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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(785): 1180, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678354
2.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683999

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor that is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A critical aspect of cardiovascular risk estimation in hypertensive patients depends on the assessment of hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD), namely the generalized structural and functional changes in major organs induced by persistently elevated blood pressure values. The vasculature of the eye shares several common structural, functional, and embryological features with that of the heart, brain, and kidney. Since retinal microcirculation offers the unique advantage of being directly accessible to non-invasive and relatively simple investigation tools, there has been considerable interest in the development and modernization of techniques that allow the assessment of the retinal vessels' structural and functional features in health and disease. With the advent of artificial intelligence and the application of sophisticated physics technologies to human sciences, consistent steps forward have been made in the study of the ocular fundus as a privileged site for diagnostic and prognostic assessment of diverse disease conditions. In this narrative review, we will recapitulate the main ocular imaging techniques that are currently relevant from a clinical and/or research standpoint, with reference to their pathophysiological basis and their possible diagnostic and prognostic relevance. A possible non pharmacological approach to prevent the onset and progression of retinopathy in the presence of hypertension and related cardiovascular risk factors and diseases will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Hipertensão , Olho , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3156, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672419

RESUMO

Many vital processes in the eye are under circadian regulation, and circadian dysfunction has emerged as a potential driver of eye aging. Dietary restriction is one of the most robust lifespan-extending therapies and amplifies circadian rhythms with age. Herein, we demonstrate that dietary restriction extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster by promoting circadian homeostatic processes that protect the visual system from age- and light-associated damage. Altering the positive limb core molecular clock transcription factor, CLOCK, or CLOCK-output genes, accelerates visual senescence, induces a systemic immune response, and shortens lifespan. Flies subjected to dietary restriction are protected from the lifespan-shortening effects of photoreceptor activation. Inversely, photoreceptor inactivation, achieved via mutating rhodopsin or housing flies in constant darkness, primarily extends the lifespan of flies reared on a high-nutrient diet. Our findings establish the eye as a diet-sensitive modulator of lifespan and indicates that vision is an antagonistically pleiotropic process that contributes to organismal aging.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Olho , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Longevidade/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9660, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690626

RESUMO

Long-term and chronic visual suppression to the non-preferred eye in early childhood is a key factor in developing amblyopia, as well as a critical barrier to treat amblyopia. To explore the relationship between selective visual attention and amblyopic suppression and its role in the success of amblyopic training, we used EEG source-imaging to show that training human adults with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia with dichoptic attention tasks improved attentional modulation of neural populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We also used psychophysics to show that training reduced interocular suppression along with visual acuity and stereoacuity improvements. Importantly, our results revealed that the reduction of interocular suppression by training was significantly correlated with the improvement of selective visual attention in both training-related and -unrelated tasks in the amblyopic eye, relative to the fellow eye. These findings suggest a relation between interocular suppression and selective visual attention bias between eyes in amblyopic vision, and that dichoptic training with high-attention demand tasks in the amblyopic eye might be an effective way to treat amblyopia.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Adulto , Ambliopia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Olho , Humanos , Lobo Parietal , Visão Binocular , Acuidade Visual
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(6): 2107-2110, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647992

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study was performed to compare the optical quality of the eyes of myopic children before and after treatment with atropine eye drops of different concentrations. Methods: In the study population of 71 patients (131 eyes), 34 patients (63 eyes) were given 0.01% atropine eye drops and 37 patients (68 eyes) were given 0.05% atropine eye drops. The modulation transfer function (MTF) cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, objective scattering index (OSI), and predicted visual acuities (PVAs 100%, 20%, and 9%) under different lighting conditions were measured before and after two weeks of atropine treatment. Results: After using 0.05% atropine eye drops for two weeks, the Strehl ratio decreased from 0.27 ± 0.07 to 0.23 ± 0.07 (P = 0.0026), PVA 20% decreased from 1.15 ± 0.32 to 1.03 ± 0.36 (P = 0.0344), and PVA 9% decreased from 0.74 ± 0.23 to 0.64 ± 0.23 (P = 0.0073). The OSI was significantly higher after using 0.05% than 0.01% atropine eye drops (P = 0.0396), while both the Strehl ratio and PVA 20% were lower after using 0.05% than 0.01% atropine eye drops (P = 0.0087 and P = 0.0492, respectively). Conclusion: The children's optical quality did not change significantly after using 0.01% atropine eye drops, whereas it decreased after using 0.05% atropine eye drops.


Assuntos
Atropina , Miopia , Criança , Olho , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas , Acuidade Visual
6.
STAR Protoc ; 3(2): 101383, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664254

RESUMO

Here, we describe a series of protocols detailing the steps for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 infection in models of the human eye. Included are protocols for whole eye organoid differentiation, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and processing organoids for single-cell RNA sequencing. Additional protocols describe how to dissect and culture adult human ocular cells from cadaver donor eyes and how to compare infection of SARS-CoV-2 and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors using qPCR, immunofluorescence, and plaque assays. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Eriksen et al. (2021).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Olho , Humanos , Organoides , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 7(1)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675203

RESUMO

In addition to catastrophic loss of life, and dramatic and unwanted alterations to the daily lives of those left behind, the COVID-19 pandemic has fostered the publication and dissemination of an unprecedented quantity of peer-reviewed medical and scientific publications on a single subject. In particular, the ophthalmic literature is now replete with clinical and laboratory studies on putative eye involvement by SARS-CoV-2, the aetiologic agent of COVID-19. In this review, we critically appraise the published literature on COVID-19, and suggest that the quality of scientific peer review and editorial decision-making also suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Olho , Humanos , Pandemias , Revisão por Pares , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(647): eabj2177, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648811

RESUMO

Antiangiogenesis therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have revolutionized the treatment of neovascular ocular diseases, including neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Compelling evidence has implicated the vital role of complement system dysregulation in AMD pathogenesis, implying it as a potential therapeutic strategy for geographic atrophy in dry AMD and to enhance the efficacy of anti-VEGF monotherapies in nAMD. This study reports the preclinical assessment and phase 1 clinical outcomes of a bispecific fusion protein, efdamrofusp alfa (code: IBI302), which is capable of neutralizing both VEGF isoforms and C3b/C4b. Efdamrofusp alfa showed superior efficacy over anti-VEGF monotherapy in a mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model after intravitreal delivery. Dual inhibition of VEGF and the complement activation was found to further inhibit macrophage infiltration and M2 macrophage polarization. Intravitreal efdamrofusp alfa demonstrated favorable safety profiles and exhibited antiangiogenetic efficacy in a nonhuman primate laser-induced CNV model. A phase 1 dose-escalating clinical trial (NCT03814291) was thus conducted on the basis of the preclinical data. Preliminary results showed that efdamrofusp alfa was well tolerated in patients with nAMD. These data suggest that efdamrofusp alfa might be effective for treating nAMD and possibly other complement-related ocular conditions.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide , Degeneração Macular , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Olho , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/complicações , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/uso terapêutico
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655682

RESUMO

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a rare condition. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency. CRAO is analogous to an acute stroke of the eye. The disease usually affects patients after 60 years of age, and rarely young persons. The risk factors for a CRAO are similar to ischemic stroke. It is due to embolic, thrombotic, or coagulation disorders. Typically, patients with acute CRAO present monocular, painless, and severe loss of vision. We report a rare case of a young 33-year-old woman who presented an atypical ischemic stroke revealed by a unilateral CRAO. This case reports a rare condition affecting a young patient, and highlights the interest of ophthalmologic examination in the diagnostic of a neuro disease and the early management of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , AVC Isquêmico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana , Adulto , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Olho , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/complicações , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/etiologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721635

RESUMO

Kearns-Sayre syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disorder. It had a triad of features, including progressive external ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy, and an alteration of cardiac conduction. The ocular manifestations include bilateral ptosis, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, and atypical pigmentary retinopathy. We report the case of a 9-year-old Moroccan patient who has been diagnosed with Kearns-Sayre syndrome during an ophthalmologic school-based screening. This case highlights the interest of school-based screening in the diagnosis and management of a rare disease.


Assuntos
Blefaroptose , Síndrome de Kearns-Sayre , Oftalmoplegia , Criança , Olho , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Síndrome de Kearns-Sayre/diagnóstico
13.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 48(6): 716, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703842
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9981, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705584

RESUMO

Some diopsid flies have sexually dimorphic eye stalks that are assumed to require considerable nutrition for growth but are advantageous in competition and courtship. According to the handicap theory, the eye span in some dimorphic species serves as a reliable signal of individual quality to an opponent. However, it is not well understood how well eye span represents energy source storage. In this study, we focused on two species: Sphyracephala detrahens, which has weak dimorphism, and Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, which has moderate dimorphism. We found that the eye stalks of the former species contained more fat bodies than those of the latter species. When the flies were starved, the fat body cells in the eye stalks underwent autophagy. A strong positive correlation was consistently found between eye span and starvation tolerance for S. detrahens, while a weak correlation was found for C. dalmanni. Furthermore, starvation decreased the contest winning rate between S. detrahens pairs with similar eye spans. These findings suggest that the presentation of resource holding potential may be larger than the actual storage ability and that the fidelity of nutritional storage signaling varies; the signal presented by S. detrahens is more reliable than that presented by C. dalmanni.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Olho , Cabeça , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Exp Eye Res ; 220: 109130, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654116

RESUMO

The human face/head supports a highly diverse population of microorganisms across a diverse range of microhabitats. This biogeographical diversity has given rise to selection pressure resulting in the formation of distinct bacterial communities between sites. This review investigates the similarity and differences of microbiomes across the different biogeographies of the human face and discusses a potential pathway for microbial circulation within individuals and within a population to maintain microbiome niches and diversity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Olho , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
18.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(21): 1564-1567, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644955

RESUMO

The reality that most of ophthalmic surgeries are conducted under retrobulbar block or topic anesthesia performed by the ophthalmic surgeons themselves may affect the balance between quality and efficiency of ophthalmic anesthesia. The authors suggest that the key principle to perform ophthalmic anesthesia is to help the patients be well prepared preoperatively. In order to achieve this goal, we should make full use of the supraglottic airway device and awake sedation, improve ultrasound-guided regional block technique, strengthen cooperation with ophthalmic surgeons, thereby meeting the comfortable anesthesia requirements of ophthalmic surgery patients and adapting for the development trend of day surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Olho , Anestesia Local/métodos , Humanos
19.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 97(6): 340-343, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676027

RESUMO

Trochleitis is usually a transient and non-disabling inflammation of the trochlea of superior oblique. The case is presented of a difficult to manage bilateral trochleitis in a 29-year-old woman. After an exhaustive aetiological study with neuro-imaging tests, as well as an analysis of autoimmunity and infection, no underlying cause was found. Multiple injections of corticosteroids were required in both eyes, with a partial effect. Surgical intervention was finally decided in order to visually examine the trochlea, take biopsies, and inject methylprednisolone. These were effective in relieving the symptoms. This case is exceptional due to it involving both eyes and its severity, and represented a therapeutic challenge for the clinical team.


Assuntos
Metilprednisolona , Músculos Oculomotores , Adulto , Biópsia , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Músculos Oculomotores/patologia
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