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1.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases adversely affect quality of life (QOL). The ketogenic diet (KD) may improve the QOL. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available evidence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to establish the effect of KD on the QOL in adults with chronic diseases. METHODS: Reporting followed PRISMA guidelines. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on adults with chronic disease including an intervention group that received KD and a control group, and where QOL was reported as outcome. We searched PubMed, APA PsycInfo, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov, and the references of the included articles and previous relevant reviews, without language or time restrictions. We critically appraised included studies and narratively synthesized their findings. RESULTS: Nine RCTs were included. The risk of bias was low, except of allocation concealment and blinding. In patients with cancer: one RCT found an improvement in overall QOL, another reported improved physical component summary, and one found no superiority of KD in all QOL domains. In patients with neurological disorders: improved QOL was reported in Alzheimer's disease patients, whereas no difference in mental and physical health QOL was noted in patients with multiple sclerosis. In patients with obesity and type II diabetes: one RCT reported superiority of energy-restricted KD in improving role functioning, mental health, health perceptions, and pain compared with guideline-based diet, whereas in another RCT, high and low carbohydrate diets achieved comparable improvements. Among patients with knee osteoarthritis, no differences between KD and low-fat groups were noted. Dietary compliance with the KD, reported in three studies, was shown to be high. Side effects were mostly noted during the first weeks of intervention, and adverse events were not markedly different with KD and the comparison diet. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from RCTs investigating the effect of KD on QOL in adults with chronic disease is inconclusive. The promising effect noted in some included studies and the low rates of adverse events and side effects encourage future investigations in this regard.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Doença Crônica , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959931

RESUMO

The optimal dietary pattern to improve metabolic function remains elusive. In a 21-day randomized controlled inpatient crossover feeding trial of 20 insulin-resistant obese women, we assessed the extent to which two isocaloric dietary interventions-Mediterranean (M) and high protein (HP)-improved metabolic parameters. Obese women were assigned to one of the following dietary sequences: M-HP or HP-M. Cardiometabolic parameters, body weight, glucose monitoring and gut microbiome composition were assessed. Sixteen women completed the study. Compared to the M diet, the HP diet was more effective in (i) reducing insulin resistance (insulin: Beta (95% CI) = -6.98 (-12.30, -1.65) µIU/mL, p = 0.01; HOMA-IR: -1.78 (95% CI: -3.03, -0.52), p = 9 × 10-3); and (ii) improving glycemic variability (-3.13 (-4.60, -1.67) mg/dL, p = 4 × 10-4), a risk factor for T2D development. We then identified a panel of 10 microbial genera predictive of the difference in glycemic variability between the two diets. These include the genera Coprococcus and Lachnoclostridium, previously associated with glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Our results suggest that morbidly obese women with insulin resistance can achieve better control of insulin resistance and glycemic variability on a high HP diet compared to an M diet.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Índice Glicêmico , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959745

RESUMO

A large amount of waste is generated within the different steps of the food supply chain, representing a significant loss of natural resources, plant material, and economic value for producers and consumers. During harvesting and processing, many parts of edible plants are not sold for consumption and end up as massive waste, adding environmental hazards to the list of concerns regarding food wastage. Examples are Brassica oleracea var. Italica (broccoli) by-products, which represent 75% of the plant mass. A growing concern in the Western world is obesity, which results from incorrect lifestyles and comprises an extensive array of co-morbidities. Several studies have linked these co-morbidities to increased oxidative stress; thus, naturally occurring and readily available antioxidant compounds are an attractive way to mitigate metabolic diseases. The idea of by-products selected for their biomedical value is not novel. However, there is innovation underlying the use of Brassica by-products in the context of obesity. For this reason, Brassica by-products are prime candidates to be used in the treatment of obesity due to its bioactive compounds, such as sulforaphane, which possess antioxidant activity. Here, we review the economic and health potential of Brassica bioactive compounds in the context of obesity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Obesidade/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Resíduos , Antioxidantes/economia , Brassica/economia , Humanos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/economia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/economia , Resíduos/economia
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139558, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919135

RESUMO

Importance: Several meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the many health benefits of intermittent fasting (IF). However, there has been little synthesis of the strength and quality of this evidence in aggregate to date. Objective: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the associations of IF (zero-calorie alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, the 5:2 diet, and time-restricted eating) with obesity-related health outcomes. Evidence Review: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews were searched from database inception to January 12, 2021. Data analysis was conducted from April 2021 through July 2021. Meta-analyses of RCTs investigating effects of IF in adults were included. The effect sizes of IF were recalculated using a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence per association by applying the GRADE criteria (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) as high, moderate, low, and very low. Findings: A total of 11 meta-analyses comprising 130 RCTs (median [IQR] sample size, 38 [24-69] participants; median [IQR] follow-up period, 3 [2-5] months) were included describing 104 unique associations of different types of IF with obesity-related health outcomes (median [IQR] studies per association, 4 [3-5]). There were 28 statistically significant associations (27%) that demonstrated the beneficial outcomes for body mass index, body weight, fat mass, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and blood pressure. IF was found to be associated with reduced fat-free mass. One significant association (1%) supported by high-quality evidence was modified alternate-day fasting for 1 to 2 months, which was associated with moderate reduction in body mass index in healthy adults and adults with overweight, obesity, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease compared with regular diet. Six associations (6%) were supported by moderate quality evidence. The remaining associations found to be significant were supported by very low (75 associations [72%]) to low (22 associations [21%]) quality evidence. Conclusions and Relevance: In this umbrella review, we found beneficial associations of IF with anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes supported by moderate to high quality of evidence, which supports the role of IF, especially modified alternate-day fasting, as a weight loss approach for adults with overweight or obesity. More clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to investigate the effects of IF on clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events and mortality.


Assuntos
Jejum/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Estatísticos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
5.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960058

RESUMO

Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most common obesity-related cancer death among women in the U.S. Insulin resistance, which worsens in the setting of obesity, is associated with higher breast cancer incidence and mortality. Maladaptive eating patterns driving insulin resistance represent a key modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that time-restricted feeding paradigms (TRF) improve cancer-related metabolic risk factors; however, more flexible approaches could be more feasible and effective. In this exploratory, secondary analysis, we identified participants following a low-glucose eating pattern (LGEP), defined as consuming energy when glucose levels are at or below average fasting levels, as an alternative to TRF. Results show that following an LGEP regimen for at least 40% of reported eating events improves insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and other cancer-related serum biomarkers. The magnitude of serum biomarkers changes observed here has previously been shown to favorably modulate benign breast tissue in women with overweight and obesity who are at risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. By comparison, the observed effects of LGEP were similar to results from previously published TRF studies in similar populations. These preliminary findings support further testing of LGEP as an alternative to TRF and a postmenopausal breast cancer prevention strategy. However, results should be interpreted with caution, given the exploratory nature of analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações
6.
BMJ ; 375: n2771, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810160

RESUMO

The studyAbbott S, Smith E, Tighe B, Lycett D. Group versus one-to-one multi-component lifestyle interventions for weight management: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet 2021;34:485-93.To read the full NIHR Alert, go to: https://evidence.nihr.ac.uk/alert/group-weight-loss-programmes-more-effective-than-one-to-one-sessions/.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Terapia Comportamental , Dieta Redutora , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/psicologia , Reino Unido
7.
FASEB J ; 35(11): e21945, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606638

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder and the most common cause of androgen excess in reproductive-age women. The heterogeneity of the clinical presentation in PCOS patients suggests the involvement of multiples abnormal physiological pathways. In addition, women with PCOS have a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Unfortunately, limited effective evidence-based therapeutic agents are available to treat the cardiometabolic complications in PCOS patients. Insights from recent studies highlight the multiple opportunities to deliver timely effective medical care for women with PCOS. This perspective manuscript aims to highlight the unmet need for effective and safe management of the cardiometabolic complications in PCOS patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/metabolismo , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/cirurgia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684542

RESUMO

The development of obesity entails a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with increased pro-inflammatory cells, mainly in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Additionally, dietary patterns have an influence on the regulation of chronic inflammation. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) include foods with an anti-inflammatory profile and that have positive impacts on body composition (BC), suggesting improvements in inflammatory processes. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of the DASH diet on cellular immunity, anthropometric, biochemical and BC parameters in patients with overweight and obesity, who could present metabolic syndrome. METHODOLOGY: Lymphocyte subpopulations, biochemical parameters, anthropometric parameters, and BC before and 8 weeks after intervention with the DASH diet in persons with overweight and obesity were measured. RESULTS: Fifty-nine young adults participated in the study. After the intervention, no significant changes in biochemical parameters were observed, although a significant decrease in nearly all of the anthropometric and BC variables was found: waist circumference (p < 0.001), percentage and kilograms of fat (p < 0.001 and p < 0.025, respectively), VAT (p < 0.020), and weight (p < 0.001), as well as total lymphocytes and double-positive TCD4+ cells. A relation between changes in leukocyte subpopulations (monocytes, natural killer, helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes, and naive TCD4+ cells) and metabolic improvements (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-c) was also found. CONCLUSIONS: The DASH diet promotes positive changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, anthropometric parameters and BC in persons with overweight and obesity. Future studies should elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which the DASH diet produces inmunometabolic improvement.


Assuntos
Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Imunidade Celular , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/imunologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684626

RESUMO

The daily intake of dietary fiber is well below the recommended levels in the US. The effect of adopting a low-fat vs. a low-carbohydrate weight loss diet on fiber intake is of interest but not well-documented, especially when both approaches promote high-quality food choices. The objective of this paper is to compare the quantity and sources of dietary fiber between a healthy low-fat (HLF) vs. healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet group when consumed over 12 months in a weight loss diet study. In this secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) study, the amount and sources of dietary fiber were examined in generally healthy adults, 18-50 years of age, Body Mass Index (BMI) 28-40 kg/m2, randomized to HLF or HLC for 12 months, who had available 24-h recalls at 0 (n = 609), 3 (n = 549), 6 (n = 491), and 12 (n = 449) months. The dietary intake was estimated by the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R). The sources of fiber were determined for the major food groups. Significantly more total dietary fiber was consumed by HLF at every post-randomization time point, and, at 12 m, was 23.04 ± 9.43 g vs. 18.61 ± 8.12 g for HLF vs. HLC, respectively, p < 0.0001. In both diet groups at 12 months, the highest amount of dietary fiber came from non-starchy vegetables (4.13 ± 3.05 g and 5.13 ± 3.59 g). The other primary sources of fiber at 12 months for the HLF group were from whole grains (3.90 ± 3.13 g) and fruits (3.40 ± 2.87 g), and, for the HLC group, were from plant protein and fat sources, such as nuts and seeds, their butters, and avocados (2.64 ± 2.64 g). In the DIETFITS study, the difference in the total fiber intake for the HLF vs. HLC groups was more modest than expected. The HLC group consumed reasonably high amounts of fiber from high-protein and high fat plant-based sources.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Verduras , Perda de Peso , Grãos Integrais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684639

RESUMO

Obesity and associated insulin resistance (Ins-R) have been identified as important risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma development. Elevated calories and protein consumption are also associated with Ins-R and glucose intolerance. We investigated the effect of a 24-month moderate calorie and protein restriction program on overweight or obese patients affected by Barrett's esophagus (BE), as no similar dietary approach has been attempted to date in this disease context. Anthropometric parameters, levels of serum analytes related to obesity and Ins-R, and the esophageal insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway were analyzed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03813381. Insulin, C-peptide, IGF-1, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), adipokines, and esophageal expression of the main proteins involved in insulin/IGF-1 signal transduction were quantified using Luminex-XMAP® technology in 46 patients who followed the restriction program (IA) and in 54 controls (CA). Body mass index and waist circumference significantly decreased in 76.1% of IA and 35.2% of CA. IGF-1 levels were reduced in 71.7% of IA and 51.8% of CA. The simultaneous reduction of glycaemia, IGF-1, the IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, and the improvement in weight loss-dependent insulin sensitivity, were associated with the downregulation of the insulin/IGF-1 signal on BE tissue. The proposed intervention program was an effective approach to counteract obesity-associated cancer risk factors. The improvement in metabolic condition resulted in a downregulation of the ERK-mediated mitogenic signal in 43.5% of patients, probably affecting the molecular mechanism driving adenocarcinoma development in BE lesions.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/dietoterapia , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Esôfago de Barrett/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura , Perda de Peso
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684490

RESUMO

This review examines the effects of two popular intermittent fasting regimens on sleep in adults with overweight and obesity. Specifically, the effects of time restricted eating (TRE; eating all food within a 4-10 h window) and alternate day fasting (ADF; 600 kcal fast day alternated with ad libitum feast day) on sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, insomnia severity, and risk of obstructive sleep apnea, will be summarized. The role of weight loss will also be discussed. Results from our review reveal that the majority of these trials produced weight loss in the range of 1-6% from baseline. Sleep quality and sleep duration remained unaltered with TRE and ADF, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The effects of intermittent fasting on sleep latency and sleep efficiency are mixed, with one study showing worsening of these parameters, and others showing no effect. Insomnia severity and the risk of obstructive sleep apnea remained unchanged in the trials assessing these metrics. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that TRE and ADF produce mild to moderate weight loss (1-6%) but their effects on sleep remain unclear. Solid conclusions are difficult to establish since participants in the studies had healthy sleep durations and no clinical insomnia at baseline, leaving little room for improvement in these metrics. Moreover, none of the trials were adequately powered to detect statistically significant changes in any measure of sleep. Future well-powered trials, conducted in individuals with diagnosed sleep disturbances, will be necessary to elucidate the effect of these popular diets on sleep.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684505

RESUMO

Women are more affected by obesity than men which increases their risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, it is important to understand the effectiveness of different types of diet in the context of women's health. This review aims to summarize the scientific evidence on the effects of different types of diet for women with obesity and their impact on CVD and cancer risk. This review included epidemiological and clinical studies on adult women and different types of diets, such as the Mediterranean (MED) diet, the Traditional Brazilian Diet, the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), intermittent fasting (IF), calorie (energy) restriction, food re-education, low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a very low-carbohydrate diet (VLCD). Our main findings showed that although LCDs, VLCD and IF are difficult to adhere to over an extended period, they can be good options for achieving improvements in body weight and cardiometabolic parameters. MED, DASH and the Traditional Brazilian Diet are based on natural foods and reduced processed foods. These diets have been associated with better women's health outcomes, including lower risk of CVD and cancer and the prevention and treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578824

RESUMO

The effect of a ketogenic diet (KD) on biochemical parameters and nutritional status has been the subject of debate over the years, as several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) obtained different results. METHOD: A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of RCTs comparing KD with a balanced diet was performed by means of a search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Trials where the method for measuring the response variables was unclear, those that considered pathologies other than chronic non-communicable diseases and those with participants receiving pharmacological treatment for obesity were excluded from the comparison. RESULTS: Of the studies included in the meta-analysis, no statistically significant standardized mean differences were observed for body mass index (BMI) (d = -0.457, p = 0.359), total cholesterol, COL-T (d = 0.230, p = 0.591), high-density lipoprotein, HDL (d = -0.028, p = 0.934), low-density lipoprotein, LDL (d = 0.528, p = 0.173), or triglycerides, TG (d = -0.283, p = 0.222), with high values of heterogeneity. The percentage of women included in the studies is a significant moderating variable in terms of BMI ratio (z = -6.68, p < 0.001) and TG (z = -2.27, p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: A KD shows no more benefits on nutritional parameters than a balanced diet, and adverse effects of being on the diet are sometimes reported.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578999

RESUMO

The number of people suffering from being overweight or obese has risen steadily in recent years. Consequently, new forms of nutrition and diets were developed as potential solutions. In the last years, the time-restricted feeding and continuous energy restriction via macronutrient-based diets were increasingly popular. Both diets were exclusively studied separately. A comparison of the two diets for people with a high body mass index despite regular physical activity has not yet been studied in detail. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two diets on body composition and adherence. For this study, a total of 42 subjects (m = 21, f = 21) with a BMI above 25 were recruited from a local fitness gym. After a two-week familiarisation period, one of the two diets was followed over 14 weeks. Dietary behaviour was monitored throughout the period with a food diary. The primary measurement parameters were body weight, lean body mass, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference. In addition, adherence was assessed and calculated by food diary and questionnaire. In total, the data of 35 participants (m = 14, f = 21) were analysed. Significant reductions in body weight, fat mass, body mass index, and waist and hip circumference were observed in both groups (p < 0.05). No significant change could be observed in lean body mass in either category. No group and gender differences were detected in any of the primary parameters. For the secondary parameters, a significantly higher adherence was observed in the time-restricted feeding group (p < 0.05). In addition, it can be assumed that an adherence of 60-70% cannot lead to positive changes in body composition. In conclusion, there were no differences between the two diets on the primary parameters. However, it seemed that time-restricted feeding can be better implemented in everyday life, and an adherence of more than 70% is required for both diets to prove effective.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Jejum , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579056

RESUMO

Intermittent fasting has become popular in recent years and is controversially presented as a possible therapeutic adjunct. A bibliographic review of the literature on intermittent fasting and obesity, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis was carried out. The scientific quality of the methodology and the results obtained were evaluated in pairs. Intermittent fasting has beneficial effects on the lipid profile, and it is associated with weight loss and a modification of the distribution of abdominal fat in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes as well as an improvement in the control of glycemic levels. In patients with multiple sclerosis, the data available are too scarce to draw any firm conclusions, but it does appear that intermittent fasting may be a safe and feasible intervention. However, it is necessary to continue investigating its long-term effects since so far, the studies carried out are small and of short duration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Jejum , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579069

RESUMO

The primary aim was to systematically review the current evidence investigating if dietary interventions rich in protein lead to improved body weight management in adults with excessive body weight. The secondary aim was to investigate potential modifying effects of phenotyping. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library identified 375 randomized controlled trials with 43 unique trials meeting the inclusion criteria. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used for a thorough risk of bias assessment. Based on 37 studies evaluating effects of dietary protein on body weight, the participants with increased protein intake (ranging from 18-59 energy percentage [E%]) were found to reduce body weight by 1.6 (1.2; 2.0) kg (mean [95% confidence interval]) compared to controls (isocaloric interventions with energy reduction introduced in certain studies). Individuals with prediabetes were found to benefit more from a diet high in protein compared to individuals with normoglycemia, as did individuals without the obesity risk allele (AA genotype) compared to individuals with the obesity risk alleles (AG and GG genotypes). Thus, diets rich in protein would seem to have a moderate beneficial effect on body weight management.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Rica em Proteínas/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579118

RESUMO

Adzuki bean consumption has many health benefits, but its effects on obesity and regulating gut microbiota imbalances induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) have not been thoroughly studied. Mice were fed a low-fat diet, a HFD, and a HFD supplemented with 15% adzuki bean (HFD-AB) for 12 weeks. Adzuki bean supplementation significantly reduced obesity, lipid accumulation, and serum lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels induced by HFD. It also mitigated liver function damage and hepatic steatosis. In particular, adzuki bean supplementation improved glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin sensitivity. In addition, it significantly reversed HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalances. Adzuki bean significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B); enriched the occurrence of Bifidobacterium, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcus_1, norank_f_Muribaculaceae, Alloprevotella, Muribaculum, Turicibacter, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Lachnoclostridium; and returned HFD-dependent taxa (Desulfovibrionaceae, Bilophila, Ruminiclostridium_9, Blautia, and Ruminiclostridium) back to normal status. PICRUSt2 analysis showed that the changes in gut microbiota induced by adzuki bean supplementation may be associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, sulfur, and cysteine and methionine; and LPS biosynthesis; and valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/etiologia , Vigna , Ração Animal , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 1583154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531707

RESUMO

Ayu-narezushi, a traditional Japanese fermented food, comprises abundant levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and free amino acids. This study aimed to examine the potential beneficial effects of ayu-narezushi and investigated whether ayu-narezushi led to improvements in the Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome because useful LAB are known as probiotics that regulate intestinal function. In the present study, the increased body weight of the TSOD mice was attenuated in those fed the ayu-narezushi-comprised chow (ayu-narezushi group) compared with those fed the normal rodent chow (control group). Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the Ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA levels of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase, which related to fatty acid oxidation, were significantly increased in the ayu-narezushi group than in the control group at 24 weeks of age. In conclusion, these results suggested that continuous feeding with ayu-narezushi improved obesity and dyslipidemia in the TSOD mice and that the activation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver might contribute to these improvements.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Osmeriformes , Acil-CoA Oxidase/biossíntese , Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/biossíntese , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/genética , Indução Enzimática , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/química , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Japão , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/genética , Oryza , Oxirredução , PPAR alfa/biossíntese , PPAR alfa/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Cloreto de Sódio , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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