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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 7(22): 335-337, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of olfaction changes, especially in the early presentation, in COVID-19 patients. The mechanisms through which the virus leads to anosmia/hyposmia is still not fully understood. However, olfaction changes could be used as an indication for testing or quarantine. Screening for infections and other diseases by recognizing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been previously conducted. Hence, if the coronavirus infection also results in VOCs excretion, physicians could "smell" the virus by using electronic noses. We conducted a literature review on olfaction changes and the COVID-19. Our results suggest that these changes could be used an indication for early testing, even as an isolated symptom. We propose that the electronic nose be used as a future screening tool, especially in agglomeration spaces such as airports, for screening for the COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Olfato/fisiologia
4.
Neuron ; 107(2): 219-233, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640192

RESUMO

The main neurological manifestation of COVID-19 is loss of smell or taste. The high incidence of smell loss without significant rhinorrhea or nasal congestion suggests that SARS-CoV-2 targets the chemical senses through mechanisms distinct from those used by endemic coronaviruses or other common cold-causing agents. Here we review recently developed hypotheses about how SARS-CoV-2 might alter the cells and circuits involved in chemosensory processing and thereby change perception. Given our limited understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, we propose future experiments to elucidate disease mechanisms and highlight the relevance of this ongoing work to understanding how the virus might alter brain function more broadly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
5.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127174, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497839

RESUMO

Off-flavor events in tap water have been reported from various regions of Japan. Fishy smell is the second most common off-flavor in Japan and Uroglena americana (U. americana) is known to be a major contributor to the smell. However, the causative compound of the smell it produces still remains unrevealed to the best of our knowledge. In this study, an exploration of odorous aldehydes and ketones originating from U. americana was performed with a view to discovering a possible candidate substance of causative compounds. Environmental samples containing U. americana colony and cultured media with U. americana were analyzed with two high resolution mass spectrometers, one of them is coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-HRMS), and the other is with gas chromatography and a sniffing port (GC-O-HRMS). Multivariate analyses (MVA) were utilized to explore a compound that is likely to be odorous aldehydes or ketones with a reduced time of exploration. A combination of LC-HRMS and MVA resulted in the selection of one candidate substance and its formula was determined to be C13H20O3 on the basis of its accurate mass and natural isotopic pattern. The candidate substance underwent GC-O-HRMS analyses and milk-like smell was detected at around its retention time. Although the detected smell was different from fishy smell, it is expected that the fishy smell is caused by multiple compounds to which the candidate substance belongs. First generation product ion spectra of the candidate substance suggested that it contains a hydroxyl group, a cyclohexene ring, and a ketone moiety.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Chrysophyta/fisiologia , Cetonas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Japão , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Olfato , Paladar
6.
Science ; 368(6497)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554567

RESUMO

How does neural activity generate perception? Finding the combinations of spatial or temporal activity features (such as neuron identity or latency) that are consequential for perception remains challenging. We trained mice to recognize synthetic odors constructed from parametrically defined patterns of optogenetic activation, then measured perceptual changes during extensive and controlled perturbations across spatiotemporal dimensions. We modeled recognition as the matching of patterns to learned templates. The templates that best predicted recognition were sequences of spatially identified units, ordered by latencies relative to each other (with minimal effects of sniff). Within templates, individual units contributed additively, with larger contributions from earlier-activated units. Our synthetic approach reveals the fundamental logic of the olfactory code and provides a general framework for testing links between sensory activity and perception.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Odorantes , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Proteína de Marcador Olfatório/genética , Optogenética , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(14): 2031-2033, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539346

RESUMO

A growing body of literature indicates that smell and taste impairment has frequently occurred during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-like Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Experimental studies have mostly found that non-neural-type cells are responsible for SARS-CoV-2-related taste and smell impairment. If this is the case, smell/taste impairment needs to recover early. Literature data from clinical studies indicated a strong correlation between experimental and clinical findings. This article presents clinical studies related to SARS-CoV-2-induced smell/taste impairment that reported recovery rates. Experimental researchers may use these data to observe the dynamics of smell impairment and implement these findings in their research (e.g., correct timing of sampling) to perform further studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vírus da SARS , Olfato , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo , Humanos , Paladar
10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 3-11, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pooled global prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). DATA SOURCES: Literature searches of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were conducted on April 19, 2020, to include articles written in English that reported the prevalence of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. REVIEW METHODS: Search strategies developed for each database contained keywords such as anosmia, dysgeusia, and COVID-19. Resulting articles were imported into a systematic review software and underwent screening. Data from articles that met inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed. Meta-analysis using pooled prevalence estimates in a random-effects model were calculated. RESULTS: Ten studies were analyzed for olfactory dysfunction (n = 1627), demonstrating 52.73% (95% CI, 29.64%-75.23%) prevalence among patients with COVID-19. Nine studies were analyzed for gustatory dysfunction (n = 1390), demonstrating 43.93% (95% CI, 20.46%-68.95%) prevalence. Subgroup analyses were conducted for studies evaluating olfactory dysfunction using nonvalidated and validated instruments and demonstrated 36.64% (95% CI, 18.31%-57.24%) and 86.60% (95% CI, 72.95%-95.95%) prevalence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are common symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and may represent early symptoms in the clinical course of infection. Increased awareness of this fact may encourage earlier diagnosis and treatment, as well as heighten vigilance for viral transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to report on the prevalence of these symptoms in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Ageusia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Olfato , Paladar
11.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 10(7): 832-838, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presentation of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) overlaps with common influenza symptoms. There is limited data on whether a specific symptom or collection of symptoms may be useful to predict test positivity. METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey was publicized through social media to query participants with COVID-19 testing. Respondents were questioned regarding 10 presenting symptoms, demographic information, comorbidities, and COVID-19 test results. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify predictors for COVID-19 positivity. Selected classifiers were assessed for prediction performance using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: A total of 145 participants with positive COVID-19 testing and 157 with negative results were included. Participants had a mean age of 39 years, and 214 (72%) were female. Smell or taste change, fever, and body ache were associated with COVID-19 positivity, and shortness of breath and sore throat were associated with a negative test result (p < 0.05). A model using all 5 diagnostic symptoms had the highest accuracy with a predictive ability of 82% in discriminating between COVID-19 results. To maximize sensitivity and maintain fair diagnostic accuracy, a combination of 2 symptoms, change in sense of smell or taste and fever was found to have a sensitivity of 70% and overall discrimination accuracy of 75%. CONCLUSION: Smell or taste change is a strong predictor for a COVID-19-positive test result. Using the presence of smell or taste change with fever, this parsimonious classifier correctly predicts 75% of COVID-19 test results. A larger cohort of respondents will be necessary to refine classifier performance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Curva ROC
12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(2): 262-267, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate effect of upregulated touch sensation induced by olfactory deprivation on action potentials and ankyrin-G expression in the glutamatergic neurons in the barrel cortex of mice. METHODS: Chloroform (40 µL) was dropped into the unilateral nasal cavity to induce olfactory deprivation in 40 C57 mice (12 days old), whose glutamatergic neurons were genetically labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Behavioral experiments were carried out to assess the effects of olfactory deprivation on whisker tactile of the mice. The action potentials of the glutamatergic neurons in the barrel cortex on the side with or without chloroform treatment (olfactory deprivation group and control group, respectively) were recorded by patch-clamp electrophysiological recording, and ankyrin-G expression in the proximal axonal segment of the neurons was detected with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared with those on the control side, the inter-spike intervals of the barrel glutamatergic neurons were significantly decreased and the absolute refractory periods were significantly shortened on the side with olfactory deprivation (P < 0.01); the expression of ankyrin-G was also significantly increased in the proximal axonal segment of the glutamatergic neurons in the barrel cortex on the side with olfactory deprivation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Olfaction deprivation induces up-regulation of touch sensation in mice possibly as a result of functional enhancement of the glutamatergic neurons and increased ankyrin-G expression in the barrel cortex.


Assuntos
Olfato , Córtex Somatossensorial , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Anquirinas , Camundongos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios , Privação Sensorial
13.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 12-15, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals, killing hundreds of thousands. Although typically described with characteristic symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath, greater understanding of COVID-19 has revealed myriad clinical manifestations. Olfactory dysfunction (OD)-hyposmia and anosmia-has recently been recognized as an important symptom of COVID-19 and increasingly gained traction as a public health tool for identifying COVID-19 patients, in particular otherwise asymptomatic carriers who, unawares, may be major drivers of disease spread. The objective of this study is to review the scientific evidence about anosmia in COVID-19. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. REVIEW METHODS: Comprehensive literature search of primary studies pertinent to the objectives of this review using the chosen data sources. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence shows that OD is highly prevalent in COVID-19, with up to 80% of patients reporting subjective OD and objective olfactory testing potentially showing even higher prevalence. OD is frequently accompanied by taste dysfunction. Up to 25% of COVID-19 patients may experience sudden-onset OD as the first symptom. A large proportion of COVID-19 OD cases may resolve over the period of a few weeks. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Sudden anosmia should be considered a symptom of COVID-19. Assessing for sudden-onset anosmia may increase sensitivity of COVID-19 screening strategies, in particular for identifying patients at the earliest stages of disease. Since many cases of OD due to COVID-19 may resolve in the short term, conservative management, including observation, is reasonable, while advanced imaging is unnecessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde Pública , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Olfato
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20200677, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370678

RESUMO

The formation of memories within the vertebrate brain is lateralized between hemispheres across multiple modalities. However, in invertebrates evidence for lateralization is restricted to olfactory memories, primarily from social bees. Here, we use a classical conditioning paradigm with a visual conditioned stimulus to show that visual memories are lateralized in the wood ant, Formica rufa. We show that a brief contact between a sugar reward and either the right or left antenna (reinforcement) is sufficient to produce a lateralized memory, even though the visual cue is visible to both eyes throughout training and testing. Reinforcement given to the right antenna induced short-term memories, whereas reinforcement given to the left antenna induced long-term memories. Thus, short- and long-term visual memories are lateralized in wood ants. This extends the modalities across which memories are lateralized in insects and suggests that such memory lateralization may have evolved multiple times, possibly linked to the evolution of eusociality in the Hymenoptera.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Formigas , Abelhas , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo , Condicionamento Clássico , Memória de Longo Prazo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Recompensa , Olfato
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152184, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422426

RESUMO

Anosmia and hypogeusia, the inability or decreased ability to smell and taste, have been reported as common complaints in SARS-CoV-2 patients who were still in an asymptomatic phase. These impairments affect the ability to sense odors in foods and the environment, obviously affecting quality of life, related to social interactions and general well-being. The British Association of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT-UK) considers loss of sense of smell in their list of COVID-19's markers of infection. Here we present two cases in which early manifestations of anosmia and hypogeusia were experienced with psycho-sensorial and atmospheric phenomena. Psychiatrists, neurologists and physicians in general should be aware of this symptom presentation in order to avoid mistreatment, given that persistent olfactory dysfunction might increase the risks of nutritional deficit and lead to development of adjustment disorders. All clinicians should be aware that the presentation of SARS-CoV-2's symptoms goes far beyond respiratory and sensorial dimensions and involves psychosensorial and neurological dimensions; these clinical observations could shed light on the neurobiological substrates involved in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurobiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Olfato
16.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 156-161, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423285

RESUMO

Much of the published literature regarding the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitutes lower respiratory system symptomatology, while there exists a paucity of data describing the complicated sequelae of the upper respiratory system, including chemosensory and/or sinonasal dysfunction. This study utilized the National Library of Medicine's PubMed/MEDLINE database to query for articles describing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and other coronaviruses, with any mention of smell, taste, or other chemosensory or sinonasal dysfunction. Aggregate analysis demonstrated an incidence of 49.6% (n = 497 of 1002; 95% CI, 46.5%-52.7%), 47.9% (n = 480 of 1002; 95% CI, 44.8%-51.0%), and 17.9% (n = 880 of 4909; 95% CI, 16.9%-19.0%) for smell loss, taste loss, and smell or taste loss, respectively, in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, there were significantly higher incidences of runny nose/rhinorrhea/rhinitis and nasal congestion/obstruction/blockage in other coronaviruses as compared with SARS-CoV-2 (P < .001). Understanding these less well-characterized symptoms may help develop measures for estimating early markers of disease prevalence and/or resolution. Level of evidence: 4.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Olfato , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 163(1): 114-120, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory dysfunction (OD)-hyposmia or anosmia-is a symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We sought to better determine prevalence, severity, and timing of OD in COVID-19 relative to other sinonasal and pulmonary symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional. SETTING: Regional/cantonal hospital. SUBJECTS: In total, 103 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based testing. METHODS: All patients testing positive for COVID-19 at Kantonsspital Aarau over a 6-week period were approached. Timing and severity (at its worst, on scale of 0 [none], 1 [mild], 2 [moderate], and 3 [severe]) of OD, loss of taste, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea/mucus production, fever, cough and shortness of breath (SOB) were assessed for each patient. RESULTS: Prevalence of OD was 61.2%, and severity of OD was strongly correlated with severity of loss of taste experienced (ρ = 0.87, P < .001). OD was experienced on the first day of COVID-19 by 8.7% and overall occurred at median infection day 3 (mean, 3.4; range, 0-12). Most experiencing OD reported anosmia, and mean severity of all with OD was moderate to severe (mean [SD], 2.7 [0.6]). Nasal obstruction (49.5%) and rhinorrhea (35.0%) were frequently reported but not correlated with OD. SOB was more severe in patients with OD. OD was associated negatively with older age (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99; P = .007) and positively with female sex (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 0.98-6.19; P = .056). CONCLUSIONS: OD is highly prevalent during COVID-19, occurring early and severely, often in conjunction with loss of taste. OD is associated negatively with older age and positively with female sex. Patients with OD may also experience more severe SOB.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sinusite/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Vazamento Acidental em Seveso , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/epidemiologia , Olfato , Suíça/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(18): e174, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383370

RESUMO

Initially, acute loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia) was not considered important symptoms for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To determine the prevalence of these symptoms and to evaluate their diagnostic significance, we (approximately 150 physicians of the Daegu Medical Association) prospectively collected data of cases of anosmia and ageusia from March 8, 2020, via telephone interview among 3,191 patients in Daegu, Korea. Acute anosmia or ageusia was observed in 15.3% (488/3,191) patients in the early stage of COVID-19 and in 15.7% (367/2,342) patients with asymptomatic-to-mild disease severity. Their prevalence was significantly more common among females and younger individuals (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most patients with anosmia or ageusia recovered within 3 weeks. The median time to recovery was 7 days for both symptoms. Anosmia and ageusia seem to be part of important symptoms and clues for the diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly in the early stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Ageusia/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Olfato , Paladar
19.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 49(1): 26, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapidly evolving evidence suggests that smell and taste disturbance are common symptoms in COVID-19 infection. As yet there are no reports on duration and recovery rates. We set out to characterise patients reporting new onset smell and taste disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic and report on early recovery rates. METHODS: Online Survey of patients reporting self-diagnosed new onset smell and taste disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic, with 1 week follow-up. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-two patents completed bot an initial and follow-up survey. 86.4% reported complete anosmia and a further 11.5% a very severe loss of smell at the time of completing the first survey. At follow-up 1 week later, there is already significant improvement in self-rating of severity of olfactory loss. 80.1% report lower severity scores at follow-up, 17.6% are unchanged and 1.9% are worse. 11.5% already report compete resolution at follow up, while 17.3% report persistent complete loss of smell, with reported duration being 1 to over 4 weeks. This is reflected in the overall cumulative improvement rate of 79% patients overall in the interval between surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A review of the growing evidence base supports the likelihood that out cohort have suffered olfactory loss as part of COVID-19 infection. While early recovery rates are encouraging, long term rates will need to be further investigated and there may be an increase in patients with persistent post-viral loss as a result of the pandemic. We further call for loss of sense of smell to be formerly recognised as a marker of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Olfato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Dent ; 33(3): 135-137, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the literature on the presence of two clinical manifestations in patients presenting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: loss of taste (ageusia) and loss of smell (anosmia). METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched and studies were selected starting from November, 2019 until April 2020; also, the references of the selected articles were evaluated for methodological quality. RESULTS: Of the 19 studies analyzed, five were included to evaluate the presence of ageusia and/or anosmia as symptoms in patients who were tested and resulted positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In a total of 10,818 patients, 8,823 presented ageusia (81.6%; range 5.6%-88%) and 8,088 presented anosmia (74.8%; range 5.1-85.6%). Only one study recorded both symptoms with a percentage of 18.6%. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review demonstrated significant presence of ageusia and anosmia in the patients with COVID-19 infection. These symptoms may be considered as the first manifestation of the infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos do Olfato , Pneumonia Viral , Olfato , Distúrbios do Paladar , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Paladar , Distúrbios do Paladar/virologia
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