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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209574

RESUMO

(1) The objective was to determine changes in parent-child (ages 7-18) dyad skin carotenoids spanning parental participation in a medical weight management program (WMP), and associations with parent BMI, child BMIz, fruit/vegetable intake, and family meals and patterns. (2) The study design was a longitudinal dyadic observational study with assessment at WMP initiation, mid-point (3-months), and conclusion (6-months). Twenty-three dyads initiated the study, 16 provided assessments at 3 months, and 11 at program conclusion. Associations between parent and child carotenoids (dependent variables) and parent BMI, child BMIz, increases in fruit/vegetable intake, and family meals and patterns were analyzed using Pearson's correlations and independent samples t-tests. Repeated measures ANOVA assessed changes in weight status and carotenoids. (3) Parents experienced significant declines in BMI and skin carotenoid levels over 6 months. Parent and child carotenoids were correlated at each assessment. At initiation, parent BMI and carotenoids were inversely correlated, child carotenoids were associated with increased family meals, and never consuming an evening fast food or restaurant meal were associated with increased parent and child carotenoids. (4) Results demonstrate skin carotenoids are strongly correlated within dyads and may be associated with lower parental BMI and positive family meal practices.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/terapia , Pele/química , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Refeições , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Verduras
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202690

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate if a home meal replacement (HMR), designed with a low ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio, improves cardiometabolic parameters, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese individuals. We conducted a monocentric, controlled, randomized crossover trial. The HMR contains higher protein and fat content, lower carbohydrate content, and a lower ω6FA/ω3FA ratio than the regular diet. Sixty-four participants were randomized into two groups and switched to the other group following a 4-week intervention. While subjects in the HMR group were provided three HMRs daily, those in the control group were requested to maintain their regular dietary pattern. We conducted paired t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, and McNemar tests before and after the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were lower in the HMR group after adjusting for age, sex, and total energy intake and significantly changed in the between-group differences. The waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglyceride-glucose index, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were reduced in the HMR group (all p < 0.05). The percentage of subjects with MetS significantly decreased from 39.1% at baseline to 28.1% post-intervention (p = 0.035). Using the HMR for 4 weeks reduced the BMI, weight, and MetS prevalence in individuals with obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04552574).


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206431

RESUMO

We examined the relationships between intergenerational obesity, weight and size at birth, and obesity from infancy to adolescence with weight loss in response to a dietary intervention. We studied 4264 participants (3369 women; mean age 41.5 ± 12.9 years) of the ONTIME study. Participants followed a weight-loss treatment based on a Mediterranean diet. Associations between grandparental and parental obesity grade, birth weight and size, and obesity grade in infancy, childhood and adolescence with total weight loss in response to treatment were assessed, using multivariate linear regression models. A lower weight loss (kg) in response to treatment was found among participants who were obese during infancy (beta coefficient -2.13 kg; 95% CI, -3.96, -0.30; p = 0.023). Furthermore, obesity during infancy and also during childhood was associated with a slower weekly rate of weight loss during treatment (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity in infancy and in childhood impairs the weight-loss response to dietary treatments in adulthood. Tackling obesity throughout early life may improve the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in adulthood.


Assuntos
Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Obesidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/classificação , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299070

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that maternal lipid metabolism was modulated during normal pregnancy and that these modulations are altered in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We tested this hypothesis using an established mouse model of diet-induced obesity with pregnancy-associated loss of glucose tolerance and a novel lipid analysis tool, Lipid Traffic Analysis, that uses the temporal distribution of lipids to identify differences in the control of lipid metabolism through a time course. Our results suggest that the start of pregnancy is associated with several changes in lipid metabolism, including fewer variables associated with de novo lipogenesis and fewer PUFA-containing lipids in the circulation. Several of the changes in lipid metabolism in healthy pregnancies were less apparent or occurred later in dams who developed GDM. Some changes in maternal lipid metabolism in the obese-GDM group were so late as to only occur as the control dams' systems began to switch back towards the non-pregnant state. These results demonstrate that lipid metabolism is modulated in healthy pregnancy and the timing of these changes is altered in GDM pregnancies. These findings raise important questions about how lipid metabolism contributes to changes in metabolism during healthy pregnancies. Furthermore, as alterations in the lipidome are present before the loss of glucose tolerance, they could contribute to the development of GDM mechanistically.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Camundongos , Gravidez
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201442

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of time restricted eating (TRE) in adults with overweight and obesity. Participants (n = 50) logged all eating occasions (>0 kcal) for a 2-week run-in period using a smartphone application. Participants with eating duration ≥14 h enrolled in an open label, non-randomized, prospective 90-day TRE intervention, with a self-selected reduced eating window of 10 h. No dietary counseling was provided. Changes in anthropometrics, eating patterns and adherence after TRE were analyzed using t-tests or Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. The mean duration of the baseline eating window was 14 h 32 m ± 2 h 36 m (n = 50) with 56% of participants with duration ≥14 h. TRE participants (n = 16) successfully decreased their eating window from 16 h 04 m ± 1 h 24 m to 11 h 54 m ± 2 h 06 m (p < 0.001), and reduced the number of daily eating occasions by half (p < 0.001). Adherence to logging and to the reduced eating window was 64% ± 22% and 47% ± 19%, respectively. TRE resulted in decreases in body weight (-2.1 ± 3.0 kg, p = 0.017), waist circumference (-2.2 ± 4.6 cm, p = 0.002) and systolic blood pressure (-12 ± 11 mmHg, p = 0.002). This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of TRE administered via a smartphone, in adults with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Jejum , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207523

RESUMO

Pregnancy can alter a woman's weight gain trajectory across the life course and contribute to the development of obesity through retention of weight gained during pregnancy. This study aimed to identify modifiable determinants associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR; calculated by the difference in pre-pregnancy and 6 month postpartum weight) in 667 women with obesity from the UPBEAT study. We examined the relationship between PPWR and reported glycaemic load, energy intake, and smoking status in pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), mode of delivery, self-reported postpartum physical activity (low, moderate, and high), and mode of infant feeding (breast, formula, and mixed). At the 6 month visit, 48% (n = 320) of women were at or above pre-pregnancy weight. Overall, PPWR was negative (-0.06 kg (-42.0, 40.4)). Breastfeeding for ≥4 months, moderate or high levels of physical activity, and GWG ≤9 kg were associated with negative PPWR. These three determinants were combined to provide a modifiable factor score (range 0-3); for each added variable, a further reduction in PPWR of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval 3.76, 2.25) occurred compared to women with no modifiable factors. This study identified three additive determinants of PPWR loss. These provide modifiable targets during pregnancy and the postnatal period to enable women with obesity to return to their pre-pregnancy weight.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Aleitamento Materno , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fumar
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207613

RESUMO

Maternal diet, physical activity (PA) behaviours, and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important for optimum health of women and their babies. This secondary analysis of the GLOWING pilot cluster trial explored these among women living with obesity in high deprivation. Pregnant women completed food frequency, PA and psychosocial questionnaires. Weights were retrieved from medical records and measured during routine appointments with midwives. Descriptive and regression analyses were stratified by obesity class. A total of 163 women were recruited; 54.0% had class 1 obesity, 25.8% class 2, 20.2% class 3, and 76.1% lived in the two most deprived quintiles. Women had suboptimal dietary intake, particularly for oily fish, fruit and vegetables. PA was predominantly light intensity, from household, care and occupational activities. Most women gained weight outside of Institute of Medicine (IOM) guideline recommendations (87.8%); women in class 3 obesity were most likely to have inadequate GWG below IOM recommendations (58.3%, p < 0.01) and reduced odds of excessive GWG compared with class 1 (AOR 0.13, 95% 0.04-0.45). Deprived women with obesity have a double inequality as both increase pregnancy risks. This population requires support to meet guideline recommendations for diet, PA and GWG. Further research exploring obesity classes would inform policies and care to achieve the best pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Política Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208967

RESUMO

Evidence accumulated to date suggests that excess weight in the adult population is associated with a wide range of impairments in executive function. However, most studies have only examined the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the cognitive function of individuals with overweight and obesity. This study examined the potential associations of markers of adiposity (BMI, body fat, and visceral fat) with five domains of executive function including cognitive flexibility, inhibition, monitoring, planning, and working memory in a sample of 87 adult with overweight (n = 34) and obesity (n = 53). The results show that obese people had poorer working memory than those with overweight. After controlling for educational levels and physical activity, the results suggest that neither the waist-hip index not visceral fat were associated with cognitive function. In overweight, body fat was negatively associated with executive components of inhibition (p = 0.05) and monitoring (p = 0.02). In the obesity subgroup, body fat was negatively associated with inhibition (0.02) and working memory (0.04). The results provide evidence of the importance of adiposity for cognitive function. The implications for understanding the influence of markers of adiposity in adults with overweight and obesity are discussed.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208986

RESUMO

(1) Background: The favorable effects of high protein snacks on body composition and appetite status in lean and athletic populations have been illustrated previously. However, the effects of soy-enriched high protein snacks have not been investigated in women with normal-weight obesity (NWO). Consequently, we aimed at comparing the effects of six months of soy-enriched high protein snack replacement on appetite, body composition, and dietary intake in women with NWO. (2) Methods: One hundred seven (107) women with NWO [(age: 24 ± 3 yrs, BMI: 22.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2, body fat percentage (BFP): 38 ± 3.2%)] who were assigned to one of two groups; high protein snack (HP, n = 52) containing 50 g soybean or isocaloric low-protein snack (protein: 18.2 g, carbohydrate: 15 g, fat: 10 g, energy: 210 kcal) or isocaloric low protein snack (LP, n = 55) containing 3.5 servings of fruit (protein: <2 g, carbohydrate: ≈50 g, fat: <1 g, energy: ≈210 kcal) as part of their daily meals (as a snack at 10 a.m.), successfully completed the study interventions. Body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), BFP, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, and appetite levels were evaluated prior to and after the six-month intervention. (3) Results: Appetite (HP = -12 mm and LP = -0.6 mm), energy intake (HP = -166.2 kcal/day and LP = 91.3 kcal), carbohydrate intake (HP = -58.4 g/day and LP = 6.4 g/day), WC (HP = -4.3 cm and LP = -0.9 cm), and BFP (HP = -3.7% and LP = -0.9%) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, while skeletal muscle mass (HP = 1.2 kg and LP = 0.3 kg) significantly increased in the HP compared to the LP group, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Six months of a soy-enriched high protein snack replacement decreased appetite and improved body composition in women with NWO. Our findings suggest that soy-enriched high protein snacks are an efficacious strategy for body composition improvement.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Lanches , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201490

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the nationwide total lockdown (LD) in France on weight loss and body composition modifications in subjects participating in a weight loss program and to evaluate the impact of remote consultations on participants' adherence to the weight loss program. The CO-RNPC study was a prospective multicentre cohort study including participants undergoing a two to six months program. The rate of weight loss in kg/week was computed before (15 days), during (99 days) and after LD (15 days). In the 1550 completing participants, body weight decreased from 87.1 kg [IQR 77.0; 100.2] to 82.3 kg [72.1; 94.3] resulting in a difference of -4.79 kg [-4.48; -5.10] (p < 0.01), with a corresponding reduction in waist circumference by 4 cm ([0; 9], p < 0.01). The median weight loss was 4.4 kg [0.5; 9.4] in those who used remote consultations, and 1.4 kg [0.8; 5.7] in the no remote consultation group (p < 0.01). In this large prospective cohort, we observed that the rate of weight loss was reduced during LD. This reduction was counterbalanced in participants involved in a remote consultation follow-up with a dose-effect response based on the number of remote consultations.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/terapia , Distanciamento Físico , Consulta Remota , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066988

RESUMO

Obesity and prediabetes are the two strongest risk factors of type 2 diabetes. It has been reported that TOTUM-63, a polyphenol-rich plant extract, has beneficial effects on body weight (BW) and insulin resistance in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). The study aim was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and/or TOTUM-63 supplementation improved body composition and glycemic control and gut microbiota composition in a Western diet-induced obesity rat model. Wistar rats received a standard diet (CTRL; control; n = 12) or HFD (HFD; n = 48) for 16 weeks. Then, HFD rats were divided in four groups: HFD, HFD + TOTUM-63 (T63), HFD + HIIT (HIIT), and HFD + HIIT +T63 (HIIT + T63). Training was performed 4 days/week for 12 weeks. TOTUM-63 was included in diet composition (2%). The HIIT + T63 combination significantly limited BW gain, without any energy intake modulation, and improved glycemic control. BW variation was correlated with increased α-diversity of the colon mucosa microbiota in the HIIT + T63 group. Moreover, the relative abundance of Anaeroplasma, Christensenellaceae and Oscillospira was higher in the HIIT + T63 group. Altogether, these results suggest that the HIIT and TOTUM-63 combination could be proposed for the management of obesity and prediabetes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Obesidade/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Controle Glicêmico , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pericárdio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Science ; 372(6546): 1085-1091, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083488

RESUMO

Whereas coding variants often have pleiotropic effects across multiple tissues, noncoding variants are thought to mediate their phenotypic effects by specific tissue and temporal regulation of gene expression. Here, we investigated the genetic and functional architecture of a genomic region within the FTO gene that is strongly associated with obesity risk. We show that multiple variants on a common haplotype modify the regulatory properties of several enhancers targeting IRX3 and IRX5 from megabase distances. We demonstrate that these enhancers affect gene expression in multiple tissues, including adipose and brain, and impart regulatory effects during a restricted temporal window. Our data indicate that the genetic architecture of disease-associated loci may involve extensive pleiotropy, allelic heterogeneity, shared allelic effects across tissues, and temporally restricted effects.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/embriologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065474

RESUMO

Obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and disorders of glycolipid metabolism have become a worldwide research priority. Zfp217 plays a crucial role in adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but about its functions in animal models are not yet clear. To explore the role of Zfp217 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, global Zfp217 heterozygous knockout (Zfp217+/-) mice were constructed. Zfp217+/- mice and Zfp217+/+ mice fed a normal chow diet (NC) did not differ significantly in weight gain, percent body fat mass, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity. When challenged with HFD, Zfp217+/- mice had less weight gain than Zfp217+/+ mice. Histological observations revealed that Zfp217+/- mice fed a high-fat diet had much smaller white adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Zfp217+/- mice had improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure compared to the Zfp217+/+ mice under HFD. We found that adipogenesis-related genes were increased and metabolic thermogenesis-related genes were decreased in the iWAT of HFD-fed Zfp217+/+ mice compared to Zfp217+/- mice. In addition, adipogenesis was markedly reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Zfp217-deleted mice. Together, these data indicate that Zfp217 is a regulator of energy metabolism and it is likely to provide novel insight into treatment for obesity.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transativadores/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Termogênese/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
15.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 15: 17539447211012803, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of obesity continue to rise worldwide as evidenced in the 2017 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that indicated over 35% of United States (US) citizens are obese, with Louisiana ranked as the fifth most obese state in America. Since large clinical trials tend to exclude obese patients, health care providers are faced with concerns of under- or overdosing these patients on warfarin. METHODS: This retrospective chart review evaluated patients who reported to a community anticoagulation clinic for warfarin management between 1 June 2017 and 30 September 2017. Along with baseline demographics, chronic use of drugs that have clinically significant interactions with warfarin, social activity such as tobacco use and alcohol consumption, were collected. Body mass indexes (BMI) were collected and categorized according to the World Health Organization definitions as follows: Normal (BMI 18-24.9 kg/m2), Overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), Obesity Class I (30-34.9 kg/m2), Obesity Class II (35-39.9 kg/m2), Obesity Class III (⩾40 kg/m2). The primary outcome was the mean 90-day warfarin dose required to maintain "intermediate control" or "good control" of international normalized ratio (INR), stratified by BMI classifications. The secondary outcome was the time in therapeutic range (TTR) stratified by BMI classifications. RESULTS: A total of 433 patient encounters were included in this study. There was a total of 43 encounters in the Normal BMI category, 111 Overweight encounters, 135 Obesity Class I encounters, 45 Obesity Class II encounters, and 99 Obesity Class III encounters. Approximately 63% of the study population were male, and over 90% the patients were African American. The Obesity Class I and Obesity Class II class required an average of 11.47 mg and 17.10 mg more warfarin, respectively, to maintain a therapeutic INR when compared with the Normal BMI category. These findings were statistically significant with p values of 0.007 and <0.001, respectively. Additionally, upon comparing the Overweight BMI category with the Obesity Class II category, there was a mean warfarin dose difference of 11.22 mg (p = 0.010) more in Obesity Class II encounters to maintain a therapeutic INR. In the secondary analysis of TTR, Overweight category encounters had the highest TTR, whereas encounters in the Normal BMI category had the lowest TTR. CONCLUSION: As BMI increases, there is an increased chronic warfarin requirement to maintain "intermediate control" or "good control" of INR between 2 and 3 in an ambulatory care setting.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/sangue , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Varfarina/sangue
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065277

RESUMO

Little is known about nutritional factors during weight loss on digital commercial weight loss programs. We examined how nutritional factors relate to weight loss for individuals after 4 and 18 months on a mobile commercial program with a food categorization system based on energy density (Noom). This is a two-part (retrospective and cross-sectional) cohort study. Two time points were used for analysis: 4 months and 18 months. For 4-month analyses, current Noom users who met inclusion criteria (n = 9880) were split into 5% or more body weight loss and stable weight loss (0 ± 1%) groups. Individuals who fell into one of these groups were analyzed at 4 months (n = 3261). For 18-month analyses, individuals from 4-month analyses who were still on Noom 18 months later were invited to take a one-time survey (n = 803). At 18 months 148 participants were analyzed. Noom has a system categorizing foods as low-, medium-, and high-energy-dense. Measures were self-reported proportions of low-, medium-, and high-energy-dense foods, and self-reported nutritional factors (fruit and vegetable intake, dietary quality, nutrition knowledge, and food choice). Nutritional factors were derived from validated survey measures, and food choice from a novel validated computerized task in which participants chose a food they would want to eat right now. ANOVAs compared participants with 5% or more body weight loss and participants with stable weight (0 ± 1%) at 4 months on energy density proportions. Analyses at 18 months compared nutritional factors across participants with >10% (high weight loss), 5-10% (moderate weight loss), and less than 5% body weight loss (low weight loss), and then assessed associations between nutritional factors and weight loss. Individuals with greater weight loss reported consuming higher proportions of low-energy-dense foods and lower proportions of high-energy-dense foods than individuals with less weight loss at 4 months and 18 months (all ps < 0.02). Individuals with greater weight loss had higher fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.03), dietary quality (p = 0.02), nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001), and healthier food choice (p = 0.003) at 18 months. Only nutrition knowledge and food choice were associated with weight loss at 18 months (B = -19.44, 95% CI: -33.19 to -5.69, p = 0.006; B = -5.49, 95% CI: -8.87 to -2.11, p = 0.002, respectively). Our results highlight the potential influence of nutrition knowledge and food choice in weight loss on a self-managed commercial program. We also found for the first time that in-the-moment inclination towards food even when just depicted is associated with long-term weight loss.


Assuntos
Alimentos/classificação , Obesidade/terapia , Autogestão/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Autogestão/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068089

RESUMO

Caloric restriction (CR) and exercise are cornerstones in the treatment of obesity and cardiometabolic disorders. Recently, whole body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has emerged as a more time-efficient alternative to traditional resistance training (RT). However, the effects of WB-EMS compared to RT on cardiometabolic health in obese metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients performed during CR are still unclear. In total, 118 obese MetS patients (52.7 ± 11.8 years, BMI: 38.1 ± 6.9 kg/m2) undergoing CR over 12 weeks (aim: -500 kcal deficit/day) were randomly allocated to either WB-EMS, single-set RT (1-RT), 3-set RT (3-RT) or an inactive control group (CON). Primary outcome was MetS severity (MetS z-score). Secondary outcomes were body composition, muscle strength and quality of life (QoL). All groups significantly reduced body weight (~3%) and fat mass (~2.6 kg) but only 1-RT and 3-RT preserved skeletal muscle mass (SMM). All exercise groups increased muscle strength in major muscle groups (20-103%). However, only the two RT-groups improved MetS z-score (1-RT: -1.34, p = 0.003; 3-RT: -2.06, p < 0.001) and QoL (1-RT: +6%, p = 0.027; 3-RT: +12%, p < 0.001), while WB-EMS and CON had no impact on these outcomes. We conclude that traditional RT has superior effects on cardiometabolic health, SMM and QoL in obese MetS patients undergoing CR than WB-EMS.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Treinamento de Força , Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Terapia Combinada , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 15114-15125, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081619

RESUMO

We aim to investigate the risk of incident arterial stiffness according to metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype in Chinese population. 37,180 participants with at least one-time measurement of branchial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were included in the cross-sectional analysis, and 16,236 participants with repeated measurement of baPWV during the follow-ups were included in the longitudinal study. Cross-classification of body mass index (BMI) categories and metabolic health status created six groups. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used. The results of cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation were essentially the same, as the abnormality of baPWV increased with BMI categories in metabolically healthy participants, while the increasing tendency disappeared in metabolically unhealthy participants. A 1.4-fold, 2.2-fold increased risk for the new occurrence of arterial stiffness were documented in MHO and metabolically unhealthy obese participants compared to metabolically healthy normal-weight controls in the fully adjusted model. Further stratified analysis showed that metabolic health status was an interaction factor between BMI and arterial stiffness in all study populations (P=0.0001 for cross-sectional study and P=0.0238 for longitudinal study). In conclusion, metabolic health status and BMI categories contribute to the progression of arterial stiffness, while BMI is positively associated with arterial stiffness only in metabolically healthy participants.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Índice de Massa Corporal , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26529, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190188

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possible relationships with serum irisin and myostatin levels, and the effect of glycemic control on SO.Ninety T2DM patients were included in this a cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was determined by evaluating muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis), muscle strength (HGS), and gait speed (GS). Patients with muscle mass loss with functionally reduced muscle strength and/or performance were considered sarcopenic. In addition, participants were divided into 3 groups according to the FM (fat mass)/FFM (fat-free mass) ratio [group 1:5th-50th percentiles; group 2:50th-95th percentiles and group 3: ≥95 percentiles (sarcopenic obese)]. Irisin, myostatin levels and metabolic parameters were measured in all patients.The prevalence of sarcopenia and SO was 25.6% and 35.6%, respectively. Irisin levels were lower in sarcopenic patients, while glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c), body mass index (BMI), FM, and FM index were higher (P < .05). From group 1 to group 3, BMI, FM, FM index, GS, myostatin, and A1c increased, and muscle mass percentage, HGS, and irisin decreased (P < .05). A positive correlation was found between FM/FFM and myostatin and a negative correlation between FM/FFM and irisin (r = 0.303, P = .004 vs. r = -0.491, P < .001). Irisin remained an important predictor of SO, even after adjusting for confounding variables (OR:1.105; 95% CI:0.965-1.338, P = .002). The optimal cut-off value for irisin to predict SO was 9.49 ng/mL (specificity = 78.1%, sensitivity = 75.8%). In addition, A1c was an independent risk factor for SO development (OR:1.358, P = .055).This study showed that low irisin levels (<9.49ng/mL) and poor glycemic control in T2DM patients were an independent risk factor, especially for SO.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fibronectinas/sangue , Miostatina/sangue , Obesidade , Sarcopenia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Velocidade de Caminhada
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063273

RESUMO

Excessive adiposity is associated with several metabolic perturbations including disturbances in iron homeostasis. Increased systemic inflammation in obesity stimulates expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which can result in a maldistribution of bodily iron, which may be implicated in metabolic dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of adiposity and any associated inflammation on iron homeostasis and the potential implications of dysregulated iron metabolism on metabolic health. Analyses are based on a subsample from the cross-sectional Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010) (n = 1120). Ferritin status and risk of iron overload were determined based on established WHO ferritin ranges. Participants were classed as having a healthy % body fat or as having overfat or obesity based on age- and gender-specific % body fat ranges as determined by bioelectrical impedance. Biomarkers of iron status were examined in association with measures of body composition, serum adipocytokines and markers of metabolic health. Excessive % body fat was significantly associated with increased serum hepcidin and ferritin and an increased prevalence of severe risk of iron overload amongst males independent of dietary iron intake. Elevated serum ferritin displayed significant positive associations with serum triglycerides and markers of glucose metabolism, with an increased but non-significant presentation of metabolic risk factors amongst participants with overfat and obesity at severe risk of iron overload. Increased adiposity is associated with dysregulations in iron homeostasis, presenting as increased serum hepcidin, elevated serum ferritin and an increased risk of iron overload, with potential implications in impairments in metabolic health.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro/epidemiologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Hepcidinas/sangue , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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