cu), and Zinc (Zn) after anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure. The highest cumulative CH4 yield of 470 L/kgVSfeed was obtained with F/I ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 with mesophilic (37 °C) temperature, and methane production rate decreased with the increase of F/I ratio. As F/I ratio increased from 0.5 to 4.0, the lag phase for methane production increased from 1.02 days to 13.52 days, indicating an initial inhibition at high F/I ratios. AD increased the concentrations of ammonia, Cu and Zn in the AD effluent supernatant, while decreased total and water extractive P concentrations. The changes of ammonia, Cu, Zn, and P concentrations were more significant with the increase of F/I ratio.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Nutrientes , Solubilidade , Suínos , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Environ Technol ; 41(5): 617-626, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074855

RESUMO

The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris ATCC 13482 was used in the present study for municipal wastewater treatment. Batch experiments were performed in bubble column photobioreactors of 7 L working volume maintained at 25 ± 2°C and 14 h/10 h of photo and dark cycle. The treatment process was enhanced by using CO2-augmented air (5% CO2 v/v) supply into the microalgal culture in comparison to the use of normal air (0.03% CO2 v/v). For a period of 7 days, C. vulgaris effected maximum removals of 74.4% soluble fraction of chemical oxygen demand, 72% ammonia (NH4-N), 60% nitrate (NO3-N) and 81.93% orthophosphate (PO4-P) with use of normal air, whereas 84.6% sCOD, 88% NH4-N, 72% NO3-N and 92.8% PO4-P removals, respectively, with use of 5% CO2/air supply. Using kinetic study data, the specific rates of ammonia and phosphate uptake (qammonia and qphosphate) by C. vulgaris at 5% CO2/air supply were found to be 2.41 and 0.85 d-1, respectively. Using the algal remediation technology, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium recovery from sewage treatment plant of 37.5 million litres per day wastewater influent capacity was calculated to be ∼298.5, 55.4 and 83.7 kg d-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fotobiorreatores , Águas Residuárias
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780245

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to test the impact of anaerobic digester microorganisms on algal growth, composition, and nutrient removal from digestate. Culture studies were carried out to determine the impacts of the microbial community on treatment of poultry litter anaerobic digestate by two strains of green algae: Auxenochlorella protothecoides and Chlorella sorokiniana. The results showed that the community doubled the growth of A. protothecoides but had no impact on C. sorokiniana growth. A similar result was observed for nutrient removal where the microbial community increased the capacity of A. protothecoides to remove ammonium and phosphate. The impact of the microbial community on biomass composition was minimal for both algae types.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Nutrientes
13.
Water Res ; 170: 115311, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783190

RESUMO

Nutrients and pesticides in agricultural runoff contribute to the degradation of water resources. Nitrates and phosphates can be remediated through the use of treatment systems such as woodchip bioreactors and adsorbent aggregate filters; however, concerns remain over potential effects of pesticides on nutrient removal efficiency in these systems. To test this, we designed laboratory-scale woodchip bioreactors equipped with secondary adsorbent aggregate filters and investigated the capacity of these systems to remediate nutrients when operated under two hydraulic retention times (HRT) and in the presence of commonly used pesticides. The woodchip bioreactors effectively removed over 99% of nitrate per day when operated under a 72 h hydraulic retention time, with the secondary expanded shale aggregate filters consistently reducing phosphate concentrations by 80-87%. Treatment efficacy of both systems was maintained in the presence of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Reducing HRT in the bioreactors to 21 min decreased nitrate removal efficiency; however, the insecticides bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and the herbicide oxyfluorfen were reduced by 76%, 63%, and 31%, respectively. Cultivation approaches led to the isolation of 45 different species from the woodchip bioreactors operated under a 21 min HRT, with Bacillus species being the most prevalent throughout the treatment. By contrast, pesticide application decreased the number and diversity of Bacillus isolates and enriched for Pseudomonas and Exiguobacterium species. Woodchip bioreactors and adsorbent aggregate filters provide effective treatment platforms to remediate agrochemicals, where they maintain treatment efficacy in the presence of pesticides and can be modulated through HRT management to achieve environmental and operational water quality goals.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Praguicidas , Reatores Biológicos , Nitratos , Nutrientes
14.
Water Res ; 170: 115328, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785559

RESUMO

Combined sewer overflows contain a highly variable, wide range of contaminants, both in particulate and soluble form, making conventional water treatment processes unable to offer adequate public health protection. In this study, an integrated treatment process designed to simultaneously remove typical combined sewer overflow pollutants (suspended solids, chemical oxygen depends, turbidity) in conjunction with nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus), was developed. The removal of particulates as well as dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus was achieved by first adsorbing soluble pollutants on zeolite and powdered activated carbon, and subsequently applying filtration carried out by polymer-enhanced microsieving. Laboratory experiments were designed using design-of-experiment techniques and carried out to assess the effects of the various treatment variables (cationic polymer, zeolite, powder activated carbon and microsieve size) in the designed combinations. A response surface model was fitted to the experimental dataset in order to capture and describe the non-linear relationships between treatment variables and treatment objectives. Finally, an optimization study was carried out using Pareto analysis showing that cationic polymer, zeolite, and powdered activated carbon, followed by fine mesh microsieving, worked synergistically in the integrated treatment process. Several optimal process conditions emerged, in particular, a treatment combination consisting of 1.1 mg/L of the cationic polymer, 250 mg/L of zeolite, 5 mg/L of powdered activated carbon, and a 370 µm mesh size. Under this condition, expected performance would be reductions of 72%, 56%, 35%, and 75% for turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total chemical oxygen demand, and total phosphorous, respectively. The findings presented in this paper demonstrate the possibility of achieving multiple treatment objectives in a single and integrated treatment step, hence providing municipalities with viable treatment options where the issues of combined sewer overflow and nutrient management are simultaneously tackled.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cidades , Nutrientes , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
Water Res ; 170: 115335, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812811

RESUMO

Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and diatoms produce ß-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-lipophilic, non-protein amino acid. BMAA is a neurotoxin in mammals. Its ingestion may be linked to human neurodegenerative diseases, namely the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex, based on epidemiological evidence from regions where cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms occur frequently. In controlled environments, cyanobacteria produce BMAA in response to ecophysiological cues such as nutrient availability, which may explain the elevated BMAA concentrations in freshwater environments that receive nutrient-rich agricultural runoff. This critical review paper summarizes what is known about how BMAA supports ecophysiological functions like nitrogen metabolism, photosyntheis and provides a competitive advantage to cyanobacteria in controlled and natural environments. We explain how BMAA production affected competitive interactions among the N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing populations in a freshwater cyanobacterial bloom that was stimulated by nutrient loading from the surrounding agricultural landscape. Better control of nutrients in agricultural fields is an excellent strategy to avoid the negative environmental consequences and public health concerns related to BMAA production.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos , Saúde Pública , Animais , Humanos , Neurotoxinas , Nutrientes
16.
Waste Manag ; 102: 420-431, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734553

RESUMO

This manuscript presents an integrated management scheme for leachate which employed struvite precipitation to recover ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus, aerobic granular sludge process for carbon oxidation (in the form of BOD and sCOD) and single stage anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) for nitrogen management. The influent fed to the integrated treatment scheme was a mixture of anaerobic digester centrate and real leachate in 4:1 ratio. Almost 77% recovery of phosphorus and 25% removal of NH4+-N were accomplished through struvite precipitation at an optimum pH of 9. High pH contributed to free ammonia loss during struvite precipitation experiments. In the aerobic granular sludge reactor overall, BOD5, COD and NH4+-N removal percentages were 74%, 45% and 35% and in the PN/A reactor, overall 35% removal of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) was observed. More than 80% BOD removal was recorded in the granular reactor with soluble COD (sCOD) removal fluctuating between 28 and 57% depending on the operational phase. High-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene targeting V4 region revealed a dominance of phylum Planctomycetes, in the PN/A reactor system. Presence of Rhodobacteraceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae in the granular biomass confirmed the defined redox zones inside mature granules indicating simultaneous removal of nitrogen (N) and organics in aerobic granular sludge technology. Exposing the synthetically cultured aerobic granules directly to the mixture of leachate and centrate unveiled an alteration in physical characteristics of granules; however, reactor operational data and microbial community analysis ascertain the effectiveness of the treatment scheme treating two urban waste-streams.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122379, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735698

RESUMO

Insufficient organics in anaerobic digestate of sludge limited algal mixotrophic culture and caused low lipids production. In this study, enhancing lipids production and pollutants removal by adding acidified starch wastewater was tested for Chlorella pyrenoidosa mixotrophic culture. The results showed that an optimal addition of acidified starch wastewater into anaerobic digestate of sludge (1:1, v/v) improved biomass and lipids production by 0.5-fold (to 2.59 g·L-1) and 3.2-fold (87.3 mg·L-1·d-1), respectively. The acidified starch wastewater addition also improved the quality of algal biodiesel with higher saturation (typically in C16:0 and C18:0). In addition, 62% of total organic carbon, 99% of ammonium and 95% of orthophosphate in mixed wastewater were effectively removed by microalgae. This study provides a promising way to improve biodiesel production and nutrients recovery from anaerobic digestate of sludge using waste carbon source.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Carbono , Lipídeos , Nutrientes , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122517, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830719

RESUMO

Effects of different mixing ratios between synthetic municipal wastewater (MW) and magnesium (Mg2+)-enriched nickel laterite ore wastewater (NLOWW) on growth of Chlorella sorokiniana (C. sorokiniana), photosynthetic activities, cellular biocomposition, nutrient and Mg2+ removal were investigated in photobioreactors. In the culture without NLOWW, wrinkled cells were observed with low biomass production. The culture mixed with 0.13% NLOWW obtained 1.89-fold higher biomass yield, 3.77-fold enhanced photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm value), and improved nutrient removal (nitrogen by 102.2%, phosphorus by 39.3%). However, excessive Mg2+ at 100% NLOWW produced highest reactive oxygen species suppressing microalgal growth. The Mg2+ removal capacity increased with NLOWW loading. Moreover, microalgal assimilation primarily contributed to nutrient removal while absorption was the dominant Mg2+ removal pathway. Carbohydrate content in biomass increased with Mg2+ loading. Finally, the approach for MW/NLOWW treatment was demonstrated as economically feasible with revenue of $75.6 per kilogram biomass through a comprehensive economic model.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Níquel , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Águas Residuárias
19.
Ambio ; 49(2): 442-459, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140159

RESUMO

Wind farms can help to mitigate increasing atmospheric carbon (C) emissions. However, disturbance caused by wind farm development must not have lasting deleterious impacts on landscape C sequestration. To understand the effects of wind farm development on peatlands, we monitored streamwater at Europe's second largest onshore wind farm (539 MW), Whitelee, Scotland, for 31 months. Using nested catchment sampling to understand impacts on water quality, increasing macronutrient concentrations and exports were associated with wind farm development, particularly forest-felling and borrow pits. Low/poor water quality occurred in small headwater catchments most disturbed by development. At the site exit, dissolved organic C and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations increased during construction, though [SRP] recovery occurred within 2 years. Since C was lost and streamwater quality negatively affected, we propose future good practice measures for wind farm development, including limiting total disturbance within individual catchments and locating borrow pits, where deemed necessary, off site avoiding peatlands.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Nutrientes , Escócia
20.
Ambio ; 49(2): 460-474, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278623

RESUMO

To tackle the symptoms of eutrophication in the open Baltic Sea and Finnish coastal waters, Finland has agreed to reduce both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) inputs. Due to large investments in treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters, TP loads started to decrease already in the mid-1970s and the respective TN loads in the mid-1990s. During the last two decades, much effort has been spent in decreasing the load originating from diffuse sources. Trend analyses in 1995-2016 showed that, despite various mitigation measures, riverine nutrient export has not substantially decreased, and especially the export from rivers draining agricultural lands remains high. In some areas TN concentrations and export were increasing and we found evidence that it was linked to ditching of peatlands. Several factors connected to climate/weather (e.g. temperature and precipitation) have counteracted the mitigation measures, and therefore Finland will not achieve the nutrient reduction targets by 2021.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Países Bálticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Finlândia , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Oceanos e Mares , Fósforo , Água
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