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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10577-10586, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490682

RESUMO

Root and rhizosphere is important for phosphorus (P) uptake in rice plants. However, little is known about the detailed regulation of irrigation regimes, especially frequently alternate wetting and drying (FAWD), on P usage of rice plants. Here, we found that compared with normal water and P dose, FAWD with a reduced P dose maintained the grain yield in two rice varieties. Compared to rice variety Gaoshan1, rice variety WufengyouT025 displayed a higher grain yield, shoot P content, rhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, abundance of bacteria, and bacterial acid phosphatase gene of rhizosphere. Moreover, the FAWD regime may increase the abundance of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity to release available phosphorus in the rhizosphere, which is associated with rice varieties. Our results suggest that an optimized management of irrigation and phosphorous application can enhance both water and phosphorus use efficiency without sacrificing the yield, which may contribute significantly to sustainable agriculture production.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Água/metabolismo
2.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1732-1740, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479403

RESUMO

Plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) is a structural protein that can specifically recognize and bind to fungal polygalacturonase (PG). PGIP plays an important role in plant antifungal activity. In this study, a maize PGIP gene, namely ZmPGIP3, was cloned and characterized. Agarose diffusion assay suggested that ZmPGIP3 could inhibit the activity of PG. ZmPGIP3 expression was significantly induced by wounding, Rhizoctonia solani infection, jasmonate, and salicylic acid. ZmPGIP3 might be related to disease resistance. The gene encoding ZmPGIP3 was posed under the control of the ubiquitin promoter and constitutively expressed in transgenic rice. In an R. solani infection assay, ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice was more resistant to sheath blight than the wild-type rice regardless of the inoculated plant part (leaves or sheaths). Digital gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of some rice PGIP genes significantly increased in ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice, suggesting that ZmPGIP3 might activate the expression of some rice PGIP genes to resist sheath blight. Our investigation of the agronomic traits of ZmPGIP3 transgenic rice showed that ZmPGIP3 overexpression in rice did not show any detrimental phenotypic or agronomic effect. ZmPGIP3 is a promising candidate gene in the transgenic breeding for sheath blight resistance and crop improvement.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Rhizoctonia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2767-2774, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418202

RESUMO

To reveal the physiological effects of rice alleviated by cadmium-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa under cadmium stress condition, the influences of bacterial strian on the root vigor and leaf physiological characteristics were analyzed under a set of hydroponic experiments involving adding bacteria suspension, empty carrier, microbial inoculum with 20 µmol·L-1 Cd. Cadmium-free treatment as control. The results showed that the root vigor was significantly inhibited, leaf photosynthetic rate decreased, and the contents of soluble protein, flavonoid and total phenols in rice leaves were reduced, while the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion(O2-·) increased significantly under cadmium stress condition. Compared with cadmium treatment, root vigors of rice were increased by 36.1%-42.5% and 49.4%-53.0% respectively in bacteria suspension and microbial inoculum additions, net photosynthetic rates in leaves were increased by 118.5%-147.1% and 137.6%-156.9%, and the contents of soluble protein were increased by 37.0%-49.3% and 37.7%-72.6%, respectively. For the bacteria suspension treatment, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves were increased by 25.8%-36.6%, 40.9%-55.9%, 24.0%-29.2%, and the activities of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves under microbial inoculum treatment were increased by 36.9%-42.6%, 82.7%-92.6% and 43.3%-52.2%, respectively, with the stimulative effects on antioxidation enzymes in rice leaves being higher than those of bacteria suspension. Compared with cadmium treatment, the contents of MDA and O2-· in rice leaves were reduced by 44.8%-54.7%, 29.4%-41.9% and 9.9%-10.2%, 3.0%-7.1% in microbial inoculum and bacteria suspension treatments, respectively. In contrast, the contents of flavonoids and total phenols were increased by 125.4%-135.7%, 100.8%-119.4% and 139.4%-146.7%, 115.0%-134.7%, respectively. In summary, P. aeruginosa and the microbial inoculum could promote rice seedling growth by improving root vigor and photosynthetic rate, as well as the contents of flavonoids and total phenols, which led to the fact that P. aeruginosa could significantly alleviate the stress of cadmium on rice.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Oryza/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 129, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376017

RESUMO

Metal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse environment. One WCB was the previously described Ochrobactrum tritici pCHRGFP2 and the second, Nitrospirillum amazonense pCHRGFP2, is a newly engineered naturally-occurring endophytic microorganism. Three rice varieties (IAC 4440, BRS 6 CHUÍ, IRGA 425) and one maize variety (1060) were tested as hosts and subjected to Cr(VI) treatments (25 µM), with different results obtained. Inoculation of each WCB into plants exposed to Cr(VI) showed GFP expression within plant tissues. WCBs penetrated the root tissues and later colonized the shoots and leaves. In general, a higher fluorescence signal was detected in roots, together with a higher Cr content and denser WCB colonization. Best fluorescence intensities per plant biomass of shoots were obtained for plant host IRGA 425. Therefore, by analyzing colonized tissues, both WCBs allowed the detection of Cr(VI) contamination in soils and its transfer to plants commonly used in crops for human diet.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cromo/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Rhodospirillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhodospirillaceae/genética , Rhodospirillaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
5.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 781-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452043

RESUMO

The phytopathogenic Burkholderia species B. glumae and B. plantarii are the causal agents of bacterial wilt, grain rot, and seedling blight, which threaten the rice industry globally. Toxoflavin and tropolone are produced by these phytopathogens and are considered the most hostile biohazards with a broad spectrum of target organisms. However, despite their nonspecific toxicity, the effects of toxoflavin and tropolone on bacteria remain unknown. RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis was employed to determine the genome-wide expression patterns under phytotoxin treatment. Expression of 2327 and 830 genes was differentially changed by toxoflavin and tropolone, respectively. Enriched biological pathways reflected the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome function, beginning with the inhibition of membrane biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism under oxidative stress or iron starvation. Conversely, several systems such as bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation, and sulfur/taurine transporters were highly expressed as countermeasures against the phytotoxins. In addition, our findings revealed that three hub genes commonly induced by both phytotoxins function as the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelator. Our study provides new insights into the effects of phytotoxins on bacteria for better understanding of the interactions between phytopathogens and other microorganisms. These data will also be applied as a valuable source in subsequent applications against phytotoxins, the major virulence factor.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Burkholderia/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Tropolona/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/metabolismo , Tropolona/metabolismo
6.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126301, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422232

RESUMO

The in vitro inhibition of quorum sensing signal, xanthan gum secretion, biofilm formation in different Xanthomonas pathovars and biological control of bacterial blight of rice by the two bioactive extrolites produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CGK-KS-1 were explored. These extrolites were extracted from Diaion HP-20 resin with methanol and purified by preparative-thin layer chromatography. Further, spectroscopic structural elucidation revealed the tentative identity of these extrolites to be (R,3E,5E,9Z,11E)-13-((3S,5R)-5-acetyl-2,6-dimethylheptan-3-yl)-10-hydroxy-4-methyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,5,9,11(15),13-pentaen-2-one and (R,3E,5E,8E,11E)-13-((3S,5R)-5-acetyl-2,6-dimethylheptan-3-yl)-4-methyl-1,8-diazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,5,8,11(15),13-pentaene-2,10-dione, named as Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2, respectively. Antimicrobial assay showed Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 exhibited a strong in vitro growth inhibition against various Xanthomonas pathovars. Quorum sensing overlay assay using a reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV026 showed that Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 inhibited quorum sensing signaling. The mechanistic studies revealed that these extrolites inhibited the production of quorum sensing signaling factor, cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid; suppressed the xanthan gum secretion and also inhibited the biofilms formed by various Xanthomonas pathovars. Both Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 showed ROS generation in the test Xanthomonas strains, resulting in in vitro cell membrane damage was revealed through CSLM and FE-SEM micrographs. Further, greenhouse experiments using Samba Mashuri (BPT-5204) revealed that seed treatment with Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 along with foliar spray groups showed up to ˜80% reduction in bacterial blight disease in rice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on new quorum sensing inhibitors, Chumacin-1 and Chumacin-2 produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CGK-KS-1 exhibiting DSF inhibition activity in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Chromobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos , Xanthomonas/metabolismo
7.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2204-2211, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355735

RESUMO

One hundred and one rice genotypes were evaluated for response to sheath blight disease under greenhouse and lowland irrigated field conditions in Guyana. The level of resistance varied from highly resistant to resistant in 14 genotypes over five experimental trials. These genotypes were also observed with low area under the disease progress curve values and slow blighting reactions against artificial inoculation of the pathogen. Genotypes GR1568-31-9-1-1-2-1 and cultivar Rustic had susceptible reactions in all experiments. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis was used to study the genotype and environment interactions. The analysis revealed that 52.98% of the total sum of square was attributed to genotype effect, 7.50% was attributable to environment effect, and 39.52% was attributable to genotype by environment interaction (G × E) effects. The G × E was almost as large as the genotype effect, thus indicating significant differences of genotypes across the testing environments. This revealed that resistance was slightly influenced by the G × E. The genotypes that showed stable resistance in all environments in this study could be used for breeding the sheath blight resistance in rice.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Estatísticos , Oryza , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Genótipo , Guiana , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 117, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332532

RESUMO

Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria inhabiting rice rhizoplane play a significant role on arsenic biogeochemistry in flooded rice paddies, influencing arsenic translocation to rice grains. In the present study, the selective pressure of arsenic species on these microbial populations was evaluated. Rice roots from continuously flooded plants were incubated in iron sulfide (FeS) gradient tubes and exposed to either arsenate or arsenite. The biomass developed in the visible iron-oxidation band of the enrichments was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and the bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Different Proteobacteria communities were selected depending on exposure to arsenate and arsenite. Arsenate addition favored the versatile iron-oxidizers Dechloromonas and Azospira, associated to putative iron (hydr)oxide crystals. Arsenite exposure decreased the diversity in the enrichments, with the development of the sulfur-oxidizer Thiobacillus thioparus, likely growing on sulfide released by FeS. Whereas sulfur-oxidizers were observed in all treatments, iron-oxidizers disappeared when exposed to arsenite. These results reveal a strong impact of different inorganic arsenics on rhizospheric iron-oxidizers as well as a crucial role of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in establishing rice rhizosphere communities under arsenic pressure.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Arseniatos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3048, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296855

RESUMO

Bacteriophages typically hijack the host bacterial transcriptional machinery to regulate their own gene expression and that of the host bacteria. The structural basis for bacteriophage protein-mediated transcription regulation-in particular transcription antitermination-is largely unknown. Here we report the 3.4 Å and 4.0 Å cryo-EM structures of two bacterial transcription elongation complexes (P7-NusA-TEC and P7-TEC) comprising the bacteriophage protein P7, a master host-transcription regulator encoded by bacteriophage Xp10 of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) and discuss the mechanisms by which P7 modulates the host bacterial RNAP. The structures together with biochemical evidence demonstrate that P7 prevents transcription termination by plugging up the RNAP RNA-exit channel and impeding RNA-hairpin formation at the intrinsic terminator. Moreover, P7 inhibits transcription initiation by restraining RNAP-clamp motions. Our study reveals the structural basis for transcription antitermination by phage proteins and provides insights into bacterial transcription regulation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Xanthomonas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/ultraestrutura , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Regiões Terminadoras Genéticas/genética , Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Virais/ultraestrutura , Xanthomonas/virologia
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6589-6600, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice smut and rice blast are listed as two of the three major diseases of rice. Owing to the small size and similar structure of rice blast and rice smut spores, traditional microscopic methods are troublesome to detect them. Therefore, this paper uses microscopy image identification based on the synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method. RESULTS: The distance transformation-Gaussian filtering-watershed algorithm method was proposed to separate the adherent rice blast spores, and the accuracy was increased by about 10%. Four shape features (area, perimeter, ellipticity, complexity) and three texture features (entropy, homogeneity, contrast) were selected for decision-tree model classification. The confusion-matrix algorithm was used to calculate the classification accuracy, in which global accuracy is 82% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.81. At the same time, the detection accuracy is as high as 94%. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method can be used to detect rice disease quickly and precisely. The proposed method can be combined with a spore trap, which is vital to devise strategies early and to control rice disease effectively. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Fungos/química , Fungos/citologia , Microscopia/instrumentação , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 306: 108267, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330453

RESUMO

Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) is commonly detected in Brazilian rice, but knowledge of the species limits and their toxigenic potential is lacking. Seventy strains morphologically identified as FIESC-like, isolated from the major rice-growing regions of Brazil, were subjected to sequencing of EF-1α gene. Among them, 18 strains were selected and analyzed for their RPB2 gene sequences. Nine phylogenetic species were identified, among which eight matched the previously reported FIESC 4 (F. lacertarum), 6, 16, 17 (F. pernambucanum), 20 (F. caatingaense), 24, 26 and 29. One new phylogenetic species was identified, and named FIESC 38. Five strains formed new singleton lineages. The most dominant species were FIESC 26 (22/70 strains) and FIESC 38 (21/70), the newly identified species. The incarnatum morphotype was dominant (10 phylogenetic species) over the equiseti (4 species). Among 46 strains selected to represent all species, only 16 strains produced detectable levels of mycotoxins in vitro. FIESC 26 produced ZEA and FIESC 38 produced both ZEA and DON. ZEA was produced by nine isolates of three other species, among which few isolates produced trichothecenes: DON (5/46), NIV (3/46), 4-ANIV (2/46), 15-ADON (1/46) and 3-ADON (1/46). The T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins were not detected. Our results contribute novel information on species limits and mycotoxin production within cereal-infecting FIESC in the southern hemisphere and provide baseline data for further exploring morphological differences among the species.


Assuntos
Fusarium/classificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Brasil , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/genética , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Tricotecenos/genética
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 546-554, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185402

RESUMO

Rice is an essential food crop that nourishes >50% of the world population. In many regions of Bangladesh rice production is constrained by high soil salinity and heavy metal contamination due to irrigation practices. Plants may naturally overcome such stress through mutualistic interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Yet, little is known regarding the diversity and composition of AMF communities in rice fields with high saline and arsenic concentration. Here we used high throughput Illumina sequencing to characterize AMF communities in rice roots from 45 Bangladeshi rice fields, along a large geographical gradient of soil salinity and arsenic contamination. We obtained 77 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, based on a sequence similarity threshold of 97%) from eight AMF families, and showed that high soil salinity and arsenic concentration are significantly associated with low AMF diversity in rice roots. Soil salinity and arsenic concentration also explained a large part of the variation in AMF community composition, but also soil pH, moisture, organic matter content and plant available soil phosphorus played an important role. Overall, our study showed that even at very high salinity and arsenic levels, some AMF OTUs are present in rice roots. Their potential role in mediating a reduction of rice stress and arsenic uptake remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Bangladesh , Monitoramento Ambiental , Micobioma , Oryza/fisiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose
13.
Microbiol Res ; 223-225: 33-43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178049

RESUMO

Mangroves, dominating tropical intertidal zones and estuaries, are among the most salt tolerant plants, and propagate through reproductive units called propagules. Similarly to plant seeds, propagules may harbor beneficial bacteria. Our hypothesis was that mangroves, being able to grow into seawater, should harbor bacteria able to interact with the host and to exert positive effects under salt stress, which could be exploited to improve crop production. Therefore, we isolated bacterial endophytes from mangrove propagules with the aim to test whether these bacteria have a beneficial potential on their natural host and on different crops such as barley and rice, cultivated under salt stress. The 172 bacterial isolates obtained were screened for plant growth promotion (PGP) activities in vitro, and the 12 most promising isolates were tested on barley under non-axenic conditions and salt stress. Gordonia terrae KMP456-M40 was the best performing isolate, increasing ear weight by 65%. Based on the in vivo PGP activity and the root colonization ability, investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal microscopy, three strains were additionally tested on mangrove propagule germination and on rice growth. The most effective strain was again G. terrae KMP456-M40, which enhanced the root length of mangrove seedlings and the biomass of salt-stressed rice under axenic conditions up to 65% and 62%, respectively. We demonstrated that propagules, the reproductive units of mangroves, host beneficial bacteria that enhance the potential of mangrove seedlings establishment and confer salt tolerance to cereal crops.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Salino , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomassa , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Germinação , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hordeum/microbiologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Oryza/microbiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Arábia Saudita , Água do Mar , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1741-1750, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179856

RESUMO

Phytopathogens have evolved mechanisms to utilize host genes (commonly known as susceptibility factors) to promote their pathogenesis. Rhizoctonia solani is a highly destructive fungal pathogen of various plants, including rice. We previously reported rice genes that were differentially regulated during R. solani pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the role of tomato homologs of two rice genes, isoflavone reductase (IFR) and alternative NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NUOR), as potential susceptibility factors for R. solani. Virus-induced gene silencing of NUOR in tomato resulted in compromised susceptibility against R. solani, whereas IFR-silenced plants demonstrated susceptibility similar to that of control plants. NUOR silencing in tomato led to homogenous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (optimum range) upon R. solani infection. In addition, the expression and enzyme activity of some host defense and antioxidant genes was enhanced, whereas H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage were reduced in NUOR-silenced plants. Similarly, transient silencing of OsNUOR provided tolerance against R. solani infection in rice. Overall, the data presented in this study suggest that NUOR serves as a host susceptibility factor to promote R. solani pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons , Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/enzimologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/fisiologia
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5577-5585, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most important species used to ferment Chinese turbid rice wine (CTRW) at an industrial-scale level is Rhizopus oryzae, although the flavor of CTRW fermented by pure R. oryzae is inferior to that of traditional CTRW. RESULTS: Mucor indicus was used as a cooperative species to improve the flavor of CTRW presented by R. oryzae. The flavor compounds in different fermentation stages were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was noted that the M. indicus and R. oryzae co-culture changed the profiles of flavor compounds in CTRW, including esters, higher alcohols, amino acids and organic acids, and also significantly enhanced the concentration of sweet amino acids, fruity and floral esters, and higher alcohols. Sensory evaluation demonstrated that the CTRW fermented by M. indicus and R. oryzae had a more intense aroma, harmonious taste, continuation and full body mouth-feel because of more abundant flavor compounds. CONCLUSION: Mucor indicus is a promising species for co-culture with R. oryzae to improve the flavor of CTRW. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Mucor/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhizopus/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , China , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mucor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Odorantes/análise , Oryza/química , Rhizopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Vinho/microbiologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7706-7715, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246022

RESUMO

While searching for new antifungal compounds, we revealed that a methanol extract of plant species Maesa japonica has a potent antifungal activity in vivo against rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. To identify the antifungal substances, the methanol extract of M. japonica was extracted by organic solvents, and consequently, six active compounds were isolated from the n-butanol layer. The isolated compounds were five new acylated triterpenoid saponins including maejaposide I (1), maejaposides C-1, C-2, and C-3 (2-4), and maejaposide A-1 (5), along with a known one, maejaposide A (6). These chemical structures were determined by NMR and a comparison of their NMR and MS data with those reported in the literature. Based on the in vitro antifungal bioassay, the five compounds (2-6) exhibited strong antifungal activity against M. oryzae with MIC values ranging from 4 to 32 µg/mL, except for maejaposide I (1) (MIC > 250 µg/mL). When the compounds were evaluated at concentrations of 125, 250, and 500 µg/mL for an in vivo antifungal activity against rice blast, compounds 2-6 strongly reduced the development of blast by at least 85% to 98% compared to the untreated control. However, compound 1 did not show any in vivo antifungal activity up to a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Taken together, our results suggest that the methanol extract of M. japonica and the new acylated triterpenoid saponins can be used as a source for the development of natural fungicides.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Maesa/química , Magnaporthe/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Acilação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
17.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 1967-1973, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188736

RESUMO

Rice blast is one of the most serious diseases for rice, and controlling the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that causes rice blast is crucial for global food security. Typically, early infected rice does not show symptoms. Therefore, the early diagnosis of rice blast is particularly important to avoid uncontrollable propagation of rice blast fungus. In the present work, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed to detect the pathogen at the early infected stage of rice. The Alb1 superfamily hypothetical protein MGG_04322, a nuclear shuttling factor involved in ribosome and melanin biogenesis, was chosen as the target for designing the LAMP primers. The LAMP assay enabled rapid detection of as little as 10 pg of pure genomic DNA of M. oryzae. In addition, we established the quantitative LAMP (q-LAMP) detection system to quantify the conidia of rice blast fungus. The q-LAMP assay enabled rapid detection (within 35 min) of the fungal spores at a sensitivity of 3.2 spores/ml. In addition, the assay sets up the linearization formula of the standard curve as y = 0.3066 + 15.33x (where x = amplification of time), inferring that spore number = 100.60y. In addition, the q-LAMP assay was successfully used to detect the presence of the virulence strains of M. oryzae (wild type) in comparison with that of the two mutant strains by quantifying the biomass within host tissue. These results provide a useful and convenient tool for detecting M. oryzae that could be applied in the incubation period of rice blast before symptoms appear.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Oryza , Primers do DNA , DNA Fúngico/genética , Limite de Detecção , Magnaporthe/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
18.
Food Chem ; 293: 472-478, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151636

RESUMO

Water activity (aw) and temperature are two pivotal environmental factors affecting Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Here, we found that AFB1 production on polished rice can occur over a wider range of temperature × aw levels than that on paddies. For fungal growth on polished rice, the optimum conditions were aw 0.92-0.96 and 28-37 °C. The maximum amounts of AFB1 on polished rice was observed at 33 °C and aw 0.96. Compared to 33 °C, all tested genes of A. flavus on polished rice were significantly up-regulated at 25 °C under aw 0.96. The late structural genes of pathway were significantly down-regulated at 37 °C under aw 0.96, although aflR and aflS and most of early structural genes were up-regulated. Compared to aw 0.96, most of pathway genes were significantly down-regulated at aw 0.90 and 0.99 under 33 °C, although two regulatory genes were up-regulated at aw 0.90.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
19.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 901-909, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234256

RESUMO

There has been an increasing incidence rate of rice false smut in global rice cultivation areas. However, there is a dearth of studies on the environmental concentrations and hazards of ustiloxin A (UA), which is the major mycotoxin produced by a pathogenic fungus of the rice false smut. Here, the concentrations of UA in the surface waters of two paddy fields located in Enshi city, Hubei province, China, were measured, and its toxicity in T. Thermophila was evaluated. This is the first study to detect UA in the surface waters of the two paddy fields, and the measured mean concentrations were 2.82 and 0.26 µg/L, respectively. Exposure to 2.19, 19.01 or 187.13 µg/L UA for 5 days significantly reduced the theoretical population and cell size of T. thermophila. Furthermore, treatment with 187.13 µg/L UA changed the percentages of T. thermophila cells in different cell-cycle stages, and with an increased malformation rate compared with the control, suggesting the disruption of the cell cycle. The expressions of 30 genes involved in the enriched proteasome pathway, 7 cyclin genes (cyc9, cyc10, cyc16, cyc22, cyc23, cyc26, cyc33) and 2 histone genes (mlh1 and hho1) were significantly down-regulated, which might be the modes of action responsible for the disruption of cell cycling due to UA exposure.


Assuntos
Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/toxicidade , Tetrahymena thermophila/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Fungos , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tetrahymena thermophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 227-235, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153027

RESUMO

In China, the common use of antibiotics in agriculture is recognized as a potential public health risk through the increasing use of livestock derived manure as a means of fertilization. By doing so this may increase the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from animals, to soils and plants. In this study two staple crops (rice and wheat) were investigated for ARG enrichment under differing fertilization regimes. Here, we applied 4 treatments, no fertilizer, mineral fertilizer, clean (reduced antibiotic practice) and dirty (current antibiotic practice) pig manure, to soil microcosms planted with either rice or wheat, to investigate fertilization effects on the abundance of ARGs in the respective phyllospheres. For both rice and wheat, samples were collected after two separate fertilization periods. In total, 162 unique ARGs and 5 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected from all rice and wheat samples. The addition of both clean and dirty manure, enhanced ARG abundance significantly when compared to no fertilizer treatments (P < 0.001), though clean manure enriched ARGs to a lesser extent than dirty manure, in all rice and wheat samples (P < 0.001). The classes of ARGs recorded were different between crops, with wheat samples having a higher ARG diversity than rice. These results revealed that staple crops in China such as rice and wheat may be a reservoir for ARGs when clean and dirty pig manure is used for fertilization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Oryza/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , China , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Minerais , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
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