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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1122, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321056

RESUMO

Gene therapies provide treatment options for many diseases, but the safe and long-term control of therapeutic transgene expression remains a primary issue for clinical applications. Here, we develop a muscone-induced transgene system packaged into adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors (AAVMUSE) based on a G protein-coupled murine olfactory receptor (MOR215-1) and a synthetic cAMP-responsive promoter (PCRE). Upon exposure to the trigger, muscone binds to MOR215-1 and activates the cAMP signaling pathway to initiate transgene expression. AAVMUSE enables remote, muscone dose- and exposure-time-dependent control of luciferase expression in the livers or lungs of mice for at least 20 weeks. Moreover, we apply this AAVMUSE to treat two chronic inflammatory diseases: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and allergic asthma, showing that inhalation of muscone-after only one injection of AAVMUSE-can achieve long-term controllable expression of therapeutic proteins (ΔhFGF21 or ΔmIL-4). Our odorant-molecule-controlled system can advance gene-based precision therapies for human diseases.


Assuntos
Alprostadil , Cicloparafinas , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Alprostadil/metabolismo , Transgenes , Cicloparafinas/metabolismo , Odorantes , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Vetores Genéticos
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3011, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321059

RESUMO

Axillary odor is a malodor produced by bacterial metabolism near the apocrine glands, which often causes discomfort in an individual's daily life and social interactions. A deodorant is a personal care product designed to alleviate or mask body odor. Currently, most deodorants contain antimicrobial chemicals and fragrances for odor management; however, direct application to the underarm skin can result in irritation or sensitivity. Therefore, there is a growing interest in technologies that enable disinfection and odor control without the antiperspirants or perfumes. The cold atmospheric plasma temporally generates reactive radicals that can eliminate bacteria and surrounding odors. In this study, cultured Staphylococcus hominis and Corynebacterium xerosis, the causative bacteria of axillary bromhidrosis, were killed after 90% plasma exposure for 3 min. Moreover, the electronic nose system indicated a significant reduction of approximately 51% in 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid and approximately 34% in 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, the primary components of axillary odor, following a 5-min plasma exposure. These results support the dual function of our deodorant in eliminating bacteria and axillary odors without the chemical agents. Therefore, cold atmospheric plasma-applied deodorant devices have great potential for the treatment and management of axillary odors as a non-contact approach without chemical use in daily life.


Assuntos
Desodorantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Odorantes , Pele , Glândulas Apócrinas , Bactérias , Axila/microbiologia
3.
J Vis Exp ; (203)2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314795

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that olfactory stimulation elicits motor behaviors, such as approaching pleasant odorants and avoiding unpleasant ones, in animals and humans. Recently, studies using electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated a strong link between processing in the olfactory system and activity in the motor cortex in humans. To better understand the interactions between the olfactory and the motor systems and to overcome some of the previous methodological limitations, we developed a new method combining an olfactometer that synchronizes the random order presentation of odorants with different hedonic values and the TMS (single- and dual-coil) triggering with nasal breathing phases. This method allows probing the modulations of corticospinal excitability and effective ipsilateral connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the primary motor cortex that could occur during pleasant and unpleasant odor perception. The application of this method will allow for objectively discriminating the pleasantness value of an odorant in a given participant, indicating the biological impact of the odorant on brain effective connectivity and excitability. In addition, this could pave the way for clinical investigations in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders who may exhibit odor hedonic alterations and maladaptive approach-avoidance behaviors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Odorantes , Animais , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2727, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302602

RESUMO

Different aromatic components do indeed give different tea flavors. There is still little research on whether there is a certain regularity in the combination and content of aromatic components in different aroma types of Phoenix Dancong (PDC) tea. This potential regularity may be a key factor in unraveling the relationship between reproduction and evolution in PDC tea. Here, the 5 kinds of these 4 aroma types PDC tea (Zhuye, Tuofu, Jianghuaxiang, Juduo, Yashixiang) were used as research materials in this study, the headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the aromatic components of these PDC teas. The results showed a total of 36 aromatic components identified in this study. When conducting cluster analysis, it was found that similarity degree arrangement sequence of 5 PDC teas was Juduo, Tuofu, Yashixiang, Zhuye and Jianghuaxiang. Among these aromatic components, the 7,9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro(4,5)deca-6,9-diene-2,8-dione, the 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methyl-2-(2-pentenyl)-,(Z)-, the 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, the 3,7-dimethyl-1,5,7-Octatrien-3-ol, and the 2-Furanmethanol,5-ethenyltetrahydro-.alpha.,.alpha.,5-trimethyl-,cis- are common to 5 PDC teas. This study aims to elucidate the similarities in the aromatic components of 5 PDC teas, revealing the major aroma-endowed substances of various aroma, and providing theoretical reference for further exploring the relationship between aroma type discrimination, variety selection, and evolution of PDC teas.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Odorantes/análise , Chá/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113914, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309863

RESUMO

Fishy odor in aquatic products has a significant impact on the purchasing decisions of consumers. The production of aquatic products is a complex process involving culture, processing, transportation, and storage, which contribute to decreases in flavor and quality. This review systematically summarizes the fishy odor composition, identification methods, generation mechanism, and elimination methods of fishy odor compounds from their origin and formation to their elimination. Fishy odor compounds include aldehydes (hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal), alcohols (1-octen-3-ol), sulfur-containing compounds (dimethyl sulfide), and amines (trimethylamine). The mechanism of action of various factors affecting fishy odor is revealed, including environmental factors, enzymatic reactions, lipid oxidation, protein degradation, and microbial metabolism. Furthermore, the control and removal of fishy odor are briefly summarized and discussed, including masking, elimination, and conversion. This study provides a theoretical basis from source to elimination for achieving targeted regulation of the flavor of aquatic products, promoting industrial innovation and upgrading.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Odorantes
6.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113861, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309892

RESUMO

A growing number of studies over the years has successfully employed computer simulation tools to understand, optimize and design spirit distillations. Amongst distilled spirits, cognac is a reputed wine spirit resulting from a double batch distillation process known as Charentaise distillation. This complex operation comprises the wine distillation (WD) and the brouillis distillation (BD), which are carried out in copper alembics. The distillate produced in each batch is fractionated and some of those fractions are recycled in subsequent batches. To improve the current understanding of the behavior of aroma compounds during the process, computer simulation modules were built in this work for a WD and a BD and the results were compared with experimental data. Of the 62 aroma compounds detected in the samples over time, 52 could be represented in the simulations, including 37 using the NRTL thermodynamic model to calculate vapor-liquid equilibria and another 15 with the UNIFAC model. Half of those had their concentration profiles and their partitioning accurately described by the simulation, most of which were modeled with NRTL. This highlights the need for reliable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for aroma compounds that were poorly represented or absent from the simulation as well as kinetic data for chemical reactions occurring during distillation. Furthermore, the impact of the recycling operation on the composition in aroma compounds of freshly distilled cognac was investigated. To represent a steady state, a mathematical model was employed to implement the recycling of distillate fractions during 8 successive Charentaise distillation cycles. The operation was shown to improve the extraction of ethanol and of all volatile compounds in the heart, reaching a pseudo steady state after 3 to 5 cycles. The recycling of the second fraction had a higher influence on the extraction of alcohols and terpenes, while for most esters and norisoprenoids the recycled head fractions played a bigger role.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Simulação por Computador , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Vinho/análise , Etanol/análise
7.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113954, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309911

RESUMO

To clarify the characteristic aroma compounds and flavor discrepancies of five Chinese typical pig species, headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-O-MS), electronic nose (E-nose), aroma recombination and omission experiments were used to analyze the characteristic aroma and boundary of five boiled pork. A total of 38 volatile compounds were identified, of which 14 were identified as important odorants with odor-activity values (OAVs) greater than 1. Aroma recombination and omission experiments revealed 8 key characteristic aroma compounds, which significantly contributed to the overall aroma. Sensory evaluation of the recombination model with the 8 aroma compounds scored 3.0 to 4.0 out of 5 points. 12 potential markers were identified to distinguish by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), including (E)-2-octenal, 3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, (E)-2-heptenal, 2-pentylfuran, cyclooctanol, 1-heptanol, sec-butylamine, D-limonene, N-vinylformamide, 2,3-octanedione, 2-ethylfuran and 3-pentanamine. Alongside benzaldehyde and pentanal, the combinations and fluctuations of these 14 aroma markers were proposed to constitute the aroma boundaries of different pork breeds. The aroma-active substances were able to effectively differentiate different breeds.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Suínos , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
8.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113948, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309909

RESUMO

Serving temperature plays a crucial role in influencing the sensory experience of consumers. In this context, this study investigated the influence of serving temperature on the aroma release and perception of a typical fermented alcoholic beverage named Huangjiu. A quantitative sensory description analysis was conducted, determining serving temperature significantly influenced the 17 sensory attributes in both semi-dry and semi-sweet Huangjiu. The variation in the contents of 41 volatiles in the Huangjiu with temperature was investigated using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry, resulting in volatile content significantly increasing above 30 ℃. The partial least squares discriminant analysis was conducted to predict the variable importance for the projection (VIP) of volatiles, and 22 volatiles (VIP > 1) were screened. These 22 volatiles were confirmed as key odorants influenced by serving temperature though aroma addition experiments. The findings would provide a reference for the effects of serving temperature on the flavor perception of fermented alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Odorantes , Odorantes/análise , Temperatura , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Percepção
9.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113977, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309919

RESUMO

The Charentaise distillation plays an essential role in designing cognac aroma by extracting and selectively concentrating aroma compounds from the wine along with ethanol, in addition to promoting compound formation or degradation through different chemical reactions. This traditional mode of distillation still relies heavily on empirical knowledge and the impact of its different parameters on the composition of cognac is not fully elucidated. In this context, this study aimed to broaden the current knowledge on the behavior of aroma compounds throughout the two steps of the Charentaise distillation and to investigate the formation of aroma compounds during the operation, an aspect which is seldom considered. The concentration profiles of 62 aroma compounds were represented over time for a wine and a brouillis distillation in usual scale (25 hL) with recycling. A classification system was then proposed to group compounds based on their volatilities at different ethanol concentrations in the boiling liquid, their concentration profiles and their chemical properties. This could help identify how chemical characteristics of aroma compounds affect their volatilities in hydroalcoholic media during distillation. In addition, several compounds appear to be formed during distillation, most of which are terpenes, norisoprenoids and aldehydes. Finally, to highlight the importance of different compounds to the aroma of freshly distilled cognac, their odor activity values (OAV) in the heart fraction were estimated, revealing isobutanol and (E)-ß-damascenone to be the most odorant compounds. These results provided additional elements of understanding for different aspects of the Charentaise distillation for the production of cognac, several of which can be transposed, at least in part, to different modes of distillation pertaining to other distilled beverages.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Vinho , Odorantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Vinho/análise , Etanol
10.
Food Res Int ; 178: 114001, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309925

RESUMO

In recent years the consumption of edible flowers has gained new popularity, and their use seems destined to grow thanks to their potential as functional elements and their ability to impart aroma to traditional foods. In this study, the volatile profile of several edible flowers was investigated to identify characteristic compounds to be used as product markers. 85 samples belonging to four cultivars were analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-MS. A PLS-DA was used to build a model capable of differentiating the investigated classes. The resulting model correctly predicted over 95% of the validation samples, highlighting a significant difference between the four types of edible flowers. The VIP analysis highlighted 29 compounds relevant for the characterization of different flowers, many of which were biologically active. The study aims to broaden the framework of objectively measurable tools useful for enhancing the qualitative peculiarity of one product compared to another and offering growth opportunities to emerging food chains.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Quimiometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Flores/química
11.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338309

RESUMO

Tea infusions are the most consumed beverages in the world after water; their pleasant yet peculiar flavor profile drives consumer choice and acceptance and becomes a fundamental benchmark for the industry. Any qualification method capable of objectifying the product's sensory features effectively supports industrial quality control laboratories in guaranteeing high sample throughputs even without human panel intervention. The current study presents an integrated analytical strategy acting as an Artificial Intelligence decision tool for black tea infusion aroma and taste blueprinting. Key markers validated by sensomics are accurately quantified in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Thirteen key aromas are quantitatively assessed by standard addition with in-solution solid-phase microextraction sampling followed by GC-MS. On the other hand, nineteen key taste and quality markers are quantified by external standard calibration and LC-UV/DAD. The large dynamic range of concentration for sensory markers is reflected in the selection of seven high-quality teas from different geographical areas (Ceylon, Darjeeling Testa Valley and Castleton, Assam, Yunnan, Azores, and Kenya). The strategy as a sensomics-based expert system predicts teas' sensory features and acts as an AI smelling and taste machine suitable for quality controls.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , China , Chá , Olfato , Odorantes/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338351

RESUMO

Sweet potato provides rich nutrients and bioactive substances for the human diet. In this study, the volatile organic compounds of five pigmented-fleshed sweet potato cultivars were determined, the characteristic aroma compounds were screened, and a correlation analysis was carried out with the aroma precursors. In total, 66 volatile organic compounds were identified. Terpenoids and aldehydes were the main volatile compounds, accounting for 59% and 17%, respectively. Fifteen compounds, including seven aldehydes, six terpenes, one furan, and phenol, were identified as key aromatic compounds for sweet potato using relative odor activity values (ROAVs) and contributed to flower, sweet, and fat flavors. The OR sample exhibited a significant presence of trans-ß-Ionone, while the Y sample showed high levels of benzaldehyde. Starch, soluble sugars, 20 amino acids, and 25 fatty acids were detected as volatile compounds precursors. Among them, total starch (57.2%), phenylalanine (126.82 ± 0.02 g/g), and fatty acids (6.45 µg/mg) were all most abundant in Y, and LY contained the most soluble sugar (14.65%). The results of the correlation analysis revealed the significant correlations were identified between seven carotenoids and trans-ß-Ionone, soluble sugar and nerol, two fatty acids and hexanal, phenylalanine and 10 fatty acids with benzaldehyde, respectively. In general, terpenoids and aldehydes were identified as the main key aromatic compounds in sweet potatoes, and carotenoids had more influence on the aroma of OR than other cultivars. Soluble sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids probably serve as important precursors for some key aroma compounds in sweet potatoes. These findings provide valuable insights for the formation of sweet potato aroma.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Norisoprenoides , Solanum tuberosum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Benzaldeídos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Carotenoides , Odorantes/análise , Terpenos , Aldeídos/análise , Açúcares , Ácidos Graxos , Fenilalanina , Amido
14.
Science ; 383(6683): 607-611, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330103

RESUMO

There is growing concern about sensory pollutants affecting ecological communities. Anthropogenically enhanced oxidants [ozone (O3) and nitrate radicals (NO3)] rapidly degrade floral scents, potentially reducing pollinator attraction to flowers. However, the physiological and behavioral impacts on pollinators and plant fitness are unknown. Using a nocturnal flower-moth system, we found that atmospherically relevant concentrations of NO3 eliminate flower visitation by moths, and the reaction of NO3 with a subset of monoterpenes is what reduces the scent's attractiveness. Global atmospheric models of floral scent oxidation reveal that pollinators in certain urban areas may have a reduced ability to perceive and navigate to flowers. These results illustrate the impact of anthropogenic pollutants on an animal's olfactory ability and indicate that such pollutants may be critical regulators of global pollination.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Mariposas , Nitratos , Odorantes , Oenothera , Polinização , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio , Olfato , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios , Polinização/fisiologia , Oenothera/fisiologia , Manduca/fisiologia , Poluição Ambiental
15.
Science ; 383(6683): 578, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330106

RESUMO

Nitrate radicals, a common pollutant, break down the cues nocturnal insects follow to find nectar sources.


Assuntos
Flores , Polinização , Animais , Odorantes , Néctar de Plantas , Insetos
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2355958, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349650

RESUMO

Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with deficits in autobiographical memory (AM) recall, which is thought to stem from disruptions in effortful recall. Understanding whether these deficits are mitigated when recall is stimulated more directly, such as by odor cues, could inform therapeutic interventions for MDD. Objective: To evaluate whether deficits in specific AM recall in MDD are mitigated when odor cues vs word cues are used to prompt memory. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study assessed recall of specific AMs in response to both odor cues and word cues (in a randomized, counterbalanced order) in a repeated measures design. Data were collected between September 2021 and November 2022. The study took place at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania and included adults with a primary diagnosis of MDD, according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Data were analyzed from January to June 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was the percentage of specific AMs recalled in response to odor-cued memories vs word-cued memories. Additional outcome measures included ratings of arousal, vividness, repetition, and recall response time for odor-cued memories vs word-cued memories. Results: Thirty-two adults (mean [SD] age, 30.0 [10.1] years; 26 [81.3%] female; 6 [18.8%] male) with a primary diagnosis of MDD completed the study. Participants recalled more specific AMs for odor cues than word cues (mean [SD], 68.4% [20.4%] vs 52.1% [23.3%]; Cohen d, 0.78; P < .001). Additionally, odor-cued recall was rated more arousing (mean [SD], 3.0 [0.8] vs 2.6 [0.7]; Cohen d, 1.28; P < .001) and vivid (mean [SD], 3.3 [0.7] vs 3.0 [0.7]; Cohen d, 0.67; P < .001), and was slower than word-cued recall (mean [SD], 14.5 [3.6] vs 8.9 [3.4] seconds; Cohen d, 1.18; P < .001). When compared with the population mean for word cues in healthy controls (80%), participants recalled fewer specific memories in response to words (Cohen d, 1.18; P < .001), supporting the presence of overgenerality. Notably, the percentage of specific memories recalled in response to odor cues did not differ from the healthy control population mean (Cohen d, 0.26; P = .15). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, adults with MDD recalled more specific AMs in response to odor cues compared with word cues. This study suggests that AM deficits may only be observed when verbal cues are used and provides a potential new method for increasing specific AM recall in patients with MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Memória Episódica , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estudos Transversais , Odorantes
17.
Physiol Plant ; 176(1): e14206, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356346

RESUMO

Aroma or fragrance in rice is a genetically controlled trait; Its high appreciation by consumers increases the rice market price. Previous studies have revealed that the rice aroma is controlled by a specific gene called BETAINE ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (OsBADH2), and mutation of this gene leads to the accumulation of an aromatic substance 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP). The use of genetic engineering to produce aroma in commercial and cultivated hybrids is a contemporary need for molecular breeding. The current study reports the generation of aroma in the three-line hybrid restorer line Shu-Hui-313 (SH313). We created knock-out (KO) lines of OsBADH2 through the CRISPR/Cas9. The analysis of KO lines revealed a significantly increased content of 2AP in the grains compared with the control. However, other phenotypic traits (plant height, seed setting rate, and 1000-grain weight) were significantly decreased. These KO lines were crossed with a non-aromatic three-line hybrid rice male sterile line (Rong-7-A) to produce Rong-7-You-626 (R7Y626), R7Y627 and R7Y628. The measurement of 2-AP revealed significantly increased contents in these cross combinations. We compared the content of 2-AP in tissues at the booting stage. Data revealed that young spike stalk base contained the highest content of 2-AP and can be used for identification (by simple chewing) of aromatic lines under field conditions. In conclusion, our dataset offers a genetic source and illustrates the generation of aroma in non-aromatic hybrids, and outlines a straightforward identification under field conditions.


Assuntos
Betaína/análogos & derivados , Oryza , Oryza/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Odorantes , Genes de Plantas
18.
Chem Senses ; 492024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319120

RESUMO

Chemical information in canid urine has been implicated in territoriality and influences the spacing of individuals. We identified the key volatile organic compound (VOC) components in dingo (Canis lupus dingo) urine and investigated the potential role of scents in territorial spacing. VOC analysis, using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), demonstrated that the information in fresh urine from adult male dingoes was sufficient to allow statistical classification into age categories. Discriminant function analyses demonstrated that the relative amounts or combinations of key VOCs from pre-prime (3-4 years), prime (5-9 years), and post-prime (≥10 years) males varied between these age categories, and that scents exposed to the environment for 4 (but not 33) days could still be classified to age categories. Further, a field experiment showed that dingoes spent less time in the vicinity of prime male dingo scents than other scents. Collectively, these results indicate that age-related scent differences may be discriminable by dingoes. Previous authors have suggested the potential to use scent as a management tool for wild canids by creating an artificial territorial boundary/barrier. Our results suggest that identifying the specific signals in prime-age male scents could facilitate the development of scent-based tools for non-lethal management.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Humanos , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Feromônios , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1211, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332010

RESUMO

Recent studies of electronic nose system tend to waste significant amount of important data in odor identification. Until now, the sensitivity-oriented data composition has made it difficult to discover meaningful data to apply artificial intelligence in terms of in-depth analysis for odor attributes specifying the identities of gas molecules, ultimately resulting in hindering the advancement of the artificial olfactory technology. Here, we realize a data-centric approach to implement standardized artificial olfactory systems inspired by human olfactory mechanisms by formally defining and utilizing the concept of Eigengraph in electrochemisty. The implicit odor attributes of the eigengraphs were mathematically substantialized as the Fourier transform-based Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient feature vectors. Their effectiveness and applicability in deep learning processes for gas classification have been clearly demonstrated through experiments on complex mixed gases and automobile exhaust gases. We suggest that our findings can be widely applied as source technologies to develop standardized artificial olfactory systems.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Olfato , Humanos , Odorantes , Tecnologia , Gases
20.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1230, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336844

RESUMO

Sensory perception depends on interactions between external inputs transduced by peripheral sensory organs and internal network dynamics generated by central neuronal circuits. In the sensory cortex, desynchronized network states associate with high signal-to-noise ratio stimulus-evoked responses and heightened perception. Cannabinoid-type-1-receptors (CB1Rs) - which influence network coordination in the hippocampus - are present in anterior piriform cortex (aPC), a sensory paleocortex supporting olfactory perception. Yet, how CB1Rs shape aPC network activity and affect odor perception is unknown. Using pharmacological manipulations coupled with multi-electrode recordings or fiber photometry in the aPC of freely moving male mice, we show that systemic CB1R blockade as well as local drug infusion increases the amplitude of gamma oscillations in aPC, while simultaneously reducing the occurrence of synchronized population events involving aPC excitatory neurons. In animals exposed to odor sources, blockade of CB1Rs reduces correlation among aPC excitatory units and lowers behavioral olfactory detection thresholds. These results suggest that endogenous endocannabinoid signaling promotes synchronized population events and dampen gamma oscillations in the aPC which results in a reduced sensitivity to external sensory inputs.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Percepção Olfatória , Córtex Piriforme , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides , Olfato/fisiologia , Odorantes , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia
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