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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133913, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964560

RESUMO

This experiment investigated the underlying mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted stewing to enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by measuring fat content, oil droplet sizes, zeta potential, viscosity, surface protein loading, lipid oxidation, and aroma compound concentrations. As the thermo-ultrasound time increased, the fat content increased from 0.3 % to 1.2 %, resulting in a milky white appearance. After 1 h of thermo-ultrasound, the broth had the smallest particle size and the highest surface protein load, viscosity, and emulsion stability, as well as the highest total amount of aroma-active compounds of 314.70 ng/mg. With the further extension of thermo-ultrasound time, lipid oxidation increased, but the stability of chicken broth decreased, lowering the content of aroma-active compounds. These outcomes suggested that thermo-ultrasound could enhance the aroma intensity of chicken broth by increasing the fat content and the emulsion stability of the broth.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Odorantes , Animais , Emulsões/química , Lipídeos , Proteínas de Membrana , Odorantes/análise , Ultrassom
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 657-665, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chestnut-like aroma is one of the unique qualities of Chinese green tea and has become an important factor influencing consumer decisions. However, the chemical formation mechanism of chestnut-like aroma during green tea processing remains unclear. In this study, the dynamic changes of key components contributing to chestnut-like aroma and their precursors were analyzed in fresh leaves, fixation leaves, first baking tea leaves, and green tea. RESULTS: The thermal process had an important effect on volatile components in tea leaves, causing a significant decrease of alcohols and esters and a significant increase of ketones, acids, phenols, and sulfur compounds. Furthermore, 31 volatiles were identified as the key odorants responsible for chestnut-like aroma of green tea, including dimethyl sulfide, methyl isobutenyl ketone, 2-methylbutanal, 2,4-dimethylstyrene, d-limonene, methyl 2-methylvalerate, linalool, decanal, longifolene, phenylethyl alcohol, l-α-terpineol, jasmone, and so on. And the majority of these odorants were only formed in the drying stage. Additionally, isoleucine, theanine, methionine, and glucose were found to be involved in the formation of chestnut-like aroma of green tea. CONCLUSION: The drying process played a vital important role in the formation of chestnut-like aroma of green tea. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Chá/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camellia sinensis/química
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(2): 606-615, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybeans and defatted soybeans, commonly used as protein ingredients, have different flavors of their fermented soy sauce. Clarifying the differences between the two soy sauces, as well as the formation mechanism, is an important prerequisite for improving the flavor of defatted soybean soy sauce. To this goal, the aroma characteristics of two soy sauces and their volatile profiles were compared by sensory evaluation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and eight enzyme activities and volatile profiles of matured koji were determined. RESULTS: Sensory results showed that the acids, fruity and cooked potato-like attributes were higher in whole soybean fermented soy sauce, whereas defatted soybean soy sauce exhibited higher smoky and malty attributes, closely related to the contents of aroma-active compounds in soy sauce, such as isobutyl acetate, 2/3-methylbutanal, acetic acid and 2/3-methylbutanoic acid. The content of most volatiles in the matured kojis showed a consistent trend with that of soy sauce: alcohols, acids, furan(one)s and ketones. Interestingly, acid protease and cellulase activities were 3.3 and 1.6 times higher in the whole soybean koji than in defatted soybean koji, respectively, whereas neutral protease, aminopeptidase, glucoamylase and ß-glucosidase were approximately 2.0 times higher in defatted soybean koji. CONCLUSION: In summary, the flavor differences between soybean and defatted soybean fermented soy sauce were not only caused by the differences in the content of flavor precursors in the materials, but also closely related to the differences in the enzymatic profiles accumulated during the koji-making process. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Fermentação , Odorantes/análise , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130295, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335904

RESUMO

Black-odor water is a serious environmental issue in many developing counties. Iron sulfides and chromophoric dissolved organic matter are considered possible blackening substances. However, the specific type of blackening iron sulfides and the contributions of blackening substances are unclear. This study performed a laboratory simulation experiment to identify the blackening iron sulfides and quantify the contribution of blackening substances. The environmental conditions for forming blackening substances and their blackening process were also determined. We demonstrated that the black iron sulfide was mackinawite. Humic acid is another substance that absorbs light. The equivalent contributions of mackinawite and humic acid were 18.94 m-1/mg Fe2+ and 1.11 m-1/mg DOC, respectively. A pH of more than 6 is a precondition for producing mackinawite. The production of black substances is the foundation of the blackening process, but the suspension of black substances is essential in causing water blackening. Fulvic acid stabilizes the suspension by changing the surface charge of blackening substances. Moreover, blackening substances can also be suspended with microbial flocs. Determining blackening substances and their role during the blackening process would allow for developing precise and targeted control technologies, improving urban water over the long term.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Água , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Ferro/análise , Sulfetos/química
5.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134971, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36436236

RESUMO

Gracilaria lemaneiformis is a source of several bioactive natural products in China. Previously, we obtained Saccharomyces cerevisiae JJ4 and Lactobacillus paracasei paracasei RP38, that reduced the fishy odor of G. lemaneiformis. However, the associated deodorization mechanisms remain unclear. Here, G. lemaneiformis was fermented using single strain JJ4, single strain RP38, and both strains together. Dynamic changes in volatile aroma substances during fermentation were measured using HS-SPME-GC/MS. We found that the unpleasant aromas of raw G. lemaneiformis were primarily due to 3-octanone, cyclooctanol, and 1-methylcycloheptanol. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria and yeast could reduce the substances associated with unpleasant aromas. The potentially characteristic aromatic substances consumed and produced by the different strains were determined using Opls-da and Spearman's correlations with VIP value >1 and |r| > 0.6. These results help to clarify the metabolic mechanisms by which different microbes reduce the fishy smell of G. lemaneiformis.


Assuntos
Gracilaria , Lactobacillales , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Odorantes , Fermentação
6.
Meat Sci ; 196: 109046, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442397

RESUMO

The use of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is fast becoming an emerging curing technology in the meat industry. The aim of this study was to assess CAP-assisted curing of beef meat roasted by charcoal (CR) and superheated steam (SR) in terms of flavor quality and heterocyclic amines (HAs) using electronic nose, GC-MS and UPLC-MS-MS. The CAP-assisted curing increased redness value by 46% and 8% in SR and CR meat respectively. Although CAP-assisted curing had little influence on the odor profile of SR meat, it influenced the odor profile of CR meat. Lipid oxidation-derived off-flavors in CR meat were not significantly (P > 0.05) changed after CAP treatment. However, these off-flavors were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in SR meat. In addition, CAP-assisted curing did not increase the HAs contents in SR meat. CAP-assisted curing of SR meat improved flavor and did not increase toxic risk of SR meat.


Assuntos
Gases em Plasma , Vapor , Animais , Bovinos , Odorantes , Carvão Vegetal , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Aminas , Carne
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 221: 114919, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446198

RESUMO

Identifying chemical odors rapidly and accurately is critical in a variety of fields. Due to the limited human sense of smell, much effort has been dedicated to the development of electronic sensing devices. Despite some recent progress, such devices are still no match for the capabilities of biological (animal) olfactory sensors, which are light, robust, versatile, and sensitive. Consequently, scientists are turning to a new approach: Bio-Hybrid sensors. These sensors combine animal biological sensors with electronic components to achieve maximum detection and classification while conveying a comprehensible signal to the end user. In this work, we created a bio-hybrid odor discriminator utilizing the desert locust's primary olfactory apparatus - its antennae, together with simple electroantennogram technology and artificial intelligence tools for signal analysis. Our discriminator is able to differentiate between at least eight pure odors and two mixtures of different odorants, independently of odorant concentration. With four orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, it is able to detect the presence of less than 1 ng of volatile compounds and, compared to other bio-hybrid sensors available today, it can be easily operated by an unskilled individual. This study thus opens up the future for robust and simple bio-hybrid robotic sensing devices that can be widely deployed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Gafanhotos , Animais , Humanos , Odorantes , Inteligência Artificial , Olfato
8.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106730, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280207

RESUMO

Complex oviposition decisions allow gravid Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to select suitable sites for egg-laying to increase the probability that their progeny will thrive. The bacterial communities present in larval niches influence mosquito oviposition behavior, and gravid mosquitoes transmit key microbial associates to breeding sites during oviposition. Our study evaluated whether symbiotic Klebsiella sp., which are strongly associated with mosquitoes, emit volatiles that affect mosquito oviposition decisions. Dual-choice behavioral assays demonstrated that volatile organic compounds emitted by Klebsiella sp. induce a preference in oviposition decisions by Ae. aegypti. Bacterial headspace volatiles were sampled by solid-phase microextraction, and subsequent combined gas chromatography and electroantennogram detection analysis, revealed that the antennae of gravid females detect two compounds present in the Klebsiella sp. headspace. These compounds were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry as 2-ethyl hexanol and 2,4-di­tert-butylphenol. The binary blend of these compounds elicited a dose-dependent egg-laying preference by gravid mosquitoes. We propose that bacterial symbionts, which are associated with gravid mosquitoes and may be transferred to aquatic habitats during egg-laying, together with their volatiles act as oviposition cues indicating the suitability of active breeding sites to conspecific females.


Assuntos
Aedes , Feminino , Animais , Aedes/fisiologia , Odorantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oviposição , Bactérias
9.
J Environ Manage ; 326(Pt A): 116741, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399884

RESUMO

In this study, five urban WWTPs (Wastewater Treatment Plant) with different biological treatment (Extended Aeration Activated Sludge - EAAS; Rotating Biological Contactor - RBC), wastewater type (Urban; Industrial) and size, were jointly evaluated. The aim was twofold: (1) to analyze and compare their odor emissions, and (2) to identify the main causes of its generation from the relationships between physico-chemical, respirometric and olfactometric variables. The results showed that facilities with EAAS technology were more efficient than RBC, with elimination yields of organic matter higher than 90%. In olfactometric terms, sludge managements facilities (SMFs) were found to be the critical odor source in all WWTPs compared to the Inlet point (I) or Post primary treatment (PP), and for seasonal periods with ambient temperature higher than 25 °C. Moreover, the global odor emissions quantified in all SMFs revealed that facilities with EAAS (C-WWTP, V-WWTP and Z-WWTP) had a lower odor contribution (19,345, 14,800 and 11,029 ouE/s·m2, respectively) than for those with RBC technology (P-WWTP and NC-WWTP) which accounted for 19,747 ouE/s·m2 and 80,061 ouE/s·m2, respectively. In addition, chemometric analysis helped to find groupings and differences between the WWTPs considering the wastewater (71.27% of total variance explained) and sludge management (64.52% of total variance explained) lines independently. Finally, odor emissions were adequately predicted from the physico-chemical and respirometric variables in the wastewater (r2 = 0.8738) and sludge (r2 = 0.9373) lines, being pH, volatile acidity and temperature (wastewater line), and pH, moisture, temperature, SOUR (Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate) and OD20 (Cumulative Oxygen Demand at 20 h) (sludge line) the most influential variables.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Espanha , Tecnologia , Oxigênio
10.
J Environ Manage ; 326(Pt A): 116703, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399882

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from municipal solid waste incineration power plant (MSWIPP) plays a significant role in the formation of O3 and PM2.5 and odor pollution. Field test was performed on four MSWIPPs in an area of the North China Plain. Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and 102 VOCs were identified and quantified. Ozone formation potential (OFP), secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP), and odor activity of the detected VOCs were evaluated. Results showed that the average concentration of NMHCs and VOCs were 1648.6 ± 1290.4 µg/m3 and 635.3 ± 588.8 µg/m3, respectively. Aromatics (62.1%), O-VOCs (16.0%), and halo hydrocarbons (10.0%) were the main VOCs groups in the MSWIPP exhaust gas. VOCs emission factor of MSWIPP was 2.43 × 103 ± 2.27 × 103 ng/g-waste. The OFP and SOAFP of MSWIPP were 960.18 ± 2158.17 µg/m3 and 1.57 ± 3.38 µg/m3, respectively. Acrolein as the dominant VOC species was the major odor contributor with a percentage of odor contribution of 65.9%. Benzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene as the dominant VOC species were the main contributors of O3 formation potentials, in which 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene was also the main contributors of SOA formation potential.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Incineração , Resíduos Sólidos , Odorantes , Centrais Elétricas
11.
Food Chem ; 405(Pt B): 134854, 2023 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403467

RESUMO

This study aims to present retronasal aroma perception and oral aroma release of Baijiu by progressive profiling and intra-oral solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). Fruity, alcohol, grain, and cellar were the active retronasal aroma attributes of the strong aroma type Baijiu S, and soy sauce, burnt, and roasted were attributes of the soy sauce aroma type Baijiu SS. The dynamic release behaviors of 91 oral aroma compounds of two Baijiu samples were characterized and classified into four or five groups of different oral persistence. Principal component analysis showed that vapor pressure and Henry constant were negatively correlated with the oral persistence of aroma compounds, of which the cumulative interpretation rate was 71.67%. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that aroma compounds, such as ethyl benzeneacetate, ß-phenylethanol, and tetramethylpyrazine, were related to the long-persistence retronasal aroma of Baijiu (Q2 = 0.806).


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Sólida , Alimentos de Soja , Odorantes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Percepção
12.
Food Chem ; 403: 134341, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156399

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of modified carbonic maceration technique (MCM) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' wines at an industrial production scale. Wines made from MCM and cold maceration technique (COM, control) were analyzed chemically and sensorially. Wines made by MCM demonstrated higher L* and a* values but lower b* values, and higher anthocyanin concentrations, which indicated that MCM wines had a greater color intensity, more reddish and bluish hues compared to COM wines. MCM wines contained more flavonols but lower flavan-3-ols. MCM treatment reduced the concentration of C6 alcohols and some higher alcohols, and increased the concentration of esters, especially acetates. Moreover, sensory evaluation showed the MCM treatment increased the overall aroma intensity, due to the increase of black fruit and fresh fruit notes and the decrease of green note. In addition, MCM wines had lower astringency and persistence.


Assuntos
Vitis , Odorantes/análise , Frutas , Antocianinas , Polifenóis , Carbono
13.
Food Chem ; 403: 134263, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166927

RESUMO

To comprehensively analyse flavour substance formation in Congou black tea, dynamic changes in non-volatile and volatile compositions and enzymatic activity were analysed. In total, 107 non-volatile and 222 volatile compositions were identified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-exactive mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive/MS) and stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS), and eight metabolic pathways were explored during tea processing. Significant variations in metabolites were observed during processing (P < 0.05), especially in the fermentation stage, including high accumulation of taste and colour substances due to decreased flavonoid synthase activity and elevated oxidase activity. Correlation analysis clarified that the mutual transformation between non-volatile and volatile substances occurs in certain types of processing, including amino acids, amino acid-derived volatiles (AADVs), glycosidically bound volatiles (GBVs), and volatile terpenoids (VTs). Our study provides a detailed overview of the dynamic changes of in flavour substrates and key enzyme activities during Congou black tea processing.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Chá/química , Paladar , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Camellia sinensis/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas
14.
Food Chem ; 403: 134383, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174340

RESUMO

To characterize the key odorants in ripe Capparis spinosa L. fruit (RCF) and to investigate changes in the odorants after storage, volatiles were captured by both solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction combined with solvent-assisted flavor evaporation; a total of 22 aroma-active regions were detected in the isolates by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Of 19 odor-active compounds identified positively, 13 odorants were found in RCF for the first time; their flavor dilution factors ranging from 1 to 512 were measured by an aroma extract dilution assay. Eleven odorants were determined as the key odorants by stable isotope dilution analysis, odor activity value (OAV) calculation, and recombination experiments. To further investigate the changes in odorants after storage, their concentrations and OAVs were determined. The results showed that the number of key odorants did not change before and after storage, but the concentrations of octanoic acid, sotolon, and 3-methylbutanoic acid increased markedly.


Assuntos
Capparis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Frutas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olfatometria , Solventes , Aromatizantes/análise
15.
Food Chem ; 403: 134324, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174342

RESUMO

The individual effects of iprovalicarb, mepanipyrim, and tetraconazole on the volatile composition and aromatic profile of Monastrell-based wines were evaluated. To date, no studies about the effect of these fungicides on Monastrell-based wines are available, and the effect on other grape varieties is also unknown. Fungicides were added separately in the cellar to the grape must at two concentration levels (4 and 10 mg/kg for iprovalicarb and mepanipyrim and 1 and 2.5 mg/kg for tetraconazole). The aromatic composition of the final wines was analysed by gas chromatography using flame ionisation and ion trap mass selective detectors. In the presence of fungicides, the most significant variations were observed for isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate (increasing between 20 and 43% compared with the control wine) and ethyl caprate and caprylate (increasing between 12 and 68%). Consequently, treated wines showed a higher global odourant intensity, with increased fresh fruit notes.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Vitis/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 403: 134304, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183463

RESUMO

Bound volatiles are odorless aroma reservoirs that modify flavor when released during food processing, and their determination is important to understand the aroma of fruit beverages. However, the generation of oxidation/degradation artifacts during analyses of glycosidically-bound volatiles has not been compared across fruit species and their dependence on diverse acidic and enzymatic hydrolytic conditions remains unclear. This work aimed to optimize and compare different hydrolytic conditions for the analysis of glycosidically-bound volatiles in blueberries, raspberries, and grapes with a solid-phase microextraction - gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) methodology. Enzymatic hydrolyses using AR2000® at 100 mg.mL-1 and Pectinex Ultra SPL® at 25-100 µL.mL-1 showed profiles characterized by the expected alcohols, while using AR2000® at 200-400 mg.mL-1 and citric acid at 50-100 mM resulted in profiles defined by artifacts (hydrocarbons, norisoprenoids, and aldehydes). (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, linalool, citronellol, and geraniol presented Odor Activity Values (OAV) > 1 for most small fruit genotypes.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Rubus , Vitis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vitis/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Odorantes/análise
17.
Gene ; 850: 146917, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174905

RESUMO

Among bioluminescent beetles of the Elateroidea superfamily, Phengodidae is the third largest family, with 244 bioluminescent species distributed only in the Americas, but is still the least studied from the phylogenetic and evolutionary points of view. The railroad worm Phrixothrix hirtus is an essential biological model and symbolic species due to its bicolor bioluminescence, being the only organism that produces true red light among bioluminescent terrestrial species. Here, we performed partial genome assembly of P. hirtus, combining short and long reads generated with Illumina sequencing, providing the first source of genomic information and a framework for comparative analyses of the bioluminescent system in Elateroidea. This is the largest genome described in the Elateroidea superfamily, with an estimated size of ∼3.4 Gb, displaying 32 % GC content, and 67 % transposable elements. Comparative genomic analyses showed a positive selection of genes and gene family expansion events of growth and morphogenesis gene products, which could be associated with the atypical anatomical development and morphogenesis found in paedomorphic females and underdeveloped males. We also observed gene family expansion among distinct odorant-binding receptors, which could be associated with the pheromone communication system typical of these beetles, and retrotransposable elements. Common genes putatively regulating bioluminescence production and control, including two luciferase genes corresponding to lateral lanterns green-emitting and head lanterns red-emitting luciferases with 7 exons and 6 introns, and genes potentially involved in luciferin biosynthesis were found, indicating that there are no clear differences about the presence or absence of gene families associated with bioluminescence in Elateroidea.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ferrovias , Animais , Feminino , Filogenia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Odorantes , Besouros/genética , Besouros/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Morfogênese , Feromônios
18.
Food Chem ; 402: 134015, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137382

RESUMO

Cooking improves food aroma, but few studies have explored how cooking affects food aromas. Here, aroma changes in mildly salted large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea, MSLYC) after steaming, baking, frying, and deep frying was investigated. The raw fish was dominated by fishy notes but after cooking, the aroma became dominated by fatty notes. Nine volatiles, including hexanal, nonanal, (E, Z)-2, 6-nonadienal, (E, E)-2, 4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, linalool, ethyl hexanoate, acetic acid and anethole, were identified as key odor-active compounds using GC-MS, OAV, and omission tests analyses. Changes in the concentrations of key odor-active compounds were mainly due to evaporation, oxidation of linolenic acids, and thermal catalyzed reactions. Interestingly, anethole was the key odor-active compound, providing new insight into the underlying reactions of cooked fish aroma.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Linolênicos
19.
Food Chem ; 402: 134303, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152552

RESUMO

A novel extraction method of volatile aroma compounds (VACs) from walnut oil (WO) using monolithic material adsorption extraction (MMSE) was developed herein, and its efficiency was compared with the conventional extraction method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-olfactory-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). After protocol optimization of MMSE-RSC18, 77 volatile compounds (38 ones can be sniffed) were extracted from WO, thus having a better performance compared to SPME (56 volatile compounds, 35 ones can be sniffed). Subsequently, based on flavor dilution factors (FDs), odor activity values (OAVs), and recombination and omission experiments, key aroma-active compounds in WO were 1-octen-3-ol (OAV = 82.58), (E)-2-decenal (OAV = 4.10), linalool (OAV = 2.37), γ-dodecalactone (OAV = 2.30), 2-pentylfuran (OAV = 1.62), (E)-2-nonenal (OAV = 1.14) and pentanal (OAV = 1.04). Collectively, compared to HS-SPME, MMSE-RSC18 provided higher capture efficiency of VACs, enabling efficient extraction and analysis of sample aromas.


Assuntos
Juglans , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Adsorção , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Olfatometria/métodos
20.
Food Chem ; 400: 133854, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067694

RESUMO

The pickle-like odor, which was caused by the excess volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), is an undesirable odor in soy sauce flavor Baijiu (SSB). The aim of this study was to explore the suppressing effect of kafirin, the internal prolamin of the raw material of Baijiu, on the pickle-like odor of SSB. The instrumental analysis (comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry), human perceptions (aroma profile, odor thresholds) and in silico analysis methods (molecular docking) were combined to detect the changes of the pickle-like odor. After the addition of kafirin, the aroma profile of the pickle-like SSB changed and approached to that of the normal SSB. The volatility and the odor thresholds of VSCs decreased 22.05%-64.28% and increased 87.29%-232.57%, respectively. In conclusion, kafirin exhibited a significant suppressing effect on the pickle-like off-odor of SSB, and this effect could be used to reduce the off-odor of SSB and SSB-derived alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Odorantes/análise , Prolaminas , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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