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Life Sci ; 264: 118661, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121986


Obesity and diabetes are the two major metabolic complications linked with bad eating habits and the sedentary (lazy) lifestyle. In the worst-case situation, metabolic problems are a causative factor for numerous other conditions. There is also an increased demand to control the emergence of such diseases. Dietary and lifestyle improvements contribute to their leadership at an elevated level. The present review, therefore, recommends the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) in obesity and diabetes treatment. The KD involves a diet that replaces glucose sugar with ketone bodies and is effective in numerous diseases, such as metabolic disorders, epileptic seizures, autosomal dominant polycystic disease of the kidney, cancers, peripheral neuropathy, and skeletal muscle atrophy. A lot of high profile pathways are available for KD action, including sustaining the metabolic actions on glucose sugar, suppressing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, altering homeostasis of the systemic ketone bodies, contributing to lowering diabetic hyperketonemia, and others. The KD regulates the level of glucose sugar and insulin and can thus claim to be an effective diabetes approach. Thus, a stopgap between obesity and diabetes treatment can also be evidenced by KD.

Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Cetogênica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/epidemiologia
Postepy Biochem ; 66(3): 270-286, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315315


Ketogenic diet is a high fat and very low-carbohydrate nutritional approach that induces increased production of ketone bodies, which serve as an alternative to glucose energetic substrates. Since almost a century ketogenic diet has been used in the therapy of refractory epilepsy, especially in children. Because of the pleiotropic effect of ketogenic diet on physiology, including inflammation, oxidative stress, energy balance and signaling pathways, in recent years scientists have been intensively exploring the use of it in the treatment of other diseases. In the present article current clinical studies regarding the possibility of using the ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, neurological disorders and cancer has been reviewed alongside with potential mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of ketogenic diet in these diseases. The metabolic processes engaged in nutritional ketosis and practicals aspects of ketogenic dieting have been also discussed.

Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Cetose
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(7): 446-453, ago.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194701


ANTECEDENTES: Los receptores CB2R han sido etiquetados como los receptores endocanabinoides periféricos por excelencia, y regulan diferentes procesos inflamatorios. Las variantes del gen CB2R podrían desempeñar un papel en los cambios metabólicos después de la pérdida de peso con diferentes intervenciones. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la variante genética (rs3123554) del gen CB2R en los cambios antropométricos y bioquímicos después de la pérdida de peso, secundaria a una dieta hipocalórica alta proteína/baja en hidratos de carbono vs. una dieta hipocalórica estándar durante 9 meses. DISEÑO: Doscientos sesenta y ocho sujetos obesos fueron asignados al azar a una de 2 dietas durante 9 meses, dieta HP (dieta hipocalórica alta en proteínas y baja en hidratos de carbono) y dieta S (dieta hipocalórica estándar en proteínas). Se evaluaron parámetros bioquímicos y antropométricos al basal, a los 3 y a los 9 meses. RESULTADOS: Un total de 94 pacientes (35,1%) tenían el genotipo GG y 174 (64,9%) sujetos tenían los genotipos siguientes; GA (115 pacientes, 42,9%) o AA (59 sujetos de estudio, 18,0%) (segundo grupo). Después de ambas dietas y en ambos genotipos, el índice de masa corporal (IMC), la masa grasa, el peso, la circunferencia de la cintura y la presión arterial sistólica mejoraron sin diferencias entre ambas dietas. Antes y después de ambas dietas hipocalóricas, el peso corporal, el IMC, la masa grasa y la circunferencia de la cintura fueron mayores en los portadores del alelo A. Después de ambas dietas (HP y S), la glucosa, los niveles de insulina, HOMA-IR, los triglicéridos, el colesterol total y el colesterol-LDL disminuyeron en portadores de alelos no A. Estos parámetros se mantuvieron sin cambios en los portadores de alelos A. Los niveles de leptina disminuyeron después de las dietas HP y S en ambos genotipos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los no portadores del alelo A mostraron una mejor respuesta del colesterol total, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, glucosa, HOMA-IR y niveles de insulina que los portadores A con ambas dietas hipocalóricas y con la misma pérdida de peso

BACKGROUND: CB2R receptors has been referred to as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor isoform, and regulate inflammatory response in various settings. CB2R gene variants could play a role on metabolic changes after weight loss with different interventions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the genetic variant (rs3123554) of the CB2R gene on anthropometric and biochemical changes after weight loss secondary to a high protein/low carbohydrate diet vs. a standard low-calorie diet during 9 months. DESIGN: 268 obese subjects were randomly allocated to one of two diets for 9 months, Diet HP (high protein-low carbohydrate low-calorie diet) and Diet S (standard protein low-calorie diet). Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 and 9 months. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients (35.1%) had genotype GG and 174 (64.9%) subjects had the following genotypes; GA (115 patients, 42.9%) or AA (59 study subjects, 18.0%) (second group). After both diets, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, weight, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure improved in both genotypes with no difference between diets. Before and after both low-calorie diets, body weight, BMI, fat mass, and waist circumference were higher in A allele carriers than in non-A allele carriers. After both diets (HP and S), levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in non-A allele carriers. These parameters remained unchanged in A allele carriers. Leptin levels decreased after HP and S diets in both genotypes. CONCLUSION: Non-A allele carriers showed a better response of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels than allele A carriers with both low-calorie diets and with the same weight loss

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Carboidratos da Dieta , Antropometria/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Perda de Peso/genética , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Circunferência da Cintura , Estudos Prospectivos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Leptina/uso terapêutico , Alelos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436


BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.

Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003332, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960883


BACKGROUND: Whether a healthy lifestyle impacts longevity in the presence of multimorbidity is unclear. We investigated the associations between healthy lifestyle and life expectancy in people with and without multimorbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 480,940 middle-aged adults (median age of 58 years [range 38-73], 46% male, 95% white) were analysed in the UK Biobank; this longitudinal study collected data between 2006 and 2010, and participants were followed up until 2016. We extracted 36 chronic conditions and defined multimorbidity as 2 or more conditions. Four lifestyle factors, based on national guidelines, were used: leisure-time physical activity, smoking, diet, and alcohol consumption. A combined weighted score was developed and grouped participants into 4 categories: very unhealthy, unhealthy, healthy, and very healthy. Survival models were applied to predict life expectancy, adjusting for ethnicity, working status, deprivation, body mass index, and sedentary time. A total of 93,746 (19.5%) participants had multimorbidity. During a mean follow-up of 7 (range 2-9) years, 11,006 deaths occurred. At 45 years, in men with multimorbidity an unhealthy score was associated with a gain of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.3 to 3.3; P = 0.102) additional life years compared to very unhealthy score, though the association was not significant, whilst a healthy score was significantly associated with a gain of 4.5 (3.3 to 5.7; P < 0.001) life years and a very healthy score with 6.3 (5.0 to 7.7; P < 0.001) years. Corresponding estimates in women were 3.5 (95% CI 0.7 to 6.3; P = 0.016), 6.4 (4.8 to 7.9; P < 0.001), and 7.6 (6.0 to 9.2; P < 0.001) years. Results were consistent in those without multimorbidity and in several sensitivity analyses. For individual lifestyle factors, no current smoking was associated with the largest survival benefit. The main limitations were that we could not explore the consistency of our results using a more restrictive definition of multimorbidity including only cardiometabolic conditions, and participants were not representative of the UK as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of data from the UK Biobank, we found that regardless of the presence of multimorbidity, engaging in a healthier lifestyle was associated with up to 6.3 years longer life for men and 7.6 years for women; however, not all lifestyle risk factors equally correlated with life expectancy, with smoking being significantly worse than others.

Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Multimorbidade/tendências , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Reino Unido
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 44(5): 421-426, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955747


OBJECTIVE: To determine longer-term (18-month) sustainability of a six-month physical activity and nutrition intervention for 50-69-year-olds with or at risk of metabolic syndrome residing in a rural Australian community. METHODS: Participants (n=151) were followed-up at 12 and 18 months post-intervention. Changes in nutrition behaviours (fat and fibre barometer); physical activity behaviours (IPAQ); anthropometry (waist-hip ratio, weight, BMI), blood pressure, blood parameters (triglycerides, glucose, LDL-, HDL-, non-HDL, total-cholesterol) were analysed using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Across three time points (6, 12 and 18 months) marginal decrease was observed for waist circumference (p=0.001), a modest increase was observed for diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010) and other outcome measures remained stable. CONCLUSION: Maintenance and ongoing improvement of health behaviours in the longer-term is challenging. Future studies must look for ways to embed interventions into communities so they are sustainable and investigate new approaches to reduce the risk of chronic disease. Implications for public health: Metabolic syndrome is a major health issue in Australia and worldwide. Early identification and management are required to prevent the progression to chronic disease. This 18-month follow-up showed that outcomes measures remained relatively stable; however, there is a need to investigate opportunities for embedded community interventions to support long-term health behaviour change.

Dieta , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antropometria , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Fatores de Tempo
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1212-1218, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844188


BACKGROUND: The existence of metabolic adaptation, following weight loss, remains a controversial issue. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the role of energy balance (EB) in modulating metabolic adaptation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if metabolic adaptation, at the level of resting metabolic rate (RMR), is modulated by participants' EB status. A secondary aim was to investigate if metabolic adaptation was associated with weight regain. METHODS: Seventy-one individuals with obesity (BMI: 34.6 ± 3.4 kg/m2; age: 45.4 ± 8.2 y; 33 men) enrolled in a 1000-kcal/d diet for 8 wk, followed by 4 wk of weight stabilization and a 9-mo weight loss maintenance program. Body weight/composition and RMR were measured at baseline, week 9 (W9), week 13 (W13), and 1 y (1Y). Metabolic adaptation was defined as a significantly different (lower or higher) measured compared with predicted RMR. RESULTS: Participants lost on average 14 kg by W9, followed by weight stabilization at W13, and regained 29% of their initial weight loss at 1Y. Metabolic adaptation was found at W9 (-92 ± 110 kcal/d, P < 0.001) and W13 (-38 ± 124 kcal/d, P = 0.011) but was not correlated with weight regain. A significant reduction in metabolic adaptation was seen between W9 and W13 (-53 ± 101 kcal/d, P < 0.001). In a subset of participants who gained weight between W9 and W13 (n = 33), no metabolic adaptation was seen at W13 (-26.8 ± 121.5 kcal/d, P = 0.214). In a subset of participants with data at all time points (n = 45), metabolic adaptation was present at W9 and W13 (-107 ± 102 kcal/d, P < 0.001 and -49 ± 128 kcal/d, P = 0.013) but not at 1Y (-7 ± 129, P = 0.701). CONCLUSION: After weight loss, metabolic adaptation at the level of RMR is dependent on the EB status of the participants, being reduced to half after a period of weight stabilization. Moreover, metabolic adaptation does not predict weight regain at 1Y follow-up. These trials were registered at as NCT02944253 and NCT03287726.

Adaptação Fisiológica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111701, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858131


Obesity and its related metabolic disorders, as well as infectious diseases like covid-19, are important health risks nowadays. It was recently documented that long-term fasting improves metabolic health and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity. The present study investigated the influence of a 10-day fasting on markers of the redox status in 109 subjects. Reducing power, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation(ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity increased significantly, and indicated an increase of circulating antioxidant levels. No differences were detected in superoxide scavenging capacity, protein carbonyls, and superoxide dismutase when measured at baseline and after 10 days of fasting. These findings were concomitant to a decrease in blood glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides as well as an increase in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio. In addition, the well-being index as well as the subjective energy levels increased, documenting a good tolerability. There was an interplay between redox and metabolic parameters since lipid peroxidation baseline levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) affected the ability of long-term fasting to normalize lipid levels. A machine learning model showed that a combination of antioxidant parameters measured at baseline predicted the efficiency of the fasting regimen to decrease LDL levels. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that long-term fasting enhanced the endogenous production of antioxidant molecules, that act protectively against free radicals, and in parallel improved the metabolic health status. Our results suggest that the outcome of long-term fasting strategies could be depending on the baseline values of the antioxidative and metabolic status of subjects.

Jejum/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
N Engl J Med ; 383(8): 721-732, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813948


BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that in people with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has therapeutic effects on metabolic function that are independent of weight loss. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic regulators of glucose homeostasis before and after matched (approximately 18%) weight loss induced by gastric bypass (surgery group) or diet alone (diet group) in 22 patients with obesity and diabetes. The primary outcome was the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, assessed by infusion of insulin at low rates (stages 1 and 2 of a 3-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic pancreatic clamp). Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin profiles. RESULTS: Weight loss was associated with increases in mean suppression of glucose production from baseline, by 7.04 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.74 to 9.33) in the diet group and by 7.02 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% CI, 3.21 to 10.84) in the surgery group during clamp stage 1, and by 5.39 (95% CI, 2.44 to 8.34) and 5.37 (95% CI, 2.41 to 8.33) µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the two groups, respectively, during clamp stage 2; there were no significant differences between the groups. Weight loss was associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, from 30.5±15.9 to 61.6±13.0 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the diet group and from 29.4±12.6 to 54.5±10.4 µmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the surgery group; there was no significant difference between the groups. Weight loss increased beta-cell function (insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity) by 1.83 units (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.44) in the diet group and by 1.11 units (95% CI, 0.08 to 2.15) in the surgery group, with no significant difference between the groups, and it decreased the areas under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin levels in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. No major complications occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery and diet were similar and were apparently related to weight loss itself, with no evident clinically important effects independent of weight loss. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; number, NCT02207777.).

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Feminino , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Indução de Remissão
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(6): 374-382, jun.-jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193362


BACKGROUND: The role of ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variants on weight loss after a dietary intervention are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of the ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variant n weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, and adiponectin levels after two hypocaloric diets with different dietary fatty profiles. DESIGN: A population of 362 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two diets (Diet M, monounsaturated fat-enriched diet, and Diet P, polyunsaturated-fat enriched diet). Anthropometric measurements, an assessment of nutritional intake, and biochemical tests were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: Weight loss was similar with both diets. After Diet M, only subjects with CC genotype showed significant improvements in total cholesterol (CC vs. CG ± GG) -9.0 ±1.1 mU/L vs. -4.5 ± 2.4 mg/dL, p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (-6.0 ± 1.1 mg/dL vs. -3.0 ± 0.9 mg/dL, p = 0.03), glucose (-4.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL vs. -0.6 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.01), and insulin levels (-2.6 ±1.0 mU/L vs. -0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L, p = 0.02) and in HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 0.2 units vs. -0.2 ± 0.4 units, p = 0.03). The same improvement was reported after Diet P in all parameters, including total cholesterol (CC vs. CG±GG) (-8.0 ± 1.2mU/L vs. -2.1 ± 1.4 mg/dL, p = 0.02), LDL cholesterol (-7.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL vs. -2.1 ± 0.8 mg/dL, p = 0.02), glucose (-3.2 ± 0.1mg/dL vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 mg/dL, p = 0.01), and insulin levels (-2.5 ± 1.0 mU/L vs. -1 ± 0.6 mU/L, p = 0.02) and HOMA-IR (-0.5 ± 0.1 units vs. −0.3 ± 0.4 units, p = 0.02). Only subjects with CC genotype showed significant increases in adiponectin levels after both diets: (Diet M: 10.3 ± 2.0 ng/dL vs. Diet P: 9.3 ± 2.9 ng/dL, p = 0.43). CONCLUSION: The CC genotype of ADIPOQ gene rs266729 variant is associated to increased adiponectin levels and decreases in LDL cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels after weight loss

ANTECEDENTES: El papel de las variantes del gen ADIPOQ en la pérdida de peso después de una intervención dietética sigue sin estar claro. OBJETIVO: Nuestro objetivo fue analizar los efectos de la variante rs266729 del gen ADIPOQ sobre la pérdida de peso, los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los niveles de adiponectina después de 2 dietas hipocalóricas con diferentes perfiles de grasas en la dieta. DISEÑO: Una población de 362 pacientes obesos se incluyeron en un ensayo clínico aleatorizado con 2 dietas (dieta M: dieta enriquecida con grasas monoinsaturadas y dieta P: dieta enriquecida con grasas poliinsaturadas). Antes y tras 12 semanas, se realizó una evaluación antropométrica, evaluación de la ingesta nutricional y un análisis bioquímico. RESULTADOS: La pérdida de peso fue similar con ambas dietas. Después de la dieta M, solo los sujetos con genotipo CC mostraron una mejoría significativa en el colesterol total (CC vs. CG±GG) (-9,0 ± 1,1 mU/l vs. - 4,5 ± 2,4 mg/dl; p = 0,01), colesterol LDL (-6,0 ± 1,1 mg/dl vs. - 3,0 ± 0,9 mg/dl; p = 0,03), glucosa (-4,7 ± 1,1 mg/dl vs. -0,6 ± 0,5 mg/dl; p = 0,01), niveles de insulina (-2,6 ± 1,0 mU/l vs. -0,7± 0,3 mU/l; p = 0,02) y HOMA-IR (- 0,5 ± 0,2 unidades vs. -0,2 ± 0,4 unidades; p = 0,03). La misma mejora en todos los parámetros se informó después de la dieta P; niveles de colesterol total (CC vs. CG ± GG) (-8,0 ± 1,2 mU/l vs. -2,1 ± 1,4 mg/dl; p = 0,02), colesterol LDL (-7,3 ± 1,2 mg/dl vs. -2,1 ±0,8 mg/dl; p = 0,02), glucosa (-3,2 ± 0,1 mg/dl vs. -0,2 ± 0,5 mg/dl; p = 0,01), niveles de insulina (-2,5 ±1,0 mU/l vs. -1 ±0,6 mU/l; p = 0,02) y HOMA-IR (-0,5 ± 0,1 unidades vs. -0,3 ± 0,4 unidades; p = 0,02). Solo los sujetos con genotipo CC mostraron un aumento significativo de los niveles de adiponectina después de ambas dietas: (dieta M: 10,3 ± 2,0 ng/dl vs. dieta P: 9,3 ± 2,9 ng/dl; p = 0,43). CONCLUSIÓN: El genotipo CC de la variante rs266729 del gen ADIPOQ se asocia con aumentos en los niveles de adiponectina y disminución del colesterol LDL, glucosa, insulina y HOMA-IR tras la pérdida de peso

Humanos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adiponectina/genética , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Perda de Peso , Gorduras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Adiponectina/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Antropometria , LDL-Colesterol , Genótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/sangue , Análise de Variância
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(9): 1500-1511, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620337


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Consumption of soy foods has been associated with protection against cardiometabolic disease, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that habitual soy food consumption associates with gut microbiome composition, metabolite production, and the interaction between diet, microbiota and metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed dietary soy intake, plasma and stool metabolites, and gut microbiome data from two independent cross-sectional samples of healthy US individuals (N = 75 lean or overweight, and N = 29 obese). Habitual soy intake associated with several circulating metabolites. There was a significant interaction between soy intake and gut microbiome composition, as defined by gut enterotype, on metabolites in plasma and stool. Soy consumption associated with reduced systolic blood pressure, but only in a subset of individuals defined by their gut microbiome enterotype, suggesting that responsiveness to soy may be dependent on microbiome composition. Soy intake was associated with differences in specific microbial taxa, including two taxa mapping to genus Dialister and Prevotella which appeared to be suppressed by high soy intake We identified context-dependent effects of these taxa, where presence of Prevotella was associated with higher blood pressure and a worse cardiometabolic profile, but only in the absence of Dialister. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome is an important intermediate in the interplay between dietary soy intake and systemic metabolism. Consumption of soy foods may shape the microbiome by suppressing specific taxa, and may protect against hypertension only in individuals with soy-responsive microbiota. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: NCT02010359 at

Pressão Sanguínea , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Alimentos de Soja , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pennsylvania , Ribotipagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 443-449, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193850


ANTECEDENTES: los hábitos alimentarios y los patrones de actividad física (AF) juegan un papel crucial en el desarrollo integral de niños y adolescentes. OBJETIVO: comparar según frecuencia de AF (es decir, 0, 1, 2, 3 o 4 veces/semana) y estatus corporal (es decir, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad) la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea (DM), la insatisfacción por la imagen corporal y la condición física relacionada con la salud (CF), y, como segundo objetivo, determinar la asociación entre estas variables. MÉTODOS: participaron 481 escolares, 166 mujeres y 315 hombres, de entre 8 y 15 años (12,10 ± 1,10 años) pertenecientes a escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco (Chile). Se clasificaron en 3 grupos según la frecuencia de AF: grupo 1, no realiza AF; grupo 2, AF 1-2 veces/semana, y grupo 3: AF 3-4 veces/semana. Se midió la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (CRF), el salto de longitud a pies juntos (SJT), la fuerza prensil, la adherencia a la DM y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal. RESULTADOS: los escolares con más días de AF/semana reportaron mayor adherencia a la DM (p = 0,020), VO2MAX (p < 0,001) y mayor SJT (p < 0,001). Asimismo, los escolares con normopeso presentaron más adherencia a la DM (p < 0,001) y menor grado de insatisfacción con la imagen corporal (p < 0,001). Se aprecia una asociación positiva entre la AF y la CRF (B; 1,28, p < 01001). El género presentó asociación con la insatisfacción de la imagen corporal (B; 25,51, p = 01019). CONCLUSIÓN: los escolares con mayor frecuencia de AF/semana presentaron mayor adherencia a la DM y mejor CF relacionada a la salud

BACKGROUND: dietary habits and physical activity (PA) patterns play a crucial role in the integral development of children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: to compare according PA frequency (i.e., 0,1,2,3 or 4 times / week) and weight status (i.e., normal weight, overweight and obesity), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), body image dissatisfaction and the physical fitness related to health, and as second objective to determine the association between these variables. METHODS: 481 schoolchildren, 166 women and 315 men aged between 8 and 15 years (12.10 ± 1.10 years) belonging to public schools of Temuco, Chile participated. They were classified in three groups according PA frequency: group 1, without PA; group 2, PA 1-2 times/week, and group 3, PA 3-4 times/week. Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), standing jump long test (SJT), handgrip strength, adherence to MD and body image dissatisfaction were measured. RESULTS: Schoolchildren with more days of PA / week reported higher adherence to MD (p = 0.020), VO2max (p < 0.001) and SJT (p < 0.001) than peers. Likewise, schoolchildren with normal weight show more adherence to MD (P <0.001) and lower body image dissatisfaction (p < 0.001). There is a positive association between PA with VO2MAX (B, 1.28, p < 0.001). The gender presented association with body image dissatisfaction (B, 25.51, p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: the schoolchildren with greater frequency of PA/week, presenting greater adherence to MD and better physical fitness related to health

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar , Imagem Corporal , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Dieta Mediterrânea , Chile , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Destreza Motora , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 456-464, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193852


BACKGROUND: obesity is a chronic disease associated with inadequate eating habits and reduced levels of physical activity. Because of obesity, the risk for comorbidities is increased, especially for cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, and increased pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of the present investigation was to analyze potential correlations between pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines, glycemic index, and other markers of diet quality using a metabolic profile in women undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. METHODS: thirty-two women with obesity were enrolled in a 12-week program of interdisciplinary therapy combining a clinical, nutritional, and physical exercise approach. Body composition, quality of diet, metabolic profile, and pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines were analyzed. RESULTS: the therapy showed to be effective in reducing body weight (from 93.16 ± 16.96 to 88.36 ± 16.23; p = 0.0000001), body mass index (from 34.01 ± 4.00 to 32.29 ± 3.96; p = 0.0000001), and body fat (from 38.25 ± 5.05 to 36.13 ± 5; p = 0.0000001). There was also an improvement in lipid profile, including total cholesterol (from 196.16 ± 34.78 to 183.53 ± 43.15; p = 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (from 142 ± 30.05 to 1333.69 ± 35.41; p = 0.01), VLDL-cholesterol (from 27.13 ± 12.4 to 22.06 ± 8.55; p = 0.002), triglycerides (from 135.88 ± 61.21 to 110.75 ± 43.09; p = 0.002) and glucose metabolism, including glucose (from 97.13 ± 10.43 to 92.6 ± 6.6; p = 0.004), and insulin (from 13.05 ± 5.54 to 11.29 ± 4.85; p = 0.03). As for food intake, there was a decrease in calorie consumption (from 1991.45 ± 677.78 to 1468.88 ± 390.56; p = 0.002), carbohydrates (from 50.37 ± 6 to 47.04 ± 8.67; p = 0.04), lipids (from 31.83 ± 5.53 to 30.37 ± 7.04; p = 0.3), and glycemic load (from 80.53 ± 39.88 to 54.79 ± 23.69; p = 0.02), and an increased consumption of proteins (from 18.3 ± 2.39 to 22.89 ± 4.9; p = 0.002). Positive correlations were demonstrated between insulin concentration and waist circumference (r = 0.82; p = 0.003); leptin and body fat and abdominal circumference (r = 0.74; p = 0.01); and LDL-cholesterol fraction and total cholesterol consumption (r = 0.69; p = 0.027). Negative correlations were demonstrated between leptin and monosaturated fat consumption (r = -0.71; p = 0.02); and adiponectin and liver enzyme GGT levels (r = -0.65; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: interdisciplinary therapy had positive effects on inflammatory state, mediated by leptin, adiponectin, and quality of diet. Our findings suggest the effectiveness and clinical relevance of the interdisciplinary clinical therapy applied for obesity

INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica asociada con hábitos alimentarios inadecuados y niveles reducidos de actividad física. Debido a la obesidad, el riesgo de comorbilidad aumenta, especialmente el de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la resistencia a la insulina y el aumento de los factores proinflamatorios. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar las posibles correlaciones entre las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias, el índice glucémico y otros marcadores de calidad de la dieta con el perfil metabólico en mujeres sometidas a terapia interdisciplinaria para perder peso. MÉTODOS: treinta y dos mujeres con obesidad participaron en 12 semanas de terapia interdisciplinaria en la que se combinaron los enfoques clínico, nutricional y de ejercicio físico. Se analizaron la composición corporal, la calidad de la dieta, el perfil metabólico y las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias. RESULTADOS: la terapia demostró ser efectiva para reducir el peso corporal (de 93,16 ± 16,96 a 88,36 ± 16,23; p = 0,0000001), el índice de masa corporal (de 34,01 ± 4,00 a 32,29 ± 3,96; p = 0,0000001) y la grasa corporal (de 38,25 ± 5,05 a 36,13 ± 5,00; p = 0,0000001). También hubo una mejora del perfil lipídico, incluidos el colesterol total (de 196,16 ± 34,78 a 183,53 ± 43,15; p = 0,001), el colesterol no HDL (de 142,00 ± 30,05 a 1333,69 ± 35,41; p = 0,01), el VLDL-colesterol (de 27,13 ± 12,4 a 22,06 ± 8,55; p = 0,002), y el metabolismo de la glucosa, incluyendo la glucosa (de 97,13 ± 10,43 a 92,6 ± 6,6; p = 0,004) y la insulina (de 13,05 ± 5,54 a 11,29 ± 4,85; p = 0,03). En cuanto a la ingesta de alimentos, hubo disminución en el consumo de calorías (de 1991,45 ± 677,78 a 1468,88 ± 390,56; p = 0,002), carbohidratos (de 50,37 ± 6,00 a 47,04 ± 8,67; p = 0,04), lípidos (de 31,83 ± 5,53 a 30,37 ± 7,04; p = 0,3) y carga glucémica (de 80,53 ± 39,88 a 54,79 ± 23,69; p = 0,02), y aumento del consumo de proteínas (de 18,3 ± 2,39 a 22,89 ± 4,90; p = 0,002). Se demostraron correlaciones positivas entre la concentración de insulina y la circunferencia de la cintura (r = 0,82; p = 0,003); la leptina, la grasa corporal y la circunferencia abdominal (r = 0,74; p = 0,01), y la fracción de colesterol LDL y el consumo total de colesterol (r = 0,69; p = 0,027). Se demostraron correlaciones negativas entre la leptina y el consumo de grasa monosaturada (r = -0,71; p = 0,02), y la adiponectina y la enzima hepática GGT (r = -0,65; p = 0,04). CONCLUSIONES: la terapia interdisciplinaria tuvo efectos positivos sobre el estado inflamatorio, mediado por la leptina, la adiponectina, y la calidad de la dieta. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren la efectividad y la relevancia clínica de la terapia clínica interdisciplinaria aplicada a la obesidad

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leptina/administração & dosagem , Adiponectina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adipocinas/administração & dosagem , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Composição Corporal/fisiologia
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 465-473, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193853


INTRODUCTION: the composition of snack foods likely influences the overall effect that snacking has on metabolism and obesity. The objective of the current study was to assess the responses to two different snacks, one of them supplemented with wakame and carobs, on cardiovascular risk factors, satiety, and subsequent food intake in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty patients were randomized in a clinical trial (NCT03420989, to group I (enriched snack, n = 16) or group II (control snack, n = 16). At baseline and after 8 weeks biochemical parameters, dietary intakes, and nutritional status were assessed. The subjects also rated their feelings of satiety/hunger with a test meal. RESULTS: no differences were detected in anthropometric parameters between both snacks. Changes in other parameters were detected in patients with enriched snacks, with a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol by 7.4 % (intervention snack, -8.9 ± 2.3 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.9 ± 3.3 mg/dL; p = 0.03), in total cholesterol by 5.8 % (intervention snack, -10.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL vs control snack, -1.4 ± 3.2 mg/dL; p = 0.02), and in resistin level by 15.9 % (intervention snack, -1.0 ± 0.2 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.1 ± 0.3 mg/dL: p = 0.03). After the test meal, satiety scores (after 20 min and 40 min) were higher than fasting levels in both groups. The same results were obtained with the 100-mm, 5-point visual satiety scale. CONCLUSION: our study indicates that a wakame- and carob-enriched snack induces a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and resistin levels when compared to a control snack, without effects on food consumption, other cardiovascular parameters, or anthropometric parameters

INTRODUCCIÓN: la composición de los "snacks" probablemente influya en el efecto que produce su consumo sobre los marcadores metabólicos y la obesidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las respuestas a dos snacks, uno de ellos suplementado con wakame y algarroba, sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular, saciedad y posterior ingesta de alimentos, en sujetos obesos con síndrome metabólico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se aleatorizaron 40 pacientes en el ensayo clínico NCT03420989 ( para participar en el grupo I (snack enriquecido, n = 16) o el grupo II (snack de control, n = 16). Antes y después de 8 semanas se determinaron los parámetros bioquímicos, las ingestas dietéticas y el estado nutricional. A los sujetos también se les evaluó la saciedad y el apetito con una comida de prueba. RESULTADOS: no se detectaron diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos con ambos snacks. Se detectaron cambios en los parámetros bioquímicos de los pacientes que recibieron snacks enriquecidos, con una disminución significativa del colesterol-LDL del 7,4 % (snack de intervención, -8,9 ± 2,3 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,9 ± 3,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03), del colesterol total del 5,8 % (snack de intervención, -10,4 ± 2,9 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -1,4 ± 3,2 mg/dl; p = 0,02) y de los niveles de resistina del 15,9 % (snack de intervención, -1,0 ± 0,2 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,1 ± 0,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03). Después de la comida de prueba, las puntuaciones de saciedad (a los 20 min y 40 min) fueron más altas que el nivel de ayuno en ambos grupos. Los resultados fueron similares con la escala de saciedad visual de 5 puntos y 100 mm. CONCLUSIÓN: nuestro estudio muestra que un snack enriquecido con wakame y algarroba produce una disminución significativa de los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol-LDL y resistina frente a un snack de control, sin efectos sobre el consumo de alimentos, otros parámetros cardiovasculares y los parámetros antropométricos

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lanches/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Undaria , Método Duplo-Cego , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Antropometria , Receptores de Adipocina/administração & dosagem , Undaria/química , Galactanos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520932372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597335


BACKGROUND: Obesity is an independent risk factor for many diseases. Many studies have investigated the benefits of losing weight as well as the best methods for weight loss. This research evaluated the impact of various weight loss programs on health enhancement among overweight women aged 40-60 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study that analyzed data from 145 overweight women in weight loss programs. Each woman joined one of four programs: 8 weeks of exercise plus diet (exe + nutr), 8 weeks of diet only (nutrition), 8 weeks of exercise only, or a control group. Women completed a psychological questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric tests, blood pressure checks, a predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) test on an ergometer bicycle, a one-leg balance test, straight leg test, and a sit and reach test, both before and after the program. Participants also provided a blood sample. RESULTS: All of the measured variables improved in the exe + nutr and nutrition programs when compared with the control group; the exe + nutr group improved the most: body mass index, -1.3 kg/m2; body fat, -2.9%; lean body mass, +1.1; VO2 max, +4.8; body image, +1.02; and p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis-generating findings showed that weight loss programs improved anthropometric, biochemical, physiological, physical, and psychological variables in women aged 40-60 years. The program that included diet restriction with exercise, guidance, and regular counseling showed the best results.

Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1235-1244, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475085


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare two energy-restricted, nutrient-dense diets at the upper or lower ends of the dietary fat recommendation range (lower fat [20% energy from fat] versus moderate fat [35%]) on weight loss using behavioral theory-based nutrition education. METHODS: A total of 101 premenopausal women with overweight or obesity were randomized to an energy-restricted lower-fat or moderate-fat diet for 1 year. Interventions included 28 behavioral theory-based nutrition education sessions plus weekly exercise sessions. RESULTS: Both treatment groups experienced weight loss (-5.0 kg for lower fat and -4.3 kg for moderate fat; P < 0.0001), but there was no difference in weight loss or fat intake between groups. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased (-3. 4 mg/dL and -3.8 mg/dL; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (1.9 mg/dL; P < 0.05) in both groups at 12 months. Diet quality, assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, increased significantly at 4 months versus baseline (70.8 [0.9] vs. 77.8 [1.0]) and was maintained through 12 months. Higher Healthy Eating Index scores were associated with greater weight loss at 4 months (r = -0.2; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a well-resourced, free-living weight-loss intervention, total fat intake did not change; however, theory-based nutrition education underpinned by food-based recommendations resulted in caloric deficits, improvements in diet quality, and weight loss that was sustained for 1 year.

Manutenção do Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Política Nutricional , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Restrição Calórica , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia
Diabetes ; 69(9): 1917-1926, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493715


Salivary amylase, encoded by the AMY1 gene, is responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates. We investigated associations of AMY1 genetic variations with general and central adiposity changes considering dietary carbohydrate intake among 32,054 adults from four prospective cohort studies. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on nine AMY1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, with higher AMY1-GRS indicating higher activity of salivary amylase. We meta-analyzed interactions between AMY1-GRS and dietary intake for changes in general and central adiposity over 5.5-10 years. We found that carbohydrate food intake significantly altered associations of AMY1-GRS with changes in BMI (P interaction = 0.001) and waist circumference (P interaction < 0.001). Results were consistent and significant in female cohorts rather than in male cohorts. Among women, higher AMY1-GRS was associated with more increases in adiposity if dietary carbohydrate food intake was high, while higher AMY1-GRS was associated with less gains in adiposity when the dietary intake was low. Also, in a 2-year randomized dietary intervention trial, associations of AMY1-GRS with changes in weight (P interaction = 0.023) and waist circumference (P interaction = 0.037) were significantly modified by carbohydrate intake. Our results suggest the importance of precision nutrition strategies considering participants' genetic adaptation to carbohydrate-rich diets in regulating general and central adiposity.

Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta , Obesidade/genética , alfa-Amilases Salivares/genética , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento