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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
BMJ ; 367: l5837, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether calorie labeling of menus in large restaurant chains was associated with a change in mean calories purchased per transaction. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal study. SETTING: Large franchise of a national fast food company with three different restaurant chains located in the southern United States (Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi) from April 2015 until April 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 104 restaurants with calorie information added to in-store and drive-thru menus in April 2017 and with weekly aggregated sales data during the pre-labeling (April 2015 to April 2017) and post-labeling (April 2017 to April 2018) implementation period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the overall level and trend changes in mean purchased calories per transaction after implementation of calorie labeling compared with the counterfactual (ie, assumption that the pre-intervention trend would have persisted had the intervention not occurred) using interrupted time series analyses with linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes were by item category (entrees, sides, and sugar sweetened beverages). Subgroup analyses estimated the effect of calorie labeling in stratums defined by the sociodemographic characteristics of restaurant census tracts (defined region for taking census). RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 14 352 restaurant weeks. Over three years and among 104 restaurants, 49 062 440 transactions took place and 242 726 953 items were purchased. After labeling implementation, a level decrease was observed of 60 calories/transaction (95% confidence interval 48 to 72; about 4%), followed by an increasing trend of 0.71 calories/transaction/week (95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.92) independent of the baseline trend over the year after implementation. These results were generally robust to different analytic assumptions in sensitivity analyses. The level decrease and post-implementation trend change were stronger for sides than for entrees or sugar sweetened beverages. The level decrease was similar between census tracts with higher and lower median income, but the post-implementation trend in calories per transaction was higher in low income (change in calories/transaction/week 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.21) than in high income census tracts (0.50, 0.19 to 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: A small decrease in mean calories purchased per transaction was observed after implementation of calorie labeling in a large franchise of fast food restaurants. This reduction diminished over one year of follow-up.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574857

RESUMO

Treatment with nitisinone (NTBC) has brought about a drastic improvement in the treatment and prognosis of hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1). We conducted a retrospective observational multicentric study in Spanish HT1 patients treated with NTBC to assess clinical and biochemical long-term evolution.We evaluated 52 patients, 7 adults and 45 children, treated with NTBC considering: age at diagnosis, diagnosis by clinical symptoms, or by newborn screening (NBS); phenotype (acute/subacute/chronic), mutational analysis; symptoms at diagnosis and clinical course; biochemical markers; doses of NTBC; treatment adherence; anthropometric evolution; and neurocognitive outcome.The average follow-up period was 6.1 ±â€Š4.9 and 10.6 ±â€Š5.4 years in patients with early and late diagnosis respectively. All patients received NTBC from diagnosis with an average dose of 0.82 mg/kg/d. All NBS-patients (n = 8) were asymptomatic at diagnosis except 1 case with acute liver failure, and all remain free of liver and renal disease in follow-up. Liver and renal affectation was markedly more frequent at diagnosis in patients with late diagnosis (P < .001 and .03, respectively), with ulterior positive hepatic and renal course in 86.4% and 93.2% of no-NBS patients, although 1 patient with good metabolic control developed hepatocarcinoma.Despite a satisfactory global nutritional evolution, 46.1% of patients showed overweight/obesity. Interestingly lower body mass index was observed in patients with good dietary adherence (20.40 ±â€Š4.43 vs 24.30 ±â€Š6.10; P = .08) and those with good pharmacological adherence (21.19 ±â€Š4.68 vs 28.58 ±â€Š213.79).intellectual quotient was ≥85 in all NBS- and 68.75% of late diagnosis cases evaluated, 15% of which need pedagogical support, and 6.8% (3/44) showed school failure.Among the 12 variants identified in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase gene, 1 of them novel (H63D), the most prevalent in Spanish population is c.554-1 G>T.After NTBC treatment a reduction in tyrosine and alpha-fetoprotein levels was observed in all the study groups, significant for alpha-fetoprotein in no NBS-group (P = .03), especially in subacute/chronic forms (P = .018).This series confirms that NTBC treatment had clearly improved the prognosis and quality of life of HT1 patients, but it also shows frequent cognitive dysfunctions and learning difficulties in medium-term follow-up, and, in a novel way, a high percentage of overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Cicloexanonas/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Nitrobenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade , Qualidade de Vida , Tirosinemias , Adulto , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/etiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/etiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tirosinemias/complicações , Tirosinemias/diagnóstico , Tirosinemias/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosinemias/psicologia
4.
BMJ ; 366: l4786, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: General adult population of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 36 324 households with data on product level household expenditure from UK Kantar FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) panel for January 2012 to December 2013. Data were used to estimate changes in energy (kcal, 1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ) purchase associated with a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. Data for 2544 adults from waves 5 to 8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2012-16) were used to estimate resulting changes in BMI and prevalence of obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effect on per person take home energy purchases of a 20% price increase for three categories of high sugar snacks: confectionery (including chocolate), biscuits, and cakes. Health outcomes resulting from the price increase were measured as changes in weight, BMI (not overweight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI ≥25 and <30), and obese (BMI ≥30)), and prevalence of obesity. Results were stratified by household income and BMI. RESULTS: For income groups combined, the average reduction in energy consumption for a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks was estimated to be 8.9×103 kcal (95% confidence interval -13.1×103 to -4.2×103 kcal). Using a static weight loss model, BMI was estimated to decrease by 0.53 (95% confidence interval -1.01 to -0.06) on average across all categories and income groups. This change could reduce the UK prevalence of obesity by 2.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval -3.7 to -1.7 percentage points) after one year. The impact of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks on energy purchase was largest in low income households classified as obese and smallest in high income households classified as not overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the price of high sugar snacks by 20% could reduce energy intake, BMI, and prevalence of obesity. This finding was in a UK context and was double that modelled for a similar price increase in sugar sweetened beverages.


Assuntos
Comércio , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lanches , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ther Umsch ; 76(3): 111-116, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498044

RESUMO

Health effects of sugar consumption and possible alternatives Abstract. A wide range of chronic diseases is associated with sugar consumption: Caries, obesity, metabolic syndrome with impaired glucose tolerance and / or diabetes, elevated blood, lipids arterial, hypertension, hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to reduce sugar consumption. Sugar surrogates may help achieving this goal. However, artificial sweeteners seem to be associated with adverse metabolic effects such as insulin resistance, obesity, and altered gut microbiota composition. Naturally occurring sweeteners such as xylitol, erythritol and rare sugars are possibly more favorable, but have to be studied in detail.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Açúcares/administração & dosagem , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos
6.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(4): e2238, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the peel of Camu-Camu, a fruit plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon basin, with those of sleeve gastrectomy, on the weight and glycemia of Wistar rats. METHODS: twenty-four Wistar rats underwent obesity induction through a hyperlipid diet for eight weeks (fat period), and were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Camu-Camu Group (CCG) and Bariatric Surgery Group (BSG). After this period, all animals returned to a normal diet and the intervention period began: CG did not undergo any intervention beyond diet change; CCG animals underwent gavage procedure for administration of Camu-Camu hydroalcoholic extract, 1g/kg/day, for four weeks; and the BSG was submitted to the surgical procedure of sleeve gastrectomy. We followed all animals for four weeks. RESULTS: there was only one loss in BSG due to a gastric fistula. We observed significant variations in the animals' mean weight: the CG evolved with weight gain even after the withdraw of the hypercaloric diet, while the other two groups presented weight reduction. BSG presented a significant reduction of weight and BMI (p<0.05); CCG achieved a significant reduction only of the BMI (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in the glycemic levels. CONCLUSION: in spite of reducing weight, the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the Camu-Camu peel was not able to be as efficient as sleeve gastrectomy in the control of body weight in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Masculino , Terapia Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16323, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374004

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of the association between psoriasis and abnormal lipid metabolism.The case-control study included 222 psoriatic patients and 445 non-psoriatic control patients matched for age and gender. Clinical parameters included age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Serum lipid levels were recorded and included cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), phospholipids (PLIP), free fatty acids (FFA), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and apolipoproteins (apoA1, apoB, and apoE). Statistical analysis was carried out through the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Studies version 23.0.Compared with controls, levels of BMI and the prevalence of obesity were significantly higher in psoriatic patients. The results revealed that when compared to controls, significant elevation of serum TG (P <.001) and Lp(a) (P = .022) was observed. Levels of HDL (P <.001) and apoA1 (P <.001) were significantly lower in psoriatic patients. There was no significant difference in CHO (P = .367), LDL (P = .400), apoB (P = .294), apoE (P = .05), PLIP (P = .931) and FFA (P = .554) between patients and controls. The levels of CHO, TG, PLIP, FFA, and apoE were positively correlated with BMI level.Dyslipidemia was more common in psoriatic patients, compared with non-psoriatic controls.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Psoríase/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas B/análise , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/análise , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/análise , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/fisiopatologia
8.
Orv Hetil ; 160(32): 1279-1283, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387375

RESUMO

Introduction: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may be associated with weight gain; this association has not yet been studied in Roma (Gipsy) population. Aim: Our aim was to study sleep patterns in two adult Roma subgroups (the wealthy Gabor and the poor Lovari Roma), compared to the majority of Hungarian population, in relation to obesity, knowing that Roma population has specific socio-cultural characteristics, with a rapidly changing lifestyle. Method: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural region in Transylvania, where the above groups are cohabiting. The groups were age- and gender-matched. Results: Sleep duration was 7.18 ± 1.6 hours in the Gabor Roma, 7.67 ± 1.5 hours in the Lovari Roma and 7.37 ± 1.5 hours in the non-Roma group. In average, 70% of them had enough sleep (≥7 hours). 38.6% of Gabor Roma, 27.1% of Lovari Roma and 23.5% of non-Roma had poor-quality sleep (p = 0.05). Gabor Roma had significantly higher body mass index (31.1 ± 4.6 versus 27.4 ± 5.2 and 28.66 ± 5.7 kg/m2, p = 0.004), and this correlated inversely with sleep duration (F = 14.85, p<0.000). Conclusion: Gabor Roma had significantly higher percentage of poor-quality sleep. Sleep duration and sleep quality were linked with obesity, mainly in the Roma population. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(32): 1279-1283.


Assuntos
Obesidade/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Roma , População Rural
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 48, 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301734

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the association of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL-6 gene with osteoporosis (OST) susceptibility. METHODS: PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was carried out for SNPs detection. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) model and logistic regression model were used to examine the interaction between SNP and obesity on OST. RESULTS: Logistic regression model revealed that G allele of rs1800796 and the T allele of rs2069849 were associated with increased OST risk, compared to those with wild genotype. However, no significant correlations were found when analyzing the association of rs1800795 and rs1554606 with OST risk. GMDR analysis suggested that the interaction model composed of the rs1800796 and obesity was the best model with statistical significance (P value from sign test [Psign] = 0.012), indicating a potential gene-environment interaction between rs1800796 and obesity. Overall, the two-locus models had a cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and had the testing accuracy of 0.641. We also conducted stratified analysis for rs1800796 genotype and obesity, and found that obese subjects with CG or GG genotype have the highest OST risk, compared to subjects with CC genotype, and normal BMI OR (95% CI) = 2.21 (1.52-3.49), after adjustment for age, smoke, and alcohol consumption status. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the C allele of rs1800796 and the C allele of rs2069849 of IL-6 gene interaction between rs1800796 and abdominal obesity were all associated with increased OST risk.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/genética , Obesidade/genética , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/genética , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
Life Sci ; 232: 116672, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336120

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is not only associated with metabolic diseases but is also a symptom of menopause in women. To date, there are no effective drugs for the management of obesity, and it is important to find new agents with fewer side effects, for the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effect of 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, and its underlying mechanism in rats with ovariectomy-induced obesity. MAIN METHODS: Ovariectomy (Ovx) rats were treated with 17-DMAG (1 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) for eight weeks from one week after surgery. The body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, adipogenic- and autophagy-related protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in sham and Ovx rats. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with sham rats, Ovx rats showed increased weight gain, food intake, WAT mass, TG levels, adipogenic protein expression, and decreased locomotor activity. Furthermore, autophagy-related proteins and Foxo3a of WAT were significantly increased in Ovx rats. However, with the exclusion of increased food intake, the changes induced by Ovx were all reversed in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. In addition, the expression of Hsp70 and phosphorylation of Akt increased in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 17-DMAG significantly ameliorated obesity induced by Ovx, and this phenomenon is accompanied by the downregulation of adipogenic-related and autophagy-related proteins as well as the upregulation of Akt-phosphorylation and Hsp70 expression. Therefore, 17-DMAG may be a potential agent for preventing or treating obesity in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(7): 879-884, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the effects of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) on the metabolism are scarce and their results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to examine in an animal model the effect of replacing sucrose with HFCS-55 on the levels of glucose, insulin and leptin, and on the consumption of feed, body weight gain and fat storage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experiment was carried out on 30 Wistar male rats aged 5 months, fed 3 different diets, containing whole grains (group I), 10% sucrose (group II) and 10% HFCS (group III). RESULTS: It was found that the amount of daily energy intake was similar for all the groups of animals. There was no difference in fasting glucose and insulin level and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The higher leptin level was determined in blood plasma of the animal fed a feed with sucrose (group 2) compared to group 1 and group 3 (360 ng/mL vs 263 and 230 ng/mL, respectively). Despite the similar amounts of consumed energy, the animals fed with modified feeds achieved higher weight gain and the effect of HFCS-55 was similar to the effect of sucrose. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results indicate similar metabolic effects of HFCS-55 and sucrose in feed, at the level of 11% dietary energy value, on the energy intake, body weight gain and periorgan adipose tissue accumulation in rats. The results suggest that accusations against HFCS as the major dietary contributor to overweight and obesity are unfounded, and the total elimination of HFCS from the diet seems to be unnecessary. The modified feeds (containing both sucrose and HFCS) produced greater absolute weight gain and weight gain per kilojoule consumed compared to standard feeds. This may indicate not just a basic thermodynamic consequence of consuming more energy, but a change in the metabolic efficiency when consuming a diet with simple sugars and refined carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/farmacologia , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Peso Corporal , Xarope de Milho Rico em Frutose/efeitos adversos , Insulina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Life Sci ; 232: 116575, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211999

RESUMO

AIMS: Maternal smoking is considered a risk factor for childhood obesity. In a rat model of tobacco exposure during breastfeeding, we previously reported hyperphagia, overweight, increased visceral fat and hyperleptinemia in adult female offspring. Obesity and eating disorders are associated with impairment in the endocannabinoid (EC) and dopaminergic (DA) systems. Considering that women are prone to eating disorders, we hypothesize that adult female Wistar rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) during the suckling period would develop EC and DA systems deregulation, possibly explaining the eating disorder in this model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To mimic maternal smoking, from postnatal day 3 to 21, dams and offspring were exposed to a smoking machine, 4×/day/1 h (CS group). Control animals were exposed to ambient air. Offspring were evaluated at 26 weeks of age. KEY FINDINGS: Concerning the EC system, the CS group had increased expression of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and decreased in the liver. In the visceral adipose tissue, the EC receptor (CB1r) was decreased. Regarding the DA system, the CS group showed higher dopamine transporter (DAT) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lower DA receptor (D2r) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). We also assessed the hypothalamic leptin signaling, which was shown to be unchanged. CS offspring showed decreased plasma 17ß-estradiol. SIGNIFICANCE: Neonatal CS exposure induces changes in some biomarkers of the EC and DA systems, which can partially explain the hyperphagia observed in female rats.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fumar Cigarros , Dopamina/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Feminino , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar , Tabaco
14.
Acta Histochem ; 121(5): 646-656, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153588

RESUMO

Obesity, type two diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Unfermented green rooibos is an aspalathin rich variant of traditional fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and has a high polyphenol content. The present study aimed to determine the histologically observable effects of a commercially produced, aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract, Afriplex GRT™ (GRE) in a diet-induced obese rat model. Male Wistar rats (N = 28) were randomly assigned to four study groups (n = 7): control (C), green rooibos (GRT), high-fat diet (HFD) and experimental (HFD-GRT) group. Body mass was determined prior to euthanasia and liver mass was determined after death. The left lateral lobe of the liver was processed to wax and stained using haematoxylin and eosin (H & E), Masson's trichrome stain, Gordons and Sweet's reticulin impregnation and periodic acid-Schiff stain. Frozen liver tissue sections were used for Oil red O staining. Morphometric quantification of steatosis, semiquantitative pathology grading and scoring were performed and verified by a veterinary histopathologist. A significant increase in body and liver mass was observed in the HFD groups while co-treatment with green rooibos significantly reduced both. The volume and area of steatosis were significantly increased in the HFD groups while the area of steatosis significantly reduced with green rooibos co-treatment. The percentage, location and type of steatosis as well as presence of inflammation and hepatocellular injury were reduced in the HFD group co-treated with GRE. These findings suggest that a GRE has potential as an anti-steatotic, anti-inflammatory and weight reducing agent in vivo.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Aspalathus , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Histocitoquímica , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2757, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227697

RESUMO

Inappropriate expansion of the adipose cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is a characteristic of hypertrophic obesity and of individuals with genetic predisposition for T2D (first-degree relatives; FDR). It is associated with insulin resistance, a dysfunctional, adipose tissue and reduced adipogenesis. We examined the regulation of adipogenesis in human SAT precursor cells and found ZNF521 to be a critical regulator of early adipogenic commitment and precursor cells leaving the cell cycle. However, neither altered upstream signalling nor lack of SAT progenitor cells could explain the reduced adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity. Instead, we show that progenitor cells undergoing poor differentiation are characterized by senescence, inability to suppress p53/P16INK4 and secretion of factors reducing adipogenesis in non-senescent cells. We found aging, FDR and established T2D to be associated with increased progenitor cell senescence, reduced adipogenesis and hypertrophic expansion of the SAT adipose cells.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Adipócitos , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Biópsia por Agulha , Células Cultivadas , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipertrofia/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2769, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235690

RESUMO

Loss of appetite or anorexia associated with inflammation impairs quality of life and increases morbidity in many diseases. However, the exact neural mechanism that mediates inflammation-associated anorexia is still poorly understood. Here we identified a population of neurons, marked by the expression of protein kinase C-delta, in the oval region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), which are activated by various inflammatory signals. Silencing of these neurons attenuates the anorexia caused by these inflammatory signals. Our results demonstrate that these neurons mediate bidirectional control of general feeding behaviors. These neurons inhibit the lateral hypothalamus-projecting neurons in the ventrolateral part of BNST to regulate feeding, receive inputs from the canonical feeding regions of arcuate nucleus and parabrachial nucleus. Our data therefore define a BNST microcircuit that might coordinate canonical feeding centers to regulate food intake, which could offer therapeutic targets for feeding-related diseases such as anorexia and obesity.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia/etiologia , Anorexia/prevenção & controle , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
17.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(6): 861-866, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155526

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue is a critical regulator of metabolic health, and contributes to thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation through the action of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Recent studies have shown that cold exposure and the stimulation of ß3-adrenergic receptors induce the development of brown cell-like "beige" adipocytes in white adipose tissue. Brown and/or beige adipocyte-mediated thermogenesis suppresses high-fat diet-associated obesity. Therefore, the development of brown/beige adipocytes may prevent obesity and metabolic diseases. In the present study, we elucidated whether naturally occurring compounds contribute to regulating the cellular differentiation of brown/beige adipocytes. We screened for the up-regulated expression of Ucp1 during beige adipogenesis using extracts of crude herbal drugs frequently used in Kampo prescriptions (therapeutic drugs in Japanese traditional medicine). This screening revealed that the extract prepared from Citri Unshiu Pericarpium [the peel of Citrus unshiu (Swingle) Marcov.] increased the expression of Ucp1 in beige adipocytes. We also focused on the function of clock genes in regulating brown/beige adipogenesis. Therefore, another aim of the present study was to evaluate naturally occurring compounds that regulate brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) gene expression. In this review, we focus on naturally occurring compounds that affect regulatory processes in brown/beige adipogenesis, and discuss better preventive strategies for the management of obesity and other metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL , Adipócitos Bege/fisiologia , Adipócitos Marrons/fisiologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Proteína Desacopladora 1 , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/fisiologia , Animais , Relógios Biológicos/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Medicina Kampo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2700, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221967

RESUMO

Pathological obesity can result from genetic predisposition, obesogenic diet, and circadian rhythm disruption. Obesity compromises function of muscle, which accounts for a majority of body mass. Behavioral intervention that can counteract obesity arising from genetic, diet or circadian disruption and can improve muscle function holds untapped potential to combat the obesity epidemic. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) subject to obesogenic challenges exhibits metabolic disease phenotypes in skeletal muscle; sarcomere disorganization, mitochondrial deformation, upregulation of Phospho-AKT level, aberrant intramuscular lipid infiltration, and insulin resistance. Imposing time-restricted feeding (TRF) paradigm in which flies were fed for 12 h during the day counteracts obesity-induced dysmetabolism and improves muscle performance by suppressing intramuscular fat deposits, Phospho-AKT level, mitochondrial aberrations, and markers of insulin resistance. Importantly, TRF was effective even in an irregular lighting schedule mimicking shiftwork. Hence, TRF is an effective dietary intervention for combating metabolic dysfunction arising from multiple causes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/dietoterapia , Jejum/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/etiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcômeros/patologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035653

RESUMO

Endogenous cannabinoids (ECs) are lipid-signaling molecules that specifically bind to cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) and are highly expressed in central and many peripheral tissues under pathological conditions. Activation of hepatic CB1R is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired metabolic function, owing to increased energy intake and storage, impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, and enhanced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Additionally, blocking peripheral CB1R improves insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and also reduces hepatic steatosis and body weight in obese mice. Thus, targeting EC receptors, especially CB1R, may provide a potential therapeutic strategy against obesity and insulin resistance. There are many CB1R antagonists, including inverse agonists and natural compounds that target CB1R and can reduce body weight, adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and those that improve insulin sensitivity and reverse leptin resistance. Recently, the use of CB1R antagonists was suspended due to adverse central effects, and this caused a major setback in the development of CB1R antagonists. Recent studies, however, have focused on development of antagonists lacking adverse effects. In this review, we detail the important role of CB1R in hepatic insulin resistance and the possible underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic potential of CB1R targeting is also discussed.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(11): 1365-1376, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090482

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women with schizophrenia and their babies are at high risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancy and childbirth. A better understanding of the specific risks conferred by the illness itself and by the treatment provided will help guide more effective care of these women. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors review genetic, demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional and lifestyle risks associated with schizophrenia in pregnancy. They also cover specific risks associated with typical antipsychotic medications, specific risks associated with atypical antipsychotic medications, risks associated with polypharmacy and risks of developmental delay in children exposed to antipsychotic medications in utero. EXPERT OPINION: Our understanding of the risks that women with schizophrenia face in pregnancy from their illness and from the treatment they receive continues to evolve. As our ability to analyze data progresses, the risks conferred by antipsychotic medication treatment appear to lessen in clinical and statistical significance, whilst the true risks to these women and their babies from their experience of disadvantage continue to set them aside from the general population. Reducing polypharmacy and providing comprehensive and supportive care can minimize harm to women with schizophrenia and their babies.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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