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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 161, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index and subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in obese patients remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the TyG index and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) in obese patients. METHODS: A total of 1028 obese patients from January 2019 to January 2024 were included in the present study. Clinical parameters and biochemical and echocardiographic data were obtained from the participants. LV GLS was obtained from the GE EchoPAC workstation for evaluating subclinical LV function. The TyG index was calculated as Ln (fasting TG [mg/dL] × fasting glucose [mg/dL]/2). LV GLS was compared between obese patients with a high TyG index and those with a low TyG index. RESULTS: Obese patients with a high TyG index had greater incidences of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The LV GLS was significantly lower in the high TyG index group than in the low TyG index group (P = 0.01). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, heart rate, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, LV mass and LV hypertrophy, the TyG index remained an independent risk indicator related to an LV GLS < 20% (OR: 1.520, 95% CI: 1.040 to 2.221; P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that an increase in the TyG index is independently associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in obese patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Obesidade , Triglicerídeos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Sístole , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 175-179, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763559

RESUMO

AIMS: This study evaluated the activities of the Rectus Abdominis (RA) and Transversus Abdominis (TrA) muscles during abdominal bracing exercises (ABE) in different body positions. METHODOLOGY: Electrical activities of both components of the RA and TrA muscles were assessed respectively in 25 obese females via surface electromyography during ABE in four (4) different body positions (crook lying, side lying, standing, and sitting). Each trial lasted for five (5) seconds with an hour rest period between trials. RESULTS: Electrical activities of each of the right RA (p = 0.008) and TrA (p = 0.001) muscles significantly varied across the four trials. For the left components of the RA (p = 0.243) and TrA (p = 0.332) muscles, no significant differences were observed across trials. The highest muscular activities were recorded during the standing trial while the crook lying position resulted in the least muscular activities. CONCLUSION: For the best results, abdominal bracing exercises should be performed in a standing position. The efficacy of adopting these body positions for long-term rehabilitation purposes should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais , Eletromiografia , Obesidade , Postura , Humanos , Feminino , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Adulto , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Reto do Abdome/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos
3.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 38: 549-553, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index (BMI) adversely affects the mechanics of the musculoskeletal system. It is known that obese people have poorer postural stability and mobility-related outcomes compared to normal weight people, but there is limited research comparing overweight and class 1 obese people, two consecutive and prevalent BMI categories. AIMS: To compare postural stability, functional mobility, and risk of falling and developing disability between overweight and obese women, and to investigate the relationship of BMI and body weight with the outcomes. METHODS: Thirty women with class 1 obesity and 30 overweight women were included. Standing postural stability with eyes-open and eyes-closed and stability limits were assessed using the Prokin system. The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was used to assess functional mobility and risk of falling (≥11 s) and developing disability (≥9 s). RESULTS: The average center of pressure displacements on the y-axis (COPY) obtained during quiet standing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed were higher in obese women than overweight women (p < 0.05) and the effect sizes were moderate for the results. The COPY values in the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were correlated with BMI (r = 0.295 and r = 0.285, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the COPX value in the eyes-open condition and the TUG score were correlated with body weight (r = 0.274 and r = 0.257, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obese women had poorer static standing stability in the anteroposterior direction than overweight women, while functional mobility and risk of falling and developing disability did not differ. Furthermore, BMI and body weight were related to poorer static standing stability.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos , Feminino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso
4.
Clin Cardiol ; 47(5): e24283, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Semaglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has shown promise in weight management and cardiovascular outcomes in other populations. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of semaglutide in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients with obesity. METHODS: A retrospective study analyzed 318 patients with HFpEF, of which 104 received semaglutide and 214 received placebo. Primary endpoints included evaluating changes in exercise capacity and weight management. RESULTS: Semaglutide treatment led to significant improvements in the primary endpoints. Patients in the semaglutide group demonstrated substantial enhancements in exercise capacity, as measured by the 6-min walk distance, compared to the placebo group (mean difference 15.1 meters, 95% CI 5.8 to 24.4, p = 0.002). Additionally, semaglutide resulted in substantial weight loss compared to placebo (mean difference -2.9%, 95% CI -4.1--1.7, p = 0.001). Several secondary endpoints, including reductions in C-reactive protein levels and improvements in other clinical parameters, further supported the efficacy of semaglutide. Adverse events were generally well-tolerated, with no unexpected safety concerns. CONCLUSION: Semaglutide demonstrated significant clinical benefits in HFpEF patients with obesity, as evidenced by improved symptoms, physical function, and weight reduction.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Obesidade , Volume Sistólico , Humanos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Redução de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Fatores de Tempo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
5.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732499

RESUMO

Individuals exhibiting high scores on the fatness subscale of the negative-physical-self scale (NPSS-F) are characterized by heightened preoccupation with body fat accompanied by negative body image perceptions, often leading to excessive dieting behaviors. This demographic constitutes a considerable segment of the populace in China, even among those who are not obese. Nonetheless, scant empirical inquiries have delved into the behavioral and neurophysiological profiles of individuals possessing a healthy body mass index (BMI) alongside elevated NPSS-F scores. This study employed an experimental paradigm integrating go/no-go and one-back tasks to assess inhibitory control and working memory capacities concerning food-related stimuli across three adult cohorts: those with normal weight and low NPSS-F scores, those with normal weight and high NPSS-F scores, and individuals classified as obese. Experimental stimuli comprised high- and low-caloric-food pictures with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) recordings. Individuals characterized by high NPSS-F scores and normal weight exhibited distinctive electrophysiological responses compared to the other two cohorts, evident in event-related potential (ERP) components, theta and alpha band oscillations, and heart rate variability (HRV) patterns. In essence, the findings underscore alterations in electrophysiological reactivity among individuals possessing high NPSS-F scores and a healthy BMI in the context of food-related stimuli, underscoring the necessity for increased attention to this demographic alongside individuals affected by obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , China , Imagem Corporal/psicologia
6.
Kobe J Med Sci ; 70(1): E39-E45, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719339

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and one of the most important risk factors for NAFLD is type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, a noninvasive liver fibrosis score, has been found to be useful for estimating liver fibrosis. Because individuals with non-obese NAFLD were recently reported to be metabolically unhealthy and have a higher risk of T2DM than individuals with obese NAFLD, we hypothesized that the clinical factors related to a high FIB-4 index would differ between non-obese and obese Japanese T2DM patients. Accordingly, we examined the relationship between clinical factors and the FIB-4 index in non-obese and obese Japanese patients with T2DM. We divided 265 patients into two groups by BMI level - a non-obese group (n = 149) and an obese group (n = 116) - and examined the correlation between the FIB-4 index and clinical parameters. Single regression analysis revealed that a high FIB-4 index was correlated with a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate and hypertension in the non-obese group. Importantly, multiple regression analysis showed that only a reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly associated with a high FIB-4 index in the non-obese group. These results demonstrated that non-obese T2DM patients with a high FIB-4 index might be at risk of kidney dysfunction. Our findings may enable the more appropriate treatment of T2DM patients based on BMI level.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Obesidade , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Japão , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , População do Leste Asiático
7.
Circ Heart Fail ; 17(5): e011366, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has become the predominant heart failure subtype, it remains clinically under-recognized. HFpEF diagnosis is particularly challenging in the setting of obesity given the limitations of natriuretic peptides and resting echocardiography. We examined invasive and noninvasive HFpEF diagnostic criteria among individuals with obesity and dyspnea without known cardiovascular disease to determine the prevalence of hemodynamic HFpEF in the community. METHODS: Research volunteers with dyspnea and obesity underwent resting echocardiography; participants with possible pulmonary hypertension qualified for invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing. HFpEF was defined using rest or exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure criteria (≥15 mm Hg or Δpulmonary capillary wedge pressure/Δcardiac output slope, >2.0 mm Hg·L-1·min-1). RESULTS: Among n=78 participants (age, 53±13 years; 65% women; body mass index, 37.3±6.8 kg/m2), 40 (51%) met echocardiographic criteria to undergo invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In total, 24 participants (60% among the cardiopulmonary exercise testing group, 31% among the total sample) were diagnosed with HFpEF by rest or exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (n=12) or exercise criteria (n=12). There were no differences in NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; 79 [62-104] versus 73 [57-121] pg/mL) or resting echocardiography (mitral E/e' ratio, 9.1±3.1 versus 8.0±2.7) among those with versus without HFpEF (P>0.05 for all). Distributions of HFpEF diagnostic scores were similar, with the majority classified as intermediate risk (100% versus 93.75% [H2FPEF] and 87.5% versus 68.75% [HFA-PEFF (Heart Failure Association Pretest assessment, echocardiography and natriuretic peptide, functional testing, and final etiology)] in those with versus without HFpEF). CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with obesity and dyspnea without known cardiovascular disease, at least a third had clinically unrecognized HFpEF uncovered on invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Clinical, biomarker, resting echocardiography, and diagnostic scores were similar among those with and without HFpEF. These results suggest clinical underdiagnosis of HFpEF among individuals with obesity and dyspnea and highlight limitations of noninvasive testing in the identification of HFpEF.


Assuntos
Dispneia , Teste de Esforço , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Obesidade , Volume Sistólico , Humanos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Adulto , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Prevalência
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 176(5): 543-547, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717566

RESUMO

We studied the dynamics of the main hemodynamic parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with visceral obesity and chemically induced colitis (CIC) against the background of probiotic therapy. Systolic BP, HR, and body temperature were recorded over 36 days using a wireless telemetry system. During 8 days (3 days before CIC induction and until the end of the experiment) the animals were intragastrically administered a probiotic based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii D5 strain. At baseline, systolic BP was significantly higher in the SHR group, while HR and body temperature did not differ in SHR and WKY rats. On day 8 after CIC induction, systolic BP, HR, and body temperature in SHR were significantly increased in comparison with the initial values. In the group of WKY rats, all indices at the end of the experiment remained at the initial levels. Probiotic therapy in SHR, in contrast to WKY rats, did not lead to normalization of body temperature and hemodynamic disorders resulting from CIC.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Colite , Hemodinâmica , Probióticos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Masculino , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/fisiopatologia , Colite/microbiologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/induzido quimicamente
10.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 121(5): e20230678, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating beneficial cardiovascular effects of vitamin D supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on central hemodynamic parameters and autonomic activity in obese/overweight individuals with low vitamin D levels (<30ng/dl). METHODS: Adults 40-65 years old with body mass index ≥25<40 kg/m2 were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial (NCT05689632). Central hemodynamics was assessed using the oscillometric method (Mobil-O-Graph®), and heart rate variability using a Polar heart rate monitor (Kubios® software). Patients (n=53) received a placebo in the control group (CO, n=25) or vitamin D3 (VD, n=28) 7000 IU/day, and were evaluated before (W0) and after 8 weeks (W8) with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age (51±6 vs 52±6 years, p=0.509) and vitamin D levels (22.8±4.9 vs 21.7±4.5ng/ml, p=0.590). At W8, the VD group had significantly higher levels of vitamin D (22.5 vs 35.6ng/ml, p<0.001). Only the VD group showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 123±15 vs 119±14mmHg, p=0.019) and alkaline phosphatase (213±55 vs 202±55mg/dl, p=0.012). The CO group showed an increase in augmentation pressure (AP: 9 vs 12 mmHg, p=0.028) and augmentation index (AIx: 26 vs 35%, p=0.020), which was not observed in the VD group (AP: 8 vs 8 mmHg, AIx: 26 vs 25%, p>0.05). VD group showed an increase in the parasympathetic nervous system index (PNSi) (-0.64±0.94 vs -0.16±1.10, p=0.028) and the R-R interval (866±138 vs 924±161 ms, p= 0.026). CONCLUSION: In this sample, eight weeks of daily vitamin D supplementation resulted in an improvement in blood pressure levels and autonomic balance.


FUNDAMENTO: Estudos prévios têm sido inconsistentes em demonstrar efeitos cardiovasculares benéficos da suplementação de vitamina D. OBJETIVO: Avaliar efeitos da suplementação de vitamina D3 sobre parâmetros hemodinâmicos centrais e atividade autonômica em indivíduos obesos/sobrepeso e baixos níveis de vitamina D (<30ng/dl). MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego (NCT05689632), adultos 40-65 anos com índice de massa corporal ≥25<40 kg/m2. Hemodinâmica central avaliada por método oscilométrico (Mobil-O-Graph®), variabilidade da frequência cardíaca utilizando frequencímetro Polar (software Kubios®). Os pacientes (n=53) receberam placebo no grupo controle (CO, n=25) ou vitamina D3 (VD, n=28) 7000 UI/dia, avaliados antes (S0) e após 8 semanas (S8) com nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram homogêneos na idade (51±6 vs. 52±6 anos, p=0,509) e níveis de vitamina D (22,8±4,9 vs. 21,7±4,5ng/ml, p=0,590). Na S8, o grupo VD apresentou níveis significativamente maiores de vitamina D (22,5 vs. 35,6ng/ml, p<0,001). Apenas o grupo VD mostrou redução significativa da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS; 123±15 vs. 119±14mmHg, p=0,019) e fosfatase alcalina (213±55 vs. 202±55mg/dl, p=0,012). O grupo CO mostrou elevação da pressão de aumento (AP: 9 vs. 12mmHg, p=0,028) e do índice de incremento (Aix: 26 vs. 35%, p=0,020), o que não foi observado no grupo VD (AP: 8 vs. 8mmHg, Aix: 26 vs. 25%, p>0,05). Grupo VD apresentou aumento no índice do sistema nervoso (iSN) parassimpático (-0,64±0,94 vs. -0,16±1,10, p=0,028) e no intervalo R-R (866±138 vs. 924±161ms, p=0,026). CONCLUSÃO: Nesta amostra, a suplementação diária de vitamina D durante oito semanas resultou em melhora dos níveis pressóricos, parâmetros hemodinâmicos centrais e do equilíbrio autonômico.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Colecalciferol , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Vitamina D , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Método Duplo-Cego , Adulto , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Idoso , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Vitamina D/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 197, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate commonly assumed causal relationships between body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which have formed the basis of guidelines and interventions aimed at limiting GWG in women with overweight or obesity. We explored relationships between maternal BMI, total GWG (as a continuous variable and as 'excessive' GWG), and pregnancy outcomes (including infant birthweight measures and caesarean birth). METHODS: Analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from the i-WIP (International Weight Management in Pregnancy) Collaboration, from randomised trials of diet and/or physical activity interventions during pregnancy reporting GWG and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Women randomised to the control arm of 20 eligible randomised trials (4370 of 8908 participants) from the i-WIP dataset of 36 randomised trials (total 12,240 women). The main research questions were to characterise the relationship between maternal BMI and (a) total GWG, (b) the risk of 'excessive' GWG (using the Institute of Medicine's guidelines), and (c) adverse pregnancy outcomes as mediated via GWG versus other pathways to determine the extent to which the observed effect of maternal BMI on pregnancy outcomes is mediated via GWG. We utilised generalised linear models and regression-based mediation analyses within an IPD meta-analysis framework. RESULTS: Mean GWG decreased linearly as maternal BMI increased; however, the risk of 'excessive' GWG increased markedly at BMI category thresholds (i.e. between the normal and overweight BMI category threshold and between the overweight and obese BMI category threshold). Increasing maternal BMI was associated with increased risk of all pregnancy outcomes assessed; however, there was no evidence that this effect was mediated via effects on GWG. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of a meaningful relationship between maternal BMI and GWG and between maternal BMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no evidence that the effect of maternal BMI on outcomes is via an effect on GWG. Our analyses also cast doubt on the existence of a relationship between 'excessive' GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our findings challenge the practice of actively managing GWG throughout pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Adulto , Complicações na Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso
12.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 121(4): e20230490, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and is a serious public health problem. In animal models, high-fat diet (HFD) feeding impairs cardiac structure and function and promotes oxidative stress and apoptosis. Resistance exercise training (RT), however, has been recommended as coadjutant in the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases, including obesity, because it increases energy expenditure and stimulates lipolysis. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we aimed to assess the benefits of RT on the heart of rats and mice fed HFD. METHODS: Original studies were identified by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from December 2007 to December 2022. This study was conducted in accordance with the criteria established by PRISMA and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022369217). The risk of bias and methodological quality was evaluated by SYRCLE and CAMARADES, respectively. Eligible studies included original articles published in English that evaluated cardiac outcomes in rodents submitted to over 4 weeks of RT and controlled by a sedentary, HFD-fed control group (n = 5). RESULTS: The results showed that RT mitigates cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. It also modifies the activity of structural remodeling markers, although it does not alter biometric parameters, histomorphometric parameters, or the contractile function of cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that RT partially counteracts the HFD-induced adverse cardiac remodeling by increasing the activity of structural remodeling markers; elevating mitochondrial biogenesis; reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and endoplasmic reticulum stress; and improving hemodynamic, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters.


FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade está associada ao desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares e constitui um grave problema de saúde pública. Em modelos animais, a alimentação com uma dieta hiperlipídica (DH) compromete a estrutura e a função cardíaca e promove estresse oxidativo e apoptose. O treinamento resistido (TR), entretanto, tem sido recomendado como coadjuvante no tratamento de doenças cardiometabólicas, incluindo a obesidade, porque aumenta o gasto energético e estimula a lipólise. OBJETIVO: Na presente revisão sistemática, nosso objetivo foi avaliar os benefícios do TR no coração de ratos e camundongos alimentados com DH. MÉTODOS: Foram identificados estudos originais por meio de busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Scopus e Embase de dezembro de 2007 a dezembro de 2022. O presente estudo foi conduzido de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos pelo PRISMA e registrado no PROSPERO (CRD42022369217). O risco de viés e a qualidade metodológica foram avaliados pelo SYRCLE e CAMARADES, respectivamente. Os estudos elegíveis incluíram artigos originais publicados em inglês que avaliaram desfechos cardíacos em roedores submetidos a mais de 4 semanas de TR e controlados por um grupo controle sedentário alimentado com DH (n = 5). RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que o TR atenua o estresse oxidativo cardíaco, a inflamação e o estresse do retículo endoplasmático. Também modifica a atividade de marcadores de remodelamento estrutural, apesar de não alterar parâmetros biométricos, parâmetros histomorfométricos ou a função contrátil dos cardiomiócitos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que o TR parcialmente neutraliza o remodelamento cardíaco adverso induzido pela DH, aumentando a atividade dos marcadores de remodelamento estrutural; elevando a biogênese mitocondrial; reduzindo o estresse oxidativo, marcadores inflamatórios e estresse do retículo endoplasmático; e melhorando os parâmetros hemodinâmicos, antropométricos e metabólicos.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Estresse Oxidativo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Treinamento Resistido , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Treinamento Resistido/métodos , Ratos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Camundongos , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301369, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of time-restricted eating (TRE), with or without high intensity functional training (HIFT), on body composition and cardiometabolic biomarkers among inactive women with obesity. METHODS: Sixty-four women (BMI = 35.03 ± 3.8 kg/m2; age = 32.1 ± 10 years) were randomly allocated to either: (1) TRE (≤8-h daily eating window, with ad libitum energy intake) group; (2) HIFT (3 sessions/week) group; or (3) TRE combined with HIFT (TRE-HIFT) group. The interventions lasted 12 weeks with a pre-post measurement design. A HIFT session consists of 8 sets of multiple functional exercises with self-selected intensity (20 or 30s work/10s rest). RESULTS: TRE-HIFT showed a greater decrease of waist and hip circumferences and fat mass compared to TRE (p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p<0.01; respectively) and HIFT (p = 0.012, p = 0.028 and p<0.001; respectively). Weight and BMI decreased in TRE-HIFT compared to HIFT group (p<0.001; for both). Fat-free mass was lower in TRE compared to both HIFT and TRE-HIFT groups (p<0.01 and p<0.001; respectively). Total cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and HOMA-IR decreased in TRE-HIFT compared to both TRE (p<0.001, p<0.01, p = 0.015 and p<0.01; respectively) and HIFT (p<0.001, p = 0.02, p<0.01 and p<0.001; respectively) groups. Glucose level decreased in TRE-HIFT compared to HIFT (p<0.01). Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both TRE-HIFT and HIFT groups compared to TRE group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02; respectively). CONCLUSION: In inactive women with obesity, combining TRE with HIFT can be a good strategy to induce superior effects on body composition, lipid profile and glucose regulation compared with either diet or exercise intervention alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Number: PACTR202301674821174.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Obesidade , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sedentário , Glicemia/metabolismo
14.
Physiol Rep ; 12(10): e16023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760177

RESUMO

To determine whether body fat and body mass index (BMI) affect the energy cost of walking (Cw; J/kg/m), ventilation, and gas exchange data from 205 adults (115 females; percent body fat range = 3.0%-52.8%; BMI range = 17.5-43.2 kg/m2) were obtained at rest and during treadmill walking at 1.34 m/s to calculate gross and net Cw. Linear regression was used to assess relationships between body composition indices, Cw, and standing metabolic rate (SMR). Unpaired t-tests were used to assess differences between sex, and one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences by BMI categories: normal weight, <25.0 kg/m2; overweight, 25.0-29.9 km/m2; and obese, ≥30 kg/m2. Net Cw was not related to body fat percent, fat mass, or BMI (all R2 ≤ 0.011). Furthermore, mean net Cw was similar by sex (male: 2.19 ± 0.30 J/kg/m; female: 2.24 ± 0.37 J/kg/m, p = 0.35) and across BMI categories (normal weight: 2.23 ± 0.36 J/kg/m; overweight: 2.18 ± 0.33 J/kg/m; obese: 2.26 ± 0.31, p = 0.54). Gross Cw and SMR were inversely associated with percent body fat, fat mass, and BMI (all R2 between 0.033 and 0.270; all p ≤ 0.008). In conclusion, Net Cw is not influenced by body fat percentage, total body fat, and BMI and does not differ by sex.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Caminhada , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Caminhada/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Idoso , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(8): 3056-3065, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this research, we aimed to elucidate the effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and obesity on pulmonary volumes and bronchial hyperreactivity, and particularly the effect of supine position on pulmonary volume and functions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study with a total of 96 patients (age range, 20-65 years). Based on the body mass index (BMI) and Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) scores, the patients were divided into four groups: Group 1: AHI≥15/h, BMI≥30 kg/m2 (n=24), Group 2: AHI≥15/h, BMI<30 kg/m2 (n=24), Group 3: AHI<15/h, BMI≥30 kg/m2 (n=24), and Group 4: AHI<15/h, BMI<30 kg/m2 (n=24). All patients first had static and dynamic pulmonary function tests and carbon monoxide diffusion tests (TLco and Kco) in the sitting and supine positions. A bronchial provocation test with methacholine was applied to all patients in the sitting position one day later. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate linear regression was used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: Airway responsiveness was observed in 4 of the patients included in the study, and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. A statistically significant decrease was observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC), especially in  Group 1 in sitting position compared to Group 4 (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.025, p=0.043, and p=0.001, respectively). Changes in pulmonary functions in the transition from sitting to a supine position did not show any significant difference in the study groups (p<0.05). We observed no difference in the diffusion capacity in the sitting and supine positions among the groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The severity of AHI and BMI particularly affect the lower airway, but changes in the position did not show any significant difference in the study groups.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Decúbito Dorsal , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/fisiopatologia , Hiper-Reatividade Brônquica/diagnóstico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Testes de Provocação Brônquica
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 59, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction has been rising over the past decades and has coincided with increases in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The relationship between these interconnected comorbidities and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is still poorly understood. This study characterized obesity and metabolic syndrome among real-world patients with HFpEF. METHODS: We identified adults with heart failure in the Veradigm Cardiology Registry, previously the PINNACLE Registry, with a left ventricular ejection fraction measurement ≥ 50% between 01/01/2016 and 12/31/2019. Patients were stratified by obesity diagnosis and presence of metabolic syndrome (≥ 3 of the following: diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity). We captured baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and used multivariable logistic regression to examine the odds of having cardiac (atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack) and non-cardiac (chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and peripheral artery disease) comorbidities of interest. The models adjusted for age and sex, and the main covariates of interest were obesity and metabolic burden score (0-3 based on the presence of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia). The models were run with and without an obesity*metabolic burden score interaction term. RESULTS: This study included 264,571 patients with HFpEF, of whom 55.7% had obesity, 52.5% had metabolic syndrome, 42.5% had both, and 34.3% had neither. After adjusting for age, sex, and burden of other metabolic syndrome-associated diagnoses, patients with HFpEF with obesity had lower odds of a diagnosis of other evaluated comorbidities relative to patients without obesity. The presence of metabolic syndrome in HFpEF appears to increase comorbidity burden as each additional metabolic syndrome-associated diagnosis was associated with higher odds of assessed comorbidities except atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSION: Obesity was common among patients with HFpEF and not always co-occurring with metabolic syndrome. Multivariable analysis suggested that patients with obesity may develop HFpEF in the absence of other driving factors such as cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Sistema de Registros , Volume Sistólico , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Masculino , Feminino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comorbidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prevalência , Prognóstico
17.
Wiad Lek ; 77(3): 551-556, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To perform an overall assessment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) adults with central obesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: We enrolled HFpEF patients with central obesity (n =73, mean age 52.4 ± 6.3 years) and without obesity (n =70, mean age 51.9 ± 7.1 years) and compared with an age-matched healthy subjects who had not suffered from HF (n = 69, mean age 52.3 ± 7.5 years). Physical examination, routine laboratory tests such as fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA) index, serum lipids, haemoglobin, creatinine, ALT, AST, uric acide, hs CRP, TSH, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and standard transthoracic echocardiogram (2D and Doppler) examinations were performed and assessed. RESULTS: Results: The average values of diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose and lipid profiles, uric acide, hs CRP were found to be significantly higher among obese patients with HFpEF than non-obese. Despite more severe symptoms and signs of HF, obese patients with HFpEF had lower NT-proBNP values than non-obese patients with HFpEF (129±36.8 pg/ml, 134±32.5 pg/ml vs 131±30.4 pg/ml, 139±33.8 pg/ml respectively; p < 0.05). However, it was found that patients with high central (visceral) adiposity have more pronounced obesity-related LV diastolic dysfunction, lower E/e' ratio, lower mitral annular lateral e' velocity, an increased LV diastolic dimension and LV mass index. Compared with non-obese HFpEF and control subjects, obese patients displayed greater right ventricular dilatation (base, 35±3.13 mm, 36±4.7 mm vs 33±2.8 mm, 34±3.2 mm and 29±5.3 mm, 30±3.9 mm; length, 74±5 mm, 76±8 mm vs 67±4 mm, 69±6 mm and 60±3 mm, 61±5 mm respectively; p < 0.05), more right ventricular dysfunction (TAPSE 16±2 mm, 15±3 mm vs 17±2 mm, 17±1 mm and 19±2 mm, 20±3 mm respectively; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Obese patients with HFpEF have higher diastolic BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, insulin resistance index values and greater systemic inflammatory biomarkers, despite lower NT-proBNP values, which increase the risk of cardiovascular events in future. Echocardiography examination revealed not only significant LV diastolic dysfunction, but also displayed greater RV dilatation and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sistólico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11341, 2024 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762574

RESUMO

The hypothalamus is the key regulator for energy homeostasis and is functionally connected to striatal and cortical regions vital for the inhibitory control of appetite. Hence, the ability to non-invasively modulate the hypothalamus network could open new ways for the treatment of metabolic diseases. Here, we tested a novel method for network-targeted transcranial direct current stimulation (net-tDCS) to influence the excitability of brain regions involved in the control of appetite. Based on the resting-state functional connectivity map of the hypothalamus, a 12-channel net-tDCS protocol was generated (Neuroelectrics Starstim system), which included anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation. Ten participants with overweight or obesity were enrolled in a sham-controlled, crossover study. During stimulation or sham control, participants completed a stop-signal task to measure inhibitory control. Overall, stimulation was well tolerated. Anodal net-tDCS resulted in faster stop signal reaction time (SSRT) compared to sham (p = 0.039) and cathodal net-tDCS (p = 0.042). Baseline functional connectivity of the target network correlated with SSRT after anodal compared to sham stimulation (p = 0.016). These preliminary data indicate that modulating hypothalamus functional network connectivity via net-tDCS may result in improved inhibitory control. Further studies need to evaluate the effects on eating behavior and metabolism.


Assuntos
Estudos de Viabilidade , Hipotálamo , Obesidade , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Apetite/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
19.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 377, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In individuals diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), variations in craniofacial structure have been inconsistently documented, showing differing degrees of alteration between obese and nonobese patients. In addition, sleep disturbance has also been shown to induce disequilibrium in this population of patients. This pilot observational study aimed to assess craniofacial values in obese and nonobese subpopulations of patients with OSAS and their correlation and association with the severity of OSAS. We also assessed whether OSAS patients are characterized by an impaired equilibrium in relation to and associated with the severity of OSAS. METHODS: We included all consecutive adult patients with OSAS. Through cephalometry, we assessed the upper (UPa-UPp) and lower (LPa-LPp) pharynx diameters, superior anterior facial height (Sor-ANS), anterior facial height (ANS-Me), anterior vertical dimension (Sor-Me), posterior facial height (S-Go) and craniovertebral angle (CVA). Furthermore, we analyzed postural equilibrium through a stabilometric examination. RESULTS: Forty consecutive OSAS patients (45% female with a mean age of 56 ± 8.2 years) were included. The subgroup of nonobese patients had a reduced UPa-UPp (p = 0.02). Cephalometric measurements were correlated with the severity of OSAS in nonobese patients, whereas only Sor-ANS was correlated with the severity of OSAS in the obese subpopulation. In the overall population, altered craniofacial values are associated with severe OSAS. Although there are differences in equilibrium between obese and nonobese OSAS patients, the stabilometric measurements were not correlated or associated with OSAS severity. CONCLUSION: Altered craniofacial values and compromised equilibrium in OSAS patients are linked to OSAS severity. Therefore, the management of OSAS should be tailored not only to weight management but also to craniofacial and postural rehabilitation to enhance patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto
20.
J Theor Biol ; 588: 111835, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643962

RESUMO

Obesity is a contributing factor to asthma severity; while it has long been understood that obesity is related to greater asthma burden, the mechanisms though which this occurs have not been fully elucidated. One common explanation is that obesity mechanically reduces lung volume through accumulation of adipose tissue external to the thoracic cavity. However, it has been recently demonstrated that there is substantial adipose tissue within the airway wall itself, and that the presence of adipose tissue within the airway wall is related to body mass index. This suggests the possibility of an additional mechanism by which obesity may worsen asthma, namely by altering the behaviour of the airways themselves. To this end, we modify Anafi & Wilson's classic model of the bistable terminal airway to incorporate adipose tissue within the airway wall in order to answer the question of how much adipose tissue would be required in order to drive substantive functional changes. This analysis suggests that adipose tissue within the airway wall on the order of 1%-2% of total airway cross-sectional area could be sufficient to drive meaningful changes, and further that these changes may interact with volume effects to magnify the overall burden.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Asma , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Humanos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiologia
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