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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2582: 255-268, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370355

RESUMO

Although two-dimensional (2D) cultures from bone lineage cells are often used, it is well-known that this culture system is completely different from the in vivo bone matrix environment. In this paper, we describe a 3D culture method using both the mouse osteocytic cell line, MLO-Y4, and an osteocyte-enriched population of the cells isolated from mice. These cells are embedded in collagen gel with recombinant cellular communication network (CCN) factor proteins; then, osteoblasts or osteoclasts are inoculated and cultured on the collagen gel. Because this method mimics the in vitro bone matrix environment, it is useful for understanding the detailed mechanism of actions of CCN proteins in the bone matrix.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos , Osteócitos , Camundongos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Colágeno/metabolismo , Bioensaio
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121862, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122465

RESUMO

In response to the growing need for development of modern biomaterials for applications in regenerative medicine strategies, the research presented here investigated the biological potential of two types of polymer nanocomposites. Graphene oxide (GO) and partially reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were incorporated into a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix, creating PCL/GO and PCL/rGO nanocomposites in the form of membranes. Proliferation of osteoblast-like cells (human U-2 OS cell line) on the surface of the studied materials confirmed their biological activity. Fluorescence microscopy was able to distinguish the different patterns of interaction between cells (depending on the type of material) after 15 days of the test run. Raman micro-spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) applied to Raman spectra distinguished the nature of cell-material interactions after only 8 days. Combination of these two techniques (Raman micro-spectroscopy and 2D-COS analysis) facilitated identification of a much more complex cellular response (especially from proteins) on the surface of PCL/GO. The presented approach can be regarded as a method for early study of the bioactivity of membrane materials.


Assuntos
Grafite , Humanos , Grafite/farmacologia , Grafite/química , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros , Osteoblastos , Análise Espectral Raman
3.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 111(1): 45-59, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054528

RESUMO

Titanium is widely used in bone prostheses due to its excellent biocompatibility and osseointegration capacity. To understand the effect of sandblasted acid-etched (SAE) Ti implants on the biological responses of human osteoblast (HOb), their proteomic profiles were analyzed using nLC-MS/MS. The cells were cultured with the implant materials, and 2544 distinct proteins were detected in samples taken after 1, 3, and 7 days. Comparative analyses of proteomic data were performed using Perseus software. The expression of proteins related to EIF2, mTOR, insulin-secretion and IGF pathways showed marked differences in cells grown with SAE-Ti in comparison with cells cultured without Ti. Moreover, the proteomic profiles obtained with SAE-Ti were compared over time. The affected proteins were related to adhesion, immunity, oxidative stress, coagulation, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, and extracellular matrix formation functions. The proliferation, mineralization and osteogenic gene expression in HObs cultured with SAE-Ti were characterized in vitro. The results showed that the osteoblasts exposed to this material increase their mineralization rate and expression of COLI, RUNX2, SP7, CTNNB1, CAD13, IGF2, MAPK2, and mTOR. Overall, the observed proteomic profiles can explain the SAE-Ti osteogenic properties, widening our knowledge of key signaling pathways taking part in the early stages of the osseointegration process in this type of implantations.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Titânio , Humanos , Titânio/farmacologia , Titânio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Propriedades de Superfície , Osteoblastos , Osseointegração , Osteogênese , Próteses e Implantes , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
4.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154509, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288653

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Estrogen deficiency is the leading cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis(PMOP) and phytoestrogens soy isoflavones (SI) have been shown to improve PMOP. Equol (Eq), an in vivo metabolite of phytoestrogens soy isoflavones (SI), has a more stable structure and stronger biological activity than its parent compound and has the greatest estrogenic activity. However, there are few studies on the therapeutic effect of Eq on PMOP. PURPOSE: To explore the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of Eq on POMP. METHODS: Osteoblast-like cells ROS1728 were cultured with different doses of Eq, estradiol (E2), separately. The effect of Eq on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle of osteoblasts were detected by CCK-8 and flow cytometry, and the expression of OPG/RANK/RANKL signaling pathway of osteoblasts was detected by Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB), and RNA silencing technology were carried out to explore the receptors through which Eq plays a role. Then PMOP rat model was established and treated by Eq or E2 to further verification of the effect and mechanism of Eq on PMOP. RESULT: Eq promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of osteoblasts and increased the proportion of osteoblasts in the S phase and G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Eq treatment upregulated the expression of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio in osteoblasts and this regulatory effect was mainly mediated through the ERß receptor. Furthermore, in vivo study, Eq improved microstructure and BMD of the femur of PMOP rat model, which imitated the osteoprotective effect of E2. Moreover, the Eq or E2 treatment increased serum levels of Ca, 1,25(OH)2D3, bone Gla-protein(BGP), and Type I procollagen (PC1), and reduced serum levels of phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone(PTH), pyridinol (PYD), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and urinary level of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) in the treatment OVX group compared with the untreated OVX group. Meanwhile, Eq or E2 markedly induced the mRNA and protein expression of OPG and OPG/RANKL ratio. CONCLUSION: Eq can combine with ERß and exert a protective effect on PMOP by upregulating OPG/RANKL pathway.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Equol/farmacologia , Equol/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Osteoblastos
5.
Gene ; 851: 146928, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191822

RESUMO

Bone formation is controlled by histone modifying enzymes that regulate post-translational modifications on nucleosomal histone proteins and control accessibility of transcription factors to gene promoters required for osteogenesis. Enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2/Ezh2), a histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyl transferase, is a suppressor of osteoblast differentiation. Ezh2 is regulated by SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 (SMYD2/Smyd2), a lysine methyltransferase that modifies both histone and non-histone proteins. Here, we examined whether Smyd2 modulates Ezh2 suppression of osteoblast differentiation. Musculoskeletal RNA-seq data show that SMYD2/Smyd2 is the most highly expressed SMYD/Smyd member in human bone tissues and mouse osteoblasts. Smyd2 loss of function analysis in mouse MC3T3 osteoblasts using siRNA depletion enhances proliferation and calcium deposition. Loss of Smyd2 protein does not affect alkaline phosphatase activity nor does it result in a unified expression response for standard osteoblast-related mRNA markers (e.g., Bglap, Ibsp, Spp1, Sp7), indicating that Smyd2 does not directly control osteoblast differentiation. Smyd2 protein depletion enhances levels of the osteo-suppressive Ezh2 protein and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), as expected from increased cell proliferation, while elevating the osteo-inductive Runx2 protein. Combined siRNA depletion of both Smyd2 and Ezh2 protein is more effective in promoting calcium deposition when compared to loss of either protein. Collectively, our results indicate that Smyd2 inhibits proliferation and indirectly the subsequent mineral deposition by osteoblasts. Mechanistically, Smyd2 represents a functional epigenetic regulator that operates in parallel to the suppressive effects of Ezh2 and H3K27 trimethylation on osteoblast differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste , Lisina , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Domínios MYND , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
6.
Bone ; 166: 116575, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have high proliferative and multilineage differentiation potential in mesenchymal stem cells. However, several studies have indicated that there are individual differences in the potential for osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs, and the factors determining these differences are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the genes responsible for the individual differences in the osteogenic differentiation ability of DPSCs. METHODS: We divided DPSCs into high and low osteogenic differentiation ability groups (HG or LG) with ALP and von Kossa stain, and compared the gene expression patterns using RNA-seq. In addition, genes that may affect osteogenic differentiation were knocked down using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and their effects were investigated. RESULTS: The RNA-seq patterns revealed that VCAM1 and GFPT2 were significantly expressed at higher levels in the HG than in the LG. The results of siRNA analysis showed that VCAM1 and GFPT2 knockdown significantly reduced the expression of osteogenic markers. Furthermore, we analyzed the involvement of these two genes in cell signaling in DPSC differentiation. The results indicated that the VCAM1-mediated Ras-MEK-Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways are involved in the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs, and that GFPT2-mediated HBP signaling influences the osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that DPSCs that highly express VCAM1 and GFPT2 have a high capacity for osteogenic differentiation. Evaluation of VCAM1 and GFPT2 expression in undifferentiated DPSCs may predict the outcome of bone regenerative therapy using DPSCs. Moreover, the expression levels of VCAM1 and GFPT2 in DPSCs may be useful in setting criteria for selecting donors for allogeneic cell transplantation for bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante) , Osteogênese , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular , Humanos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Polpa Dentária , Osteoblastos , Osteogênese/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/genética , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/metabolismo
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115887, 2023 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328203

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Er-xian Decoction (EXD) is a well-known prescription widely used to prevent and treat climacteric syndrome and osteoporosis in China. BK channel positively affects osteoblast bone formation in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether the effect of EXD on promoting osteoblasts osteogenic differentiation is related to BK channel. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study is aimed at determining whether the EXD-containing serum promotes the proliferation of osteoblasts and their differentiation through BK channel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical compounds of EXD were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. An osteogenic induction medium (OM) was used to induce MC3T3-E1 cells' osteogenic differentiation. The effects of EXD-containing serum and tetraethylammonium (TEA) on the proliferation activity of Mc3t3-e1 cells were detected by CCK-8 assay. ALP activity was determined by an alkaline phosphatase kit. The protein expression (BMP2, OPG, and COL1) was analyzed by Western blot, and the mRNA expression (Runx2, OPG, and BMP2) was assessed by real-time PCR. Alizarin red was used to stain the mineralized region of osteoblasts. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between BK channel and its downstream PTEN/Akt/Foxo1 signaling pathway. RESULTS: 72 compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis in EXD. Mangiferin, ferulic acid, berberine, and icariin were main active components of EXD. EXD-containing serum could enhance the cell viability of MC3T3-E1 cells by decreasing the expression of BKα protein. EXD-containing serum increased ALP activity and calcium nodule formation of Mc3t3-e1 cells, promoted the protein expression of BKα, COL1, BMP2, OPG, and the mRNA expression of RUNX2, OPG, and BMP2, however, these effects can be reversed after adding TEA. In addition, EXD-containing serum could upregulate phosphorylation of Akt and Foxo1 in osteogenic-induced Mc3t3-e1 cells, and lower the expression of PTEN. And these effects of EXD-containing serum could be reduced by TEA. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of EXD-containing serum on promoting cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of Mc3t3-e1 cells might be linked to the regulation of BK channel.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Osteogênese , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Alta/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Osteoblastos , Proliferação de Células , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 27(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36416346

RESUMO

Carnosine is a vital endogenous dipeptide that has anti­inflammatory, antiaging, anti­crosslinking, antitumor and immune regulatory effects. Numerous cell and animal model studies have proved that carnosine and its compounds promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit osteoclasts and protect chondrocytes. They also regulate the cell cycle of bone progenitor cells and the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, accelerate fracture healing, delay bone tumor development and ameliorate osteopenia induced by estrogen deficiency or disuse. The correlations between carnosine and activation signal molecules, pluripotent differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and interaction between bone cells are unclear. However, studies have proved that carnosine and its compounds have benefits in preventing and treating specific bone diseases. This makes them potential agents for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone tumors. The present review summarized the existing research on carnosine and its compounds in bone cells and tissue. It focused on the physiological function of carnosine and its compounds in the bone and their effect on bone metabolism­related diseases, thus providing support for developing new strategies for targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Carnosina , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Carnosina/farmacologia , Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos , Diferenciação Celular
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 417-427, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418701

RESUMO

The use of quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT2-PCR) for the identification of differentially regulated genes is a powerful technology. The protocol presented here uses qRT2-PCR gene arrays to investigate the regulation of 84 angiogenic related genes in human primary alveolar osteoblasts following treatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, and geranylgeraniol (GGOH). GGOH has potential as a therapeutic agent for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, a serious side effect resulting from treatment for metastatic cancer (Zafar S, Coates DE, Cullinan MP, Drummond BK, Milne T, Seymour GJ. J Oral Pathol Med 43:711-721, 2014). The isolation of the primary osteoblast cells follows the methods described by Dillon et al. (Method Mol Biol 816:3-18, 2012) with a new RNA extraction technique described fully. The method highlights the importance of obtaining high-quality RNA which is DNA-free. Relative levels of gene expression are normalized against selected reference genes (HKG) and a number of examples of how fold regulation (2-ΔΔCq) and gene expression level (2-ΔCq) data can be presented are given.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos , Osteoblastos , Humanos , Ácido Zoledrônico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1054827, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36452326

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been comprehensively implicated in various cellular functions by mediating transcriptional or post-transcriptional activities. MALAT1 is involved in the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of multiple cell lines, including BMSCs, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes. Interestingly, MALAT1 may interact with RNAs or proteins, regulating cellular processes. Recently, MALAT1 has been reported to be associated with the development of bone and cartilage diseases by orchestrating the signaling network. The involvement of MALAT1 in the pathological development of bone and cartilage diseases makes it available to be a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Although the potential mechanisms of MALAT1 in mediating the cellular processes of bone and cartilage diseases are still needed for further elucidation, MALAT1 shows great promise for drug development.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cartilagens , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Doenças das Cartilagens/genética , Osteoclastos , Osteoblastos , Condrócitos
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9668610, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330460

RESUMO

Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a tissue remodeling process based on orthodontic force loading. Compressed periodontal tissues have a complicated aseptic inflammatory cascade, which are considered the initial factor of alveolar bone remodeling. Since skeletal and immune systems shared a wide variety of molecules, osteoimmunology has been generally accepted as an interdisciplinary field to investigate their interactions. Unsurprisingly, OTM is considered a good mirror of osteoimmunology since it involves immune reaction and bone remolding. In fact, besides bone remodeling, OTM involves cementum resorption, soft tissue remodeling, orthodontic pain, and relapse, all correlated with immune cells and/or immunologically active substance. The aim of this paper is to review the interaction of immune system with orthodontic tooth movement, which helps gain insights into mechanisms of OTM and search novel method to short treatment period and control complications.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Remodelação Óssea , Osteoblastos , Sistema Imunitário
12.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359752

RESUMO

The culture of osteoblasts (OB) of human origin is a useful experimental model in studying bone biology, osteogenic differentiation, functions of bone proteins, oncological processes in bone tissue, testing drugs against bone desires, and many other fields. The purpose of the present study is to share a workflow that has established the conditions to efficiently isolate and grow OB cells obtained from surgically removed bones from human donors. The protocol described here also shows how to determine cell phenotype. Here we provide characteristics of cells isolated by this protocol that might help researchers to decide if such OB are suitable for the purposes of their study. Osteoblasts isolated from collagenase-treated explants of adult bones are able to proliferate and keep their phenotype in culture. OB cells have high synthetic properties. They express osteomarkers, such as RUNX2, osteocalcin, BMP2, and osteopontin both in control conditions and in an osteogenic medium that could be estimated by qPCR and immunocytochemical staining and by Western blotting. Induction of osteogenic differentiation does not dramatically influence the synthetic properties of OB cells, while the cells gain the ability to extracellular mineralization only in an osteogenic medium.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos , Osteogênese , Humanos , Osteogênese/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362346

RESUMO

Suffruticosol B (Suf-B) is a stilbene found in Paeonia suffruticosa ANDR., which has been traditionally used in medicine. Stilbenes and their derivatives possess various pharmacological effects, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-osteoporotic activities. This study aimed to explore the bone-forming activities and mechanisms of Suf-B in pre-osteoblasts. Herein, >99.9% pure Suf-B was isolated from P. suffruticosa methanolic extracts. High concentrations of Suf-B were cytotoxic, whereas low concentrations did not affect cytotoxicity in pre-osteoblasts. Under zero levels of cytotoxicity, Suf-B exhibited bone-forming abilities by enhancing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities, bone matrix calcification, and expression levels with non-collagenous proteins. Suf-B induces intracellular signal transduction, leading to nuclear RUNX2 expression. Suf-B-stimulated differentiation showed increases in autophagy proteins and autophagosomes, as well as enhancement of osteoblast adhesion and transmigration on the ECM. These results indicate that Suf-B has osteogenic qualities related to differentiation, autophagy, adhesion, and migration. This also suggests that Suf-B could have a therapeutic effect as a phytomedicine in skeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Estilbenos , Osteogênese , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Paeonia/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362086

RESUMO

RUNX proteins, such as RUNX2, regulate the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Haploinsufficiency of RUNX2 causes cleidocranial dysplasia, but a detailed analysis of Runx2+/- mice has not been reported. Furthermore, CBFB is required for the stability and DNA binding of RUNX family proteins. CBFB has two isoforms, and CBFB2 plays a major role in skeletal development. The calvaria, femurs, vertebrae and ribs in Cbfb2-/- mice were analyzed after birth, and compared with those in Runx2+/- mice. Calvarial development was impaired in Runx2+/- mice but mildly delayed in Cbfb2-/- mice. In femurs, the cortical bone but not trabecular bone was reduced in Cbfb2-/- mice, whereas both the trabecular and cortical bone were reduced in Runx2+/- mice. The trabecular bone in vertebrae increased in Cbfb2-/- mice but not in Runx2+/- mice. Rib development was impaired in Cbfb2-/- mice but not in Runx2+/- mice. These differences were likely caused by differences in the indispensability of CBFB and RUNX2, the balance of bone formation and resorption, or the number and maturation stage of osteoblasts. Thus, different amounts of CBFB and RUNX2 were required among the bone tissues for proper bone development and maintenance.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core , Osteoblastos , Animais , Camundongos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Fatores de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Costelas/metabolismo , Crânio/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo
15.
Int J Oral Sci ; 14(1): 53, 2022 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376275

RESUMO

Bone regeneration remains a great clinical challenge. Low intensity near-infrared (NIR) light showed strong potential to promote tissue regeneration, offering a promising strategy for bone defect regeneration. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of NIR on bone regeneration remain unclear. We demonstrated that bone regeneration in the rat skull defect model was significantly accelerated with low-intensity NIR stimulation. In vitro studies showed that NIR stimulation could promote the osteoblast differentiation in bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and MC3T3-E1 cells, which was associated with increased ubiquitination of the core circadian clock protein Cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) in the nucleus. We found that the reduction of CRY1 induced by NIR light activated the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, promoting SMAD1/5/9 phosphorylation and increasing the expression levels of Runx2 and Osterix. NIR light treatment may act through sodium voltage-gated channel Scn4a, which may be a potential responder of NIR light to accelerate bone regeneration. Together, these findings suggest that low-intensity NIR light may promote in situ bone regeneration in a CRY1-dependent manner, providing a novel, efficient and non-invasive strategy to promote bone regeneration for clinical bone defects.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Relógios Circadianos , Criptocromos , Animais , Ratos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Criptocromos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 940624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36353240

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the osteotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and to explore the underlying mechanism focused on oxidative stress. The cells were exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations of 2.5-20 µmol/L, and then cell viability, oxidative stress, intracellular calcium concentration, osteocalcin content, and calcium nodules formation were measured. Aroclor 1254 reduced cell viability and induced overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of superoxide dismutase was decreased, and malondialdehyde content was promoted after exposure. Moreover, inhibitory effects of Aroclor 1254 on calcium metabolism and mineralization of osteoblasts were observed, as indicated by reduction of the intracellular calcium concentration, osteocalcin content, and modules formation rate. The decreased expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 further confirmed the impairment of Aroclor 1254 on calcium homeostasis and osteoblast differentiation. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine partially restored the inhibitory effects on calcium metabolism and mineralization. In general, Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces calcium homeostasis, osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and oxidative stress plays a vital role in the underlying molecular mechanism of osteotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Osteogênese , Camundongos , Animais , /metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Osteoblastos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(45): e2212178119, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322718

RESUMO

Citrate is a critical metabolic substrate and key regulator of energy metabolism in mammalian cells. It has been known for decades that the skeleton contains most (>85%) of the body's citrate, but the question of why and how this metabolite should be partitioned in bone has received singularly little attention. Here, we show that osteoblasts use a specialized metabolic pathway to regulate uptake, endogenous production, and the deposition of citrate into bone. Osteoblasts express high levels of the membranous Na+-dependent citrate transporter solute carrier family 13 member 5 (Slc13a5) gene. Inhibition or genetic disruption of Slc13a5 reduced osteogenic citrate uptake and disrupted mineral nodule formation. Bones from mice lacking Slc13a5 globally, or selectively in osteoblasts, showed equivalent reductions in cortical thickness, with similarly compromised mechanical strength. Surprisingly, citrate content in mineral from Slc13a5-/- osteoblasts was increased fourfold relative to controls, suggesting the engagement of compensatory mechanisms to augment endogenous citrate production. Indeed, through the coordinated functioning of the apical membrane citrate transporter SLC13A5 and a mitochondrial zinc transporter protein (ZIP1; encoded by Slc39a1), a mediator of citrate efflux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle, SLC13A5 mediates citrate entry from blood and its activity exerts homeostatic control of cytoplasmic citrate. Intriguingly, Slc13a5-deficient mice also exhibited defective tooth enamel and dentin formation, a clinical feature, which we show is recapitulated in primary teeth from children with SLC13A5 mutations. Together, our results reveal the components of an osteoblast metabolic pathway, which affects bone strength by regulating citrate deposition into mineral hydroxyapatite.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Simportadores , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo , Durapatita/metabolismo , Citratos , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2209231119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417434

RESUMO

The shaping of bone structures relies on various cell types and signaling pathways. Here, we use the zebrafish bifurcating fin rays during regeneration to investigate bone patterning. We found that the regenerating fin rays form via two mineralization fronts that undergo an osteoblast-dependent fusion/stitching until the branchpoint, and that bifurcation is not simply the splitting of one unit into two. We identified tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteolytic tubular structures at the branchpoints, hereafter named osteolytic tubules (OLTs). Chemical inhibition of their bone-resorbing activity strongly impairs ray bifurcation, indicating that OLTs counteract the stitching process. Furthermore, by testing different osteoactive compounds, we show that the position of the branchpoint depends on the balance between bone mineralization and resorption activities. Overall, these findings provide a unique perspective on fin ray formation and bifurcation, and reveal a key role for OLTs in defining the proximo-distal position of the branchpoint.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo
19.
Elife ; 112022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326085

RESUMO

The spatiotemporal blood vessel formation and specification at the osteogenic and angiogenic interface of murine cranial bone defect repair were examined utilizing a high-resolution multiphoton-based imaging platform in conjunction with advanced optical techniques that allow interrogation of the oxygen microenvironment and cellular energy metabolism in living animals. Our study demonstrates the dynamic changes of vessel types, that is, arterial, venous, and capillary vessel networks at the superior and dura periosteum of cranial bone defect, suggesting a differential coupling of the vessel type with osteoblast expansion and bone tissue deposition/remodeling during repair. Employing transgenic reporter mouse models that label distinct types of vessels at the site of repair, we further show that oxygen distributions in capillary vessels at the healing site are heterogeneous as well as time- and location-dependent. The endothelial cells coupling to osteoblasts prefer glycolysis and are less sensitive to microenvironmental oxygen changes than osteoblasts. In comparison, osteoblasts utilize relatively more OxPhos and potentially consume more oxygen at the site of repair. Taken together, our study highlights the dynamics and functional significance of blood vessel types at the site of defect repair, opening up opportunities for further delineating the oxygen and metabolic microenvironment at the interface of bone tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Microscopia , Camundongos , Animais , Osteogênese , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular
20.
Biomed Mater ; 17(6)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384043

RESUMO

Osteocytes are considered the primary mechanical sensor in bone tissue and orchestrate the coupled bone remodeling activity of adjacent osteoblast and osteoclast cells.In vivoinvestigation of mechanically induced signal propagation through networks of interconnected osteocytes is confounded by their confinement within the mineralized bone matrix, which cannot be modeled in conventional culture systems. In this study, we developed a new model that mimics thisin vivoconfinement using gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel or GelMA mineralized using osteoblast-like model cells. This model also enables real-time optical examination of osteocyte calcium (Ca2+) signaling dynamics in response to fluid shear stimuli cultured under confined conditions. Using this system, we discovered several distinct and previously undescribed patterns of Ca2+responses that vary across networks of interconnected osteocytes as a function of space, time and connectivity. Heterogeneity in Ca2+signaling may provide new insights into bone remodeling in response to mechanical loading. Overall, such a model can be extended to study signaling dynamics within cell networks exposed to flow-induced mechanical stimuli under confined conditions.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos , Osteócitos , Osteoclastos , Matriz Óssea , Cálcio , Estresse Mecânico
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