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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13992, 2024 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886475

RESUMO

Obesity is a complex disease associated with augmented risk of metabolic disorder development and cellular dysfunction in various species. The goal of the present study was to investigate the impacts of obesity on the metabolic health of old mares as well as test the ability of diet supplementation with either a complex blend of nutrients designed to improve equine metabolism and gastrointestinal health or L-carnitine alone to mitigate negative effects of obesity. Mares (n = 19, 17.9 ± 3.7 years) were placed into one of three group: normal-weight (NW, n = 6), obese (OB, n = 7) or obese fed a complex diet supplement for 12 weeks (OBD, n = 6). After 12 weeks and completion of sample collections, OB mares received L-carnitine alone for an additional 6 weeks. Obesity in mares was significantly associated with insulin dysregulation, reduced muscle mitochondrial function, and decreased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with greater ROS production when compared to NW. Obese mares fed the complex diet supplement had better insulin sensivity, greater cell lipid metabolism, and higher muscle oxidative capacity with reduced ROS production than OB. L-carnitine supplementation alone did not significantly alter insulin signaling, but improved lipid metabolism and muscle oxidative capacity with reduced ROS. In conclusion, obesity is associated with insulin dysregulation and altered skeletal muscle metabolism in older mares. However, dietary interventions are an effective strategy to improve metabolic status and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in older mares.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Carnitina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insulina , Obesidade , Animais , Cavalos , Feminino , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Carnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina/farmacologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/dietoterapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 64, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a globally increasing health epidemic. Lifestyle intervention is recommended as the main therapy for NAFLD. However, the optimal approach is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive approach of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) concerning enhanced control of calorie-restricted diet (CRD), exercise, and personalized nutrition counseling on liver steatosis and extrahepatic metabolic status in Chinese overweight and obese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This study was a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted across seven hospitals in China. It involved 226 participants with a body mass index (BMI) above 25. These participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the ILI group, which followed a low carbohydrate, high protein CRD combined with exercise and intensive counseling from a dietitian, and a control group, which adhered to a balanced CRD along with exercise and standard counseling. The main measure of the study was the change in the fat attenuation parameter (FAP) from the start of the study to week 12, analyzed within the per-protocol set. Secondary measures included changes in BMI, liver stiffness measurement (LSM), and the improvement of various metabolic indexes. Additionally, predetermined subgroup analyses of the FAP were conducted based on variables like gender, age, BMI, ethnicity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 167 participants completed the whole study. Compared to the control group, ILI participants achieved a significant reduction in FAP (LS mean difference, 16.07 [95% CI: 8.90-23.25] dB/m) and BMI (LS mean difference, 1.46 [95% CI: 1.09-1.82] kg/m2) but not in LSM improvement (LS mean difference, 0.20 [95% CI: -0.19-0.59] kPa). The ILI also substantially improved other secondary outcomes (including ALT, AST, GGT, body fat mass, muscle mass and skeletal muscle mass, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß, blood pressure, and homocysteine). Further subgroup analyses showed that ILI, rather than control intervention, led to more significant FAP reduction, especially in patients with concurrent hypertension (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this RCT, a 12-week intensive lifestyle intervention program led to significant improvements in liver steatosis and other metabolic indicators in overweight and obese Chinese patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Further research is required to confirm the long-term advantages and practicality of this approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT03972631) in June 2019.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Estilo de Vida , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Restrição Calórica/métodos , China , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Fígado/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aconselhamento/métodos
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4155, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806467

RESUMO

The gut microbiome (GM) modulates body weight/composition and gastrointestinal functioning; therefore, approaches targeting resident gut microbes have attracted considerable interest. Intermittent fasting (IF) and protein pacing (P) regimens are effective in facilitating weight loss (WL) and enhancing body composition. However, the interrelationships between IF- and P-induced WL and the GM are unknown. The current randomized controlled study describes distinct fecal microbial and plasma metabolomic signatures between combined IF-P (n = 21) versus a heart-healthy, calorie-restricted (CR, n = 20) diet matched for overall energy intake in free-living human participants (women = 27; men = 14) with overweight/obesity for 8 weeks. Gut symptomatology improves and abundance of Christensenellaceae microbes and circulating cytokines and amino acid metabolites favoring fat oxidation increase with IF-P (p < 0.05), whereas metabolites associated with a longevity-related metabolic pathway increase with CR (p < 0.05). Differences indicate GM and metabolomic factors play a role in WL maintenance and body composition. This novel work provides insight into the GM and metabolomic profile of participants following an IF-P or CR diet and highlights important differences in microbial assembly associated with WL and body composition responsiveness. These data may inform future GM-focused precision nutrition recommendations using larger sample sizes of longer duration. Trial registration, March 6, 2020 (ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04327141), based on a previous randomized intervention trial.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Jejum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metabolômica , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Jejum/sangue , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metabolômica/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Metaboloma , Redução de Peso/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Proteínas Alimentares/metabolismo , Proteínas Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Jejum Intermitente
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13172, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38808884

RESUMO

Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Here we examined several morphometric and biochemical parameters linked to MS in a rodent litter size reduction model, and how a 30-day fish oil (FO) supplementation affected these parameters. On day 3 post-birth, pups were divided into groups of ten or three. On day 22, rats were split into control (C) and small litter (SL) until 60 days old. Then, after metabolic disturbance and obesity were confirmed, FO supplementation started for 30 days and the new groups were named control (C), FO supplemented (FO), obese (Ob), and obese FO supplemented (ObFO). Comparison was performed by Student t-test or 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test. At the end of the 60-day period, SL rats were hyperphagic, obese, hypoinsulinemic, normoglycemic, and had high visceral fat depot and high interleukin (IL)-6 plasma concentration. Obese rats at 90 days of age were fatter, hyperphagic, hyperglycemic, hypertriacylgliceromic, hipoinsulinemic, with low innate immune response. IL-6 production ex vivo was higher, but in plasma it was not different from the control group. FO supplementation brought all biochemical changes to normal values, normalized food intake, and reduced body weight and fat mass in obese rats. The innate immune response was improved but still not as efficient as in lean animals. Our results suggested that as soon MS appears, FO supplementation must be used to ameliorate the morpho- and biochemical effects caused by MS and improve the innate immune response.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino
5.
Vopr Pitan ; 93(2): 63-72, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38809800

RESUMO

Chronic systemic inflammation is one of the leading pathogenetic pathways for the development of atherosclerosis in obese patients. In this regard, it seems promising to evaluate the effect of the diet and physical exertion on the proinflammatory activity of monocytes. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of the diet and regular physical trainings on the secretion of monocyte chemotactic factor 1 (MCP-1) by monocytes in obese patients with coronary artery disease. Material and methods. 27 obese participants (body mass index >30 kg/m2) with a confirmed diagnosis of coronary heart disease were recruited. All participants were prescribed with 12 weeks of a specialized diet with a restriction of simple carbohydrates and salt, a 500-kcal daily energy deficit, and with inclusion of cruciferous (200 g per day), seasonal dark berries (70 g per day) and green tea (200 ml per day). The regular assisted physical trainings were also administered. The body composition, blood biochemical parameters and MCP-1 secretion rates in the primary culture of monocytes isolated from blood samples via the immunomagnetic separation method were assessed before and after the intervention. Results. As a result, after the 12-weeks intervention the reliable body weight loss (-4.0%), waist circumference (-4.2%), visceral fat (-5.4%), total cholesterol (-9.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-16.6%) and triglycerides (-26.0%), an improvement in the results of the 6-minute walk test (+10.33%) was achieved, as well as an LPS-stimulated monocytes secretion of MCP-1 decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005). Conclusion. Overall, the results suggest that diet and regular physical activity in patients with obesity and coronary heart disease may decrease the functional "proinflammatory" activity of monocytes.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2 , Doença das Coronárias , Monócitos , Obesidade , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia , Masculino , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Doença das Coronárias/dietoterapia , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Idoso
6.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 27, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The precise contribution and differential response to treatment strategies to reduce kidney dysfunction, depending on whether obesity is present alongside T2DM or not, remain to be fully clarified. Our objective was to improve our understanding of how obesity contributes to kidney function in patients with T2DM and coronary heart disease (CHD), who are highly predisposed to CKD, to assign the most effective dietary approach to preserve kidney function. METHODS: 1002 patients with CHD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)≥30 ml/min/1.73m2, were randomized to consume a Mediterranean diet (35% fat, 22% MUFA, < 50% carbohydrates) or a low-fat diet (28% fat, 12% MUFA, > 55% carbohydrates). Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence of T2DM and/or obesity at baseline: Non-Obesity/Non-T2DM, Obesity/Non-T2DM, Non-Obesity/T2DM and Obesity/T2DM. We evaluated kidney function using serum creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) before and after 5-years of dietary intervention. RESULTS: Patients with Obesity/T2DM had the lowest baseline eGFR and the highest baseline uACR compared to non-diabetics (p < 0.05). After dietary intervention, the Mediterranean diet induced a lower eGFR decline in patients with Obesity/T2DM, compared to a low-fat diet but not in the other groups (p = 0.014). The Mediterranean diet, but not the low-fat diet, also reduced uACR only in patients with Obesity/T2DM (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity provided an additive effect to T2DM resulting in a more pronounced decline in kidney function compared to T2DM alone when compared to non-diabetics. In patients with concomitant presence of T2DM and obesity, with more metabolic complications, consumption of a Mediterranean diet seemed more beneficial than a low-fat diet in terms of preserving kidney function. These findings provide valuable insights for tailoring personalized lifestyle modifications in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL, http://www.cordioprev.es/index.php/en . CLINICALTRIALS: gov number, NCT00924937.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim , Obesidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/complicações , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença das Coronárias/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Rim/fisiopatologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Creatinina/sangue
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10960, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744950

RESUMO

The relationship between gut microbiota and obesity has recently been an important subject for research as the gut microbiota is thought to affect body homeostasis including body weight and composition, intervening with pro and prebiotics is an intelligent possible way for obesity management. To evaluate the effect of hypo caloric adequate fiber regimen with probiotic supplementation and physical exercise, whether it will have a good impact on health, body composition, and physique among obese Egyptian women or has no significant effect. The enrolled 58 women, in this longitudinal follow-up intervention study; followed a weight loss eating regimen (prebiotic), including a low-carbohydrate adequate-fiber adequate-protein dietary pattern with decreased energy intake. They additionally received daily probiotic supplements in the form of yogurt and were instructed to exercise regularly for 3 months. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, laboratory investigations, and microbiota analysis were obtained before and after the 3 months weight loss program. Statistically highly significant differences in the anthropometry, body composition parameters: and obesity-related biomarkers (Leptin, ALT, and AST) between the pre and post-follow-up measurements at the end of the study as they were all decreased. The prebiotic and probiotic supplementation induced statistically highly significant alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota with increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and decreased relative abundance of Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes Ratio. Hypo caloric adequate fiber regimen diet with probiotics positively impacts body composition and is effective for weight loss normalizing serum Leptin and AST.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Redução de Peso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exercício Físico
8.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794646

RESUMO

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are linked to steatotic liver disease (SLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease. Lifestyle modifications and dieting are strategies that can prevent metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) is a helpful treatment for MASLD and has been recommended for people affected by obesity; we evaluated the effect of gender on steatosis and fibrosis in a cohort of 112 overweight or obese patients undergoing an eight-week treatment with a VLCKD. Differences between the genders in terms of anthropometric measures, body composition, and metabolic indicators were examined before, during, and after the nutritional intervention. At baseline, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting insulin, hepatic markers, and lipid profile. Men had considerably higher levels of liver steatosis (measured by CAP) and liver stiffness (measured by E) under basal conditions than women. After the VLCKD, there were reductions in both genders of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, fat mass (FM), free fat mass (FFM), and fasting blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT), and uric acid levels. Only in men, liver stiffness, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels significantly decreased. Moreover, men had significantly greater levels of liver steatosis: the male gender featured an increase of 23.96 points of the Fibroscan CAP. Men exhibited higher levels of steatosis and fibrosis than women, and these differences persist despite VLCKD. These gender-specific variations in steatosis and fibrosis levels could be caused by hormonal and metabolic factors, suggesting that different therapeutic strategies might be required depending on the gender.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Cirrose Hepática , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/dietoterapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Adulto , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Composição Corporal , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Fígado/metabolismo
9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 130, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and obesity are the risk factors for hyperlipidaemia. Nonetheless, research regarding the association between dietary live microbes intake and hyperlipidaemia is lacking. Therefore, this study focused on revealing the relationship between them and mediating roles of inflammation and obesity. METHODS: Totally 16,677 subjects were enrolled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (1999-2010 and 2015-2020). To explore the correlation between live microbes and hyperlipidaemia as well as blood lipid levels, respectively, multiple logistic regression and linear regression were employed. Furthermore, the mediating roles of body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (Crp) and their chain effect were explored through mediating analysis. RESULTS: High dietary live microbes intake was the protective factor for hyperlipidaemia. In addition, high dietary live microbes intake exhibited a positive relationship to the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among males (ß = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.76, P < 0.0001) and females (ß = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.38, P < 0.001), but exhibited a negative correlation with triglyceride (TG) levels in males (ß = -7.37, 95% CI: -13.16, -1.59, P = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in females (ß = -2.75, 95% CI: -5.28, -0.21, P = 0.02). Crp, BMI and their chain effect mediated the relationship between live microbes with HDL-C levels. Moreover, BMI and the chain effect mediated the relationship between live microbes with LDL-C levels. CONCLUSION: Dietary live microbes intake is related to a lower hyperlipidaemia risk. Crp, BMI and their chain effect make a mediating impact on the relationship.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa , HDL-Colesterol , Hiperlipidemias , Triglicerídeos , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Masculino , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inflamação/sangue , Dieta , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732060

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota, an intricate ecosystem within the gastrointestinal tract, plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Prebiotics, non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms, have emerged as a key modulator of this complex microbial community. This review article explores the evolution of the prebiotic concept, delineates various types of prebiotics, including fructans, galactooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, chitooligosaccharides, lactulose, resistant starch, and polyphenols, and elucidates their impact on the gut microbiota composition. We delve into the mechanisms through which prebiotics exert their effects, particularly focusing on producing short-chain fatty acids and modulating the gut microbiota towards a health-promoting composition. The implications of prebiotics on human health are extensively reviewed, focusing on conditions such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, immune function, and mental health. The review further discusses the emerging concept of synbiotics-combinations of prebiotics and probiotics that synergistically enhance gut health-and highlights the market potential of prebiotics in response to a growing demand for functional foods. By consolidating current knowledge and identifying areas for future research, this review aims to enhance understanding of prebiotics' role in health and disease, underscoring their importance in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome and overall well-being.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia
11.
Br J Sports Med ; 58(10): 538-547, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine if physiotherapists can deliver a clinically effective very low energy diet (VLED) supplementary to exercise in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and overweight or obesity. METHODS: 88 participants with knee OA and body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m2 were randomised to either intervention (n=42: VLED including two daily meal replacement products supplementary to control) or control (n=46: exercise). Both interventions were delivered by unblinded physiotherapists via six videoconference sessions over 6 months. The primary outcome was the percentage change in body weight at 6 months, measured by a blinded assessor. Secondary outcomes included BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, self-reported measures of pain, function, satisfaction and perceived global change, and physical performance tests. RESULTS: The intervention group lost a mean (SD) of 8.1% (5.2) body weight compared with 1.0% (3.2) in the control group (mean (95% CI) between-group difference 7.2% (95% CI 5.1 to 9.3), p<0.001), with significantly lower BMI and waist circumference compared with control group at follow-up. 76% of participants in the intervention group achieved ≥5% body weight loss and 37% acheived ≥10%, compared with 12% and 0%, respectively, in the control group. More participants in the intervention group (27/38 (71.1%)) reported global knee improvement than in the control group (20/42 (47.6%)) (p=0.02). There were no between-group differences in any other secondary outcomes. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: A VLED delivered by physiotherapists achieved clinically relevant weight loss and was safe for people with knee OA who were overweight or obese. The results have potential implications for future service models of care for OA and obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NIH, US National Library of Medicine, Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04733053 (1 February 2021).


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/reabilitação , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/terapia , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Dieta Redutora , Restrição Calórica , Circunferência da Cintura , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
12.
J Nutr Biochem ; 130: 109649, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642842

RESUMO

Obesity and its related metabolic diseases bring great challenges to public health. In-depth understanding on the efficacy of weight-loss interventions is critical for long-term weight control. Our study demonstrated the comparable efficacy of exercise (EX), intermittent fasting (IF), or the change of daily diet from an unhealthy to a normal chow (DR) for weight reduction, but largely divergently affected metabolic status and transcriptome of subcutaneous fat, scapular brown fat, skeletal muscles and liver in high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFHF) induced obese mice. EX and IF reduced systematic inflammation, improved glucose and lipid metabolism in liver and muscle, and amino acid metabolism and thermogenesis in adipose tissues. EX exhibited broad regulatory effects on TCA cycle, carbon metabolism, thermogenesis, propanoate-, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism across multiple tissues. IF prominently affected genes involved in mitophagy and autophagy in adipose tissues and core genes involved in butanoate metabolism in liver. DR, however, failed to improve metabolic homeostasis and biological dysfunctions in obese mice. Notably, by exploring potential inter-organ communication, we identified an obesity-resistant-like gene profile that were strongly correlated with HFHF induced metabolic derangements and could predict the degree of weight regain induced by the follow-up HFHF diet. Among them, 12 genes (e.g., Gdf15, Tfrc, Cdv3, Map2k4, and Nqo1) were causally associated with human metabolic traits, i.e., BMI, body fat mass, HbA1C, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. Our findings provide critical groundwork for improved understanding of the impacts of weight-loss interventions on host metabolism. The identified genes predicting weight regain may be considered regulatory targets for improving long-term weight control.


Assuntos
Jejum , Homeostase , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Transcriptoma , Aumento de Peso , Redução de Peso , Animais , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Camundongos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Termogênese , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Jejum Intermitente
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 177(5): 549-558, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38639542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time-restricted eating (TRE) lowers body weight in many studies. Whether TRE induces weight loss independent of reductions in calorie intake, as seen in rodent studies, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of TRE versus a usual eating pattern (UEP) on body weight in the setting of stable caloric intake. DESIGN: Randomized, isocaloric feeding study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03527368). SETTING: Clinical research unit. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with obesity and prediabetes or diet-controlled diabetes. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to TRE (10-hour eating window, 80% of calories before 1 p.m.) or UEP (≤16-hour window, ≥50% of calories after 5 p.m.) for 12 weeks. Both groups had the same nutrient content and were isocaloric with total calories determined at baseline. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was change in body weight at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose area under the curve by oral glucose tolerance test, and glycated albumin. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the effect of interventions on outcomes. RESULTS: All 41 randomly assigned participants (mean age, 59 years; 93% women; 93% Black race; mean BMI, 36 kg/m2) completed the intervention. Baseline weight was 95.6 kg (95% CI, 89.6 to 101.6 kg) in the TRE group and 103.7 kg (CI, 95.3 to 112.0 kg) in the UEP group. At 12 weeks, weight decreased by 2.3 kg (CI, 1.0 to 3.5 kg) in the TRE group and by 2.6 kg (CI, 1.5 to 3.7 kg) in the UEP group (average difference TRE vs. UEP, 0.3 kg [CI, -1.2 to 1.9 kg]). Change in glycemic measures did not differ between groups. LIMITATION: Small, single-site study; baseline differences in weight by group. CONCLUSION: In the setting of isocaloric eating, TRE did not decrease weight or improve glucose homeostasis relative to a UEP, suggesting that any effects of TRE on weight in prior studies may be due to reductions in caloric intake. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: American Heart Association.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glicemia/metabolismo , Adulto , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Jejum , Peso Corporal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose
14.
Nutrients ; 16(8)2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38674919

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of daily consumption of wheat biscuits enriched with plant proteins in postprandial metabolic responses of women with overweight/obesity who follow an energy-restricted diet. Thirty apparently healthy women participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial and were assigned either to a control (CB) or an intervention (PB) group. Participants consumed daily either a conventional (CB) or an isocaloric wheat biscuit enriched with plant proteins (PB) containing high amounts of amino acids with appetite-regulating properties, i.e., BCAAs and L-arg. At baseline and the end of the intervention, a mixed meal tolerance test was performed. The responses of glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and glicentin were evaluated over 180 min. After 12 weeks, both groups experienced significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, and waist circumference. In the PB group, a trend towards higher weight loss was observed, accompanied by lower carbohydrate, fat, and energy intakes (p < 0.05 compared to baseline and CB group), while decreases in fasting insulin and the HOMA-IR index were also observed (p < 0.05 compared to baseline). In both groups, similar postprandial glucose, ghrelin, and GLP-1 responses were detected, while iAUC for insulin was lower (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the iAUC of glicentin was greater in the PB group (p < 0.05 compared to baseline). Subjective appetite ratings were beneficially affected in both groups (p < 0.05). Consumption of wheat biscuits enriched in plant proteins contributed to greater weight loss, lower energy intake, and insulin resistance and had a positive impact on postprandial glicentin response, a peptide that can potentially predict long-term weight loss and decreased food intake.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Período Pós-Prandial , Triticum , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insulina/sangue , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Grelina/sangue , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Redução de Peso , Ingestão de Energia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9865, 2024 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684815

RESUMO

Weight change trajectory from diet and lifestyle interventions typically involves rapid weight loss followed by a weight plateau after approximately 6 months. Changing from one weight-loss diet to another at the time of the plateau could instigate renewed weight loss. Therefore, our secondary analysis aimed to assess trajectory of weight loss in a 12-month, randomized, cross-over study. Forty-two adults were randomized to eat a healthy low-fat or healthy low-carbohydrate diet for 6 months then switched to the opposite diet for an additional 6 months. Regardless of diet assignment, participants experienced rapid initial weight loss, which slowed between 3 to 6 months. After switching diets at 6 months, weight modestly decreased until 9 months, but at a rate slower than the initial 3 months and slower than the rate from 3 to 6 months. This suggests that the weight loss plateau typically seen at 6 months is physiological and cannot be overcome by simply switching to a different weight-loss diet.


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras
16.
Food Funct ; 15(8): 4475-4489, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563737

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects and underlying mechanism of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HF01 fermented yogurt (HF01-Y). Herein, obesity was induced in mice through a high-fat diet and the changes in the gut microbiota were evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, combined with the expression levels of the liver AMPK signaling pathway to analyze the potential relationship between HF01-Y-mediated gut microbiota and obesity. The results showed that supplementation with HF01-Y improved obesity-related phenotypes in mice, including reduced body weight, improved serum lipid profiles, and decreased hepatic lipid droplet formation. In addition, HF01-Y altered the composition of the gut microbiota in obese mice, significantly upregulated norank_f__Muribaculaceae, unclassified_c__Clostridia, Blautia, unclassified_o__Bacteroidales, and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, while downregulating unclassified_f__Desulfovibrionaceae, Colidextribacter, and unclassified_f__Oscillospiraceae. These alterations led to an increase of the cecum butyric acid content, which in turn indirectly promoted the activation of the AMPK signaling pathway, subsequently, inhibited fat synthesis, and promoted fatty acid oxidation related gene expression. Therefore, HF01-Y was likely to alleviate hepatic fat and relieve obesity by modulating the gut microbiota-butyric acid-hepatic lipid metabolism axis, ultimately promoting host health.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Iogurte , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Masculino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Iogurte/microbiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Probióticos/farmacologia
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 32(6): 1071-1082, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) compared with a control diet on pain in female patients with lipedema. The secondary objectives were to compare the impact of the two diets on quality of life (QoL) and investigate potential associations of changes in pain with changes in body weight, body composition, and ketosis. METHODS: Adult female patients with lipedema and obesity were randomized to either the LCD or control diet (energy prescription: 1200 kcal/day) for 8 weeks. Body weight and body composition, pain (Brief Pain Inventory measured pain), and QoL (RAND 36-Item Health Survey [RAND-36], Impact of Weight on Quality of Life [IWQOL]-Lite, and Lymphoedema Quality of Life [LYMQOL]) were measured at baseline and at postintervention. RESULTS: A total of 70 female patients (age, mean [SD], 47 [11] years; BMI 37 [5] kg/m2) were included. The LCD group had greater weight loss (-2.8 kg; 95% CI: -4.1 to -1.0; p < 0.001) and larger reduction in pain now (-1.1; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3; p = 0.009) compared with the control group. No association was found between changes in pain now and weight loss. Both groups experienced improvements in several QoL dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Diet-induced weight loss in women with lipedema can improve QoL. An energy-restricted LCD seems to be superior to a standard control diet in reducing pain.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Lipedema , Obesidade , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lipedema/dietoterapia , Adulto , Dor/dietoterapia , Dor/etiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/complicações , Composição Corporal , Resultado do Tratamento , Peso Corporal , Cetose
18.
Diabetes Care ; 47(6): 1074-1083, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the effects of a 5:2 diet (2 days per week of energy restriction by formula diet) or an exercise (2 days per week of high-intensity interval training and resistance training) intervention compared with routine lifestyle education (control) on glycemic control and cardiometabolic health among adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This two-center, open-label, three-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial recruited 326 participants with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes and randomized them into 12 weeks of diet intervention (n = 109), exercise intervention (n = 108), or lifestyle education (control) (n = 109). The primary outcome was the change of glycemic control measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) between the diet or exercise intervention groups and the control group after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS: The diet intervention significantly reduced HbA1c level (%) after the 12-week intervention (-0.72, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.48) compared with the control group (-0.37, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.15) (diet vs. control -0.34, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.11, P = 0.007). The reduction in HbA1c level in the exercise intervention group (-0.46, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.23) did not significantly differ from the control group (exercise vs. control -0.09, 95% CI -0.32 to 0.15, P = 0.47). The exercise intervention group was superior in maintaining lean body mass. Both diet and exercise interventions induced improvements in adiposity and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the medically supervised 5:2 energy-restricted diet could provide an alternative strategy for improving glycemic control and that the exercise regimen could improve body composition, although it inadequately improved glycemic control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Controle Glicêmico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Treinamento Resistido , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Treinamento Resistido/métodos , Sobrepeso/terapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Glicemia/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 108 Suppl 1: 36-41, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613489

RESUMO

Obesity is a highly prevalent disease in dogs and is characterized by the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue that results in metabolic changes. Its treatment is based on a negative energy balance focusing on energy restriction. However, there are few studies in dogs that assessed the energy intake needed for adequate weight loss and to weight maintenance afterward. The aim of this study was to evaluate data about the treatment of canine obesity, with emphasis on energy restriction to induce weight loss and to maintain body weight (BW) and ideal body condition after weight loss. This was a retrospective study in which records of obese dogs from a veterinary teaching hospital were assessed between 2014 and 2020. Sixteen dogs were considered in the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and 10 of these participated in the maintenance phase after weight loss. The animals lost a mean of 23.2% their initial weight in a mean of 422 days. The mean weekly weight loss rate was 0.58% of BW, and the mean daily energy intake for weight loss was 59 kcal/kg current BW0.75. When the target BW was considered, which was defined as the current weight minus 10% for every point in the body condition score scale above 5, the mean energy for weight loss was 71 kcal/kg target BW0.75. In the maintenance phase, the animals were assessed for a mean of 134 days. The mean energy intake to maintenance BW was 70 kcal/kg BW0.75. The lower energy requirement of obese dogs during and after weight loss can work as an alert for the formulations of therapeutic weight loss diets to contain a high nutrient density focusing on the wellbeing, health, and quality of life of obese dogs, not just for the weight loss phase, but a diet for the weight maintenance phase.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade , Redução de Peso , Animais , Cães , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Obesidade/veterinária , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Masculino , Feminino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Metabolismo Energético , Programas de Redução de Peso , Dieta/veterinária
20.
Maturitas ; 184: 107948, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Middle-aged women with obesity are at increased risk of iron overload and iron disorder is known to disrupt n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid homeostasis. We evaluated relationships between pretreatment hemoglobin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, and tested whether pretreatment hemoglobin contributed to inter-individual variability in weight loss with special focus on changes in body weight, iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles. STUDY DESIGN: 117 middle and older aged women with obesity and more than two metabolic abnormalities were randomized to a 12-week hypocaloric diet without or with fish oil supplementation. Blood iron biomarker and erythrocyte membrane phospholipid profiles were evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME: The absolute change from baseline to week 12 in serum iron and erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels according to pretreatment hemoglobin tertiles and fish oil supplementation. RESULTS: A Pearson correlation analysis showed that pretreatment hemoglobin levels were negatively correlated with linoleic acid (r = -0.231), α-linoleic acid (r = -0.279), and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (r = -0.217) (all p < 0.05). Dietary weight loss markedly enhanced erythrocyte membrane lipids of linoleic acid, α-linoleic acid, and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid only in those women with the highest pretreatment hemoglobin levels (tertile 3) (all p < 0.05). Fish oil supplementation increased bioavailable iron in women with moderate pretreatment hemoglobin levels (tertile 2) (p < 0.05) and, to a lesser extent, prevented a reduction in circulating iron in those with the lowest hemoglobin levels (tertile 1). CONCLUSION: Dietary weight loss is an effective treatment program to manage obesity-related iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid disorders, particularly for middle-aged women with obesity and iron overload.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Membrana Eritrocítica , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Óleos de Peixe , Hemoglobinas , Homeostase , Ferro , Obesidade , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Membrana Eritrocítica/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/análise , Dieta Redutora , Adulto , Restrição Calórica , Fosfolipídeos/sangue
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