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1.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e081914, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of topical miconazole or amorolfine compared to placebo for mild to moderately severe onychomycosis. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with computer-generated treatment allocation at a 1:1:1 ratio. SETTING: Primary care, recruitment from February 2020 to August 2022. PARTICIPANTS: 193 patients with suspected mild to moderately severe onychomycosis were recruited via general practices and from the general public, 111 of whom met the study criteria. The mean age of participants was 51 (SD 13.1), 51% were female and onychomycosis was moderately severe (mean OSI 12.1 (SD 8.0)). INTERVENTIONS: Once-daily miconazole 20 mg/g or once-weekly amorolfine 5% nail lacquer solution was compared with placebo (denatonium benzoate solution). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complete, clinical and mycological cure at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were clinical improvement, symptom burden, quality of life, adverse effects, compliance, patient-perceived improvement and treatment acceptability. RESULTS: Based on intention-to-treat analysis, none of the participants receiving miconazole or amorolfine reached complete cure compared with two in the placebo group (OR not estimable (n.e.), p=0.493 and OR n.e., p=0.240, respectively). There was no evidence of a significant difference between groups regarding clinical cure (OR n.e., p=0.493 and OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.04 to 5.45, p=0.615) while miconazole and amorolfine were less effective than placebo at reaching both mycological cure (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.98, p=0.037 and OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.92, p=0.029, respectively) and clinical improvement (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.91, p=0.028 and OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.85, p=0.021, respectively). There was no evidence of a significant difference in disease burden, quality of life, adverse reactions, compliance, patient-perceived improvement or treatment acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: Topical miconazole and amorolfine were not effective in achieving a complete, clinical or mycological cure of mild to moderately severe onychomycosis, nor did they significantly alleviate the severity or symptom burden. These treatments should, therefore, not be advised as monotherapy to treat onychomycosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: WHO ICTRP NL8193.


Assuntos
Administração Tópica , Antifúngicos , Miconazol , Morfolinas , Onicomicose , Humanos , Miconazol/administração & dosagem , Miconazol/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Método Duplo-Cego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytoma, also described as a longitudinal streak/spike, is a form of onychomycosis that presents as yellow/white streaks or patches in the subungual space, with dense fungal masses encased in biofilm. This scoping review of the literature was conducted to address a general lack of information about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of dermatophytomas in onychomycosis. METHODS: A search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases for the terms "longitudinal spike" or "dermatophytoma." Outcomes of interest were definition, prevalence, methods used for diagnosis, treatments, and treatment efficacy. Inclusion and exclusion of search results required agreement between two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of a total of 51 records, 37 were included. Two reports provided the first unique definitions/clinical features of dermatophytomas. Overall, many descriptions were found, but one conclusive definition was lacking. Prevalence data were limited and inconsistent. The most frequently mentioned diagnostic techniques were clinical assessment, potassium hydroxide/microscopy, and fungal culture/mycology. Oral terbinafine and topical efinaconazole 10% were the most frequently mentioned treatments, followed by topical luliconazole 5% and other oral treatments (itraconazole, fluconazole, fosravuconazole). In studies with five or more patients without nail excision, cure rates were highest with efinaconazole 10%, which ranged from 41% to 100% depending on the clinical and/or mycologic assessment evaluated. Other drugs with greater than or equal to 50% cure rates were topical luliconazole 5% (50%), oral fosravuconazole (57%), and oral terbinafine (67%). In studies that combined oral terbinafine treatment with nail excision using surgical or chemical (40% urea) methods, cure rates ranged from 50% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: There is little published information regarding dermatophytomas in onychomycosis. More clinical research and physician education are needed. Although dermatophytomas have historically been considered difficult to treat, the efficacy data gathered in this scoping review have demonstrated that newer topical treatments are effective, as are oral antifungals in combination with chemical or surgical methods.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/terapia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/terapia , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/terapia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Mycoses ; 67(4): e13721, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriatic patients may experience the coexistence of onychomycosis (OM). However, the evaluation of OM in psoriatics has been hindered by potential clinical differences from OM in non-psoriatics. OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare dermoscopic features between toenail OM in psoriatic and in non-psoriatic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between September 2020 and September 2023, dermoscopy was conducted on 183 affected toenails by OM in psoriatics and 232 affected toenails by OM in non-psoriatics in two centres. The dermoscopic characteristics were compared using the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: Among toenail OM cases in psoriatic subjects, the most prevalent dermoscopic features included pitting (147/183, 80.33%) and subungual hyperkeratosis (118/183, 64.48%). Conversely, toenail OM in non-psoriatics was characterized by subungual hyperkeratosis (175/232, 75.43%) and nail spikes (139/232, 59.91%). Comparative analysis revealed a significantly higher occurrence of pitting (80.33% vs. 15.96%, p < .001), periungual telangiectasis (22.40% vs. 4.74%, p < .001), oil patches (12.57% vs. 0.43%,p < .001) and transverse grooves (43.72% vs. 28.45%,p < .01) in toenail OM in psoriatics. Furthermore, toenail OM in psoriatics exhibited a significantly lower frequency of yellow structureless area (13.11% vs. 42.67%, p < .001), nail spikes (43.17% vs. 59.91%, p < .01), ruin appearance of sulphur nugget (8.20% vs. 31.03%, p < .001), dotted/blocky haemorrhage (6.01% vs. 20.69%,p < .001) and partial onycholysis (32.79% vs. 46.98%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Dermoscopic features of toenail OM in psoriatic and non-psoriatic patients exhibit notable differences. OM in psoriatics shows a higher frequency of pitting and periungual telangiectasis, while a lower frequency of yellow structureless areas and nail spikes under dermoscopy.


Assuntos
Ceratose , Doenças da Unha , Onicomicose , Telangiectasia , Humanos , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/complicações , Unhas , Estudos Prospectivos , Ceratose/complicações , Telangiectasia/complicações
4.
Mycoses ; 67(4): e13725, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a chronic nail disorder commonly seen by healthcare providers; toenail involvement in particular presents a treatment challenge. OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated estimate on the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Studies reporting mycology-confirmed diagnoses were included and stratified into (a) populations-based studies, and studies that included (b) clinically un-suspected and (c) clinically suspected patients. RESULTS: A total of 108 studies were included. Based on studies that examined clinically un-suspected patients (i.e., with or without clinical features suggestive of onychomycosis), the pooled prevalence rate of toenail onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes was 4% (95% CI: 3-5) among the general population; special populations with a heightened risk include knee osteoarthritis patients (RR: 14.6 [95% CI: 13.0-16.5]), chronic venous disease patients (RR: 5.6 [95% CI: 3.7-8.1]), renal transplant patients (RR: 4.7 [95% CI: 3.3-6.5]), geriatric patients (RR: 4.7 [95% CI: 4.4-4.9]), HIV-positive patients (RR: 3.7 [95% CI: 2.9-4.7]), lupus erythematosus patients (RR: 3.1 [95% CI: 1.2-6.3]), diabetic patients (RR: 2.8 [95% CI: 2.4-3.3]) and hemodialysis patients (RR: 2.8 [95% CI: 1.9-4.0]). The prevalence of onychomycosis in clinically suspected patients was significantly higher likely due to sampling bias. A high degree of variability was found in a limited number of population-based studies indicating that certain pockets of the population may be more predisposed to onychomycosis. The diagnosis of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis requires repeat sampling to rule out contaminants or commensal organisms; a significant difference was found between studies that performed single sampling versus repeat sampling. The advent of PCR diagnosis results in improved detection rates for dermatophytes compared to culture. CONCLUSION: Onychomycosis is an underrecognized healthcare burden. Further population-based studies using standardized PCR methods are warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Rim , Onicomicose , Humanos , Idoso , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Unhas , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e076441, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot ulcers are feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), requiring extensive treatment and hospital admissions, ultimately leading to amputation and increased mortality. Different factors contribute to the development of foot ulcers and related complications. Onychomycosis, being more prevalent in patients with diabetes, could be an important risk factor for developing ulcers and related infections. However, the association between onychomycosis and diabetic complications has not been well studied in primary care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To determine the impact of onychomycosis on ulcer development and related complications in patients with diabetes in primary care, a longitudinal cohort study was carried out using routine care data from the Extramural Leiden University Medical Center Academic Network. Survival analyses were performed through Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent covariates. RESULTS: Data from 48 212 patients with a mean age of 58 at diagnosis of DM, predominantly type 2 (87.8%), were analysed over a median follow-up of 10.3 years. 5.7% of patients developed an ulcer. Onychomycosis significantly increased the risk of ulcer development (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.66), not affected by antimycotic treatment, nor after adjusting for confounders (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.49). The same was found for surgical interventions (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.75) and skin infections (HR 1.48, CI 95% 1.28 to 1.72), again not affected by treatment and significant after adjusting for confounders (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.51 and HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.48, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Onychomycosis significantly increased the risk of ulcer development in patients with DM in primary care, independently of other risk factors. In addition, onychomycosis increased the risk of surgeries and infectious complications. These results underscore the importance of giving sufficient attention to onychomycosis in primary care and corresponding guidelines. Early identification of onychomycosis during screening and routine care provides a good opportunity for timely recognition of increased ulcer risk.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/complicações , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pé Diabético/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Adulto , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Eur J Dermatol ; 34(1): 51-54, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557458

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is the most frequent nail disorder, but unfortunately, curative treatment is still a challenge, and commonly the infection recurs. A widely disseminated system to accurately assess and classify the severity of this disease, such as the MASI score for melasma or PASI for psoriasis, is lacking in the literature. In 2011, Carney et al. established and successfully validated the Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI), proving it to be a simple and reproducible tool. To validate the Onychomycosis Severity Index in a Brazilian population. Four experienced dermatologists were taught how to use the OSI system, and then evaluated photographs of 24 nails. There was no consultation between the dermatologists, and the results were evaluated by an impartial third party. A statistically significant (p<0.001) high degree of agreement was observed between the evaluators and overall OSI score (mild, moderate or severe) as well as its subcategories (area of involvement, proximity to the nail matrix and presence of dermatophytoma or hyperkeratosis). OSI is a very useful tool to improve the clinical assessment of onychomycosis and support clinical trial inclusion criteria (p<0.001). It also provides important prognostic data and allows for a better follow-up of treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Doenças da Unha , Onicomicose , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Doenças da Unha/tratamento farmacológico , Unhas , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
10.
J Mycol Med ; 34(1): 101464, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The cases of dermatophytosis are increasing and they are associated with a higher number of therapeutic failures leading the doctor to prescribe combinations of antifungals as therapy. The objective was to evaluate the interaction of terbinafine and ciclopirox, the most commonly antifungals used in the clinic, in dermatophyte isolates. METHODOLOGY: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ciclopirox and terbinafine were determined by the broth microdilution method according CLSI and the checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the interaction between the antifungal agents. RESULTS: For terbinafine the mic50 was 0.125 ug/mL and mic90 was 0.250 ug/mL. For ciclopirox the values were 2.0 ug/mL for mic50 and 4.0 ug/mL for mic90. No synergistic interaction was observed for the dermatophyte isolates tested. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the use of terbinafine in combination with ciclopirox, which is widely used in the clinic, may not be a good choice for the treatment of onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Onicomicose , Humanos , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Ciclopirox/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
11.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 148: 105588, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423269

RESUMO

All cosmetics products, including nail care products, must be evaluated for their safety. The assessment of systemic exposure is a key component of the safety assessment. However, data on the exposure, especially via ungual route (nail plate) are limited. Based on the physicochemical properties of human nails and permeability data of topical onychomycosis drugs, the nail plate is considered a good barrier to chemicals. We examine factors impacting penetration of nail care ingredients through the nail plate, including properties of the nails of the ingredients and formulations. The molecular weight, vapor pressure, logP, water solubility, and keratin binding, as well as formulations properties e.g., polymerization of acrylate monomers are considered important factors affecting penetration. To estimate systemic exposure of nail care ingredients through the nail plate, a standardized framework is applied that quantifies the impacts of these properties on penetration with an adjustment factor for each of these influencing properties. All the adjustment factors are then consolidated to derive an integrated adjustment factor which can be used for calculation of the systemic exposure dose for the ingredient. Several case studies are presented to reflect how this framework can be used in the exposure assessment for nail cosmetic products.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Onicomicose , Humanos , Unhas , Administração Tópica , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/metabolismo , Composição de Medicamentos , Permeabilidade , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos
12.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(2): 110-112, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306131

RESUMO

Good adherence to treatment is necessary for the successful treatment of onychomycosis and requires that an appropriate amount of medication be prescribed. Most prescriptions for efinaconazole 10% solution, a topical azole antifungal, are for 4 mL per month but there are no data on patient factors or disease characteristics that impact how much medication is needed. Data from two phase 3 studies of efinaconazole 10% solution for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis were pooled and analyzed to determine monthly medication usage based on the number of affected toenails, percent involvement of the target toenail, body mass index (BMI), and sex. Participants with two or more affected nails required, on average, >4 mL of efinaconazole per month, with increasing amounts needed based on the number of nails with onychomycosis (mean: 4.39 mL for 2 nails; 6.36 mL for 6 nails). In contrast, usage was not greatly impacted by target toenail involvement, BMI, or sex. Together, these data indicate that the number of affected nails should be the major consideration when determining the monthly efinaconazole quantity to prescribe. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(2):110-112.    doi:10.36849/JDD.7676.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Unhas , Administração Tópica , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia
13.
Mycoses ; 67(3): e13710, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycoses are difficult-to-treat fungal infections with high relapse rates. Combining oral and topical antifungal drugs is associated with higher success rates. Additive or synergistic modes of action are expected to enhance treatment success rates. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the combined effects of antifungal drugs in vitro with different modes of action and application on clinical isolates from mycotic nails. METHODS: Isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis were collected from infected toenail specimens of patients with onychomycosis. Susceptibility testing was performed in 96-well polystyrene plates using a standard stepwise microdilution protocol. Additive or synergistic activity at varying concentrations was investigated by the checkerboard method. RESULTS: Combining terbinafine with amorolfine tended to be more effective than terbinafine in conjunction with ciclopirox. In most combinations, additive effects were observed. Synergy was detected in combinations with involving amorolfine in S. brevicaulis. These additive and synergistic interactions indicate that combined therapy with topical amorolfine and oral terbinafine is justified. Sublimation of amorolfine (and terbinafine) may enhance the penetration in and through the nail plate, and support treatment efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: These in vitro results support the notion that combining oral terbinafine and topical amorolfine is beneficial to patients with onychomycosis, particularly if the pathogen is a non-dermatophyte fungus such as S. brevicaulis.


Assuntos
Morfolinas , Onicomicose , Humanos , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Ciclopirox/farmacologia , Ciclopirox/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos
16.
Mycopathologia ; 189(1): 14, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265566

RESUMO

The two fungal species Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum are common pathogens on human, infecting keratinized tissue of the outer body parts. Both species are belonging to the "Trichophyton rubrum complex" and share very high similarity in the genome. Secreted proteinases, key factors for keratin degradation, are nearly identical. Contrary, the ecological niches are differing. Trichophyton rubrum preferably infects skin and nails, whereas T. violaceum preferably infects the scalp. We postulate, that differences in the protease expression contribute to differences in ecological preferences. We analyzed the expression profiles of all 22 endoprotease genes, 12 subtilisins (S8A), 5 deuterolysins (M35) and 5 fungalysins (M36), for both species. To compare the influence of the keratin source, we designed experiments with human nail keratin, sheep wool keratin and keratin free cultivation media. Samples were taken at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h post incubation in keratin medium. The expression of the proteases is higher in wool-keratin medium compared to human nail medium, with the exception of MEP4 and SUB6. Expression in the keratin-free medium is lowest. The expression profiles of the two species are remarkable different. The expression of MEP1, MEP3, SUB5, SUB11 and SUB12 are higher in T. rubrum compared to T. violaceum. MEP2, NpIIc, NpIIe, SUB1, SUB3, SUB4, SUB7 and SUB8 are higher expressed in T. violaceum compared to T. rubrum. The differences of the protease expression in the two species may expalin the differences in the ecological niches. Further analysis are necessary to verify the hypothesis.Please check and conform the edit made in title.Here I thinke the species of strains shouldnt be capital, and the right expression should be,  "Expression Profiles of Protease in Onychomycosis-Related Pathogenic Trichophyton rubrum and Tinea Capitis-Related Pathogenic Trichophyton violaceum"Author names: Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct se-quence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author 1 Given name: [Jingjing] Last name [Chen], Author 2 Given name: [Yangmin] Last name [Gao], Author 3 Given name: [Shuzhen] Last name [Xiong], Author 4 Given name: [Ping] Last name [Zhan]. Also, kindly confirm the details in the metadata are correct.YesPlease check and confirm the inserted city and country are correctly identified for affiliation 3.Please change the affiliations, Affiliation 2: ²Jiangxi Provincial Clinical Research Center for Skin Diseases, Dermatology Hospital of Jiangxi Province,The Affiliated Dermatology Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330200, Jiangxi; Affiliation 3: 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang Medical College,Nanchang 330001, Jiangxi. Thanks a lot!


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Onicomicose , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Ovinos , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Queratinas
17.
J Dermatol ; 51(4): 526-531, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38279193

RESUMO

Onychomycosis can be treated with topical and oral medications. However, it is important to appropriately select these medications according to the type and severity of the disease and ensure treatment is continued for the recommended duration. In Japan, treatment options for onychomycosis have increased in recent years. Moreover, in 2019, the guidelines for dermatomycosis treatment were revised. In this study, we conducted a receipt survey to clarify the actual treatment status of onychomycosis cases as indicated by the continuation rates of prescribed treatment drugs, together with a web-based survey to ascertain the prescribing policy of dermatologists regarding drugs for onychomycosis treatment. In agreement with past surveys, this receipt survey showed that the prescription continuation rate for oral medications was higher than that for topical medications. The 1-year prescription continuation rate for topical onychomycosis medications was found to be low (<10%). The web-based survey showed that the percentage of physicians who prescribed oral medications as their first choice increased by approximately 10% for each disease type, compared with the results of the previous survey conducted around 7 years ago. However, the study also confirmed that topical drugs are still prescribed for some disease types for which oral drugs are better suited. To ensure complete cure without patient drop-out, oral drugs with a high probability of achieving complete cure and a high continuation rate should be prescribed for patients with onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatologistas , Administração Oral , Internet , Administração Tópica , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Lasers Med Sci ; 39(1): 39, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240827

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to consolidate and summarize laser-assisted drug delivery (LADD) for nail diseases, particularly onychomycosis and psoriasis. A PubMed search was conducted in June 2023 using search terms (1) "laser assisted drug delivery" AND "nail," (2) "laser" AND "nail," and (3) "nail disorder" AND "laser treatment." References of papers were also reviewed, yielding 15 papers for this review. Fractional ablative CO2 laser (FACL) and Er:YAG laser can be used for LADD of topical medications such as amorolfine, terbinafine, and tioconazole to treat onychomycosis. A fungal culture should be performed to determine the type of dermatophyte, which will help determine which topical will be most effective. Laser settings varied between studies, but overall LADD tended to be more effective than topical treatments alone. Laser-assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) was also found to be effective in treating onychomycosis. For psoriatic nails, LADD was used to deliver calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate foam, tazarotene, triamcinolone, or methotrexate into the nail. Again, LADD was found to be significantly more effective than topical treatment alone. FACL was the only laser noted for use for LADD in both diseases. Laser-assisted drug delivery for nail disease is a newer approach for onychomycosis and nail psoriasis with several benefits and drawbacks. Dermatologists should discuss the option of LADD with their patients who have recalcitrant onychomycosis or nail psoriasis.


Assuntos
Lasers de Gás , Doenças da Unha , Onicomicose , Psoríase , Humanos , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/radioterapia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Unha/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/radioterapia , Administração Tópica , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13690, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of onychomycosis is still challenging and warrants the development of new treatment strategies. Different trials were conducted to increase the penetration and efficacy of topical antifungals aiming at finding an alternative treatment especially when systemic antifungals are contraindicated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 100% either alone or combined with topical tioconazole 28% versus itraconazole pulse therapy in the treatment of onychomycosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty-five patients with onychomycosis were divided into three groups: group (A) treated by topical TCA 100% for 12 sessions, group (B) treated by TCA 100% for 12 sessions combined with topical tioconazole 28% for 18 weeks and group (C) treated by itraconazole (400 mg/day for 1 week/month for 4 months). RESULTS: TCA 100% combined with topical tioconazole 28% showed the highest therapeutic response; however, the difference between the groups was statistically insignificant. Mycological cure (negative culture) was reported in 66.7% of group B versus 60% of group A and 40% of group C at the 20 week. CONCLUSIONS: TCA 100% is an effective and safe treatment option for onychomycosis especially when combined with antifungals. This modality is promising in the treatment of onychomycosis especially with the increased resistance to different antifungals.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Imidazóis , Onicomicose , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Tricloroacético/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13694, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis (ONM) is the most prevalent nail unit pathology, and its severity and monitoring are often based on the visual judgement of clinicians. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the reliability of the Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI) classification when utilized by three clinicians with varying levels of clinical experience: an experienced podiatrist (with 5 years of experience), a moderately experienced podiatrist (with 2 years of experience) and an inexperienced podiatrist (a recent graduate familiar with the OSI classification but lacking clinical experience). Additionally, we compared the severity assessments made through visual inspection with those determined using the OSI by different clinicians. METHODS: We evaluated reliability using the intraclass correlation index (ICC), analysing 50 images of ONM. RESULTS: The OSI demonstrated a very high level of reliability (ICC: 0.889) across clinicians, irrespective of their experience levels. Conversely, a statistically significant increase in severity was observed when comparing visual assessments with the OSI (p < .001) for ONM severity evaluation. CONCLUSION: The OSI proves to be a reproducible classification system, regardless of the clinical experience of the practitioner employing it.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Unhas/patologia
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