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1.
JAMA ; 323(5): 470-471, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016307

Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Humanos
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 837-844, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926513

RESUMO

This study surveyed six North American zoologic institutions to collect retrospective information on the incidence of ocular disease in the giant panda. Reported information included sex and age at presentation, as well as diagnosis, treatment, duration, and clinical outcome for each episode of ocular disease. Among the 42 animals included in the survey, 10 (23.8%) had clinical ocular abnormalities reported. Multiple disease episodes were reported in four animals, with 20 clinical episodes, and one additional animal who presented with corneal scarring from historic keratitis. Age at presentation varied from 0.4 to 26 yr (mean, 11.8 yr; median, 10.4 yr). Corneal abnormalities (including corneal opacity or haze, keratitis, corneal ulcers, and bullous keratopathy) were the most common pathologies reported, followed by conjunctivitis and/or ocular discharge. Additional reported abnormalities included limbal squamous cell carcinoma and lipid degeneration. Six cases resolved without intervention. Treatment protocols included topical and/or systemic medication with or without surgical intervention, which commonly resulted in resolution with or without persistent corneal scar. The prevalence of ocular disease identified in the giant panda in this study is higher than previous publications surveying ocular disease in the family Ursidae, indicating that this is an important source of morbidity in this species.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Ursidae , Animais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 845-852, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926514

RESUMO

A complete ophthalmic exam, including intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, is key to diagnosing ocular diseases such as uveitis and glaucoma in frogs. We performed complete ophthalmic anterior segment examinations and IOP rebound tonometry measurements using two different settings (other "p" and canine "d") for six anuran species. The objectives were to describe common ocular abnormalities found in these species, to compare IOP values between different tonometer settings, and to compare IOPs between species. Examinations revealed abnormalities including cataracts (11/98 total eyes), lenticular sclerosis (10/98) and lipid keratopathy (9/98). IOP was measured with the TonoVet® and the ranges (oculus uterque, OU mm Hg other "p" setting, canine "d" setting) were giant waxy monkey tree frogs (Phyllomedusa bicolor) (3.5-7.6; 6.5-11.7; n = 5), mission golden-eyed tree frogs (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) (7.0-9.7, 13.2-15.7; n = 6), boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) (0.8-5.5, 5.7-10.5; n = 13), Mexican giant tree frogs (Pachymedusa dacnicolor) (3.8-5.0, 8.3-11.8; n = 3), Lake Titicaca frogs (Telmatobius culeus) (8.8-10.5, 14.0-17.2; n = 8), and mossy tree frogs (Theloderma corticale) (9.7-11.0, 15.7-17.0; n = 5). The TonoVet canine "d" setting IOP measurements were statistically higher (P = 0.01) than the other "p" setting measurements for all species except the giant waxy monkey tree frogs. IOP was significantly lower for giant waxy monkey tree frog eyes with cataracts (P < 0.05) with the other "p" setting. IOP did not statistically differ in eyes with lenticular sclerosis. IOP can be measured by rebound tonometer in anurans, but more research is needed for species-specific references using consistent settings.


Assuntos
Anuros/fisiologia , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares
5.
World Neurosurg ; 133: 409-412, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid cavernous aneurysm (CCA) rupture is rare. However, it can result in various complications such as carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), epistaxis, spontaneous thrombosis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a 65-year-old woman with a history of uncontrolled diabetes who was referred with complaints of acute headache, diplopia, proptosis, and chemosis. Ophthalmic examination revealed elevated intraocular pressure in the right eye, optic disk edema, and retinal venous congestion. Canthotomy was performed based on a diagnosis of orbital compartment syndrome (OCS). Further imaging revealed a dilated superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus, as well as swelling of the extraocular muscles in the right eye. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the fistulous connection between the cavernous part of the internal carotid and cavernous sinus (direct CCF) due to the large ruptured CCA, resulting in retrograde flow through the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins. Successful endovascular coiling of the aneurysm resulted in complete occlusion of the fistula. Postintervention ophthalmic examination demonstrated progressive improvement of ophthalmic signs and symptoms; however, the patient's right eye remained sightless. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with clinical manifestation of OCS with no history of any predisposing risk factors, diagnosis of ruptured cavernous sinus aneurysm and resulting direct CCF should be considered. In such cases, emergent imaging along with early endovascular intervention can resolve OCS and prevent permanent ocular injury and vision loss.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Fístula Carotidocavernosa/complicações , Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Fístula Carotidocavernosa/terapia , Síndromes Compartimentais/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Science ; 366(6470): 1192-1193, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806797

Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 519-523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884664

RESUMO

The vasoactive peptide endothelin is an effective regulator of blood pressure and vascular homeostasis. In addition, the dysregulation of the endothelin signaling pathway is discussed to contribute to ocular diseases like glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. Furthermore, our workgroup and others showed a protective effect of endothelin 2 for the survival of photoreceptors. In this study, we analyzed mRNA expression levels of the endothelin signaling family in wild-type mice after a puncture of the eye, intravitreal PBS injections, or light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. We observed elevated endothelin receptor a (Eta), endothelin receptor b (Etb), endothelin 1(Et1), and endothelin 2 (Et2) levels, while endothelin 3 (Et3) mRNA levels were not significantly altered. Our findings indicate an important role of the endothelin signaling pathway in response to ocular trauma or disease. These findings make endothelin signaling a promising target to attenuate retinal degeneration.


Assuntos
Endotelinas/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Receptores de Endotelina/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Camundongos , Retina/patologia
9.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4882-4888, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752017

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the morphological features of posterior precortical vitreous pockets (PPVP) and Cloquet's Canal in patients with myopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS OCT). Methods: A total of 96 eyes of 51 volunteers (range, 5-18 years) were enrolled in this study, and all individuals underwent OCT (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) examinations. From the collected PPVPs images, the widths and heights of the PPVPs were measured, and connections between PPVPs and Cloquet's Canal were identified. The PPVPs widths and heights, width:height ratios and proportions of connections were compared among different age (5-8, 9-14, 15-18 years), axial length (AL; 21-23, 23-25, 25-29 mm) and myopia groups (hyperopia, low to moderate myopia, high myopia); the group data were analyzed to determine their relationship with myopia. Results: PPVPs were identified in 89 of 96 eyes; 6 eyes were excluded for poor image quality. The PPVPs width was positively correlated with age, especially in the low to moderate myopia group (F = 7.715, P = 0.001). There was a significant difference in the PPVPs height between the refractive error groups in the 9 to 14 years group (F = 4.905, P = 0.005). The PPVPs width:height ratio was different among the refractive error groups in the 9 to 14 years group (F = 3.335, P = 0.041) and among the different age groups in the low to moderate myopia group (F = 6.077, P = 0.004). A total of 22 eyes (22.4%) were identified as having a connection between the PPVP and Cloquet's Canal. The connections began to increase with AL at 5 to 8 years (χ2 = 7.363, P = 0.025). Conclusions: PPVPs existed in most myopia patients from 5 to 18 years old. PPVPs width was positively correlated with age, especially in the low to moderate myopia group. PPVPs height decreased in the 9 to 14 years group with myopia. An imbalance in the horizontal and vertical enlargement of PPVP was the main feature in the 9- to 14-year-old group with myopia. The connections between the PPVP and Cloquet's Canal were associated with AL extension in the 5- to 8-year-old group.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Miopia/diagnóstico , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Corpo Vítreo/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3549-3553, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722066

RESUMO

Thelazia callipaeda, originally known as an "Oriental eyeworm," is a small nematode parasitizing the conjunctival sacs of domestic and wild animals and humans. Previous studies conducted in Serbia have reported the eyeworm infections in dogs, cats, and foxes, as well as in a human patient. As the data regarding thelaziosis from wildlife is still scarce, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of T. callipaeda in gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Serbia. All collected nematodes were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda males (n = 64) or females (n = 225). Molecular characterization, conducted by PCR amplification followed by sequence analysis of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), revealed only haplotype 1 of T. callipaeda. The overall prevalence of thelaziosis was 38.1% (8/21). In all positive animals, both eyes were affected, with a total parasitic load ranging from four to 132 worms per animal. Our results indicate the important epidemiological role of wolves as wildlife reservoirs of T. callipaeda, expanding geographic range of infection, as well as intra- and interspecies contact rates, although the role of other wild carnivore species (i.e., foxes and jackals) should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Gatos , Cães , Olho/parasitologia , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Feminino , Raposas/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sérvia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/classificação , Thelazioidea/genética
11.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(5. Vyp. 2): 286-292, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691674

RESUMO

The article analyzes existing information on clinical and experimental studies of vitreous changes in asteroid hyalosis, historical aspects of how this condition was studied over the past hundred years, its occurrence and pathogenesis. Results of various studies were used to evaluate current understanding of the forms and elemental composition of phospholipid mineral sedimentation on vitreous structures and methods of its examination. The problem of intravital assessment of the condition of vitreous body was analyzed, and a method was suggested for studying the macrostructure of hyaloid tracts and the state of the vitreous body by means of digital ultrasound in patients with asteroid hyalosis.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Humanos , Ultrassonografia , Corpo Vítreo
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46843

RESUMO

O terçol ou hordéolo é uma infecção bacteriana das glândulas sebáceas e sudoríparas, localizadas nas pálpebras. A lesão, arredondada em forma de nódulo, aparece na borda da pálpebra, perto dos cílios. Provoca dor, vermelhidão e calor no local. Geralmente, a lesão se rompe e expele seu conteúdo inflamatório desaparecendo espontaneamente. O calázio é provocado pela inflamação da glândula de Meibômio, também localizada na pálpebra. Diferentemente do terçol, o calázio não é produzido por bactérias.


Assuntos
Terçol , Calázio , Oftalmopatias
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1186: 171-193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654390

RESUMO

The success rate from investigational new drug filing to drug approval has remained low for decades despite major scientific and technological advances, and a steady increase of funding and investment. The failure to demonstrate drug efficacy has been the major reason that drug development does not progress beyond phase II and III clinical trials. The combination of two-dimensional (2D) cellular in vitro and animal models has been the gold standard for basic science research and preclinical drug development studies. However, most findings from these systems fail to translate into human trials because these models only partly recapitulate human physiology and pathology. The lack of a dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment in 2D cellular models reduces the physiological relevance, and for these reasons, 3D and microfluidic model systems are now being developed as more native-like biological assay platforms. 3D cellular in vitro systems, microfluidics, self-organized organoids, and 3D biofabrication are the most promising technologies to mimic human physiology because they provide mechanical cues and a 3D microenvironment to the multicellular components. With the advent of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, the 3D dynamic in vitro systems further enable extensive access to human-like tissue models. As increasingly complex 3D cellular systems are produced, the use of current visualization technologies is limited due to the thickness and opaqueness of 3D tissues. Tissue-clearing techniques improve light penetration deep into tissues by matching refractive indices among the 3D components. 3D segmentation enables quantitative measurements based on 3D tissue images. Using these state-of-the-art technologies, high-throughput screening (HTS) of thousands of drug compounds in 3D tissue models is slowly becoming a reality. In order to screen thousands of compounds, machine learning will need to be applied to help maximize outcomes from the use of cheminformatics and phenotypic approaches to drug screening. In this chapter, we discuss the current 3D ocular models recapitulating physiology and pathology of the back of the eye and further discuss visualization and quantification techniques that can be implemented for drug screening in ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Oftalmopatias , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Microfluídica
17.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 205-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621659

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge of the ophthalmic manifestations of leukaemia is important not only because of the frequency with which changes are seen but because the eye often reflects the disease state of the illness, and once identified, prompt referral, early treatment can be instigated, blindness can be averted and a life may be saved. These manifestations are often overlooked because of the underestimation of the magnitude of the ocular sequelae which may be blinding. Aim: This study aims to describe the ophthalmic findings in adult leukaemic patients at two teaching hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a clinic-based, comparison multicentre study conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital over a 9-month period of May 2012-January 2013. The cases were newly diagnosed leukaemic patients (acute and chronic) from the haematology clinics. Controls were escorts of apparently normal patients. Detailed ocular examination was carried out after written informed consent was obtained. Analysis was done using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 160 eyes in 80 individuals examined comprised forty cases and forty controls. The results of the cases were compared with the age- and sex-matched controls. Leukaemic-related ophthalmic manifestations were present in 56 eyes (70.0%) of the cases studied. Findings in cases were periorbital oedema in 8 eyes (10%), subconjunctival haemorrhage in four eyes (5%), intraretinal haemorrhage as found in 25 eyes (31.3%), retinal venous tortuosity in 21 eyes (26.3%), Roth spots in 19 eyes (23.8%) and retinal infiltrates in 17 eyes (21.3%). Conclusion: Ophthalmic disorders occur in adult patients living with leukaemia. Prompt initial and periodic ophthalmic evaluation is recommended in all leukaemic patients.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Olho/patologia , Leucemia/complicações , Hemorragia Retiniana/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hemorragia Retiniana/epidemiologia
18.
Life Sci ; 237: 116907, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606378

RESUMO

Treatment of majority of eye diseases involve the use of eye drops or eye ointments, which have major drawbacks of needing frequent administration, lower bioavailability and inability to cross the various eye barriers. This necessitates the use of novel delivery systems. Microneedles (MNs) as an alternate novel delivery system facilitate drug delivery to various ocular diseases with promising approaches in healthcare. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have made MNs provide localized, effective, less invasive and targeted drug delivery in the eye. The purpose of this review is to provide an insight to efficacious therapeutic applications the MNs can bring in various ocular diseases. Out of which, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, uveitis, retinal vascular occlusion and retinitis pigmentosa are majorly discussed. Among the various types of MNs; solid coated, hollow and dissolving polymeric MNs are specifically focused for their applications in ocular diseases. In addition, MNs shows improvement in the visual acuity and decreases the progression of the different ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Microinjeções/instrumentação , Microinjeções/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Humanos , Agulhas
20.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 243, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a rare and life-threatening opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients are potentially at risk of nocardia infection because of the use of immunosuppressive agents. To date, only 7 patients with MG have been reported to have nocardiosis. Disseminated nocardiosis with ocular involvement has not been reported in MG patients. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old man with MG who was receiving treatment with methylprednisolone and azathioprine was found to have a respiratory infection. He also had heterogeneous symptoms with skin, brain and ocular manifestations. Nocardia bacteria verified by the culture of puncture fluid, and a diagnosis of disseminated nocardiosis was made. Except for left eye blindness, the patient completely recovered from the disease with combination antibiotic therapy. To further understand nocardiosis in patients with MG, we reviewed the previous relevant literature. According to the literature, this is the first report of disseminated nocardiosis with ocular involvement in an MG patient. CONCLUSIONS: MG patients with immunosuppressant treatments are potentially at risk of a rare nocardia infection, and a favourable prognosis can be achieved through early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Nocardiose/imunologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Miastenia Gravis/complicações , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Nocardia , Nocardiose/tratamento farmacológico , Nocardiose/patologia
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