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1.
Food Chem ; 393: 133357, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667180

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying the ability of humans to olfactorily discriminate fat content in milks remain unknown. In this study, we found that fat contents (0.5, 1.5 and 3.5% fat) can be discriminated by olfaction in commercially available pasteurized milks (p < 0.05) but not in ultra-high temperature processed (UHT) milks. The composition of volatile compounds of pasteurized milks differed with fat content, whereas that of UHT milks differing in fat content was similar. Principal component analysis revealed that differences in volatile compound composition of pasteurized milks differing in fat content contribute to olfactory discrimination. In UHT milks, acetoin and 2-heptanone may mask odor differences leading to indistinguishable odors. No differences were observed regarding perceived odor intensity of pasteurized milks or UHT milks differing in fat content. We conclude that the olfactory discrimination of fat content in pasteurized milks is facilitated by differences in volatile compound composition rather than odor intensity.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Olfato , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Leite , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
2.
Food Chem ; 393: 133292, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688092

RESUMO

There is a lack of knowledge about the influence of seasonality on the microbial and physicochemical quality of oysters in Sado and Mira rivers. Water, sediment, and oysters (Crassostrea angulata and Crassostrea gigas) were collected for microbiological, nutritional, and sensory analyses. The microbiological water quality and the oyster shell contamination were better during the warmer months. No seasonal effect was observed on sediments and on oyster meat. A good physicochemical and nutritional quality was also observed, with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, resulting in good lipid quality indices. From the sensory evaluation, both oysters' species were well scored and presented the highest scores (4) in parameters such as cream-ivory colour, sea smell, firmness and juiciness. These attributes denote the freshness degree at the time of the tasting, reflecting the quality of the bivalve.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Rios , Animais , Crassostrea/química , Olfato , Paladar
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2112385119, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648836

RESUMO

SignificanceChemosensory systems play crucial roles across mosquito life cycles, with underlying molecular receptors often forming functional complexes that require cognate coreceptors. To better understand chemosensory pathways in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, gene editing were used to localize and functionally characterize the ionotropic receptor coreceptor AcIr76b. Expression of AcIr76b was observed in antennal grooved pegs, coeloconic sensilla, and other accessory olfactory appendages. When AcIr76b was inactivated, mutant mosquitoes displayed altered neuronal responses to amines.. Beyond olfactory phenotypes, AcIr76b mutants display significantly impaired mating and blood feeding capabilities. Our data reveal discrete roles of AcIr76b across chemosensory pathways, suggesting ionotropic pathways as targets for the design of vector control strategies.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Comportamento Alimentar , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/fisiologia , Sangue , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/genética , Receptores Ionotrópicos de Glutamato/fisiologia , Sensilas/fisiologia , Olfato
4.
Adv Gerontol ; 35(2): 308-314, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727939

RESUMO

Population aging, increasing in duration of active life dictate to keep the level of health and create conditions for prolongation and preservation of ability to work. An otorhinolaryngologist often has to deal with age-related changes occurring in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The study of age-related features occurring in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses at the level of not only function, but also structures providing maintenance of mucous membrane protective mechanisms, preserving nasal architectonics, becomes a topical issue. Detailed consideration can be the key to understanding what is a natural process over time, and what should be viewed as pathology. These processes are often interrelated. For example, cartilage aging and nasal tip ptosis may trigger pathophysiologic mechanisms that create an obstacle to normal nasal breathing in older patients. Nasal aging accompanied by increasing dryness, rhinorrhea in some cases, postnasal drip in others, decreased sense of smell, reduces the quality of life, which will also need the involvement of an otorhinolaryngologist. In otorhinolaryngology, some of the terms used to describe age-related changes in the ent organs have been known and used since ancient times - presbyacusis (decreased hearing), presbyosmia (decreased sense of smell), presbyathacsia (ability to maintain equilibrium). Others are relatively recent, such as presbynasalis - an aging nose.


Assuntos
Seios Paranasais , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Humanos , Cavidade Nasal , Nariz/patologia , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Seios Paranasais/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10421, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729203

RESUMO

By learning, through experience, which stimuli coincide with dangers, it is possible to predict outcomes and act pre-emptively to ensure survival. In insects, this process is localized to the mushroom body (MB), the circuitry of which facilitates the coincident detection of sensory stimuli and punishing or rewarding cues and, downstream, the execution of appropriate learned behaviors. Here, we focused our attention on the mushroom body output neurons (MBONs) of the γ-lobes that act as downstream synaptic partners of the MB γ-Kenyon cells (KCs) to ask how the output of the MB γ-lobe is shaped by olfactory associative conditioning, distinguishing this from non-associative stimulus exposure effects, and without the influence of downstream modulation. This was achieved by employing a subcellularly localized calcium sensor to specifically monitor activity at MBON postsynaptic sites. Therein, we identified a robust associative modulation within only one MBON postsynaptic compartment (MBON-γ1pedc > α/ß), which displayed a suppressed postsynaptic response to an aversively paired odor. While this MBON did not undergo non-associative modulation, the reverse was true across the remainder of the γ-lobe, where general odor-evoked adaptation was observed, but no conditioned odor-specific modulation. In conclusion, associative synaptic plasticity underlying aversive olfactory learning is localized to one distinct synaptic γKC-to-γMBON connection.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Corpos Pedunculados , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes , Olfato/fisiologia
6.
Nature ; 606(7915): 631-632, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681006
7.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725310

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between pathogens in the olfactory cleft area and olfactory disorders in patients with upper respiratory inflammation (URI) during the prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 234 URI patients including acute upper respiratory infection, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR) were continuously selected from September 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital and 98 healthy adults were enrolled as controls. The secretions from the olfactory cleft of all subjects were collected with nasal swabs under nasal endoscopy. Multiple real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection method was used to detect nucleic acids of 33 types of respiratory pathogenic microorganism. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test was performed on all patients with URI. URI patients with olfactory dysfunction were followed up for 9 (8, 10) months (M (Q1, Q3)). SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the 98 controls, 9 (9.18%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, including 1 (1.02%) rhinovirus, 1 (1.02%) parainfluenza virus type 3, 3 (3.06%) enterovirus, 1 (1.02%) staphylococcus aureus and 3 (3.06%) Moraxella catarrhalis. Among the 234 URI patients, 111 (47.44%) had olfactory disorders and 123 (52.56%) had normal sense of smell. In the olfactory disorder group (111 cases), 38 cases (34.23%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 4 cases (3.60%) were mixed infection, including 11 cases of rhinovirus (9.91%), 5 cases of coronavirus 229E (4.50%), 2 cases of coronavirus OC43/NL63 (1.80%), 3 cases of parainfluenza virus type 1 (2.70%), 2 cases of enterovirus (1.80%), 1 case of influenza B virus type BV (0.90%), 11 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (9.91%), 7 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (6.31%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.90%). In the normal smell group (123 cases), 18 cases (14.63%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 1 case (0.81%) was mixed infection, including 3 cases of rhinovirus (2.44%), 4 cases of coronavirus 229E (3.25%), 1 case of Influenza virus type 3 (0.81%), 3 cases of enterovirus (2.44%), 3 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (2.44%), 4 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (3.25%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.81%). Univariate analysis between the two groups found that there were significant differences in the detection rate of pathogenic microorganisms, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus between the groups (all P<0.05). The detection rate of parainfluenza virus type 1, Staphylococcus aureus, and rhinovirus were different between the patients with olfactory disorder and normal olfactory function in the three subgroups of acute upper respiratory tract infection, CRS and AR, respectively (χ2 value was 3.88, 4.53 and 4.73, respectively, all P<0.05). During the follow-up period, among the 111 patients with olfactory disorder, 71 (63.96%) patients' olfactory function returned to normal, 32 (28.83%) patients' olfactory function improved but not completely returned to normal, 8 (7.21%) patients' olfactory function did not improve. Conclusions: During the prevention and control of COVID-19, rhinovirus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization of URI patients is closely related to olfactory disorders. Parainfluenza virus type 1 infection can cause relatively persistent olfactory disorders in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. Staphylococcus aureus and rhinovirus colonization are related to the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction in CRS and AR patients respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Transtornos do Olfato , Infecções Respiratórias , Sinusite , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Rhinovirus , Olfato
9.
Nature ; 606(7915): S7-S9, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732773

Assuntos
Olfato
10.
Nature ; 606(7915): S10-S11, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732774
11.
Nature ; 606(7915): S2-S4, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732775

Assuntos
Memória , Olfato
12.
Nature ; 606(7915): S1, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732776

Assuntos
Olfato
13.
Nature ; 606(7915): S18-S20, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732777

Assuntos
Odorantes , Olfato , Humanos
14.
Nature ; 606(7915): S12-S13, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732778
15.
Nature ; 606(7915): S5-S6, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732779

Assuntos
COVID-19 , Olfato , Humanos
16.
Nature ; 606(7915): S14-S17, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732781
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 13(12): 1727-1737, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642309

RESUMO

Inspired by the powerful capability of the biological olfactory system, we developed an in vivo bioelectronic nose based on a bioengineered rat by recording electrophysiological-responsive signals from the olfactory bulb with implanted multichannel microelectrodes. The bioengineered rat was prepared by overexpressing a selected olfactory receptor (OR3) on the rat olfactory epithelium, and multichannel electrophysiological signals were obtained from the mitral/tufted (M/T) cell population of the olfactory bulb. The classification of target multiodorants was realized by analyzing the redundant stimuli-responsive firing information. Ligand odorants induced significant firing changes with specific response patterns compared with nonligand odorants. The responsive curves were dependent on the concentration of target ligand odorants ranging from 10-6 to 10-3 M, and the detection limit was as low as 10-5 M. In addition, different ligand odorants were successfully discriminated via principal component analysis. This in vivo bioelectronic nose provides a novel approach for the detection of specific target odorants and has promising application potential in the field of rapid on-site odor discrimination.


Assuntos
Bulbo Olfatório , Olfato , Animais , Ligantes , Microeletrodos , Odorantes/análise , Ratos , Olfato/fisiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9776, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697904

RESUMO

Parosmia, distorted smell sensations, is a common consequence of respiratory virus infections. The phenomenon is not well understood in terms of its impact and long-term outcomes. We examined self-reported experiences of parosmia in a population-based sample from the Betula study that was conducted in Umeå in northern Sweden (baseline data collected in 1998-2000). We used a baseline sample of 2168 individuals aged 35-90 years and with no cognitive impairment at baseline. We investigated the prevalence of parosmia experiences and, using regression analyses, its relationship to other olfactory and cognitive variables and quality of life. Benefitting from the longitudinal study design, we also assessed the persistence of parosmia over 5 and 10 years prospectively. Parosmia experiences were prevalent in 4.8% of the population and it often co-occurred with phantosmia ("olfactory hallucinations"), but was not associated with lower self-rated overall quality of life or poor performance on olfactory or cognitive tests. For some individuals, parosmia was retained 5 years (17.0%) or even 10 years later (10.3%). Thus, parosmia experiences are commonly reported in the population, and can be persistent for some individuals, but might be mostly benign in nature. Our work complements research on clinical-level parosmia, which is typically more severe, and recent parosmia reports during the COVID-19 pandemic, where long-term outcomes are still unknown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , Olfato
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268382, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, testing individuals remains a key action. One approach to rapid testing is to consider the olfactory capacities of trained detection dogs. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in two community COVID-19 screening centers. Two nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), one saliva and one sweat samples were simultaneously collected. The dog handlers (and the dogs…) were blinded with regards to the Covid status. The diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection by canine olfaction was assessed as compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR as the reference standard, saliva RT-PCR and nasopharyngeal antigen testing. RESULTS: 335 ambulatory adults (143 symptomatic and 192 asymptomatic) were included. Overall, 109/335 participants tested positive on nasopharyngeal RT-PCR either in symptomatic (78/143) or in asymptomatic participants (31/192). The overall sensitivity of canine detection was 97% (95% CI, 92 to 99) and even reached 100% (95% CI, 89 to 100) in asymptomatic individuals compared to NPS RT-PCR. The specificity was 91% (95% CI, 72 to 91), reaching 94% (95% CI, 90 to 97) for asymptomatic individuals. The sensitivity of canine detection was higher than that of nasopharyngeal antigen testing (97% CI: 91 to 99 versus 84% CI: 74 to 90, p = 0.006), but the specificity was lower (90% CI: 84 to 95 versus 97% CI: 93 to 99, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection by canine olfaction could be one alternative to NPS RT-PCR when it is necessary to obtain a result very quickly according to the same indications as antigenic tests in the context of mass screening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/veterinária , Cães , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Olfato
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1976): 20220444, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642366

RESUMO

Sexual signals are often central to reproduction, and their expression is thought to strike a balance between advertising to mates and avoiding detection by predatory eavesdroppers. Tests of the predicted predation costs have produced mixed results, however. Here we synthesized 187 effects from 78 experimental studies in a meta-analytic test of two questions; namely, whether predators, parasites and parasitoids express preferences for the sexual signals of prey, and whether sexual signals increase realized predation risk in the wild. We found that predators and parasitoids express strong and consistent preferences for signals in forced-choice contexts. We found a similarly strong overall increase in predation on sexual signallers in the wild, though here it was modality specific. Olfactory and acoustic signals increased the incidence of eavesdropping relative to visual signals, which experienced no greater risk than controls on average. Variation in outcome measures was universally high, suggesting that contexts in which sexual signalling may incur no cost, or even reduce the incidence of predation, are common. Our results reveal unexpected complexity in a central viability cost to sexual signalling, while also speaking to applied problems in invasion biology and pest management where signal exploitation holds promise for bio-inspired solutions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Olfato , Animais , Reprodução
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