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1.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364929

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with metabolic and physiological effects in the gut. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of trypsin inhibitor isolated from tamarind seeds (TTI) in vitro (interaction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inhibitory activity against human neutrophil elastase (HNE)), and using intestinal co-cultures of Caco-2:HT29-MTX cell lines inflamed with TNF-α (50 ng/mL) and a Wistar rat model of diet-induced obesity (n = 15). TTI was administered to animals by gavage (10 days), and the treated group (25 mg/kg/day) was compared to animals without treatment or treated with a nutritionally adequate diet. In the in vitro study, it showed inhibitory activity against HNE (93%). In co-cultures, there was no protection or recovery of the integrity of inflamed cell monolayers treated with TTI (1.0 mg/mL). In animals, TTI led to lower plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6, total leukocytes, fasting glucose, and LDL-c (p < 0.05). The intestines demonstrated a lower degree of chronic enteritis, greater preservation of the submucosa, and greater intestinal wall thickness than the other groups (p = 0.042). Therefore, the better appearance of the intestine not reflected in the intestinal permeability added to the in vitro activity against HNE point to possibilities for new studies and applications related to this activity.


Assuntos
Tamarindus , Ratos , Animais , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Permeabilidade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta , Intestinos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364945

RESUMO

Akebia quinata, commonly called chocolate vine, has various bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-obesity properties. However, the anti-obesity effects of bioconverted extracts of A. quinate have not been examined. In this study, A. quinata fruit extracts was bioconverted using the enzyme isolated from the soybean paste fungi Aspergillus kawachii. To determine whether the bioconversion process could influence the anti-obesity effects of A. quinata fruit extracts, we employed 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats. We observed that the bioconverted fruit extract of A. quinata (BFE) afforded anti-obesity effects, which were stronger than that for the non-bioconverted fruit extract (FE) of A. quinata. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, treatment with BFE at concentrations of 20 and 40 µg reduced intracellular lipids by 74.8 (p < 0.05) and 54.9% (p < 0.01), respectively, without inducing cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. Moreover, the oral administration of BFE at the concentration of 300 mg/kg/day significantly reduced body and adipose tissue weights (p < 0.01) in HFD-induced obese rats. Plasma cholesterol values were reduced, whereas HDL was increased in BFE receiving rats. Although FE could exert anti-obesity effects, BFE supplementation induced more robust effects than FE. These results could be attributed to the bioconversion-induced alteration of bioactive compound content within the extract.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Adipogenia , Frutas , Células 3T3-L1 , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the first-line surgical intervention for cases of severe carotid stenoses. Unfortunately, the restenosis rate is high after CEA. This study aims to demonstrate the predictive role of carotid plaque features and inflammatory biomarkers (monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), systemic inflammatory index (SII), Systemic Inflammation Response Index (SIRI), and Aggregate Index of Systemic Inflammation (AISI)) in carotid restenosis and mortality at 12 months following CEA. METHODS: The present study was designed as an observational, analytical, retrospective cohort study and included all patients over 18 years of age with a minimum of 70% carotid stenosis and surgical indications for CEA admitted to the Vascular Surgery Clinic, Emergency County Hospital of Targu Mures, Romania between 2018 and 2021. RESULTS: According to our results, the high pre-operative values of inflammatory biomarkers-MLR (OR: 10.37 and OR: 6.11; p < 0.001), NLR (OR: 34.22 and OR: 37.62; p < 0.001), PLR (OR: 12.02 and OR: 16.06; p < 0.001), SII (OR: 18.11 and OR: 31.70; p < 0.001), SIRI (OR: 16.64 and OR: 9.89; p < 0.001), and AISI (OR: 16.80 and OR: 8.24; p < 0.001)-are strong independent factors predicting the risk of 12-month restenosis and mortality following CEA. Moreover, unstable plaque (OR: 2.83, p < 0.001 and OR: 2.40, p = 0.04) and MI (OR: 3.16, p < 0.001 and OR: 2.83, p = 0.005) were independent predictors of all outcomes. Furthermore, AH (OR: 2.30; p = 0.006), AF (OR: 1.74; p = 0.02), tobacco (OR: 2.25; p < 0.001), obesity (OR: 1.90; p = 0.02), and thrombotic plaques (OR: 2.77; p < 0.001) were all independent predictors of restenosis, but not for mortality in all patients. In contrast, antiplatelet (OR: 0.46; p = 0.004), statin (OR: 0.59; p = 0.04), and ezetimibe (OR:0.45; p = 0.03) therapy were protective factors against restenosis, but not for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that higher preoperative inflammatory biomarker values highly predict 12-month restenosis and mortality following CEA. Furthermore, age above 70, unstable plaque, cardiovascular disease, and dyslipidemia were risk factors for all outcomes. Additionally, AH, AF, smoking, and obesity were all independent predictors of restenosis but not of mortality in all patients. Antiplatelet and statin medication, on the other hand, were protective against restenosis but not against mortality.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recidiva , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Biomarcadores , Constrição Patológica/etiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362012

RESUMO

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, endotoxins) are found in high amounts in the gut lumen. LPS can cross the gut barrier and pass into the blood (endotoxemia), leading to low-grade inflammation, a common scheme in metabolic diseases. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) can transfer circulating LPS to plasma lipoproteins, thereby promoting its detoxification. However, the impact of PLTP on the metabolic fate and biological effects of gut-derived LPS is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of PLTP on low-grade inflammation, obesity and insulin resistance in relationship with LPS intestinal translocation and metabolic endotoxemia. Wild-type (WT) mice were compared with Pltp-deficient mice (Pltp-KO) after a 4-month high-fat (HF) diet or oral administration of labeled LPS. On a HF diet, Pltp-KO mice showed increased weight gain, adiposity, insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities and inflammation, together with a higher exposure to endotoxemia compared to WT mice. After oral administration of LPS, PLTP deficiency led to increased intestinal translocation and decreased association of LPS to lipoproteins, together with an altered catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Our results show that PLTP, by modulating the intestinal translocation of LPS and plasma processing of TRL-bound LPS, has a major impact on low-grade inflammation and the onset of diet-induced metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas de Transferência de Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/etiologia , Aumento de Peso
5.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 41, 2022 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the rising prevalence of obesity and overweight, increasing number of scholars paid attention to the negative effects on human health and life. Recent years, many studies have focused on the relation of socio-economic factors with the risk of overweight or obesity, but findings have been inconsistent. This study investigated the relationship between socio-economic factors and the risk of overweight and obesity among Chinese adults. METHODS: This study was based on the survey of the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2015, with 9245 Chinese adults aged 18-65 years old. Overweight and obesity were assessed by physical measurements of weight, height, and waist circumference. Multiple logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence rates of general obesity and abdominal obesity were 15.5% and 22.6%, respectively. We found that education and per capita household income were positively associated with overweight and obesity risk in men. However, the association between education and obesity status was negative in women [general obesity: OR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50-0.81); abdominal obesity: OR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.51-0.76)]. Occupational status was only associated with general overweight in men. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggested that higher education and per capita household income were associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity among Chinese men, whereas the associations were negative for women. We recommended that men with high levels of education and income, women with low levels of education, can engage in some physical activity, modify dietary, and adopt a new way of life to maintain their weight and general health.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , China/epidemiologia , Fatores Econômicos
6.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 37(5): 613-621, 2022 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a powerful predictor of perioperative outcomes. We evaluated the burden of CSA-AKI in patients with preserved baseline renal function. METHODS: The data of 2,162 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2005 to December 2020 were analyzed. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of CSA-AKI and their associations with hospital mortality up to 30 days. RESULTS: The prevalence of acute kidney injury was 43.0%, and 2.0% of patients required renal replacement therapy. Hospital mortality rate was 5.6% (non-acute kidney injury = 2.0% vs. CSA-AKI = 10.4%, P<0.001), and any degree of CSA-AKI was associated with a significant increase in death rates (stage 1 = 4.3%, stage 2 = 23.9%, stage 3 = 59.7%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age, obesity, left ventricular dysfunction, previous cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass duration as predictors of CSA-AKI. Moreover, CSA-AKI was confirmed as independent predictor of hospital mortality for stage 1 (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 3.51; P=0.013), stage 2 (odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval, 4.54 to 18.58; P<0.001), and stage 3 (odds ratio, 37.72; 95% confidence interval, 18.87 to 75.40; P<0.001) patients. CONCLUSION: Age, obesity, left ventricular dysfunction, previous cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass duration are independent predictors of CSA-AKI in patients with preserved baseline renal function. The development of CSA-AKI is significantly associated with worse outcomes, and there is a dose-response relationship between acute kidney injury stages and hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Rim/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1028808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387898

RESUMO

High level of interleukin 6 (IL-6), released by adipocytes in an obesity-induced, low grade inflammation state, is a regulator of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. IL-6 has also regenerative, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetogenic functions, when secreted as myokine by skeletal muscles during physical exercise. IL-6 mainly activates cells via two different receptor constellations: classic and trans-signalling, in which IL-6 initially binds to membrane-bound receptor (IL-6R) or soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) before activating signal transducing gp130 receptor. Previously, we generated transgenic soluble IL-6 receptor +/+ (sIL-6R+/+) mice with a strategy that mimics ADAM10/17 hyperactivation, reflecting a situation in which only IL-6 trans-signalling is active, whereas classic signalling is completely abrogated. In this study, we metabolically phenotyped IL-6R deficient mice (IL-6R-KO), sIL-6R+/+ mice and wild-type littermates fed either a standard chow (SD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) in combination with a 6-weeks treadmill exercise protocol. All mice were subjected to analyses of body weight and body composition, determination of blood glucose and insulin level under fasting conditions, as well as determination of substrate preference by indirect calorimetry. Neither classic IL-6 nor trans-signalling do influence the outcome of diet-induced obesity, insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control. Furthermore, IL-6R deficiency is not impairing the beneficial effect of physical exercise. We conclude that the IL-6R does not play a requisite role in regulation of body weight and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Receptores de Interleucina-6 , Animais , Camundongos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364892

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effects of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) and Curcuma&nbsp;longa independently and synergistically in modulating induced inflammation and impaired brain neurotransmitters commonly observed in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rodent models. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups. Group I, control, obese, fed on a high-fat diet (HFD), and Group II-IV, fed on HFD then given mangosteen extract (400 mg/kg/day) and/or Curcuma (80 mg/kg/day), or a mixture of both for 6 weeks. Plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, and brain serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate were measured in the five studied groups. G. mangostana and Curcuma longa extracts demonstrate antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Both induced a significant reduction in the weight gained, concomitant with a non-significant decrease in the BMI (from 0.86 to 0.81 g/cm2). Curcuma either alone or in combination with MPE was more effective. Both extracts demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects and induced a significant reduction in levels of both IL-6 and IL-12. The lowest leptin level was achieved in the synergistically treated group, compared to independent treatments. Brain dopamine was the most affected variable, with significantly lower levels recorded in the Curcuma and synergistically treated groups than in the control group. Glutamate and serotonin levels were not affected significantly. The present study demonstrated that mangosteen pericarp extract (MPE) and Curcuma were independently and in combination effective in treating obesity-induced inflammation and demonstrating neuroprotective properties.


Assuntos
Garcinia mangostana , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Encéfalo , Curcuma , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dopamina , Garcinia mangostana/química , Glutamatos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leptina , Neurotransmissores , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina
9.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 187, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota (GM) dysregulation, known as dysbiosis, has been proposed as a crucial driver of obesity associated with "Western" diet (WD) consumption. Gut dysbiosis is associated with increased gut permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance. However, host metabolic pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of gut dysbiosis are still elusive. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) plays a critical role in cell-cell junction formation and insulin secretion. Here, we used homozygous Epac1-knockout (Epac1-/-), Epac2-knockout (Epac2-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the role of Epac proteins in mediating gut dysbiosis, gut permeability, and inflammation after WD feeding. RESULTS: The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNA showed that the baseline GM of Epac2-/-, but not Epac1-/-, mice was represented by a significantly higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and significant alterations in several taxa compared to WT mice, suggesting that Epac2-/- mice had gut dysbiosis under physiological conditions. However, an 8-week WD led to a similar gut microbiome imbalance in mice regardless of genotype. While Epac1 deficiency modestly exacerbated the WD-induced GM dysbiosis, the WD-fed Epac2-/- mice had a more significant increase in gut permeability than corresponding WT mice. After WD feeding, Epac1-/-, but not Epac2-/-, mice had significantly higher mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and F4/80 in the epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), increased circulating lipocalin-2 protein and more severe glucose intolerance, suggesting greater inflammation and insulin resistance in WD-fed Epac1-/- mice than corresponding WT mice. Consistently, Epac1 protein expression was significantly reduced in the EWAT of WD-fed WT and Epac2-/- mice. CONCLUSION: Despite significantly dysregulated baseline GM and a more pronounced increase in gut permeability upon WD feeding, WD-fed Epac2-/- mice did not exhibit more severe inflammation and glucose intolerance than corresponding WT mice. These findings suggest that the role of gut dysbiosis in mediating WD-associated obesity may be context-dependent. On the contrary, we demonstrate that deficiency of host signaling protein, Epac1, drives inflammation and glucose intolerance which are the hallmarks of WD-induced obesity. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Animais , Camundongos , Dieta Ocidental , Disbiose , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Inflamação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1010806, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387852

RESUMO

Estrogens protect against weight gain and metabolic disruption in women and female rodents. Aberrations in the gut microbiota composition are linked to obesity and metabolic disorders. Furthermore, estrogen-mediated protection against diet-induced metabolic disruption is associated with modifications in gut microbiota. In this study, we tested if estradiol (E2)-mediated protection against obesity and metabolic disorders in female mice is dependent on gut microbiota. Specifically, we tested if fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from E2-treated lean female mice, supplemented with or without Akkermansia muciniphila, prevented high fat diet (HFD)-induced body weight gain, fat mass gain, and hyperglycemia in female recipients. FMT from, and cohousing with, E2-treated lean donors was not sufficient to transfer the metabolic benefits to the E2-deficient female recipients. Moreover, FMT from lean donors supplemented with A. muciniphila exacerbated HFD-induced hyperglycemia in E2-deficient recipients, suggesting its detrimental effect on the metabolic health of E2-deficient female rodents fed a HFD. Given that A. muciniphila attenuates HFD-induced metabolic insults in males, the present findings suggest a sex difference in the impact of this microbe on metabolic health.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperglicemia , Feminino , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Akkermansia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Aumento de Peso
11.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296935

RESUMO

The obesity epidemic appeared in the USA in 1976-1980 and then spread across Westernized countries. This paper examines the most likely causes of the epidemic in the USA. An explanation must be consistent with the emergence of the epidemic in both genders and in all age groups and ethnicities at about the same time, and with a steady rise in the prevalence of obesity until at least 2016. The cause is closely related to changes in the American diet. There is little association with changes in the intake of fat and carbohydrate. This paper presents the opinion that the factor most closely linked to the epidemic is ultra-processed foods (UPFs) (i.e., foods with a high content of calories, salt, sugar, and fat but with very little whole foods). Of particular importance is sugar intake, especially sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). There is strong evidence that consumption of SSBs leads to higher energy intake and more weight gain. A similar pattern is also seen with other UPFs. Factors that probably contributed to the increased intake of UPFs include their relatively low price and the increased popularity of fast-food restaurants. Other related topics discussed include: (1) the possible importance of Farm Bills implemented by the US Department of Agriculture; (2) areas where further research is needed; (3) health hazards linked to UPFs; and (4) the need for public health measures to reduce intake of UPFs.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Açúcares , Bebidas
12.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297035

RESUMO

Female reproduction focuses mainly on achieving fully grown follicles and competent oocytes to be successfully fertilized, as well as on nourishing the developing offspring once pregnancy occurs. Current evidence demonstrates that obesity and/or high-fat diet regimes can perturbate these processes, leading to female infertility and transgenerational disorders. Since the mechanisms and reproductive processes involved are not yet fully clarified, the present review is designed as a systematic and comparative survey of the available literature. The available data demonstrate the adverse influences of obesity on diverse reproductive processes, such as folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and embryo development/implant. The negative reproductive impact may be attributed to a direct action on reproductive somatic and germinal compartments and/or to an indirect influence mediated by the endocrine, metabolic, and immune axis control systems. Overall, the present review highlights the fragmentation of the current information limiting the comprehension of the reproductive impact of a high-fat diet. Based on the incidence and prevalence of obesity in the Western countries, this topic becomes a research challenge to increase self-awareness of dietary reproductive risk to propose solid and rigorous preventive dietary regimes, as well as to develop targeted pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Longevidade , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Mamíferos
13.
Nutrients ; 14(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36297031

RESUMO

The lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) leaf is a typical homologous ingredient of medicine and food with lipid-lowering and weight-loss effects. In the present study, lotus leaves were fermented by two probiotics, Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 and Enterococcus hirae WEHI01, and the anti-adipogenic effect of Enterococcus fermented lotus leaf supernatant (FLLS) was evaluated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the aim of exploring whether its anti-obesity ability will be enhanced after fermentation with Enterococcus and to dig out the potential corresponding mechanism. The FLLS fermented by E. hirae WEHI01 (FLLS-WEHI01) was selected and further investigated for its ability to inhibit obesity in vivo in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats (male, 110 ± 5 g, 4 weeks old) due to its superior inhibitory effect on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation (inhibition rate of up to 56.17%) in 3T3-L1 cells (p = 0.008 for WEHI01-L, p < 0.001 for WEHI01-H). We found that the oral administration of both the low and high doses of FLLS-WEHI01 could achieve some effects, namely decreasing body weight (p < 0.001), epididymal fat mass, adipocyte cell size, LDL-C levels (p = 0.89, 0.02, respectively), liver TC levels (p < 0.001, p = 0.01, respectively), and TG levels (p = 0.2137, p = 0.0464, respectively), fasting blood glucose (p = 0.1585, p = 0.0009), and improved insulin resistance (p = 0.33, 0.01, respectively) in rats of the model group. Moreover, the administration of both high and low doses of FLLS-WEHI01 decreased the transcription levels of adipogenic transcription factors and corresponding genes such as Pparγ (p < 0.001), Cebpα (p < 0.001), Acc (p < 0.001), and Fas (p < 0.001) by at least three times. These results indicate that FLLS-WEHI01 can potentially be developed as an healthy, anti-obesity foodstuff.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade , Nelumbo , Obesidade , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Glicemia , LDL-Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fermentação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nelumbo/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Folhas de Planta/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição
14.
Science ; 378(6617): 276-284, 2022 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264811

RESUMO

Misalignment of feeding rhythms with the light-dark cycle leads to disrupted peripheral circadian clocks and obesity. Conversely, restricting feeding to the active period mitigates metabolic syndrome through mechanisms that remain unknown. We found that genetic enhancement of adipocyte thermogenesis through ablation of the zinc finger protein 423 (ZFP423) attenuated obesity caused by consumption of a high-fat diet during the inactive (light) period by increasing futile creatine cycling in mice. Circadian control of adipocyte creatine metabolism underlies the timing of diet-induced thermogenesis, and enhancement of adipocyte circadian rhythms through overexpression of the clock activator brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) ameliorated metabolic complications during diet-induced obesity. These findings uncover rhythmic creatine-mediated thermogenesis as an essential mechanism that drives metabolic benefits during time-restricted feeding.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Creatina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade , Termogênese , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Camundongos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Creatina/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Termogênese/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Camundongos Knockout
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293147

RESUMO

The typical pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain and reactivity of glial cells such as astrocytes and microglia. Clinically, the development of AD and obesity are known to be correlated. In this study, we analyzed the changes in AD pathological characteristics in 5XFAD mice after obesity induction through a high-fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein AI (APOA-I) serum levels were increased without low-density lipoprotein alteration in both HFD groups. The reactivity of astrocytes and microglia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and fornix of the hypothalamus in 5XFAD mice was decreased in the transgenic (TG)-HFD high group. Finally, the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus was also significantly decreased in the TG-HFD high group. These results suggest that increased high-density lipoprotein level, especially with increased APOA-I serum level, alleviates the pathological features of AD and could be a new potential therapeutic strategy for AD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Camundongos , Animais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Apolipoproteína A-I , Lipoproteínas HDL/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Obesidade/etiologia , Lipoproteínas LDL
16.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(11): 768-779, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195118

RESUMO

Nesfatin-1, the cleavage product of nucleobindin-2, is an anorexigenic peptide and major regulator of energy homeostasis. Beyond reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure, it is also involved in regulating the stress response. Interaction of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 and glucose homeostasis has been observed and recent findings suggest a link between the action of the antidiabetic drug metformin and the nesfatinergic system. Hence, this study aimed to clarify the role of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in energy homeostasis as well as its involvement in stress- and metformin-mediated changes in energy expenditure. Knockdown of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in male Wistar rats led to significantly increased food intake, body weight, and reduced energy expenditure compared to controls. Nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 knockdown animals developed an obese-like phenotype represented by significantly increased fat mass and overall increase of circulating lipids. Concomitantly, expression of nucleobindin-2 and melanocortin receptor type 3 and 4 mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus was decreased indicating successful knockdown and impairment at the level of the melanocortin system. Additionally, stress induced activation of interscapular brown adipose tissue was significantly decreased in nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 knockdown animals and accompanied by lower adrenal weight. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of metformin significantly increased energy expenditure in controls and this effect was absent in nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 knockdown animals. Overall, we clarified the crucial role of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The nesfatinergic system was further identified as important mediator in stress- and metformin-induced thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Metformina , Nucleobindinas , Obesidade , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Nucleobindinas/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos Wistar , Termogênese/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234691

RESUMO

Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fat that exacerbates the metabolic and inflammatory processes. Studies associate these processes with conditions and dysregulation in the intestinal tract, increased concentrations of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the blood, differences in the abundance of intestinal microbiota, and the production of secondary metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids. ß-Caryophyllene (BCP) is a natural sesquiterpene with anti-inflammatory properties and with the potential purpose of fighting metabolic diseases. A diet-induced obesity model was performed in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice administered with BCP [50 mg/kg]. A reduction in the expression of Claudin-1 was observed in the group with a high-fat diet (HFD), which was caused by the administration of BCP; besides BCP, the phylaAkkermansia and Bacteroidetes decreased between the groups with a standard diet (STD) vs. HFD. Nevertheless, the use of BCP in the STD increased the expression of these phyla with respect to fatty acids; a similar effect was observed, in the HFD group that had a decreasing concentration that was restored with the use of BCP. The levels of endotoxemia and serum leptin increased in the HFD group, while in the HFD + BCP group, similar values were found to those of the STD group, attributing the ability to reduce these in conditions of obesity.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Sesquiterpenos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Animais , Claudina-1 , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Leptina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/complicações
18.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235574

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) plays an important role in metabolic homeostasis and may modulate neurological impairment related to obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zn supplementation on the intestinal microbiota, fatty acid profile, and neurofunctional parameters in obese male Wistar rats. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet (CAF), composed of ultra-processed and highly caloric and palatable foods, for 20 weeks to induce obesity. From week 16, Zn supplementation was started (10 mg/kg/day). At the end of the experiment, we evaluated the colon morphology, composition of gut microbiota, intestinal fatty acids, integrity of the intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier (BBB), and neuroplasticity markers in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Obese rats showed dysbiosis, morphological changes, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) reduction, and increased saturated fatty acids in the colon. BBB may also be compromised in CAF-fed animals, as claudin-5 expression is reduced in the cerebral cortex. In addition, synaptophysin was decreased in the hippocampus, which may affect synaptic function. Our findings showed that Zn could not protect obese animals from intestinal dysbiosis. However, an increase in acetate levels was observed, which suggests a partial beneficial effect of Zn. Thus, Zn supplementation may not be sufficient to protect from obesity-related dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Disbiose , Animais , Claudina-5 , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sinaptofisina , Zinco
19.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235640

RESUMO

Evidence on the association between dietary patterns and sleep disorders is limited and controversial. In addition, studies evaluating the effect of dietary patterns on sleep disorders have seldom considered the critical role of obesity. We aimed to explore obesity-related dietary patterns and evaluate their impact on sleep disorders using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014. In total, 19,892 participants aged over 20 years with two-day dietary recalls were enrolled. Obesity-related dietary patterns explaining most variance in waist circumference and BMI simultaneously were extracted from twenty-six food groups by the using partial least squares method. Sleep disorder and sleep duration, which were defined by self-reported questions, were the primary and the secondary outcome, respectively. Generalized linear models were performed to estimate the association of sleep disorders and sleep duration with dietary patterns. Two types of dietary patterns were identified. The "high fats, refined grains, and meat" pattern was characterized by high intakes of solid fats, cured meat, potatoes, refined grains, meat, cheese, and added sugars. The "low whole grains, vegetables, and fruits" pattern was characterized by low intakes of oils, whole grains, nuts and seeds, milk, fruits, and several vegetables. Participants with the highest adherence to the "high fats, refined grains, and meat" pattern had a higher risk for sleep disorders (OR (95%CI): 1.43 (1.12, 1.84)) and shorter sleep duration (ß (95%CI): -0.17 (-0.26, -0.08)) compared to those with the lowest adherence. The corresponding associations for the "low whole grains, vegetables, and fruits" pattern were only significant for sleep duration (ß (95%CI): -0.26 (-0.37, -0.15)). Our results found that the dietary pattern characterized by high solid fats, cured meat, potatoes, refined grains, meat, cheese, and added sugars, was associated with a higher risk for sleep disorders and shorter sleep duration.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Óleos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Açúcares , Verduras
20.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235642

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the most dangerous epidemics of the 21st century. In 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic began and caused many deaths among patients with obesity with and without complications. Simultaneously, the lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a host of emotional problems including anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Many people began to cope with their emotions by increasing food (emotional eating) and alcohol consumption and in combination with decreased physical activity, promoted the development of overweight and obesity. Emotional eating, also known as stress eating, is defined as the propensity to eat in response to positive and negative emotions and not physical need. It should be noted that emotional eating may be the first step in the development of binge eating disorder and its extreme subtypes such as food addiction. Interestingly in some post-bariatric surgery patients, an increased frequency of addictive disorders has been observed, for example food addiction replaced by alcohol addiction called: "cross addiction" or "addiction transfer". This data indicates that obesity should be treated as a psychosomatic disease, in the development of which external factors causing the formation of negative emotions may play a significant role. Currently, one of these factors is the COVID-19 pandemic. This manuscript discusses the relationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and development of emotional eating as well as potential implications of the viral pandemic on the obesity pandemic, and the need to change the approach to the treatment of obesity in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Obesidade/etiologia , Pandemias
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