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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118334, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637834

RESUMO

The negative influence of agrochemicals (pesticides: insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide) on biodiversity is a major ecological concern. In recent decades, many insect species are reported to have rapidly declined worldwide, and pesticides, including neonicotinoids and fipronil, are suspected to be partially responsible. In Japan, application of systemic insecticides to nursery boxes in rice paddies is considered to have caused rapid declines in Sympetrum (Odonata: Libellulidae) and other dragonfly and damselfly populations since the 1990s. In addition to the direct lethal effects of pesticides, agrochemicals indirectly affect Odonata populations through reductions in macrophytes, which provide a habitat, and prey organisms. Due to technical restrictions, most previous studies first selected target chemicals and then analyzed their influence on focal organisms at various levels, from the laboratory to the field. However, in natural and agricultural environments, various chemicals co-occur and can act synergistically. Under such circumstances, targeted analyses might lead to spurious correlations between a target chemical and the abundance of organisms. To address such problems, in this study we adopted a novel technique, "Comprehensive Target Analysis with an Automated Identification and Quantification System (CTA-AIQS)" to detect wide range of agrochemicals in water environment. The relationships between a wide range of pesticides and lentic Odonata communities were surveyed in agricultural and non-agricultural areas in Saga Plain, Kyushu, Japan. We detected significant negative relationships between several insecticides, i.e., acephate, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flubendiamide, pymetrozine, and thiametoxam (marginal for benthic odonates) and the abundance of lentic Epiprocta and benthic Odonates. In contrast, the herbicides we detected were not significantly related to the abundance of aquatic macrophytes, suggesting a lower impact of herbicides on aquatic vegetation at the field level. These results highlight the need for further assessments of the influence of non-neonicotinoid insecticides on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Odonatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Agroquímicos , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Japão , Neonicotinoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833621

RESUMO

Swarm intelligence is a discipline which makes use of a number of agents for solving optimization problems by producing low cost, fast and robust solutions. The dragonfly algorithm (DA), a recently proposed swarm intelligence algorithm, is inspired by the dynamic and static swarming behaviors of dragonflies, and it has been found to have a higher performance in comparison to other swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms in numerous applications. There are only a few surveys about the dragonfly algorithm, and we have found that they are limited in certain aspects. Hence, in this paper, we present a more comprehensive survey about DA, its applications in various domains, and its performance as compared to other swarm intelligence algorithms. We also analyze the hybrids of DA, the methods they employ to enhance the original DA, their performance as compared to the original DA, and their limitations. Moreover, we categorize the hybrids of DA according to the type of problem that they have been applied to, their objectives, and the methods that they utilize.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Algoritmos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Resolução de Problemas
3.
Zootaxa ; 5057(3): 137-145, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811199

RESUMO

The larva of Argia cuprea (Hagen, 1861) is described and figured. It falls into the group of Argia larvae with prominent ligula and one palpal seta, but it differs from its closest relatives by a combination of features such as male gonapophyses reaching posterior ventral margin of S10; dorsal and ventral margin of paraproct with long, abundant, white, delicate setae on distal 0.40; tip of paraproct 20% its total length; lateral surface of paraproct with abundant spiniform setae restricted to the triangular, yellowish-brown, slightly sclerotized area along the inflated area. It appears closely related to A. oenea Hagen in Selys, 1865 and A. orichalcea Hagen in Selys, 1865 larvae.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Larva , Masculino , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 5027(1): 1-35, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811247

RESUMO

Twelve Planaeschna McLachlan, 1895 species recorded in Vietnam are presented and their subgroupings based on nuclear DNA analysis are discussed. Three new species are described (Planaeschna crux sp. nov. [holotype: Pia Oac NP, Cao Bang Prov.], Planaeschna samurai sp. nov. [holotype: Khau Pha, Tu Le, Yen Bai Prov.] and Planaeschna tsuchi sp. nov. [holotype: Xuan Son NP, Phu Tho Prov.]. Planaeschna celia Wilson Reels, 2001 is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. Planaeschna guentherpetersi Sasamoto, Do Vu, 2013 is shown to be a subspecies of Planaeschna ishigakiana Asahina, 1951. The female of Planaeschna cucphuongensis Karube, 1999 is described for the first time. Additional records are provided for Planaeschna asahinai Karube, 2011, Planaeschna tamdaoensis Asahina, 1996, Planaeschna tomokunii Asahina, 1996, and Planaeschna viridis Karube, 2004. Lastly, the females of two unidentified Planaeschna spp. are illustrated. Information on the ecology of all species is provided.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Feminino , Vietnã
5.
Zootaxa ; 5004(3): 447-464, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811298

RESUMO

The species of the damselfly genus Wahnesia Frster, 1900 occurring in the DEntrecasteaux Islands, Louisiade Archipelago, and on Woodlark Island are reviewed, and four new species are described: W. muyuw from Woodlark Island, W. misima from Misima Island, W. tagula from Tagula (Sudest) Island, and W. rossel from Rossel Island, these latter three islands all lying in the Louisiade Archipelago. In addition, new information is presented on the identification and distribution of the two previously described species from the DEntrecasteaux islands: W. annulipes (Lieftinck, 1956) from Goodenough, Fergusson, and Normanby islands, and W. armeniaca (Lieftinck, 1956) from Goodenough and Fergusson islands. Illustrations are provided for the male abdominal terminalia and genital ligula of the four new species, as well as the wings and a color photograph of a live male of W. muyuw, and the ligula of W. armeniaca, accompanied by updated distribution maps for all species treated.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Passeriformes , Animais , Masculino , Papua Nova Guiné
6.
Zootaxa ; 5061(1): 134-144, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810637

RESUMO

Description of Ophiogomphus phantoani sp. nov. (Holotype ♂: Dak Re Commune, Song Thanh National Park, Quang Nam Province, central Vietnam, 15.5080 N, 107.4720 E, altitude 1105 m) is based on both sexes. Three other species of Ophiogomphus in Vietnam are recorded with description of the female O. minimus Karube, 2014 for the first time. Keys to males and females of four species from Vietnam are also provided.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Vietnã
7.
Zootaxa ; 5060(3): 392-400, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810659

RESUMO

The final instar larvae of Argia reclusa Selys, 1865 and Tigriagrion aurantinigrum Calvert, 1909 are described, diagnosed and illustrated. The larvae of A. reclusa has a very prominent premental ligula, shared with a single species in Brazil, from which it can be separated by a combination of characters. The larvae of T. aurantinigrum is similar to most Oxyagrion in regard to prementum and lamellae shape, and differs from those taxa in palpal and premental setation and number of teeth on the labial palp. Both larvae were collected in a small stream of the Cerrado biome, where both species are common.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Larva
8.
Zootaxa ; 5068(2): 240-246, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810711

RESUMO

A new species of Leptagrion Selys, 1876 is described and named in honor to Dr. Jerome Constant: Leptagrion jeromei (Holotype: Brazil: Bahia, Jussari, RPPN Serra do Teimoso, Jequitiba tree (Cariniana legalis (Mart.) Kuntze, 1898) at 32 m, 10.v.2005, K.S. Furieri leg and deposited in FAAL). This species was confused for a long time with L. andromache Hagen in Selys, 1876 its closest congener. Diagnostic illustrations of L. andromache (lectotype and specimens collected at AmapBrazil) and L. jeromei spec. nov. are presented. We also present the northernmost record for L. andromache in Amap state, Northern Brazil.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Brasil , Árvores
9.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 237-248, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810747

RESUMO

Idioneura Selys, 1860 can be separated from the other Protoneuridae (sensu Tillyard 1917) by a set of characters: angulated frons, presence of the CuPAA vein, absence of the two subapical teeth in the cercus (present in Lamproneura De Marmels, 2003), and first and second antenodal spaces subequal (first a little longer than second). Here is described a new species, Idioneura furieriae spec. nov., from two females and five males. The new species is compared with I. ancilla Selys, 1860 and I. celioi Lencioni, 2009. Diagnostic illustrations are presented. The major differences between Idioneura species are: in the females, the shape of the highly modified mesostigmal plates and posterior lobe of prothorax; in males, the shape of cerci and paraprocts.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 187-210, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810750

RESUMO

A modified and expanded definition of the Drepanosticta carmichaeli-group is given. This includes the species: D. annandalei Fraser, 1924, D. brownelli Tinkham, 1938, D. carmichaeli (Laidlaw, 1915), D. emtrai Dow, Kompier Phan, 2018, D. hongkongensis Wilson, 1997, D. jurzitzai Hmlinen, 1999, D. sumatrana Sasamoto Karube, 2007, D. tenella Lieftinck, 1935, D. vietnamica Asahina, 1997 and D. wildermuthi sp. nov.). The species of the group are reviewed and in most cases illustrated, diagnostic notes are given wherever possible. Drepanosticta polychromatica Fraser, 1931 is considered to be a junior synonym of D. carmichaeli and variation in D. carmichaeli is discussed. Drepanosticta wildermuthi sp. nov. from the Central Highlands of Vietnam (holotype male from Bao Loc district, Lam Dong Province) is described. The female of D. jurzitzai Hmlinen, 1999 is described for the first time. A key to the males of the Drepanosticta carmichaeli-group is provided.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Vietnã
11.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614127

RESUMO

Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Paquistão
12.
Naturwissenschaften ; 108(6): 49, 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601627

RESUMO

Sexual selection via male competition is a strong evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes in competitive traits and subsequently lead to population divergence and speciation. Territorial males of many odonates are known to use their colorful wings as visual signals and to perform agonistic displays toward intruders. Psolodesmus mandarinus dorothea and Psolodesmus mandarinus mandarinus are two parapatrically distributed sister damselflies that share similar ecological characteristics but differ markedly in wing coloration. The wings of P. m. dorothea are mostly clear, whereas those of P. m. mandarinus have a large area of black pigmentation and a central white patch. We investigated whether territorial males of the two damselflies at breeding sites display distinct agonistic behaviors associated with their respective wing colors. Behavioral interactions between territorial and intruder males and their wing kinematics were filmed and analyzed for P. m. dorothea in Lienhuachih of central Taiwan, and P. m. mandarinus in Tianxiyuan and Fusan of northern Taiwan. We observed that the P. m. mandarinus males exhibited a novel set of perched wing displays, which was not only absent in its sister P. m. dorothea but also previously unknown in Odonata. At breeding sites, perched rival males of P. m. mandarinus with pigmented wings exhibited escalating agonistic wing-flapping and wing-hitting displays toward each other. In contrast, territorial males of P. m. dorothea with clear wings engaged only in aerial chase or face-to-face hovering when intruder males approached from the air. These results indicate that the two sister P. mandarinus damselflies diverged behaviorally in territorial contests and support the hypothesis of coadaptation on the basis of wing colors and types of wing movement in Odonata. Our findings further suggest that divergent agonistic wing displays may play a pivotal role in the speciation mechanism of P. mandarinus damselflies. The sequential analyses of behavioral characteristics and progression suggest that P. m. mandarinus damselflies likely use mutual assessment of rivals in territorial contests.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Comportamento Agonístico , Animais , Masculino , Pigmentação , Asas de Animais
13.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 181, 2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolutionary processes can cause strong spatial genetic signatures, such as local loss of genetic diversity, or conflicting histories from mitochondrial versus nuclear markers. Investigating these genetic patterns is important, as they may reveal obscured processes and players. The maternally inherited bacterium Wolbachia is among the most widespread symbionts in insects. Wolbachia typically spreads within host species by conferring direct fitness benefits, and/or by manipulating its host reproduction to favour infected over uninfected females. Under sufficient selective advantage, the mitochondrial haplotype associated with the favoured maternally-inherited symbiotic strains will spread (i.e. hitchhike), resulting in low mitochondrial genetic variation across the host species range. METHOD: The common bluetail damselfly (Ischnura elegans: van der Linden, 1820) has recently emerged as a model organism for genetics and genomic signatures of range expansion during climate change. Although there is accumulating data on the consequences of such expansion on the genetics of I. elegans, no study has screened for Wolbachia in the damselfly genus Ischnura. Here, we present the biogeographic variation in Wolbachia prevalence and penetrance across Europe and Japan (including samples from 17 populations), and from close relatives in the Mediterranean area (i.e. I. genei: Rambur, 1842; and I. saharensis: Aguesse, 1958). RESULTS: Our data reveal (a) multiple Wolbachia-strains, (b) potential transfer of the symbiont through hybridization, (c) higher infection rates at higher latitudes, and (d) reduced mitochondrial diversity in the north-west populations, indicative of hitchhiking associated with the selective sweep of the most common strain. We found low mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Wolbachia-infected north-western European populations (Sweden, Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Italy) of I. elegans, and, conversely, higher mitochondrial diversity in populations with low penetrance of Wolbachia (Ukraine, Greece, Montenegro and Cyprus). The timing of the selective sweep associated with infected lineages was estimated between 20,000 and 44,000 years before present, which is consistent with the end of the last glacial period about 20,000 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide an example of how endosymbiont infections can shape spatial variation in their host evolutionary genetics during postglacial expansion. These results also challenge population genetic studies that do not consider the prevalence of symbionts in many insects, which we show can impact geographic patterns of mitochondrial genetic diversity.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Odonatos/genética , Odonatos/microbiologia , Wolbachia , Animais , Chipre , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Filogenia
14.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 551-564, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405300

RESUMO

Parasites are important players in ecological communities that can shape community structure and influence ecosystem energy flow. Yet beyond their effects on hosts, parasites can also function as an important prey resource for predators. Predators that consume infectious stages in the environment can benefit from a nutrient-rich prey item while concurrently reducing transmission to downstream hosts, highlighting the broad importance of this interaction. Less clear, however, are the specific characteristics of parasites and predators that increase the likelihood of consumption. Here, we determine what combination(s) of predator and parasite morphological traits lead to high parasite consumption. We exposed the infectious stages (cercariae) of five trematode (fluke) taxa to aquatic insect predators with varying foraging strategies and morphologies. Across the 19 predator-parasite combinations tested, damselfly predators in the family Coenagrionidae were, on average, the most effective predators of cercariae, consuming between 13 and 55% of administered cercariae. Large-bodied cercariae of Ribeiroia ondatrae had the highest average vulnerability to predation, with 37-48% of cercariae consumed. The interaction between predator head width and cercariae tail size strongly influenced the probability of consumption: small-bodied predators were the most effective consumers, particularly for larger tailed parasites. Thus, the likelihood of parasite consumption depended strongly on the relative size between predator and parasite. Our study helps establish that predation on free-living parasites largely follows a broader predator-prey framework. This will help to identify which predator and parasite combinations will likely have high consumptive interactions, potentially reducing parasite transmission in natural populations.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Parasitos , Trematódeos , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório
15.
Small ; 17(39): e2102579, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390183

RESUMO

Hierarchical emulsions are interesting for both scientific researches and practical applications. Hierarchical emulsions prepared by microfluidics require complicated device geometry and delicate control of flow rates. Here, a versatile method is developed to design hierarchical emulsions using microfluidic 3D droplet printing in droplet. The process of droplet printing in droplet mimics the dragonfly laying eggs and has advantages of easy processing and flexible design. To demonstrate the capability of the method, double emulsions and triple emulsions with tunable core number, core size, and core composition are prepared. The hierarchical emulsions are excellent templates for the developments of functional materials. Flattened crescent-moon-shaped particles are then fabricated using double emulsions printed in confined 2D space as templates. The particles are excellent delivery vehicles for 2D interfaces, which can load and transport cargos through a well-defined trajectory under external magnetic steering. Microfluidic 3D droplet printing in droplet provides a powerful platform with improved simplicity and flexibility for the design of hierarchical emulsions and functional materials.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Odonatos , Animais , Emulsões , Impressão Tridimensional
16.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(5): 736-747, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228314

RESUMO

We assessed the intraspecific morphological variation in Erythrodiplax media Borror 1942 (Odonata, Libellulidae) among grassland physiognomies ("Coastal," "Highland," and "Steppic") in the South Brazilian Campos. We measured six morphological traits (total body length, thorax height, length, and width of the fore- and hindwings) from 90 specimens (60 males and 45 females). We tested the effect of the grassland type on the set of traits using one-way MANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) (separately for each sex). Grassland physiognomy affected the morphology of males and females. In both sexes, the PCA mostly opposed the specimens of the Coastal from the Highland and Steppic grasslands. The first PCA axis separated specimens according to body lengths, thorax heights, and wing width, while the second PCA axis opposed specimens according to wing length and thorax height from specimens with broader wings and longer body lengths. Males from the Coastal had longer body lengths and shorter thorax heights than Highland and Steppic grasslands, while males from the Steppic had longer fore- and hindwings than specimens from the Coastal and Highland grasslands. Females from the Coastal had significantly shorter forewings than specimens from the Steppic grasslands and shorter hindwings than Highland grasslands. Our results are likely explained by the differences in climate and habitat complexity among grassland types and indicate that the processes driving odonate performance vary among grassland biotopes. This study potentially indicates that dragonflies are sensitive to changes in the vegetation structure in South American subtropical grasslands.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Asas de Animais , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Pradaria , Masculino , Odonatos/anatomia & histologia
17.
Oecologia ; 196(4): 1027-1038, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327568

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests predators may change colonization rates of prey in nearby predator-free patches as an example of context-dependent habitat selection. Such remote predator effects can be positive when colonizers are redirected to nearby patches (habitat compression), or negative when nearby patches are avoided (risk contagion). However, it is unknown to what extent such responses are predator- and prey-specific and change with increasing distance from predator patches. We evaluated how cues of fish, backswimmers and dragonfly larvae affect habitat selection in replicated pond landscapes with predator-free patches located at increasing distances from a predator patch. We found evidence for risk contagion and compression, but spatial colonization patterns were both predator- and prey-specific. The mosquito Culex pipiens and water beetle Hydraena testacea avoided patches next to patches with dragonfly larvae (i.e. risk contagion). Predator-free patches next to patches with backswimmers were avoided only by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes preferentially colonized patches at some distance from a fish or backswimmer patch (i.e. habitat compression). Colonization patterns of beetles also suggested habitat compression, although reward contagion could not be fully excluded as an alternative explanation. Water beetles preferred the most isolated patches regardless of whether predators were present in the landscape, showing that patch position in a landscape alone affects colonization. We conclude that habitat selection can be a complex product of patch isolation and the combined effects of different local and remote cues complicate current attempts to predict the distribution of mobile organisms in landscapes.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Lagoas , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório
18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 603: 886-897, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265480

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The ability exhibited by insect wings to resist microbial infestation is a unique feature developed over 400 million years of evolution in response to lifestyle and environmental pressures. The self-cleaning and antimicrobial properties of insect wings may be attributed to the unique combination of nanoscale structures found on the wing surface. EXPERIMENTS: In this study, we characterised the wetting characteristics of superhydrophobic damselfly Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis wings. We revealed the details of air entrapment at the micro- and nano scales on damselfly wing surfaces using a combination of spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Cryo-focused-ion-beam scanning electron microscopy was used to directly observe fungal spores and conidia that were unable to cross the air-liquid interface. By contrast, bacterial cells were able to cross the air-water interface to be ruptured upon attachment to the nanopillar surface. The robustness of the air entrapment, and thus the wing antifungal behaviour, was demonstrated after 1-week of water immersion. A newly developed wetting model confirmed the strict Cassie-Baxter wetting regime when damselfly wings are immersed in water. FINDINGS: We provide evidence that the surface nanopillar topography serves to resist both fungal and bacterial attachment via a dual action: repulsion of fungal conidia while simultaneously killing bacterial cells upon direct contact. These findings will play an important role in guiding the fabrication of biomimetic, anti-fouling surfaces that exhibit both bactericidal and anti-fungal properties.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Odonatos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Molhabilidade , Asas de Animais
19.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 107(5): 838-847, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297168

RESUMO

The current study aimed to examine the bionomics of dragonflies and heavy metal accumulation in their bodies and environment (sediments and water) from district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1683 dragonflies were collected from May to September, 2018 in 4 tehsils (administrative subdivisions) of district. Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum was the most abundant species followed by O. anceps and O. chrysostigma luzonicum. Highest abundance was observed in July and August corresponding to maximum temperature and rainfall. Dragonflies displayed preferable abundance within agricultural lands and on elevation ranging from 206 to 506 m. Heavy metal analysis of sediments and water samples from 4 tehsils showed significant differences in mean concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Fe. Abundance among districts was negatively associated with Fe levels in water while the species diversity had a significant positive relationship with Fe in sediments. Accumulation of metals in each body part significantly varied among species. N. tullia tullia and O. anceps specifically demonstrated their tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Odonatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4274-4287, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dragonfly and damselfly larvae have been considered as possible biocontrol agents against young instars of mosquito vectors in urban environments. Yet our knowledge about adult odonate predation against mosquito adults is scarce. We quantified daily and annual predation rates, consumption rates and prey preferences of adult Hetaerina vulnerata male damselflies in an urban park. A focus on predation of mosquito species was provided, quantified their arbovirus (dengue, chikungunya and Zika) infection rates and biting activity. RESULTS: Foraging times of H. vulnerata overlapped with those of the maximum activity of hematophagous mosquitoes. The most consumed preys were Diptera and Hymenoptera and, in lower quantities, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Psocoptera and Neuroptera. Of note, 7% of the diet was represented by hematophagous dipterans, with 2.4% being Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Prey abundance in the diet coincided with that of the same species in the environment. The arboviral infection rate (dengue, chikungunya and Zika) was 1.6% for A. aegypti and A. albopictus. The total biting rate of these mosquito vectors was 16 bites per person per day, while the annual rate of infectious bites was 93.4. CONCLUSION: Although 2.4% for both Aedes species seems a low consumption, considering the presence of 12 odonate species at the park, it can be argued that adult odonates may play a relevant role as mosquito vector regulators, therefore impacting the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Our study outlines the need for further research on the topic of the possible role of adult odonates for mosquito biocontrol. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Arbovirus , Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Odonatos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
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