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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123991

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between psychological distress and taste and sense of smell dysfunctions on healthcare workers (HCW) who contracted the COVID-19 infection in the midst of the disease outbreak. Reports of sudden loss of taste and smell which persist even after recovery from COVID-19 infection are increasingly recognized as critical symptoms for COVID-19 infections. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study on COVID-19 HCW (N = 104) who adhered to respond to a phone semistructured interview addressing the virus symptoms and associated psychological distress. Data were collected from June to September 2020. Findings confirm the association between experienced taste/olfactory loss and emotional distress and suggest that dysfunctions of taste and smell correlate positively with anxiety and depression. Furthermore, their psychological impact tends to persist even after the recovery from the disease, suggesting the need for appropriate psychological interventions to prevent people from developing more serious or long-lasting psychological disorders and, as far as HCW, to reduce the risk of work-related distress.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato , Paladar
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239639, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105679

RESUMO

Among the plants defense mechanisms, the induction and emission of volatile organic compounds, which can be used to attract natural enemies, such predators insects. Although well studied, the induction of plant volatiles that attract natural enemies can vary according to intensity of infestation of herbivores and the species of host plant. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the volatiles of infested maize (Zea mays) plants by the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch, 1836) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in early and advanced infestations. The Bt (Viptera) maize cultivar Impact® was used for tests the behavior of N. californicus. After initial and advanced infestations, the phytophagous mites T. urticae were removed, and the plants were tested using a "Y" olfactometer. The following treatments were evaluated: air vs. air, uninfested plants vs. air, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 10 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 100 females of T. urticae, uninfested plants vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae and plants infested with 10 vs. plants infested with 200 females of T. urticae. The predatory mite N. californicus did not show preference to the treatments tested, suggesting that maize plants infested by T. urticae do not induce volatiles capable of attracting the predatory mite N. californicus. We concluded that N. californicus is not attracted by maize plants infested by T. urticae.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Feminino , Comportamento Predatório , Olfato , Zea mays
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073351

RESUMO

The discrimination learning of multiple odors, in which multi-odor can be associated with different responses, is important for responding quickly and accurately to changes in the external environment. However, very few studies have been done on multi-odor discrimination by animal sniffing. Herein, we report a novel multi-odor discrimination system by detection rats based on the combination of 2-Choice and Go/No-Go (GNG) tasks into a single paradigm, in which the Go response of GNG was replaced by 2-Choice, for detection of toluene and acetone, which are odor indicators of lung cancer and diabetes, respectively. Three of six trained rats reached performance criterion, in 12 consecutive successful tests within a given set or over 12 sets with a success rate of over 90%. Through a total of 1300 tests, the trained animals (N = 3) showed multi-odor sensing performance with 88% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 90% specificity. In addition, a dependence of behavior response time on odor concentrations under given concentration conditions was observed, suggesting that the system could be used for quantitative measurements. Furthermore, the animals' multi-odor sensing performance has lasted for 45 days, indicating long-term stability of the learned multi-odor discrimination. These findings demonstrate that multi-odor discrimination can be achieved by rat sniffing, potentially providing insight into the rapid, accurate and cost-effective multi-odor monitoring in the lung cancer and diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Discriminação Psicológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Odorantes , Ratos , Olfato
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 686, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083749

RESUMO

In January 2020, the coronavirus disease was declared, by the World Health Organization as a global public health emergency. Recommendations from the WHO COVID Emergency Committee continue to support strengthening COVID surveillance systems, including timely access to effective diagnostics. Questions were raised about the validity of considering the RT-PCR as the gold standard in COVID-19 diagnosis. It has been suggested that a variety of methods should be used to evaluate advocated tests. Dogs had been successfully trained and employed to detect diseases in humans. Here we show that upon training explosives detection dogs on sniffing COVID-19 odor in patients' sweat, those dogs were able to successfully screen out 3249 individuals who tested negative for the SARS-CoV-2, from a cohort of 3290 individuals. Additionally, using Bayesian analysis, the sensitivity of the K9 test was found to be superior to the RT-PCR test performed on nasal swabs from a cohort of 3134 persons. Given its high sensitivity, short turn-around-time, low cost, less invasiveness, and ease of application, the detection dogs test lends itself as a better alternative to the RT-PCR in screening for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic individuals.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Odorantes , Cães Trabalhadores , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/economia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/economia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
5.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 71-80, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108344

RESUMO

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. We treated five patients with mild COVID-19 at an isolation facility using Kampo medicine, depending on their symptoms. Patients with the olfactory disorder presented with a blocked nose, nasal discharge or taste impairment. Physical examination using Kampo medicine showed similar findings, such as a red tongue with red spots and sublingual vein congestion, which presented as blood stasis and inflammation; thus, we prescribed the Kampo medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. After administration, the numeric rating scale scores of the smell impairment improved within 3 days from 9 to 3 in case 1, from 10 to 0 in case 2, from 9 to 0 in case 3, from 5 to 0 in case 4, and from 9 to 0 within 5 days in case 5. Following the treatment, other common cold symptoms were also alleviated. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i can be used for treating nasal congestion, rhinitis, and inflammation in the nasal mucosa. The olfactory disorder in COVID-19 has been reportedly associated with inflammation and congestion, especially in the olfactory bulb and olfactory cleft. Kakkontokasenkyushin'i may be one of the treatment alternatives for the olfactory disorder with rhinitis in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Transtornos do Olfato/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48218

RESUMO

Após meses de combate e ao estudo da Covid-19, os sintomas causados pela infecção do Sars-CoV-2 já são facilmente reconhecidos pelos profissionais da saúde, facilitando tanto o diagnóstico quanto a manutenção das sequelas – visto que, até o momento, não existe tratamento específico para a doença causada pelo coronavírus. Nesta matéria, especialistas da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF) explicam como acontece o surgimento e quais as possibilidades de reversão de dois sintomas característicos da Covid-19: a perda de paladar e de olfato.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Paladar , Olfato , Otolaringologia
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e29583, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent olfactory dysfunction is a significant complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Olfactory training involving aromatic oils has been recommended to improve olfactory recovery, but quantitative data are missing. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the benefit of olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application for patients who experienced olfactory dysfunction for ≥1 month. METHODS: We performed an observational, real-life, data-based study on a cohort of patients who experienced at least 1 month of persistent olfactory dysfunction between January 30 and March 26, 2021. An analysis was performed after a mean olfactory training time of 4 weeks, and at least 500 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. Participants exposed themselves twice daily to odors from 4 high-concentration oils and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application. Improvement was defined as a 2-point increase on a 10-point, self-assessed olfactory visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 548 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. The mean baseline, self-assessed olfactory score was 1.9 (SD 1.7), and this increased to 4.6 (SD 2.8) after a mean olfactory training time of 27.7 days (SD 17.2). Olfactory training was associated with at least a 2-point increase in 64.2% (352/548) of patients. The rate of patients' olfactory improvement was higher for patients who trained for more than 28 days than that rate for patients who trained for less than 28 days (73.3% vs 59%; P=.002). The time to olfactory improvement was 8 days faster for patients with hyposmia compared to the time to improvement for patients with anosmia (P<.001). This benefit was observed regardless of the duration of the olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application was associated with significant improvement in olfaction, especially after 28 days of olfactory training.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/reabilitação , Anosmia/complicações , Anosmia/reabilitação , Anosmia/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/terapia , Estimulação Luminosa , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Olfato/fisiologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(21): 5997-6004, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008976

RESUMO

Submerged cultures of the basidiomycota Cystostereum murrayi emit an intensive coconut-like, sweetish, and buttery smell. For identification of the key aroma compounds, an aroma dilution analysis using dynamic headspace was performed by adjusting the split ratio of the GC inlet system. Flavor dilution (FD) factors varied from 22 up to ≥218, whereby the largest class of compounds represented terpenoids, including two rare stereoisomers of 3,6-dimethyl-2,3,3a,4,5,7a-hexahydrobenzofuran (dill ether, ee ≥ 99.9). By means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the substances with the highest FD factors (29, 212, and 218) were identified as diastereomers of 3,6-dimethyl-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexayhydro-3H-1-benzofuran-2-one (dihydromenthofurolactone) and as its corresponding C3-unsaturated lactone. The latter two compounds have not been described for Cystostereum murrayi or for any other basidiomycota previously. Supplementation studies using 2-13C-d-glucose indicated that these lactones as well as the two stereoisomers of dill ether and other terpenoids were formed de novo by the fungus.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Agaricales , Aromatizantes , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
9.
J Insect Sci ; 21(3)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047335

RESUMO

Aphidius gifuensis Ashmaed is a generalist endoparasitoid that parasitizes a variety of aphid species. In China, it is widely used as a biological control agent to protect vegetables and tobaccos in open fields; control efficiency is largely dependent on its host-seeking ability. In this study, a six-choice olfactometer was used to investigate the olfactory responses of A. gifuensis to tobacco plants that had suffered damage (either varying degrees of mechanical damage or from aphid-feeding at different time intervals) and tobacco volatiles with different dosages. Furthermore, the regularity of A. gifuensis females' response toward an aphid/tobacco complex was monitored using a Y-tube olfactometer. Our findings suggest that tobacco plants are significantly attractive to A. gifuensis after they have been punctured with 50 holes, or housed with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) at a density of 400 aphids, except at an infestation time of 12 h. Moreover, aphid density had a more significant effect on the response than the time interval since aphid application. Aphidius gifuensis was found to be active during the daytime and preferred to search for their aphid hosts at 14:00 h. Five EAG-active tobacco volatiles (trans-2-hexenal, methyl salicylate, benzaldehyde, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and 1-hexanal) were found to significantly attract A. gifuensis females at different concentration ranges. The practical implications of these results are discussed in the framework of the sustainable biological control of pest aphids in agricultural production systems.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Afídeos/parasitologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Hexanóis/química , Hexanóis/metabolismo , Olfatometria , Parasitos/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Olfato , Tabaco/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
10.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 21(1): 101525, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051956

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Taste and smell as chemosensory dysfunctions in COVID-19 infection. Passarelli PC, Lopez MA, Mastandrea Bonaviri GN, Garcia-Godoy F, D'Addona A.Am J Dent 2020;33(3):135-137. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Information not available. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Obstrução Nasal , Transtornos do Olfato , Anosmia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato , Paladar
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 300, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smell, taste and trigeminal disorders likely have a substantial impact on human daily life. However, data regarding the prevalence of these disorders in Norway are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smell, taste, trigeminal disorders and associated factors in a 65-year-old population in Oslo, Norway. METHODS: A random sample of 223 individuals (123 men, 100 women) participated in the study. Medical history was obtained, and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected to determine salivary secretion rates. Sniffin`n Sticks and Taste Strips (Burghart Messtechnik GmbH, Wedel, Germany) were used for quantitative testing of olfactory and gustatory function. In addition, the participants' self-reported perceptions of smell and taste, and burning mouth sensation were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that 34 % of the participants had reduced smell (28 % hyposmia and 6 % anosmia) and 28 % had reduced taste perception (21 % hypogeusia and 7 % ageusia). 13 % of the partcipants had a combination of smell and taste disorders. Dysgeusia was reported by 5 % and burning mouth sensation (syndrome) by 3 % of the participants. Hyposmia, hypogeusia and ageusia were significantly more prevalent among men. Significant associations were found between taste disorders and previous history of cerebral hemorrhage and heart attack, and between burning mouth sensation and gastrointestinal disorders. Disturbances in olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal function were significantly related to medication use. Ageusia and burning mouth sensation were significantly more prevalent among smokers. Except from higher prevalence of ageusia among participants with hyposalivation with respect to SWS, no significant associations were found between salivary secretion rate and chemosensory or trigeminal disorders in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that one-third of 65-year-old individuals had impaired smell and more than one-fourth had impaired taste function. The prevalence of dysgeusia and burning mouth sensation was very low. Reduced smell and taste perception were more common among men than women. Furthermore, some diseases and medications were associated with chemosensory and trigeminal disorders. Ageusia was associated with SWS hyposalivation.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Olfato , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Paladar
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 369-376, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with COVID-19 infection presents with a broad clinical spectrum of symptoms and complications. As a consequence nutritional requirements are not met, resulting in weight- and muscle loss, and malnutrition. The aim of the present study is to delineate nutritional complaints, the (course of the) nutritional status and risk of sarcopenia of COVID-19 patients, during hospitalisation and after discharge. METHODS: In this prospective observational study in 407 hospital admitted COVID-19 patients in four university and peripheral hospitals, data were collected during dietetic consultations. Presence of nutrition related complaints (decreased appetite, loss of smell, changed taste, loss of taste, chewing and swallowing problems, nausea, vomiting, feeling of being full, stool frequency and consistency, gastric retention, need for help with food intake due to weakness and shortness of breath and nutritional status (weight loss, BMI, risk of sarcopenia with SARC-F ≥4 points) before, during hospital stay and after discharge were, where possible, collected. RESULTS: Included patients were most men (69%), median age of 64.8 ± 12.4 years, 60% were admitted to ICU at any time point during hospitalisation with a median LOS of 15 days and an in-hospital mortality rate of 21%. The most commonly reported complaints were: decreased appetite (58%), feeling of being full (49%) and shortness of breath (43%). One in three patients experienced changed taste, loss of taste and/or loss of smell. Prior to hospital admission, 67% of the patients was overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2), 35% of the patients was characterised as malnourished, mainly caused by considerable weight loss. Serious acute weight loss (>5 kg) was showed in 22% of the patents during the hospital stay; most of these patients (85%) were admitted to the ICU at any point in time. A high risk of sarcopenia (SARC-F ≥ 4 points) was scored in 73% of the patients during hospital admission. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, one in five hospital admitted COVID-19 patients suffered from serious acute weight loss and 73% had a high risk of sarcopenia. Moreover, almost all patients had one or more nutritional complaints. Of these complaints, decreased appetite, feeling of being full, shortness of breath and changed taste and loss of taste were the most predominant nutrition related complaints. These symptoms have serious repercussions on nutritional status. Although nutritional complaints persisted a long time after discharge, only a small group of patients received dietetic treatment after hospital discharge in recovery phase. Clinicians should consider the risks of acute malnutrition and sarcopenia in COVID-19 patients and investigate multidisciplinary treatment including dietetics during hospital stay and after discharge.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hospitalização , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Apetite , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato , Paladar
13.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 74(3-4): 117-123, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938667

RESUMO

Background and purpose: The current study aimed to examine the effect of sniffing Turkish coffee on the sense of smell in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This study utilized the experiment-control method. Data were collected using a patient and disease information form and the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) Test. An experimental group of patients sniffed Turkish coffee, and the coffee's effect on the patients' sense of smell was examined. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 25 (IBM). Results: Of the patients in the experimental group, 25% had moderate hyposmia, 58.3% had severe hyposmia, and 16.7% had anosmia prior to sniffing Turkish coffee. After sniffing the Turkish coffee, 13.3% of these patients regained their ability to smell normally, while 18.3% had mild hyposmia, 45% had moderate hyposmia, 6.7% had severe hyposmia, and 16.7% had anosmia. There was no difference in the control group between first and second measurement. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who sniffed Turkish coffee intermittently regained some of their sense of smell for one hour. Turkish coffee is cheap, fragrant, widely available, and easy to access. Therefore, results of this study suggest that it may be recommended for treating olfactory disorder in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Café , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010996

RESUMO

Objective: To retrospectively analysely the electrophysiological and imaging features of isolated congenital anosmia (ICA) and to assess the clinical phenotypic characteristics and classification of ICA. Methods: Clinical data of 30 ICA patients in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from 2012 to 2019 was retrospectively reviewed, including 13 males and 17 females, aged (35±19) years. The control group consisted of 30 healthy people from medical examination center, including 13 males and 17 females, aged (39±14) years. The clinical characteristics of ICA were analyzed using Sniffin' Sticks test, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERP) and olfactory pathway MRI. SPSS 17.0 software was used to compare the difference of olfactory function between the two groups. The correlation between olfactory bulb, olfactory sulcus structure and age was observed, and the clinical phenotype characteristics of ICA patients were analyzed. Results: The subjective olfactory function was completely lost in ICA patients. oERP was absent in all of the ICA patients, but showed normal N1 and P2 waves in controls. tERP could be evoked in 63.3% (19/30) of ICA patients, and signals in these patients showed higher amplitude in the N1 ((-10.33±6.93) µV vs (-5.11±2.71) µV, t=-10.113, P<0.01) and P2 ((+17.25±8.51) µV vs (+7.31±3.46) µV, t=5.443, P<0.01) waves than that of the controls. Olfactory bulbs were aplastic in 80.0% (24/30) of patients and hypoplastic in 20.0% (6/30) of patients. Fifty-six point seven percent (17/30) of patients had bilateral olfactory sulcus deletion while 43.3% (13/30) had dysplasia, and all of the patients exhibited a depth of olfactory sulcus less than 8 mm. Both the structure of olfactory bulbs and olfactory sulcus were not associated with age for ICA patients (r value was -0.174 and 0.325, respectively, all P>0.05). Conclusions: ICA patients show neurophysiologic deficits and some anatomic differences compared with healthy controls. The absence of oERP combining with a depth of olfactory sulcus less than 8 mm is the important indicator for clinical diagnosis of ICA. The structure of olfactory bulb may be a critical factor for clinical classification of ICA.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Anosmia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Bulbo Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem , Condutos Olfatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794640

RESUMO

Sensorineural olfactory dysfunction refers to the reduction or distortion of sensory intensity due to insufficient reception or processing of stimulation by olfactory receptors, olfactory sensory neurons or central nervous system. As olfactory dysfunction can affect patients' physical and mental health and even safety of life and the etiology of sensorineural olfactory dysfunction is complicated, it has great clinical significance for understanding the development of olfactory dysfunction's treatment. This article summarizes the current promising treatment for sensorineural olfactory dysfunction, including drug therapy, cell therapy, gene therapy and olfactory training.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/terapia , Olfato
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804846

RESUMO

Although the consumption of fruits and vegetables is being promoted by different institutions as a key question of public health, their consumption is decreasing and their waste is increasing. To address this situation, we propose to include the consumer's perception of the quality (from a sensory point of view) of a fruit, in particular Valencian oranges, in the supplier's selection process by retailers. To do so, we use a combination of consumer and trained sensory panels and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). This approach is completely novel in the literature. According to the expert panel, the most important criteria when evaluating the quality of an orange are fruity smell, juiciness, sweetness and acidity. These criteria are related to the freshness and taste of the oranges. Consumers found the methodology proposed useful and easy to develop. The application of the AHP methodology has helped to facilitate a participatory discussion among consumers on the concept of the quality of the oranges. The methodology proposed can help the agrifood sector in different ways up and down the supply chain. Specially, it can contribute to better meet consumer's demands, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and reducing its waste.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Comportamento do Consumidor , Frutas , Olfato , Paladar
17.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 100(5): 340-341, 2021 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915588
19.
J Neurol Sci ; 425: 117433, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848701

RESUMO

Olfaction, one of our five main qualitative sensory abilities, is the action of smelling or the capacity to smell. Olfactory impairment can be a sign of a medical problem, from a benign nasal/sinus problem up to a potentially serious brain injury. However, although clinicians (neurologists or not) usually test the olfactory nerves in specific clinical situations (for example, when a neurodegenerative disorder is suspected), they may omit such tests in many other situations. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the resurgence of anosmia has reminded us of the importance of testing this sensorineural function. We retrace here the main historical steps and discoveries concerning olfaction and anosmia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Anosmia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
20.
Rhinology ; 59(2): 113, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821858

Assuntos
Memória , Olfato , Afeto , Humanos
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