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1.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(6): 529-531, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470381

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading around the world. The first doctor to report this new disease was an ophthalmologist: this exemplifies the role of ophthalmologists in an infectious disease pandemic. Here we review how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the eye and discuss implications for ophthalmologists.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Conjuntivite Viral/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Conjuntivite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Olho/virologia , Humanos , Oftalmologistas , Oftalmologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20091, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443319

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the changes of fragility and ultrastructure of amniotic membrane after cross-linking by UVA/riboflavin.Forty-nine fresh amniotic membranes were randomly divided into 3 groups. Eighteen were in group A (CX group) and immersed in 0.1% riboflavin solution for 10 min for UVA/riboflavin cross-linking. Sixteen were in group B (B2 group), soaked for 10 min with 0.1% riboflavin. After soaking, membranes in group A and B were transferred into corneal preservation solution. Fifteen pieces were in group C, directly into corneal preservation solution. The biomechanical and ultrastructural changes of the amniotic tissue before and after cross-linking were examined (CX group = 13, B2 group = 11, C group = 15). The amniotic membrane tissue of group A (n = 5) and B (n = 5) was transplanted into 16 eyes of the rabbits, respectively, and the dissolution time of the amniotic membrane tissue was investigated.After cross-linking, compared with the control group, the elastic modulus of the low-stress area of the amniotic membrane (Elow) was higher, while the elastic modulus of the high-stress area of the amniotic membrane (Ehigh) was lower, with no significant difference in the tensile strength. Also, the collagen fibers showed coarse and bamboo-like changes. In group A, amniotic membranes began to dissolve 4 weeks after conjunctiva transplantation, and all amniotic membranes were dissolved and absorbed 6 weeks after conjunctiva transplantation. In group B, some amniotic membrane tissues were still visible 6 weeks after conjunctiva transplantation.This study suggested that after amniotic membrane cross-linking, the brittleness was increased, the hardness was enhanced, and the morphology of the collagen fiber was changed. The cross-linked amniotic membrane showed resistance to tissue dissolution.


Assuntos
Âmnio/fisiologia , Âmnio/ultraestrutura , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Riboflavina , Transplante , Raios Ultravioleta , Implantes Absorvíveis , Âmnio/efeitos dos fármacos , Âmnio/transplante , Animais , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/efeitos da radiação , Módulo de Elasticidade , Olho , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Soluções para Preservação de Órgãos , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1244: 295-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301024

RESUMO

Emerging immunotherapy agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, have shown remarkable promise in the treatment of various malignancies. These drugs selectively target different steps in the immune response cascade to upregulate the body's normal response to cancer. Due to the novelty of these therapeutic agents, their toxicity profile is less well understood.Meta-analysis results reveal that the overall prevalence of oral mucositis, stomatitis, and xerostomia is lower with checkpoint inhibitors compared to conventional chemotherapy, and head and neck radiation therapy. However, the widespread use of immunotherapy reveals new oral mucosal barrier adverse events, including bullous pemphigoid, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and lichenoid mucositis. Audiovestibular dysfunction can occur from autoimmune-mediated pathways of immunotherapy (adoptive cell) with limited treatment options. Such auditory complications can lead to speech recognition deficits and sensorineural hearing loss. Ocular toxicities are among the most common adverse events resulting from the use of these agents. The majority of ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are mild, low-grade, non-sight threatening, such as blurred vision, conjunctivitis, and ocular surface disease. Serious and sight-threatening events, including corneal perforation, optic neuropathy, and retinal vascular occlusion, can occur but are infrequent. In this chapter, we review the current evidence on the clinical manifestations of oral, audiovestibular, and ocular immune-related adverse events (i.e., irAEs).


Assuntos
Orelha/patologia , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/patologia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(5): 428-436, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel fluorescence tracer agent, MB-102, for conducting ocular angiography in dogs. ANIMALS: 10 ophthalmologically normal dogs (2 to 4 years old) and 10 dogs with retinal degeneration or primary open-angle glaucoma (< 6 years old). PROCEDURES: While anesthetized, all dogs received sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg, IV) or MB-102 (20 or 40 mg/kg, IV) first and then the other dye in a second treatment session 2 days later in a randomized crossover design. Anterior fluorescence angiography was performed on one eye and posterior fluorescence angiography on the other. Imaging was performed with a full-spectrum camera and camera adaptor system. Filter sets that were tailored to match the excitation and emission characteristics of each angiographic fluorescent agent were used. RESULTS: All phases and phase intervals during anterior and posterior segment angiography were identified, regardless of the dye used. However, agent fluorescence and visualization of the iridal blood vessels were hindered in some dogs, irrespective of agent, owing to the degree of iridal pigmentation present. No significant difference was noted between the 2 dyes in any phase or phase interval, and slight improvement in image contrast was observed with MB-102 during the venous phases owing to a reduction of vessel wall staining in both normal and diseased eyes. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that MB-102 would be useful for conducting ocular angiography in dogs.


Assuntos
Olho , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/veterinária , Animais , Corantes , Cães , Fluoresceína , Angiofluoresceinografia
8.
Orv Hetil ; 161(10): 363-373, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115992

RESUMO

Retrometabolic drug design combines the structure-activity and structure-metabolism relationships, allowing the effective separation of drug action and side effects. This combination results in significant improvement of the therapeutic index. The main aim is not only to study the metabolism but to build into the drug molecule the desired metabolic route, in addition to the therapeutic activity. There are two basically different approaches to achieve this aim. Both use designed-in metabolism. The 1. chemical drug-targeting systems (CDS) and 2. soft drug, both control the drug targeting and action by strategically designed metabolism. In the case of the soft drugs, we want to rely on hydrolytic enzymes, avoiding the oxidative processes. In the present work, we focus on the clinical successes of the soft drugs designed in our laboratories. In order to show the difference, we briefly present a brain-targeted delivery system, where the originally inactive molecular construct undergoes sequential metabolism to allow specific concentration of the active drug in the brain. Among the soft drugs first we present the highly successful soft corticosteroids. Loteprednol etabonate has been used worldwide for over twenty years, and its use is constantly growing. In addition to the dramatically improved therapeutic index, the specific, serious ophthalmic side effects (elevation of intraocular pressure; glaucoma and cataract formation) were completely eliminated. Similarly designed second generation of soft corticosteroids are also presented, where the soft pharmacophore is structurally unexpected. The most recent soft drug design involves anticholinergics. Sofpironium bromide, a highly effective molecule but without the typical anticholinergic side effects, was first developed to treat hyperhidrosis, an unmet need. Phase III clinical studies were successfully completed and its marketing approval is pending. Since the soft drug design principles, methods and rules are general and specific in nature, a computerized expert system was also developed. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(10): 363-373.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Fármacos , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/classificação , Corticosteroides , Olho , Glaucoma , Humanos , Soluções Oftálmicas/química
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110371, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114246

RESUMO

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a widely used synthetic progestin in contraception pills and hormone replacement therapy. However, its effects on eye growth and development and function were largely unknown. In this study, the transcription of genes in the Notch signaling pathway and the visual cycle network were evaluated after chronic MPA exposure at 4.32 (L), 42.0 (M), and 424 (H) ng L-1 for 120 days in zebrafish. Meanwhile, the histology of the eyes was also examined. Transcriptional results showed that MPA at all three concentrations significantly increased the transcription of notch1a, dll4, jag1a, ctbp1 and rbpjb (key genes in the Notch signaling pathway) in the eyes of females. The up-regulation of noth1a, ctbp1 and kat2b was also observed in the eyes of males exposed to MPA at 424 ng L-1. In the visual cycle pathway, MPA increased the transcription of opn1sw1, opn1sw2, arr3a and rpe65a in the eyes of females from the M and H treatments. Histopathological analysis showed that exposure to 42.0 ng L-1 of MPA increased the thicknesses of inner nuclear layer in females and outer segment in males. Moreover, exposure to 424 ng L-1 of MPA increased the lens diameter in females. These results indicated that chronic MPA exposure affected the transcription of genes in the Notch signaling and in the visual cycle pathways, resulting in overgrowth of the eyes and interference of the eye functions. This study suggests that MPA pose a risk to fitness and survival of zebrafish in areas where MPA contamination exists.


Assuntos
Contraceptivos Hormonais/toxicidade , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/toxicidade , Animais , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olho/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Retina , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(3): 391-395, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175797

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) epidemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from China. This virus causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, there have been anecdotal reports of ocular infection. The ocular implications of human CoV infections have not been widely studied. However, CoVs have been known to cause various ocular infections in animals. Clinical entities such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, retinitis, and optic neuritis have been documented in feline and murine models. In this article, the current evidence suggesting possible human CoV infection of ocular tissue is reviewed. The review article will also highlight animal CoVs and their associated ocular infections. We hope that this article will serve as a start for further research into the ocular implications of human CoV infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Olho/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Infecções Oculares Virais/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
12.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(4): 592-598, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157556

RESUMO

Retinal injury is the most common ocular impairment associated with shaken baby syndrome (SBS), which could lead to vision loss and blindness. However, a woodpecker does not develop retinal hemorrhages or detachment even at a high acceleration of 1,000×g during pecking. To understand the mechanism of retinal injury and its resistance strategy, we put insight into the special ability of the woodpecker to protect the retina against damage under acceleration-deceleration impact. In this study, the structural and mechanical differences on the eyes of the woodpecker and human were analyzed quantitatively based on anatomical observation. We developed finite element eye models of the woodpecker and human to evaluate the dynamic response of the retina to the shaking load obtained from experimental data. Moreover, several structural parameters and mechanical conditions were exchanged between the woodpecker and human to evaluate their effects on retinal injury in SBS. The simulation results indicated that scleral ossification, lack of vitreoretinal attachment, and rotational acceleration-deceleration impact loading in a woodpecker contribute to the resistance to retinal injuries during pecking. The above mentioned special physical structures and mechanical behavior can distribute the high strain in the posterior segment of the woodpecker's retina, which decrease the risk of retinal injury to SBS.


Assuntos
Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Hemorragia Retiniana/metabolismo , Síndrome do Bebê Sacudido/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Aves , Encéfalo , Simulação por Computador , Olho , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Retina/metabolismo , Hemorragia Retiniana/complicações , Síndrome do Bebê Sacudido/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe epidemiologic features of patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) in the United States using insurance claims data and compare POHS patients with and without choroidal neovascularization (CNV). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for histoplasmosis retinitis on an outpatient claim in the 2014 IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Database and the Medicare Supplemental Database who were enrolled for at least 2 years after the POHS code. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data related to testing, treatment, and direct medical costs. RESULTS: Among >50 million total MarketScan enrollees, 6,678 (13 per 100,000) had a POHS diagnosis code. Of those, 2,718 were enrolled for 2 years; 698 (25%) of whom had a CNV code. Eleven of the 13 states with the highest POHS rates bordered the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. CNV patients had significantly more eye care provider visits (mean 8.8 vs. 3.2, p<0.0001), more ophthalmic imaging tests, higher rates of treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections (45% vs. 4%, p<0.0001), and incurred higher mean total yearly costs ($1,251.83 vs. $251.36, p<0.0001) than POHS patients without CNV. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between Histoplasma and POHS remains controversial, geographic patterns of POHS patient residence were consistent with the traditionally reported range of the fungus. CNV in the context of POHS was associated with additional healthcare use and costs. Further research to understand POHS etiology, risk factors, prevalence, and complications is needed, along with early diagnosis and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/economia , Histoplasmose/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Degeneração Macular/economia , Retinite/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Neovascularização de Coroide/complicações , Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Neovascularização de Coroide/terapia , Olho/patologia , Oftalmopatias/economia , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Histoplasmose/complicações , Histoplasmose/patologia , Histoplasmose/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Degeneração Macular/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia/economia , Retinite/complicações , Retinite/patologia , Retinite/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(4): 563-564, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174569
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0221006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187190

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases (Hipks) have been previously associated with cell proliferation and cancer, however, their effects in the nervous system are less well understood. We have used Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate the effects of altered Hipk expression on the nervous system and muscle. Using genetic manipulation of Hipk expression we demonstrate that knockdown and over-expression of Hipk produces early adult lethality, possibly due to the effects on the nervous system and muscle involvement. We find that optimal levels of Hipk are critical for the function of dopaminergic neurons and glial cells in the nervous system, as well as muscle. Furthermore, manipulation of Hipk affects the structure of the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) by promoting its growth. Hipk regulates the phosphorylation of the synapse-associated cytoskeletal protein Hu-li tai shao (Hts; adducin in mammals) and modulates the expression of two important protein kinases, Calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII) and Partitioning-defective 1 (PAR-1), all of which may alter neuromuscular structure/function and influence lethality. Hipk also modifies the levels of an important nuclear protein, TBPH, the fly orthologue of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), which may have relevance for understanding motor neuron diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/isolamento & purificação , Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Padronização Corporal , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/anatomia & histologia , Olho/embriologia , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/citologia , Sistema Nervoso/citologia , Junção Neuromuscular/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Fosforilação , Sinapses/metabolismo
18.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(5): 330-332, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114748

RESUMO

This article was published ahead of print on the official website of Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology on March 2, 2020. Prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia is now the top priority, and the protection of the eyes in the fight against the epidemic has also been an issue of great concern. Based on the latest progress made in basic and clinical research and practical experience in epidemic prevention and control, this article delivers objective guidance on whether the eye is a route of transmission of novel coronavirus infection, the precautions that should be taken by ophthalmologists in clinical practice during the epidemic, the novel coronavirus infection in the eyes and its clinical manifestation, and the public health education on eye protection, so as to provide valuable evidence for the scientific prevention and control of the epidemic and developing targeted countermeasures. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56: 330-332).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Olho/virologia , Oftalmologia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
19.
Life Sci ; 248: 117444, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084433

RESUMO

AIMS: Nonhuman primates have been used to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and evaluate immune responses following Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation. This study aimed to systemically profile antibody responses to C. trachomatis infection in nonhuman primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera were obtained from 4 pig-tailed and 8 long-tailed macaques which were intravaginally or ocularly infected with live C. trachomatis organisms, and analyzed by C. trachomatis proteome array of antigens. KEY FINDINGS: The sera from 12 macaques recognized total 172 C. trachomatis antigens. While 84 antigens were recognized by pig-tailed macaques intravaginally infected with serovar D strain, 125 antigens were recognized by long-tailed macaques ocularly infected with serovar A, and 37 antigens were recognized by both. Ocular inoculation with virulent A2497 strain induced antibodies to more antigens. Among the antigens uniquely recognized by A2497 strain infected macaques, outer membrane complex B antigen (OmcB) induced robust antibody response. Although macaques infected by less virulent A/HAR-13 strain failed to develop antibodies to OmcB, reinfection by A2497 strain induced high levels of antibodies to OmcB. SIGNIFICANCE: Proteome array has revealed a correlation of chlamydial infection invasiveness with chlamydial antigen immunogenicity, and identified antibody responses to OmcB potentially as biomarkers for invasive infection with C. trachomatis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/imunologia , Tracoma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/classificação , Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/sangue , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Olho/imunologia , Olho/microbiologia , Feminino , Soros Imunes/química , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca nemestrina , Masculino , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/imunologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/sangue , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , Tracoma/sangue , Tracoma/microbiologia , Vagina/imunologia , Vagina/microbiologia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086931

RESUMO

Vertical nystagmus is a vertical nystagmus caused by structural abnormalities and/or dysfunction of the central vestibular system and observed in situ in the center of the eyeball. There are two kinds of nystagmus (UBN) and downbeat nystagmus (DBN) according to the direction of nystagmus. The diagnosis of UBN is mainly made by naked eye or electronystagmography/viewer. It is a common neuro-ophthalmologic sign in the field of vestibular medicine. In this paper, the mechanism of vertical nystagmus formation and the location of lesions were briefly introduced, in order to provide help for the diagnosis and treatment of Vertigo.


Assuntos
Olho/patologia , Nistagmo Patológico/diagnóstico , Eletronistagmografia , Humanos , Vertigem
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