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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 33-47, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829012

RESUMO

Obesity is caused by an imbalance of energy intake and expenditure. It is characterized by a higher accumulation of body fat with a chronic low-grade inflammation. Many reports have shown that gut microbiota in the host plays a pivotal role in mediating the interaction between consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and onset of obesity. Accumulative evidence has suggested that the changes in the composition of gut microbiota may affect the host's energy homeostasis, systemic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. As one of the major components in human diet, polyphenols have demonstrated to be capable of modulating the composition of gut microbiota and reducing the HFD-induced obesity. The present review summarizes the findings of recent studies on dietary polyphenols regarding their metabolism and interaction with bacteria in the intestine as well as the underlying mechanisms by which they modulate the gut microbiota and alleviate the HFD-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
3.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(5): 436-443, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707063

RESUMO

In recent years, health professionals and laypersons have disseminated misinformation regarding the consumption of coconut oil. Those encouraging the supplementation of coconut oil argue that it provides health benefits and protective cardiovascular effects. Our article examines the effects of coconut oil intake on the cardiometabolic profile by exploring various lipid indices, as well as potential non-lipid effects, such as weight loss. The majority of randomized controlled trials show that coconut oil intake or its supplementation increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and total cholesterol when compared with other vegetable oils. Lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid and the main constituent of coconut oil, increases LDL-C and HDL-C concentrations, since it plays a main role as a substrate for apolipoprotein (apo)A1 and apoB synthesis, which are the key molecules in HDL-C and LDL-C particles, respectively.Despite some findings demonstrating an increase in HDL-C, definitive long-term clinical trials are imperative to ascertain whether this effect is clinically relevant. In addition, coconut oil intake has failed as a weight loss strategy and should not be considered as a supplementation strategy to increase satiety and/or thermogenesis.If one desires to include coconut oil in the diet, then we suggest that it should be limited and encompassed within the current recommendations of SFA intake, which are up to 10% of total caloric intake.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Óleo de Coco/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Perda de Peso
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13589-13604, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735025

RESUMO

An increasing amount of evidence suggests that the metabolic improvement of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice by Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is associated with gut microbiota. However, the causalities between FBT and gut microbiota have not yet been elucidated and the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. To impart direct evidence for the essential role of gut microbiota in the attenuation of obesity by FBT, the effects of FBT on healthy mice and microbiota-depleted mice that were treated with antibiotics were compared in an HFD-induced obesity mouse model. The results showed that FBT dramatically ameliorated obesity, serum lipid parameters, blood glucose homeostasis, hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and tissue inflammation. However, the microbiota-depleted mice with single bacterium (Escherichia-Shigella) after antibiotic treatment were resistant to FBT-induced antiobesity and metabolic improvement. The beneficial effects of FBT resulted from its shift on gut microbiota composition and structure in mice. HFD-induced increase in the phyla Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio was remarkably restored by FBT. Furthermore, FBT-induced increase in abundances of beneficial bacteria Clostridiaceae, Bacteroidales, and Lachnospiraceae and decreases in harmful Ruminococcaceae, Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae were causal antecedents for FBT to reduce obesity and improve metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Chá/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Chá/química
5.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 283, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A potato protein hydrolysate, APPH is a potential anti-obesity diet ingredient. Since, obesity leads to deterioration of liver function and associated liver diseases, in this study the effect of APPH on high fat diet (HFD) associated liver damages was investigated. METHODS: Six week old male hamsters were randomly separated to six groups (n = 8) as control, HFD (HFD fed obese), L-APPH (HFD + 15 mg/kg/day of APPH), M-APPH (HFD + 30 mg/kg/day), H-APPH (HFD + 75 mg/kg/day of APPH) and PB (HFD + 500 mg/kg/day of probucol). HFD fed hamsters were administered with APPH 50 days through oral gavage. The animals were euthanized and the number of apoptotic nuclei in liver tissue was determined by TUNEL staining and the extent of interstitial fibrosis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining. Modulation in the molecular events associated with apoptosis and fibrosis were elucidated from the western blotting analysis of the total protein extracts. RESULTS: Hamsters fed with high fat diet showed symptoms of liver damage as measured from serum markers like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. However a 50 day long supplementation of APPH effectively ameliorated the effects of HFD. HFD also modulated the expression of survival and apoptosis proteins in the hamster liver. Further the HFD groups showed elevated levels of fibrosis markers in liver. The increase in fibrosis and apoptosis was correlated with the increase in the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK1/2) revealing a potential role of ERK in the HFD mediated liver damage. However APPH treatment reduced the effect of HFD on the apoptosis and fibrosis markers considerably and provided hepato-protection. CONCLUSION: APPH can therefore be considered as an efficient therapeutic agent to ameliorate high fat diet related liver damages.


Assuntos
Caspase 3/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Caspase 3/genética , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibrose/dietoterapia , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Mesocricetus , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Solanum tuberosum/química
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1196-1204, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184645

RESUMO

Introducción: la práctica de actividad física y el seguimiento de una dieta cetogénica pueden suponer un doble efecto con mejores resultados en los procesos de pérdida de peso y mejora de la composición corporal y perfil lipídico. Objetivo: el objetivo de esta revisión fue investigar los trabajos realizados con pacientes obesos que siguen una dieta cetogénica y un programa de ejercicio físico, así como calcular el tamaño del efecto en cuanto a las mejoras en la masa grasa, a través de un metaaanálisis. Métodos: la selección de estudios se basó en los siguientes criterios: estudios experimentales; a) estudios experimentales (diseños controlados aleatorizados) y cuasi-experimentales (por ejemplo: pre-test/post-test); b) estudios con dieta baja en carbohidratos (< 30%) o muy baja en carbohidratos (5-10%) (< 50 g Ch) y/o alta en grasas (> 35%); c) se admitieron estudios exclusivamente con sujetos que padecieran sobrepeso u obesidad (IMC > 25 y/o enfermedad metabólica relacionada; y d) con mediciones de composición corporal y/o perfil lipídico al principio y al final de la intervención. Resultados: se analizaron 7 artículos y 3 revisiones. Comparando los diferentes tipos de ejercicio se podría afirmar que destaca la disminución de masa muscular en aquellos en los que las intervenciones son con ejercicio aeróbico, manteniéndose e incluso aumentando, en los estudios donde se realizó un ejercicio de fuerza. El metaanálisis nos muestra una reducción significativa de la masa grasa con una heterogeneidad media, por lo tanto, habrá mayor reducción de masa grasa en grupos que realizan dieta baja en carbohidratos y ejercicio que en los que no realizan dieta o tan solo realizan ejercicio. Conclusiones: la combinación de dieta cetogénica y ejercicio físico puede reducir la masa grasa en comparación con realizar solo dieta o solo ejercicio físico


Introduction: practice of physical activity and the ketogenic diet monitoring can have a double effect in helping in processes of weight loss and improvement of body composition and lipid profile. Objective: the objective of this review was to investigate the work done with obese patients who undertook a ketogenic diet and a physical exercise program, as well as to calculate the overall effect size in terms of improvements in fat mass, through a meta-analysis. Methods: the selection of studies was based on the following criteria: experimental studies; a) experimental studies (randomized controlled designs) and quasi-experimental (e.g. pre-test/post-test); b) studies with low-carbohydrate diet (< 30%) or very low in carbohydrates (5-10%) (< 50 g Ch) and/or high in fats (> 35%); c) studies were admitted exclusively with subjects that facility overweight or obesity (BMI > 25; and d) with measurements of body composition and/or Lipid profile at the beginning and end of the intervention. Results: for the methodological review, 7 articles and 3 reviews were analyzed. All studies, whether by establishing aerobic or strength training and show significant weight loss in all outcomes. Conclusions: comparing different types of exercise, we could say that interventions based on endurance exercise reported a decrease in muscle mass, however there was a maintenance, and even an increase, in studies with resistance exercises. Meta-analysis showed significant results at the global level with a medium heterogeneity, therefore, there will be greater reduction of fat mass in groups that realize diets with low carbohydrates and exercise that in those who do not undertake this type of diet, and those only perform exercise


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perda de Peso , Composição Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Corpos Cetônicos/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Exercício/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta
8.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(4): e2238, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the peel of Camu-Camu, a fruit plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon basin, with those of sleeve gastrectomy, on the weight and glycemia of Wistar rats. METHODS: twenty-four Wistar rats underwent obesity induction through a hyperlipid diet for eight weeks (fat period), and were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Camu-Camu Group (CCG) and Bariatric Surgery Group (BSG). After this period, all animals returned to a normal diet and the intervention period began: CG did not undergo any intervention beyond diet change; CCG animals underwent gavage procedure for administration of Camu-Camu hydroalcoholic extract, 1g/kg/day, for four weeks; and the BSG was submitted to the surgical procedure of sleeve gastrectomy. We followed all animals for four weeks. RESULTS: there was only one loss in BSG due to a gastric fistula. We observed significant variations in the animals' mean weight: the CG evolved with weight gain even after the withdraw of the hypercaloric diet, while the other two groups presented weight reduction. BSG presented a significant reduction of weight and BMI (p<0.05); CCG achieved a significant reduction only of the BMI (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in the glycemic levels. CONCLUSION: in spite of reducing weight, the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the Camu-Camu peel was not able to be as efficient as sleeve gastrectomy in the control of body weight in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Masculino , Terapia Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11099-11107, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496244

RESUMO

Urolithins are bioactive gut microbiota metabolites of ellagic acid. Here, we have identified four unknown urolithins in human feces after the intake of a pomegranate extract. The new metabolites occurred only in 19% of the subjects. 4,8,9,10-Tetrahydroxy urolithin, (urolithin M6R), was unambiguously identified by 1H NMR, UV, and HRMS. Three metabolites were tentatively identified by the UV, HRMS, and chromatographic behavior, as 4,8,10-trihydroxy (urolithin M7R), 4,8,9-trihydroxy (urolithin CR), and 4,8-dihydroxy (urolithin AR) urolithins. Phase II conjugates of the novel urolithins were detected in urine and confirmed their absorption, circulation, and urinary excretion. The production of the new urolithins was not specific of any of the known urolithin metabotypes A and B. The new metabolites needed a bacterial 3-dehydroxylase activity for their production, and this is a novel feature as all the previously known urolithins maintained the hydroxyl at 3 position. The ability of production of these "R" urolithins can be considered an additional metabolic feature for volunteer stratification.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Lythraceae/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Urina/química , Adulto , Idoso , Cumarínicos/química , Ácido Elágico/química , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lythraceae/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/urina , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
12.
Phytomedicine ; 63: 153018, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given that the most recent systematic review investigating Green-Coffee Extract (GCE) as a weight loss facilitator was nearly a decade ago and that the authors reported there no consensus on the effect of GCE/CGA (Chlorogenic acids) on body composition indices, a comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of all available randomized controlled trial (RCTs) was undertaken to examine the effect of GCE and CGA intervention on body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed up to June 2019 in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. RCTs that investigated the effect GCE/CGA Supplementation on BW, BMI and WC in adults were included for final analysis. The pooled weight mean difference (WMD) of included studies was estimated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 13 articles with 16 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Results revealed significant reduction in BMI (WMD: -0.403 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.800, -0.005, p = 0.047) and no significant change in BW (WMD: -0.585 kg, 95% CI: -1.498, 0.329, p = 0.210) and WC (WMD: -0.847 cm, 95% CI: -1.764, 0.071, p = 0.070). In the subgroup analysis, studies that were conducted on baseline BMI ≥25 kg/m2 revealed a significant greater reduction in body weight and BMI than those performed on baseline BMI <25 kg/m2. Moreover, short supplementation periods of less than 4 weeks had no effect. CONCLUSION: The results of current meta-analysis study support the use of GCE supplementation for the improvement of obesity indices, with sub-group analysis highlighting greater improvements in individuals with a starting BMI ≥25 kg/m2.


Assuntos
Café , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2795-2802, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and overweight which are consequence of some interaction factor such as genetics and behavioral habit. Obesity as a metabolic disorder and chronic inflammation is a trigger to countless disease. The main goal of this study is to investigate the interaction of herbal diet on the levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory factors and adipocytes profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 240 adult women range of 18-48 years were included in the current comparative cross-sectional study. Body composition and dietary intake (using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) were assessed in all participants. In determining a plant based diet index (PDI), vegetarian foods were taken positive score and reverse points for animal foods. For determining a healthful plant based diet index (hPDI), healthy plant foods received positive scores, while less healthy plant foods and animal foods received reverse scores. To create an unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI), positive scores were assigned to less healthy plant foods and reverse scores to healthy plant foods and animal foods. For the measurement of serum liver enzymes and inflammatory factors, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used. RESULTS: Healthy diet like whole grains, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and beverages such as tea and coffee, based on dietary guidelines, significantly reduced the amount of hs-CRP and TGF-ß (P < 0.0001). Higher adhering to hPDI may as a result in higher intake of fiber intake, antioxidants, unsaturated fats, micronutrients, could reduce saturated fats and iron content, and finally weight loss, and reduce inflammation in the body. CONCLUSION: Base on our finding, in those people who intake higher amounts of healthy plant foods, (vegetable types), instead of unhealthy herbal foods (sweets and desserts), might be useful to reduce inflammation factor like TGF-ß and hs-CRP. Women with a higher compliance score in uPDI group (juices, refined grains, starches sweetened with sugar, sweets, and desserts) did not have significantly increase in inflammatory factors levels.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374958

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of long-chain bases from sea cucumber (SC-LCBs) on modulation of the gut microbiota and inhibition of obesity in high fat diet-fed mice. Results showed that SC-LCBs exerted significant antiobese effects, which were associated with the inhibition of hyperglycemia and lipid accumulation. SC-LCBs also regulated serum adipocytokines toward to normal levels. SC-LCBs caused significant decreases in Firmicutes, Actinobacteria phylum, and obesity-related bacteria (Desulfovibro, Bifidobacterium, Romboutsia etc. genus). SC-LCBs also elevated Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia phylum, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria (Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group etc. genus). Moreover, serum and fecal lipoplysaccharide (LPS) concentrations and its dependent toll-line receptor 4 pathway were inhibited by SC-LCBs treatment. SC-LCBs caused increases in fecal SCFAs and their mediated G-protein-coupled receptors proteins. These suggest that SC-LCBs alleviate obesity by altering gut microbiota. Thus, it sought to indicate that SC-LCBs can be developed as food supplement for the obesity control and the human gut health.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoesfingolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Glicoesfingolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1294-1300, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366817

RESUMO

We monitored changes in serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations in obese cats during weight loss. Six naturally developed obese cats were fed low-fat, high-fiber dry food during a 9-week experimental period. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations were measured at week 0, 4, 8, and 9. Body weight became significantly lower week 4 onward than that at week 0 (P<0.05 or 0.01). At week 9, serum leptin concentrations were significantly lower than those at week 0 (P<0.05). Contrarily, serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations did not significantly differ within the 9 weeks. While serum leptin levels were strongly positively correlated with body weight (r=0.923, P<0.001), serum adiponectin levels were moderately negatively correlated with it (r=-0.529, P<0.01), with serum resistin having a no correlation with body weight. Serum leptin levels might be more closely related with pathogenesis of adiposity than serum adiponectin or resistin in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Gato/dietoterapia , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Resistina/sangue
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382439

RESUMO

Dieting attempts have become popular worldwide. Dieting, however, seems to have both positive and negative health-related consequences. So far, only a few studies have focused on the determinants of dieting in detail. This study explores the association between self-report dieting attempts and intentional weight loss (IWL) during the previous year and several demographic, lifestyle, health, and psychological factors in a cross-sectional study design using data from the representative Finnish Health 2000 Survey. The sample comprised 2147 men and 2378 women, aged 30-69. Information for potential determinants was assembled via health examinations, interviews, and questionnaires. Approximately 24% of the men and 39% of the women reported dieting attempts and 10% of the men and 15% of the women reported IWL. Dieting attempts were associated with younger age, education, BMI, formerly smoking, more favourable values in lifestyle variables, and unfavorable values in serum HDL and triglycerides, a worse sense of coherence, concerns about one's appearance, and concerns about one's health. Among men, diabetics and those sleeping ≤6 h a night more frequently reported dieting attempts and those with osteoarthritis reported IWL. Moreover, the gradient between BMI and dieting attempts was significantly stronger in men than in women. Men seem to attempt dieting when they have actual health-related reasons, while such reasons are not so strongly associated with dieting in women. These findings can be used for determining subpopulations with obesity and real weight-loss needs and, alternatively, subpopulations with normal weight unnecessarily attempting dieting.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Autorrelato , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Finlândia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382619

RESUMO

Protein consumption influences glucose homeostasis, but the effect depends on the type and origin of proteins ingested. The present study was designed to determine the effect of herring milt protein hydrolysate (HPH) on insulin function and glucose metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. Mice on the high-fat diet were divided into four groups where one group continued on the high-fat diet and the other three groups were fed a modified high-fat diet where 15%, 35%, and 70%, respectively, of casein was replaced with an equal percentage of protein derived from HPH. After 10 weeks, mice that continued on the high-fat diet showed significant increases in body weight, blood glucose, insulin, and leptin levels and exhibited impaired oral glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and pancreatic ß-cell dysfunction. Compared to mice fed the high-fat diet, the 70% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein reduced body weight, semi-fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, insulin, leptin, and cholesterol levels and improved glucose tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostasis model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß) indices. The 35% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein showed moderate effects, while the 15% replacement of dietary casein with HPH protein had no effects. This is the first study demonstrating that replacing dietary casein with the same amount of protein derived from HPH can prevent high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), the most common sensory deficit in the elderly, is associated with enormous social and public health burdens. Emerging evidence has suggested that obesity and comorbidities might increase the risk of ARHI. However, no reviews have been published that address the role of nutritional interventions for obesity and comorbidities in the prevention of ARHI. METHODS: A PubMed database search was conducted to identify the relationship between obesity and ARHI. "Obesity", "metabolic syndrome", "adipose-derived hormone", "fatty acid", and "age-related hearing impairment" were included as keywords. RESULTS: A total of 89 articles was analyzed with 39 articles of relevance to ARHI. A high-fat diet may induce oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis in the inner ear. Statins have been shown to delay the progression of ARHI by improving the lipid profile, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting endothelial inflammation. Aldosterone could exert protective effects against ARHI by upregulating the Na-K-2Cl co-transporter 1 in the cochlea. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could preserve the cochlear microcirculation by reducing dyslipidemia and inhibiting inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid and lecithin might delay the progression of ARHI by protecting cochlear mitochondrial DNA from damage due to oxidative stress. Tea and ginseng might protect against ARHI through their anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional interventions for obesity and comorbidities, including a low-fat diet, supplementation with statins, aldosterone, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-lipoic acids, lecithin, tea, and ginseng, may protect against the development of ARHI.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Presbiacusia/dietoterapia , Envelhecimento , Humanos
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4625279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317029

RESUMO

Lycopene rich food and dark chocolate are among the best-documented products with a broad health benefit. This study explored the systemic effect of lycopene and dark chocolate (DC) on gut microbiota, blood, liver metabolism, skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation and skin. 30 volunteers were recruited for this trial, 15 women and 15 men with a mean age of 55 ± 5.7 years and with moderate obesity, 30 < BMI < 35 kg/m2. They were randomized and divided into five equal interventional groups: three received different formulations of lycopene, one of them with a 7 mg daily dose and two with 30 mg; another group was given 10 g of DC with 7 mg lycopene embedded into its matrix, and the last group received 10 g DC. The trial was double-blinded for the three lycopene groups and separately for the 2 DC groups; the trial lasted for 1 month. By the end of the trial there were dose-dependent changes in the gut microbiota profile in all three lycopene groups with an increase of relative abundance of, e.g., Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum. This was also accompanied by dose-dependent changes in the blood, liver metabolism, skeletal muscle and skin parameters. Consumption of DC resulted in increased relative abundance of, e.g., Lactobacillus and a reduction of corneocyte exfoliation. This is the first study which reports the prebiotic potential of lycopene and DC.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Bifidobacterium longum/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2579734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312655

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity are major threats to human health. Tea polyphenols exert multiple beneficial effects on human health and may play a positive regulatory role in fat assumption. However, how tea polyphenols contribute to the regulation of fat metabolism remains unclear to date. Small RNA expression profile can be regulated by tea polyphenols in adipocytes. Therefore, tea polyphenols may regulate fat metabolism by controlling small RNA-associated biological processes. In this study, we developed a systematic research platform based on mouse models and performed small RNA sequencing to identify the specific role of small RNAs in the regulatory effect of tea polyphenols on fat metabolism. We compared the expression levels of different small RNA subtypes, including piRNAs and miRNAs, and identified a group of differentially expressed small RNAs in the experimental and control groups. Most of these small RNAs participate in lipid metabolism, suggesting that small RNAs play a significant role in tea polyphenol-associated obesity and related pathogenesis. Furthermore, gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment indicated that small RNAs influence the regulatory effects of tea polyphenols on obesity, revealing the potential pathogenic mechanisms for such nutritional disease.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química
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