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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731972

RESUMO

Vaccination is a public health cornerstone that protects against numerous infectious diseases. Despite its benefits, immunization implications on ocular health warrant thorough investigation, particularly in the context of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation. This review aimed to elucidate the complex interplay between vaccination and the eye, focusing on the molecular and immunological pathways implicated in vaccine-associated ocular adverse effects. Through an in-depth analysis of recent advancements and the existing literature, we explored various mechanisms of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation, such as direct infection by live attenuated vaccines, immune complex formation, adjuvant-induced autoimmunity, molecular mimicry, hypersensitivity reactions, PEG-induced allergic reactions, Type 1 IFN activation, free extracellular RNA, and specific components. We further examined the specific ocular conditions associated with vaccination, such as uveitis, optic neuritis, and retinitis, and discussed the potential impact of novel vaccines, including those against SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the intricate relationships between vaccination, the immune system, and ocular tissues, offering insights into informed discussions and future research directions aimed at optimizing vaccine safety and ophthalmological care. Our analysis underscores the importance of vigilance and further research to understand and mitigate the ocular side effects of vaccines, thereby ensuring the continued success of vaccination programs, while preserving ocular health.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Humanos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Olho/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Oftalmopatias/imunologia , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle
2.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(5): e13719, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of skin aging through skin measurements faces limitations, making perceived age evaluation a more valuable and direct tool for assessing skin aging. Given that the aging process markedly affects the appearance of the eye contour, characterizing the eye region could be beneficial for perceived age assessment. This study aimed to analyze age-correlated changes in the eye contour within the Chinese Han female population and to develop, validate, and apply a multiple linear regression model for predicting perceived age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A naïve panel of 107 Chinese women assessed the perceived ages of 212 Chinese Han women. Instrumental analysis evaluated periorbital parameters, including palpebral fissure width (PFW), palpebral fissure height (PFH), acclivity of palpebral fissure (AX), angle of inner canthal (AEN), and angle of outer canthal (AEX). These parameters were used to construct a multiple linear regression model for predicting the perceived ages of Chinese Han women. A combined treatment using Fotona 4D and an anti-aging eye cream, formulated with plant extracts, peptides, and antioxidants, was conducted to verify the cream's anti-aging efficacy and safety. This eye cream was then tested in a large-scale clinical trial involving 101 participants. The prediction model was employed in this trial to assess the perceived ages of the women after an 8-week application of the eye cream. RESULTS: All parameters were observed to decrease with age. An intergroup comparison indicated that eyelid aging in Chinese Han women accelerates beyond the age of 50. Consequently, a linear regression model was constructed and validated, with the perceived age being calculated as 183.159 - 1.078 * AEN - 4.487 * PFW + 6.061 * PFH - 1.003 * AX - 0.328 * AEX. The anti-aging efficacy and safety of the eye cream were confirmed through combined treatment with Fotona 4D, showing improvements in wrinkles, elasticity, and dark circles under the eyes. In a large-scale clinical evaluation using this eye cream, a perceived age prediction model was applied, suggesting that 8 weeks of use made participants appear 2.25 years younger. CONCLUSION: Our study developed and validated a multiple linear regression model to predict the perceived age of Chinese Han women. This model was successfully utilized in a large-scale clinical evaluation of anti-aging eye cream, revealing that 8 weeks of usage made participants appear 2.25 years younger. This method effectively bridges the gap between clinical research and consumer perceptions, explores the complex factors influencing perceived age, and aims to improve anti-aging formulations.


Assuntos
Povo Asiático , Envelhecimento da Pele , Humanos , Feminino , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , China/etnologia , Adulto Jovem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Modelos Lineares , Olho , População do Leste Asiático
4.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 431, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693480

RESUMO

Ophthalmic manifestations have recently been observed in acute and post-acute complications of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our precious study has shown that host RNA editing is linked to RNA viral infection, yet ocular adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains uninvestigated in COVID-19. Herein we used an epitranscriptomic pipeline to analyze 37 samples and investigate A-to-I editing associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in five ocular tissue types including the conjunctiva, limbus, cornea, sclera, and retinal organoids. Our results revealed dramatically altered A-to-I RNA editing across the five ocular tissues. Notably, the transcriptome-wide average level of RNA editing was increased in the cornea but generally decreased in the other four ocular tissues. Functional enrichment analysis showed that differential RNA editing (DRE) was mainly in genes related to ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, transcriptional regulation, and RNA splicing. In addition to tissue-specific RNA editing found in each tissue, common RNA editing was observed across different tissues, especially in the innate antiviral immune gene MAVS and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2. Analysis in retinal organoids further revealed highly dynamic RNA editing alterations over time during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study thus suggested the potential role played by RNA editing in ophthalmic manifestations of COVID-19, and highlighted its potential transcriptome impact, especially on innate immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Edição de RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Inosina/metabolismo , Inosina/genética , Transcriptoma , Olho/metabolismo , Olho/virologia
5.
J Clin Invest ; 134(9)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690727

RESUMO

Careful regulation of the complement system is critical for enabling complement proteins to titrate immune defense while also preventing collateral tissue damage from poorly controlled inflammation. In the eye, this balance between complement activity and inhibition is crucial, as a low level of basal complement activity is necessary to support ocular immune privilege, a prerequisite for maintaining vision. Dysregulated complement activation contributes to parainflammation, a low level of inflammation triggered by cellular damage that functions to reestablish homeostasis, or outright inflammation that disrupts the visual axis. Complement dysregulation has been implicated in many ocular diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the last two decades, complement activity has been the focus of intense investigation in AMD pathogenesis, leading to the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of atrophic AMD. This Review outlines recent advances and challenges, highlighting therapeutic approaches that have advanced to clinical trials, as well as providing a general overview of the complement system in the posterior segment of the eye and selected ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Degeneração Macular , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Animais , Olho/imunologia , Olho/patologia
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732804

RESUMO

In general, it is difficult to visualize internal ocular structure and detect a lesion such as a cataract or glaucoma using the current ultrasound brightness-mode (B-mode) imaging. This is because the internal structure of the eye is rich in moisture, resulting in a lack of contrast between tissues in the B-mode image, and the penetration depth is low due to the attenuation of the ultrasound wave. In this study, the entire internal ocular structure of a bovine eye was visualized in an ex vivo environment using the compound acoustic radiation force impulse (CARFI) imaging scheme based on the phase-inverted ultrasound transducer (PIUT). In the proposed method, the aperture of the PIUT is divided into four sections, and the PIUT is driven by the out-of-phase input signal capable of generating split-focusing at the same time. Subsequently, the compound imaging technique was employed to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to reduce displacement error. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed technique could provide an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) image of the bovine eye with a broader depth-of-field (DOF) and about 80% increased SNR compared to the conventional ARFI image obtained using the in-phase input signal. Therefore, the proposed technique can be one of the useful techniques capable of providing the image of the entire ocular structure to diagnose various eye diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Olho , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Transdutores , Animais , Bovinos , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
7.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 185, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to analyze the time-savings associated with introduction of Streamlight™ (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX, USA) transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in surface corneal ablations. METHODS: All refractive surgeries were performed using the Alcon WaveLight® EX500 at the ArtLife Clinic, Gdansk, Poland. The study included patients treated for refractive errors with transepithelial PRK between April 2019 and October 2021, who were matched with patients treated with alcohol-assisted PRK during the same period. Only results for the left eye were analyzed. RESULTS: One-hundred-five patients underwent transepithelial PRK (age 33.42 ± 8.67 years) and were matched with 105 patients that underwent alcohol-assisted PRK (age 33.05 ± 10.16 years; p = 0.11). The mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was - 2.04 ± 2.28 D, and - 1.9 ± 1.71 D for the transepithelial and alcohol-assisted PRK group, respectively (p = 0.20). The total surgery time was non-significantly shorter in transepithelial PRK (349.46 ± 47.83 s) than in alcohol-assisted PRK (354.93 ± 137.63 s; p = 0.7); however, the variance of surgical time was significantly lower in transepithelial PRK (p < 0.001). The laser treatment duration was greater in transepithelial PRK (41.78 ± 17.2 s) than in alcohol-assisted PRK (8.48 ± 6.12 s; p < 0.001), and so was the number of breaks during the laser treatment (0.95 ± 0.63 vs. 0.53 ± 0.88, respectively; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The introduction of transepithelial PRK did not bring significant time-associated savings into the refractive surgery suite.


Assuntos
Oftalmologia , Ceratectomia Fotorrefrativa , Erros de Refração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Olho , Etanol
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8621, 2024 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616214

RESUMO

Fuchs Uveitis Syndrome (FUS), also known as Fuchs Heterochromic Iridocyclitis, is a chronic form of uveitis characterized by mild inflammation primarily affecting one eye. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and epidemiological features of FUS in an Iranian population. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 466 patients diagnosed with FUS at an ophthalmology center affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between 2003 and 2021. The Kimura et al. criteria were used for FUS diagnosis. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, misdiagnosed cases, concurrent diseases, and associated ocular findings were analyzed. The study included 507 eyes of 466 FUS patients, with a mean age of 34.01 ± 11.25 years. Iris atrophy, keratic precipitates, and vitritis were common clinical findings. Heterochromia was an infrequent feature. Initial misdiagnosis occurred in 13 patients, with pars planitis being the most common incorrect diagnosis. Toxoplasmosis and multiple sclerosis were common concurrent diseases. Pediatric FUS cases were noted, possibly attributed to early-onset manifestations. Differences in clinical characteristics were observed when compared to other populations. This study provides insights into the clinical and epidemiological aspects of FUS in an Iranian population. Variations in clinical features, misdiagnosis patterns, and concurrent diseases were noted. Attention to specific clinical parameters can aid in accurate FUS diagnosis. Understanding these differences contributes to a better understanding of FUS presentation and its relationship with other diseases.


Assuntos
Iridociclite , Doenças da Íris , Humanos , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olho
9.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 18, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607633

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the visualization capabilities of high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in cataract surgery. Methods: Cataract surgery was simulated in wet labs with ex vivo porcine eyes. Each phase of the surgery was visualized with a novel surgical microscope-integrated SS-OCT with a variable imaging speed of over 1 million A-scans per second. It was designed to provide four-dimensional (4D) live-volumetric videos, live B-scans, and volume capture scans. Results: Four-dimensional videos, B-scans, and volume capture scans of corneal incision, ophthalmic viscosurgical device injection, capsulorrhexis, phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) injection, and position of unfolded IOL in the capsular bag were recorded. The flexibility of the SS-OCT system allowed us to tailor the scanning parameters to meet the specific demands of dynamic surgical steps and static pauses. The entire length of the eye was recorded in a single scan, and unfolding of the IOL was visualized dynamically. Conclusions: The presented novel visualization method for fast ophthalmic surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT imaging in cataract surgery allowed the visualization of all major steps of the procedure by achieving large imaging depths covering the entire eye and high acquisition speeds enabling live volumetric 4D-OCT imaging. This promising technology may become an integral part of routine and advanced robotic-assisted cataract surgery in the future. Translational Relevance: We demonstrate the visualization capabilities of a cutting edge swept-source OCT system integrated into an ophthalmic surgical microscope during cataract surgery.


Assuntos
Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Oftalmologia , Suínos , Animais , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Olho
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612555

RESUMO

We aim to report the ocular phenotype and molecular genetic findings in two Czech families with Sorsby fundus dystrophy and to review all the reported TIMP3 pathogenic variants. Two probands with Sorsby fundus dystrophy and three first-degree relatives underwent ocular examination and retinal imaging, including optical coherence tomography angiography. The DNA of the first proband was screened using a targeted ocular gene panel, while, in the second proband, direct sequencing of the TIMP3 coding region was performed. Sanger sequencing was also used for segregation analysis within the families. All the previously reported TIMP3 variants were reviewed using the American College of Medical Genetics and the Association for Molecular Pathology interpretation framework. A novel heterozygous variant, c.455A>G p.(Tyr152Cys), in TIMP3 was identified in both families and potentially de novo in one. Optical coherence tomography angiography documented in one patient the development of a choroidal neovascular membrane at 54 years. Including this study, 23 heterozygous variants in TIMP3 have been reported as disease-causing. Application of gene-specific criteria denoted eleven variants as pathogenic, eleven as likely pathogenic, and one as a variant of unknown significance. Our study expands the spectrum of TIMP3 pathogenic variants and highlights the importance of optical coherence tomography angiography for early detection of choroidal neovascular membranes.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide , Degeneração Macular , Humanos , República Tcheca , Olho , Mutação , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-3/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612812

RESUMO

Melatonin's cytoprotective properties may have therapeutic implications in treating ocular diseases like glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Literature data suggest that melatonin could potentially protect ocular tissues by decreasing the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators. This study aims to summarize the screened articles on melatonin's clinical, pharmacological, and formulation evaluation in treating ocular disorders. The identification of relevant studies on the topic in focus was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA 2020) guidelines. The studies were searched in the following databases and web search engines: Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Reaxys, Google Scholar, Google Patents, Espacenet, and Patentscope. The search time interval was 2013-2023, with the following keywords: melatonin AND ocular OR ophthalmic AND formulation OR insert AND disease. Our key conclusion was that using melatonin-loaded nano-delivery systems enabled the improved permeation of the molecule into intraocular tissues and assured controlled release profiles. Although preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of developed formulations, a considerable gap has been observed in the clinical translation of the results. To overcome this failure, revising the preclinical experimental phase might be useful by selecting endpoints close to clinical ones.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Melatonina , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Olho , Face , Bases de Dados Factuais
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 70(3): e20231167, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze possible alterations (morphological and inflammatory) in the ocular cells of fetuses from mothers with insulin resistance exposed to saturated fatty acids through the period of pregnancy. METHODS: Wistar female rats were induced to develop insulin resistance before pregnancy. Fetuses' skulls were collected on the 20th day of intrauterine life. The rats were separated on the first day of management into two groups according to the diet applied: control group (C): diet containing soybean oil as a source of fat; and saturated fatty acid group (S): diet containing butter as a source of fat. RESULTS: Histological and immunohistochemical analyses have been conducted. The immunohistochemical analyses of interleukin 6, suppressor of cytokine signaling, 3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 did not demonstrate alterations in the expression of proteins in the fetuses of mothers fed with a saturated fatty diet. Moreover, no histopathological changes were noticed between groups. CONCLUSION: The saturated fatty diet does not induce tissue changes or activate the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway during eye development in the fetuses of mothers with insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Janus Quinases , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos , Olho/embriologia , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Zebrafish ; 21(2): 144-148, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621210

RESUMO

Zebrafish eyes are anatomically similar to humans and have a higher percentage of cone photoreceptors more akin to humans than most rodent models, making them a beneficial model organism for studying vision. However, zebrafish are different in that they can regenerate their optic nerve after injury, which most other animals cannot. Vision in zebrafish and many other vertebrate animals, including humans, can be accessed using the optokinetic response (OKR), which is an innate eye movement that occurs when tracking an object. Because fish cannot use an eye chart, we utilize the OKR that is present in virtually all vertebrates to determine if a zebrafish has vision. To this end, we have developed an inexpensive OKR setup that uses 3D-printed and off-the-shelf parts. This setup has been designed and used by undergraduate researchers and is also scalable to a classroom laboratory setup. We demonstrate that this setup is fully functional for assessing the OKR, and we use it to illustrate the return of the OKR following optic nerve injury in adult zebrafish.


Assuntos
Nistagmo Optocinético , Peixe-Zebra , Humanos , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Olho , Impressão Tridimensional
14.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 22, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625083

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of low-concentration (0.01% and 0.05%) atropine eyedrops on ocular surface characteristics in young adults. Methods: Twenty-six myopic students aged 18 to 30 years were randomly assigned to receive either 0.01% or 0.05% atropine once nightly for 14 days, followed by cessation, with a ≥14-day interval between each administration. Assessments were conducted one, two, seven, and 14 days after using atropine with corresponding timepoints after atropine cessation. Tear meniscus height and first and average noninvasive keratograph tear film breakup time (NIKBUT-first, NIKBUT-average) were measured using Keratograph 5M, whereas the objective scatter index (OSI) was measured by OQAS II devices; the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score was also obtained. Results: The mean OSI peaked after two days of administration of 0.05% atropine (ß = 0.51, P = 0.001), accompanied by significant decreases in NIKBUT-first (ß = -7.73, P < 0.001) and NIKBUT-average (ß = -8.10, P < 0.001); the OSDI peaked after 14 days (ß = 15.41, P < 0.001). The above parameters returned to baseline one week after atropine discontinuation (all P > 0.05). NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average reached their lowest points after 14 days of 0.01% atropine administration (NIKBUT-first: ß = -4.46, P = 0.005; NIKBUT-average: ß = -4.42, P = 0.001), but those significant changes were diminished once atropine treatment stopped. Conclusions: Young adult myopes experienced a significant but temporary impact on the ocular surface with 0.05% atropine administration, whereas 0.01% atropine had a minimal effect. Translational Relevance: The investigation of the ocular surface effects of different concentrations of atropine may inform evidence-based clinical decisions regarding myopia control in young adults.


Assuntos
Olho , Miopia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Atropina , Miopia/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 170, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the results of the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system, that measures objective and subjective ocular refraction in one unit, to objective findings obtained from a conventional autorefractometer and a conventional subjective ocular refraction using a trial-frame in real space. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (21.2 ± 1.5 years old) were included in this study. Objective ocular refraction was measured using two tests: the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular conditions and a conventional autorefractometer under monocular conditions. Subjective ocular refraction was measured using three tests: Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular, monocular conditions, and trial-frame in the real space under monocular conditions. The measurement distance was set to 5.0 m for each test. All ocular refractions were converted into spherical equivalents (SEs). RESULTS: The objective SE was significantly more negative with Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular condition (- 4.08 ± 2.76 D) than with the conventional autorefractometer under monocular condition (- 3.85 ± 2.66 D) (P = 0.002). Although, the subjective SE was significantly more negative with Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under binocular condition (- 3.55 ± 2.67 D) than with the trial-frame in the real space under monocular condition (- 3.33 ± 2.75 D) (P = 0.002), Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system under monocular condition (- 3.17 ± 2.57 D) was not significantly different from that in trial-frame in real space under monocular condition (P = 0.33). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system, which can complete both objective and subjective ocular refraction tests in a single unit, is suitable for screening ocular refraction, although it produces slightly more myopic results. Furthermore, subjective ocular refraction testing accuracy in Chronos binocular/monocular refraction system can be equivalent to trial-frame in real-space testing by switching from binocular to monocular condition.


Assuntos
Refração Ocular , Visão Binocular , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Acuidade Visual , Testes Visuais , Olho
16.
Bioessays ; 46(5): e2300240, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593308

RESUMO

The compound eyes of insects exhibit stunning variation in size, structure, and function, which has allowed these animals to use their vision to adapt to a huge range of different environments and lifestyles, and evolve complex behaviors. Much of our knowledge of eye development has been learned from Drosophila, while visual adaptations and behaviors are often more striking and better understood from studies of other insects. However, recent studies in Drosophila and other insects, including bees, beetles, and butterflies, have begun to address this gap by revealing the genetic and developmental bases of differences in eye morphology and key new aspects of compound eye structure and function. Furthermore, technical advances have facilitated the generation of high-resolution connectomic data from different insect species that enhances our understanding of visual information processing, and the impact of changes in these processes on the evolution of vision and behavior. Here, we review these recent breakthroughs and propose that future integrated research from the development to function of visual systems within and among insect species represents a great opportunity to understand the remarkable diversification of insect eyes and vision.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Insetos , Visão Ocular , Animais , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Insetos/genética , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Olho Composto de Artrópodes/anatomia & histologia
17.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 187, 2024 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate results of the surgical treatment for large stage (Stage 3 and 4) idiopathic macular hole cases with and without ILM flap technique. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 60 patients diagnosed with idiopathic macular hole (MH) were included in the study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT examination were performed in all eyes. MH stages, MH base diameter, height and closest distance were measured quantitatively. Postoperative and 3 months visits were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the cases was 65.0 ± 8.0 (range 30-84) years, there were 31 (51.7%) female and 29 (48.3%) male patients with a mean follow-up period of 18.1 ± 16.7 (range 3-63) months. The mean best corrected visual acuity recorded at preoperative and third month control visits were 0.89 ± 0.40(preoperative) logMAR, 0.82 ± 0.60(3 month) logMAR (p < 0.05). The mean MH index was 0.48 ± 0.16, the closest hole distance was 517.86 ± 210.89 µm and mean basal diameter of holes was 947.78 ± 361.90 µm and the average height was 448.93 ± 79.80 microns. There was no statistically significant difference between anatomic results of macular hole surgery with (n = 22) and without (n = 38) flap in terms of hole closure (86.4% vs. 92.1% p > 0.05). In 90% (54 cases) of the cases, closure was observed after the first surgery. Two eyes that failed macular hole surgery were reoperated. In one of these eyes, anatomical success was obtained with macular hole massage and mechanical cytumulation. However, anatomical success could not be achieved in the other eye. CONCLUSiON: In the treatment of large macular holes, pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling with/without flap and gas tamponade demonstrated high anatomical and functional success.


Assuntos
Perfurações Retinianas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Perfurações Retinianas/diagnóstico , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Olho , Período Pós-Operatório , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
18.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 15, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591945

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the distribution of the true rates of progression (RoP) of visual field (VF) loss. Methods: We analyzed the progression of mean deviation over time in series of ≥ 10 tests from 3352 eyes (one per patient) from 5 glaucoma clinics, using a novel Bayesian hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (LMM); this modeled the random-effect distribution of RoPs as the sum of 2 independent processes following, respectively, a negative exponential distribution (the "true" distribution of RoPs) and a Gaussian distribution (the "noise"), resulting in a skewed exGaussian distribution. The exGaussian-LMM was compared to a standard Gaussian-LMM using the Watanabe-Akaike Information Criterion (WAIC). The random-effect distributions were compared to the empirical cumulative distribution function (eCDF) of linear regression RoPs using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results: The WAIC indicated a better fit with the exGaussian-LMM (estimate [standard error]: 192174.4 [721.2]) than with the Gaussian-LMM (192595 [697.4], with a difference of 157.2 [22.6]). There was a significant difference between the eCDF and the Gaussian-LMM distribution (P < 0.0001), but not with the exGaussian-LMM distribution (P = 0.108). The estimated mean (95% credible intervals, CIs) "true" RoP (-0.377, 95% CI = -0.396 to -0.359 dB/year) was more negative than the observed mean RoP (-0.283, 95% CI = -0.299 to -0.268 dB/year), indicating a bias likely due to learning in standard LMMs. Conclusions: The distribution of "true" RoPs can be estimated with an exGaussian-LMM, improving model accuracy. Translational Relevance: We used these results to develop a fast and accurate analytical approximation for sample-size calculations in clinical trials using standard LMMs, which was integrated in a freely available web application.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Campos Visuais , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Olho , Software
19.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 151, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594648

RESUMO

The editorial outlines an integrated approach to managing diabetic ocular complications, combining advanced scientific research with practical public health strategies to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema globally.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Humanos , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Olho , Edema Macular/etiologia , Edema Macular/terapia , Edema Macular/diagnóstico
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