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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Orv Hetil ; 160(44): 1727-1734, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657254

RESUMO

Authors discuss the musculoskeletal aspects of obesity by applying a novel approach. Biochemical changes associated with obesity and especially metabolic syndrome, may have a great impact on the function of bones, joints and muscles. Therefore we need a new view and new strategies in rheumatic diseases. Obesity-associated metabolic changes should be considered during the progress of as well as the selection of treatment in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Individualised treatment is necessary due to associated comorbidities as well. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(44): 1727-1734.


Assuntos
Artropatias/etiologia , Artropatias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Artrite , Humanos , Artropatias/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/etiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482976

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary fitness assessment is a valuable resource to obtain quantitative indicators of an individual's physical performance. The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), considered the gold standard test for this evaluation, is costly and difficult to be accessed by the general population. In order to make this evaluation more accessible, and to better reflect the performance of daily life activities, alternative tests were proposed. Morbidly obese patients present limitations that impair physical performance assessment and could benefit from a test of shorter duration, provided it is validated. This observational study aimed to validate the two-minute step test (2MST) as a tool to evaluate functional capacity (FC) in obese with comorbidities and morbidly obese patients, compared the 2MST with CPX as a measure of physical performance, and developed a predictive equation to estimate peak oxygen uptake (VO2) in the 2MST. The CPX and the 2MST were performed and metabolic and ventilatory parameters were recorded in 31 obese individuals (BMI>35 kg/m2). Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the peak VO2 best predictors. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess the agreement between the two methods. Peak VO2 measured by CPX and 2MST showed a strong correlation (r=0.70, P<0.001) and there was a moderate correlation between peak VO2 of the 2MST and the number of up-and-down step cycles (UDS) (r=0.55; P=0.01). The reference equation obtained was: VO2 (mL·kg-1·min-1) = 13.341 + 0.138 × total UDS - (0.183 × BMI), with an estimated standard error of 1.3 mL·kg-1·min-1. The 2MST is a viable, practical, and easily accessible test for FC. UDS and BMI can predict peak VO2 satisfactorily.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4632, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential value of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as prognostic predictors in hospitalized elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on data collected from elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted to a public hospital located in the Northeastern region of Brazil, from April to July 2015. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measurements. Cardiovascular risk and prognostic markers, such as troponin and creatine kynase MB isoenzyme values, acute myocardial infarction classification according to ST segment elevation, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score were used. RESULTS: The sample comprised 99 patients with mean age of 71.6 (±7.4) years. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was 64.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent among males (p=0.017) aged >80 years (p=0.008). Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction was the only marker of cardiovascular risk significantly associated with sarcopenia (p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of sarcopenia was high and associated with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score. Sarcopenic obesity affected approximately one-third of patients and was not associated with any of the prognostic predictors.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16323, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374004

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a more comprehensive analysis of the association between psoriasis and abnormal lipid metabolism.The case-control study included 222 psoriatic patients and 445 non-psoriatic control patients matched for age and gender. Clinical parameters included age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Serum lipid levels were recorded and included cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), phospholipids (PLIP), free fatty acids (FFA), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and apolipoproteins (apoA1, apoB, and apoE). Statistical analysis was carried out through the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Studies version 23.0.Compared with controls, levels of BMI and the prevalence of obesity were significantly higher in psoriatic patients. The results revealed that when compared to controls, significant elevation of serum TG (P <.001) and Lp(a) (P = .022) was observed. Levels of HDL (P <.001) and apoA1 (P <.001) were significantly lower in psoriatic patients. There was no significant difference in CHO (P = .367), LDL (P = .400), apoB (P = .294), apoE (P = .05), PLIP (P = .931) and FFA (P = .554) between patients and controls. The levels of CHO, TG, PLIP, FFA, and apoE were positively correlated with BMI level.Dyslipidemia was more common in psoriatic patients, compared with non-psoriatic controls.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Psoríase/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Apolipoproteínas B/análise , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/análise , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/análise , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/fisiopatologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10107-10115, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434473

RESUMO

We examined the antiobesity effect of a limonoid 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin, named CG-1, purified from the seeds of Carapa guianensis, Meliaceae, known as andiroba in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet or an HFD and orally administered CG-1 (20 mg/kg) for 7 weeks. CG-1 lowered the body weight gain and improved the serum triglyceride level and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice. The expression level of the adipogenesis-related genes was lowered by CG-1 in the visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT). The mRNA expression level of the macrophage-related genes decreased in vWAT following the administration of CG-1 to HFD-fed mice. It is noteworthy that CG-1 activated the brown adipose tissue (BAT) with enhanced expression of uncoupling protein 1 and increased the rectal temperature in HFD-fed mice. These results indicate that the limonoid CG-1 decreased body weight gain and ameliorated hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance with the activation of BAT in HFD-fed mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Limoninas/administração & dosagem , Meliaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262107

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of body fat ratio in the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea(OSA). Methods: A retrospective analysis was made on 174 cases (between November, 2017 and April, 2018 showed that) of sleep monitoring in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Peking University Third Hospital. The data included the gender, age, body fat rate, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The above data were analyzed by non parametric correlation analysis, receiver operating characterristic (ROC) curve analysis and multiple factor Logistic regression analysis to study the relationship between the gender,age,body fat rate,BMI,neck circumference and other indexes of the patients with AHI. Results: Nonparametric correlation analysis showed that the correlation from strong to weak to AHI among women was BMI (r=0.621, P<0.001),body fat rate (r=0.602, P<0.001), age (r=0.570, P<0.001), neck circumference (r=0.402, P=0.014), respectively. BMI (r=0.599, P<0.001), neck circumference (r=0.493, P<0.001), body fat rate (r=0.318, P<0.001), and age (r=0.256, P=0.003) among men. ROC curve analysis showed that the strong to weak index (area under curve,AUC) of the AHI>15/h among women was the body fat rate (AUC=0.884, P=0.001), BMI(AUC=0.810, P=0.008), neck circumference (AUC=0.759, P=0.027), age (AUC=0.750, P=0.033), and the male was BMI (AUC=0.765,P<0.001), neck circumference (AUC=0.720, P<0.001), age (AUC=0.634, P=0.008), and body fat rate (AUC=0.632, P=0.010), respectively. Multifactor Logistic regression analysis showed that the body fat rate (OR=1.704,95%CI=1.012-2.870) in women was an independent risk factor for AHI greater than 15/h; the age of male (OR=1. 044, 95%CI=1.005-1.085) and BMI (OR=1.285, 95%CI=1.056-1.562) were independent risk factors for AHI greater than 15/h. Conclusion: Body fat rate can be used as a new indicator for predicting the severity of OSA,especially in adult female population. In adult female moderate to severe OSA patients (AHI>15/h), compared with BMI,neck circumference and age,the body fat rate has the greatest correlation with AHI. Compared with BMI,neck circumference and age,the body fat rate has a decisive role in predicting moderate to severe OSA (AHI>15/h).


Assuntos
Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 845-850, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with sleep quality in university students from the Anhui province in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in China with 1328 participants. The prevalence of underweight and obesity in university students was estimated according to the reference working group on obesity in China. The sleep quality was evaluated using the standard PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: This study included 470 male and 858 female students from a university in Anhui; 4.4% of the females and 17.7% of the males were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher than in females, and the prevalence of obesity in higher years was greater than in other years (p<0.05). In general, the mean score for sleep quality was 4.91±2.67; 36.5% of male and 39.1% of female students had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5). Among the seven components of sleep quality, sleep duration and the use of sleep medication showed significant differences between male and female students and different years (p<0.05). An obvious correlation was found between sleep quality and body mass index (BMI)(p<0.000) in females who took hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the sleep quality of females is probably associated with their BMI. College students are a special group of young adults whose cause of poor sleeping quality and BMI may be significant to study, so the health status of university students can be improved.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 864-869, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to verify the association between risk factors for the onset of SUI and transobturator suburethral sling surgical treatment outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with 57 patients operated by the Pelvic Floor Surgery Service. Demographic data were compiled from the sample, the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the patients were divided according to the response to the surgical treatment. RESULTS: A total of 77.2% of the sample was cured or improved after surgical treatment. Out of the total sample, 75.4% of the women were postmenopausal, and 73.7% denied current or past smoking. The median age was 61 years, the median number of births was 4.0, the median BMI was 28.6 kg/m2, and 50.9% of the sample was classified as pre-obese. BMI, menopausal status, age, smoking, and sexual activity were not factors associated with the surgical outcome. However, parity equal to or greater than 5 was associated with worse postoperative results (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: among risk factors associated with the emergence of SUI, only parity greater than 4 showed a negative impact on transobturator sling surgery outcomes.


Assuntos
Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 1701-1763, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339053

RESUMO

Obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with substantial cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue distribution and morphology play a key role in determining the degree of adverse effects, and a key factor in the disease process appears to be the inflammatory cell population in adipose tissue. Healthy adipose tissue secretes a number of vasoactive adipokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and changes to this secretory profile will contribute to pathogenesis in obesity. In this review, we discuss the links between adipokine dysregulation and the development of hypertension and diabetes and explore the potential for manipulating adipose tissue morphology and its immune cell population to improve cardiovascular health in obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 470-474, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344209

RESUMO

Obesity is a global health problem. Its worldwide prevalence has tripled between 1975 and 2016, reaching a prevalence in Chile of 34.4%, according to the National Health Survey 2016-2017. If this condition corresponds to a risk factor or primary disease is a widely discussed issue. It is recognized as a disease by the American Medical Association and World Health Organization, based on its metabolic and hormonal features, such as dysregulation of appetite, abnormal energy balance and endocrine dysfunction, among others. Its main environmental risk factors are the consumption of ultra-processed foods and sedentariness. Preventive measures at the population level are fundamental, emphasizing promotion and prevention using a transdisciplinary approach. The individual approach in the management of obesity should improve the quality of life, avoid early mortality, reduce cardiovascular risk, and reduce the progression to type 2 diabetes and incidence of cancer. Thus, an adequate management and control of obesity would have a great impact in our society.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7136-7146, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240929

RESUMO

Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) are organosulfur phytochemicals rich in cruciferous vegetables. We investigated the antiobesity and antihepatosteatosis activities of BITC and PEITC and the working mechanisms involved. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with 0.5 (L) or 1 g/kg (H) BITC or PEITC for 18 weeks. Compared with the HFD group, BITC or PEITC decreased the final body weight of mice in a dose-dependent manner [39.0 ± 3.1 (HFD), 34.4 ± 3.2 (BITC-L), 32.4 ± 2.8 (BITC-H), 36.2 ± 4.4 (PEITC-L), and 32.8 ± 2.9 (PEITC-H) g, p < 0.05], relative weight of epididymal fat [5.7 ± 0.4 (HFD), 4.7 ± 0.7 (BITC-L), 3.7 ± 0.3 (BITC-H), 4.4 ± 1.0 (PEITC-L), and 3.2 ± 0.6 (PEITC-H) %, p < 0.05], hepatic triglycerides [98.4 ± 6.0 (HFD), 81.0 ± 8.9 (BITC-L), 63.5 ± 5.6 (BITC-H), 69.3 ± 5.6 (PEITC-L), and 49.4 ± 2.9 (PEITC-H) mg/g, p < 0.05], and plasma total cholesterol [140 ± 21.3 (HFD), 109 ± 5.6 (BITC-L), 101 ± 11.3 (BITC-H), 126 ± 8.3 (PEITC-L), and 91.8 ± 12.7 (PEITC-H) mg/dL, p < 0.05]. Q-PCR and immunoblotting assays revealed that BITC and PEITC suppressed the expression of liver X receptor α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in both epididymal adipose and liver tissues. After a single oral administration of 85 mg/kg BITC or PEITC, the maximum plasma concentrations ( Cmax) of BITC and PEITC were 5.8 ± 2.0 µg/mL and 4.3 ± 1.9 µg/mL, respectively. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, BITC and PEITC dose-dependently reduced adipocyte differentiation and cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 phase. These findings indicate that BITC and PEITC ameliorate HFD-induced obesity and fatty liver by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation and the expression of lipogenic transcription factors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Isotiocianatos/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
14.
Life Sci ; 231: 116542, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176781

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of 150 min vs. 300 min of weekly moderate intensity exercise training on the activation of the opioid system and apoptosis in the hearts of a diet-induced obesity model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed with either control (CON) or high fat (HF) diet for 32 weeks. At the 20th week, HF group was subdivided into sedentary, low (LEV, 150 min·week-1) or high (HEV, 300 min·week-1) exercise volume. After 12 weeks of exercise, body mass gain, adiposity index, systolic blood pressure, cardiac morphometry, apoptosis biomarkers and opioid system expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Sedentary animals fed with HF presented pathological cardiac hypertrophy and higher body mass gain, systolic blood pressure and adiposity index than control group. Both exercise volumes induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy, restored systolic blood pressure and improved adiposity index, but only 300 min·week-1 reduced body mass gain. HF group exhibited lower proenkephalin, PI3K, ERK and GSK-3ß expression, and greater activated caspase-3 expression than control group. Compared to HF, no changes in the cardiac opioid system were observed in the 150 min·week-1 of exercise training, while 300 min·week-1 showed greater proenkephalin, DOR, KOR, MOR, Akt, ERK and GSK-3ß expression, and lower activated caspase-3 expression. CONCLUSION: 300 min·week-1 of exercise training triggered opioid system activation and provided greater cardioprotection against obesity than 150 min·week-1. Our findings provide translational aspect with clinical relevance about the critical dose of exercise training necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk factors caused by obesity.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Receptores Opioides/fisiologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
BJOG ; 126(10): 1213-1222, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies on pregnancy outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are scarce and typically of small size. Available studies have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to describe maternal and infant pregnancy outcomes among women with PsA compared with women without PsA. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide Swedish registers. POPULATION: A total of 41 485 singleton pregnancies in 1997-2014, of which 541 pregnancies were identified with PsA exposure and 40 944 pregnancies were unexposed. METHODS: By linkage of national health and population register data, we obtained information on individual pregnancies and compared outcomes among pregnancies with PsA and non-PsA pregnancies. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs using a generalised linear regression model with generalised estimating equations. Adjustments were made for maternal factors and calendar year of birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal and infant pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Pregnancies to women with PsA had increased risks of preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.17-2.28), elective and emergency caesarean deliveries (adjusted OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.10-1.97 and adjusted OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.88, respectively) compared with non-PsA pregnancies. No increased risks were observed for pre-eclampsia, stillbirth or other infant outcomes apart from preterm birth. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with PsA have uneventful pregnancies with respect to adverse outcomes. In the present study, we found increased risks of preterm birth and caesarean delivery compared with non-PsA pregnancies. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women with psoriatic arthritis have uneventful pregnancies but are at increased risk of preterm birth and caesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/fisiopatologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(6): 842-848, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187771

RESUMO

Background: Childhood overweight/obesity burden is on the rise worldwide. Obesity affects virtually all organs. In the kidney, glomerular hyperfiltration that manifests as elevated glomerular filtration rate is a frequent manifestation in obesity. This adaptive renal manifestation to excess metabolic demand on the kidney, in children, has been studied mainly in the severely obese and is uncertain if it is present in less severe forms of excessive weight. In addition, glomerular hyperfiltration has been reported to be associated with high levels of the indicators of cardiometabolic risk, and these latter finding are solely from adult studies. Objective: To ascertain if glomerular hyperfiltration occurs in overweight and less severely obese children and to determine any significant relevance of some indicators of cardiometabolic risk associated with hyperfiltration. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 49 adolescents (28 overweight, 21 obese) and 49 normal weight adolescents. The participants were subjected to clinical examination, anthropometric measurement, laboratory investigation using standard techniques. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated using the modified Schwartz equation. Hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR ≥140 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results: Hyperfiltration was observed in 20 (40.8%) of the overweight/obese adolescents. The prevalence of hyperfiltration among the overweight and the obese adolescent was 24.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of the overweight/obese adolescents was 141.0 ± 46.2 ml/min/1.73 m2, whereas that of the normal weight adolescents was 99.2 ± 17.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.0001). A higher prevalence of hypertension was observed among the overweight/obese adolescent with glomerular hyperfiltration. Conclusion: Glomerular hyperfiltration is not limited to morbidly obese children as the burden is also high in overweight and less severely obese adolescents.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2769, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235690

RESUMO

Loss of appetite or anorexia associated with inflammation impairs quality of life and increases morbidity in many diseases. However, the exact neural mechanism that mediates inflammation-associated anorexia is still poorly understood. Here we identified a population of neurons, marked by the expression of protein kinase C-delta, in the oval region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), which are activated by various inflammatory signals. Silencing of these neurons attenuates the anorexia caused by these inflammatory signals. Our results demonstrate that these neurons mediate bidirectional control of general feeding behaviors. These neurons inhibit the lateral hypothalamus-projecting neurons in the ventrolateral part of BNST to regulate feeding, receive inputs from the canonical feeding regions of arcuate nucleus and parabrachial nucleus. Our data therefore define a BNST microcircuit that might coordinate canonical feeding centers to regulate food intake, which could offer therapeutic targets for feeding-related diseases such as anorexia and obesity.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia/etiologia , Anorexia/prevenção & controle , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2700, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221967

RESUMO

Pathological obesity can result from genetic predisposition, obesogenic diet, and circadian rhythm disruption. Obesity compromises function of muscle, which accounts for a majority of body mass. Behavioral intervention that can counteract obesity arising from genetic, diet or circadian disruption and can improve muscle function holds untapped potential to combat the obesity epidemic. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) subject to obesogenic challenges exhibits metabolic disease phenotypes in skeletal muscle; sarcomere disorganization, mitochondrial deformation, upregulation of Phospho-AKT level, aberrant intramuscular lipid infiltration, and insulin resistance. Imposing time-restricted feeding (TRF) paradigm in which flies were fed for 12 h during the day counteracts obesity-induced dysmetabolism and improves muscle performance by suppressing intramuscular fat deposits, Phospho-AKT level, mitochondrial aberrations, and markers of insulin resistance. Importantly, TRF was effective even in an irregular lighting schedule mimicking shiftwork. Hence, TRF is an effective dietary intervention for combating metabolic dysfunction arising from multiple causes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cronobiológicos/dietoterapia , Jejum/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/etiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcômeros/patologia , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052569

RESUMO

Abnormal excess or lack of body mass can influence gait patterns, but in some cases such differences are subtle and not easy to detect, even with quantitative techniques for movement analysis. In these situations, the study of trunk accelerations may represent an effective way to detecting gait anomalies in terms of symmetry through the calculation of Harmonic Ratio (HR), a parameter obtained by processing trunk accelerations in the frequency domain. In the present study we used this technique to assess the existence of differences in HR during gait in a cohort of 75 healthy children and early adolescents (aged 7-14 years) stratified into 3 equally-sized age and gender-matched groups (Underweight: UW; Normal Weight: NW; Overweight: OW). The accelerometric signal, acquired using a single wearable inertial sensor, was processed to calculate stride length, speed, cadence and HR in antero-posterior, vertical and medio-lateral directions. No differences in spatio-temporal parameters were found among groups, while the HR in the medio-lateral direction was found significantly lower in UW children, while OW exhibited the highest values. On the basis of the results obtained, HR appears capable of discriminating gait symmetry in children with different body mass even when conventional gait parameters are unchanged.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia
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