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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8109, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582757

RESUMO

Bone resorption is highly dependent on the dynamic rearrangement of the osteoclast actin cytoskeleton to allow formation of actin rings and a functional ruffled border. Hem1 is a hematopoietic-specific subunit of the WAVE-complex which regulates actin polymerization and is crucial for lamellipodia formation in hematopoietic cell types. However, its role in osteoclast differentiation and function is still unknown. Here, we show that although the absence of Hem1 promotes osteoclastogenesis, the ability of Hem1-/- osteoclasts to degrade bone was severely impaired. Global as well as osteoclast-specific deletion of Hem1 in vivo revealed increased femoral trabecular bone mass despite elevated numbers of osteoclasts in vivo. We found that the resorption defect derived from the morphological distortion of the actin-rich sealing zone and ruffled border deformation in Hem1-deficient osteoclasts leading to impaired vesicle transport and increased intracellular acidification. Collectively, our data identify Hem1 as a yet unknown key player in bone remodeling by regulating ruffled border formation and consequently the resorptive capacity of osteoclasts.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osteogênese
2.
J Med Virol ; 96(4): e29597, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587211

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in the loss of millions of lives, although a majority of those infected have managed to survive. Consequently, a set of outcomes, identified as long COVID, is now emerging. While the primary target of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the respiratory system, the impact of COVID-19 extends to various body parts, including the bone. This study aims to investigate the effects of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection on osteoclastogenesis, utilizing both ancestral and Omicron viral strains. Monocyte-derived macrophages, which serve as precursors to osteoclasts, were exposed to both viral variants. However, the infection proved abortive, even though ACE2 receptor expression increased postinfection, with no significant impact on cellular viability and redox balance. Both SARS-CoV-2 strains heightened osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, as well as CD51/61 expression and bone resorptive ability. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 induced early pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization, shifting toward an M2-like profile. Osteoclastogenesis-related genes (RANK, NFATc1, DC-STAMP, MMP9) were upregulated, and surprisingly, SARS-CoV-2 variants promoted RANKL-independent osteoclast formation. This thorough investigation illuminates the intricate interplay between SARS-CoV-2 and osteoclast precursors, suggesting potential implications for bone homeostasis and opening new avenues for therapeutic exploration in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Osteoclastos , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , COVID-19/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Diferenciação Celular
3.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23554, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588175

RESUMO

Bones can form the scaffolding of the body, support the organism, coordinate somatic movements, and control mineral homeostasis and hematopoiesis. The immune system plays immune supervisory, defensive, and regulatory roles in the organism, which mainly consists of immune organs (spleen, bone marrow, tonsils, lymph nodes, etc.), immune cells (granulocytes, platelets, lymphocytes, etc.), and immune molecules (immune factors, interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, etc.). Bone and the immune system have long been considered two distinct fields of study, and the bone marrow, as a shared microenvironment between the bone and the immune system, closely links the two. Osteoimmunology organically combines bone and the immune system, elucidates the role of the immune system in bone, and creatively emphasizes its interdisciplinary characteristics and the function of immune cells and factors in maintaining bone homeostasis, providing new perspectives for skeletal-related field research. In recent years, bone immunology has gradually become a hot spot in the study of bone-related diseases. As a new branch of immunology, bone immunology emphasizes that the immune system can directly or indirectly affect bones through the RANKL/RANK/OPG signaling pathway, IL family, TNF-α, TGF-ß, and IFN-γ. These effects are of great significance for understanding inflammatory bone loss caused by various autoimmune or infectious diseases. In addition, as an external environment that plays an important role in immunity and bone, this study pays attention to the role of exercise-mediated bone immunity in bone reconstruction.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Osteoclastos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Imunitário , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
4.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591777

RESUMO

Bone remodeling is a complex process involving the coordinated actions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to maintain bone homeostasis. While the influence of osteoblasts on osteoclast differentiation is well established, the reciprocal regulation of osteoblasts by osteoclasts has long remained enigmatic. In the past few years, a fascinating new role for osteoclasts has been unveiled in promoting bone formation and facilitating osteoblast migration to the remodeling sites through a number of different mechanisms, including the release of factors from the bone matrix following bone resorption and direct cell-cell interactions. Additionally, considerable evidence has shown that osteoclasts can secrete coupling factors known as clastokines, emphasizing the crucial role of these cells in maintaining bone homeostasis. Due to their osteoprotective function, clastokines hold great promise as potential therapeutic targets for bone diseases. However, despite long-standing work to uncover new clastokines and their effect in vivo, more substantial efforts are still required to decipher the mechanisms and pathways behind their activity in order to translate them into therapies. This comprehensive review provides insights into our evolving understanding of the osteoclast function, highlights the significance of clastokines in bone remodeling, and explores their potential as treatments for bone diseases suggesting future directions for the field.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia
5.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1333086, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504994

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a common chronic metabolic bone disorder. Recently, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, a receptor located on the surface of osteoclasts and osteoblasts) plays a pivotal role in the development of osteoporosis. Herein, we performed a comprehensive review to summarize the findings from the relevant studies within this topic. Clinical data showed that TLR4 polymorphisms and aberrant TLR4 expression have been associated with the clinical significance of osteoporosis. Mechanistically, dysregulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts induced by abnormal expression of TLR4 is the main molecular mechanism underlying the pathological processes of osteoporosis, which may be associated with the interactions between TLR4 and NF-κB pathway, proinflammatory effects, ncRNAs, and RUNX2. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that many promising substances or agents (i.e., methionine, dioscin, miR-1906 mimic, artesunate, AEG-1 deletion, patchouli alcohol, and Bacteroides vulgatus) have been able to improve bone metabolism (i.e., inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation), which may partially attribute to the inhibition of TLR4 expression. The present review highlights the important role of TLR4 in the clinical significance and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis from the aspects of inflammation and immunity. Future therapeutic strategies targeting TLR4 may provide a new insight for osteoporosis treatment.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Humanos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo
6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 704: 149596, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430697

RESUMO

PHD finger protein 7 (Phf7) is a member of the PHF family proteins, which plays important roles in spermiogenesis. Phf7 is expressed in the adult testes and its deficiency causes male infertility. In this study, we tried to find the causal relationship between Phf7 deficiency and reduced growth retardation which were found in null knock-out (Phf7-/-) mice. Phf7-/- mice were born normally in the Mendelian ratio. However, the Phf7-/- males showed decreased body weight gain, bone mineral density, and bone mineral content compared to those in wild-type (WT) mice. Histological analysis for tibia revealed increased number of osteoclast cells in Phf7-/- mice compared with that in WT mice. When we analyzed the expressions for marker genes for the initial stage of osteoclastogenesis, such as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (Rank) in tibia, there was no difference in the mRNA levels between Phf7-/- and WT mice. However, the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), a mature stage marker gene, was significantly higher in Phf7-/- mice than in WT mice. In addition, the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), more potent and active form of testosterone, were significantly reduced in the testes of Phf7-/- mice compared to those in WT mice. Furthermore, testicular mRNA levels for steroidogenesis marker genes, namely Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and 17ß-hsd, were significantly lower in Phf7-/- mice than in WT mice. In conclusion, these results suggest that Phf7 deficiency reduces the production of male sex hormones and thereby impairs associated bone remodeling.


Assuntos
Hormônios Testiculares , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Remodelação Óssea , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Hormônios Testiculares/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
7.
Invest New Drugs ; 42(2): 207-220, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427117

RESUMO

It has previously been demonstrated that the polybisphosphonate osteodex (ODX) inhibits bone resorption in organ-cultured mouse calvarial bone. In this study, we further investigate the effects by ODX on osteoclast differentiation, formation, and function in several different bone organ and cell cultures. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) was used for comparison. In retinoid-stimulated mouse calvarial organ cultures, ODX and ZOL significantly reduced the numbers of periosteal osteoclasts without affecting Tnfsf11 or Tnfrsf11b mRNA expression. ODX and ZOL also drastically reduced the numbers of osteoclasts in cell cultures isolated from the calvarial bone and in vitamin D3-stimulated mouse crude bone marrow cell cultures. These data suggest that ODX can inhibit osteoclast formation by inhibiting the differentiation of osteoclast progenitor cells or by directly targeting mature osteoclasts. We therefore assessed if osteoclast formation in purified bone marrow macrophage cultures stimulated by RANKL was inhibited by ODX and ZOL and found that the initial formation of mature osteoclasts was not affected, but that the bisphosphonates enhanced cell death of mature osteoclasts. In agreement with these findings, ODX and ZOL did not affect the mRNA expression of the osteoclastic genes Acp5 and Ctsk and the osteoclastogenic transcription factor Nfatc1. When bone marrow macrophages were incubated on bone slices, ODX and ZOL inhibited RANKL-stimulated bone resorption. In conclusion, ODX does not inhibit osteoclast formation but inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption by decreasing osteoclast numbers through enhanced cell death of mature osteoclasts.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Animais , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Medula Óssea , Células Cultivadas , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Morte Celular , Ácido Zoledrônico/farmacologia , Ácido Zoledrônico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
8.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 114(4): 430-443, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483547

RESUMO

Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis type II (ADO2) is a rare bone disease of impaired osteoclastic bone resorption caused by heterozygous missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7). Adenylate cyclase, which catalyzes the formation of cAMP, is critical for lysosomal acidification in osteoclasts. We found reduced cAMP levels in ADO2 osteoclasts compared to wild-type (WT) osteoclasts, leading us to examine whether regulating cAMP would improve ADO2 osteoclast activity. Although forskolin, a known activator of adenylate cyclase and cAMP levels, negatively affected osteoclast number, it led to an overall increase in ADO2 and WT osteoclast resorption activity in vitro. Next, we examined cAMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) proteins in ADO2 versus WT osteoclasts. QPCR analysis revealed higher expression of the three major PDE4 subtypes (4a, 4b, 4d) in ADO2 osteoclasts compared in WT, consistent with reduced cAMP levels in ADO2 osteoclasts. In addition, we found that the PDE4 antagonists, rolipram and roflumilast, stimulated ADO2 and WT osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, roflumilast and rolipram displayed a concentration-dependent increase in osteoclast resorption activity which was greater in ADO2 than WT osteoclasts. Moreover, treatment with roflumilast rescued cAMP levels in ADO2 OCLs. The key findings from our studies demonstrate that osteoclasts from ADO2 mice exhibit reduced cAMP levels and PDE4 inhibition rescues cAMP levels and ADO2 osteoclast activity dysfunction in vitro. The mechanism of action of PDE4 inhibitors and their ability to reduce the high bone mass of ADO2 mice in vivo are currently under investigation. Importantly, these studies advance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the ADO2 osteoclast dysfunction which is critical for the development of therapeutic approaches to treat clinically affected ADO2 patients.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas , Benzamidas , Reabsorção Óssea , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4 , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Rolipram/farmacologia , Rolipram/metabolismo , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Ciclopropanos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7290, 2024 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538704

RESUMO

Bone destruction, a major source of morbidity, is mediated by heightened differentiation and activity of osteoclasts (OC), highly specialized multinucleated myeloid cells endowed with unique bone-resorptive capacity. The molecular mechanisms regulating OC differentiation in the bone marrow are still partly elusive. Here, we aimed to identify new regulatory circuits and actionable targets by comprehensive proteomic characterization of OCgenesis from mouse bone marrow monocytes, adopting two parallel unbiased comparative proteomic approaches. This work disclosed an unanticipated protein signature of OCgenesis, with most gene products currently unannotated in bone-related functions, revealing broad structural and functional cellular reorganization and divergence from macrophagic immune activity. Moreover, we identified the deubiquitinase UCHL1 as the most upregulated cytosolic protein in differentiating OCs. Functional studies proved it essential, as UCHL1 genetic and pharmacologic inhibition potently suppressed OCgenesis. Furthermore, proteomics and mechanistic dissection showed that UCHL1 supports OC differentiation by restricting the anti-OCgenic activity of NRF2, the transcriptional activator of the canonical antioxidant response, through redox-independent stabilization of the NRF2 inhibitor, KEAP1. Besides offering a valuable experimental framework to dissect OC differentiation, our study discloses the essential role of UCHL1, exerted through KEAP1-dependent containment of NRF2 anti-OCgenic activity, yielding a novel potential actionable pathway against bone loss.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteólise , Animais , Camundongos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteólise/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ligante RANK/metabolismo
10.
Chin J Nat Med ; 22(3): 212-223, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553189

RESUMO

Cyathulae Radix, a traditional Chinese medicine and a common vegetable, boasts a history spanning millennia. It enhances bone density, boosts metabolism, and effectively alleviates osteoporosis-induced pain. Despite its historical use, the molecular mechanisms behind Cyathulae Radix's impact on osteoporosis remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Cyathulae Radix ethanol extract (CEE) in inhibiting osteoporosis and osteoclastogenesis. Eight-week-old female mice underwent ovariectomy and were treated with CEE for eight weeks. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) assessed histomorphometric parameters, bone tissue staining observed distal femur histomorphology, and three-point bending tests evaluated tibia mechanical properties. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured serum estradiol (E2), receptor activator for nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels. Osteoclastogenesis-related markers were analyzed via Western blotting (WB) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Additionally, CEE effects on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption were investigated in vitro using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, qRT-PCR, and WB assay. Compared with the ovariectomy (OVX) group, CEE treatment enhanced trabecular bone density, maximal load-bearing capacity, and various histomorphometric parameters. Serum E2 and OPG levels significantly increased, while Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) decreased in the CEE group. CEE downregulated matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), Cathepsin K (CTSK), and TRAP gene and protein expression. In bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), CEE reduced mature osteoclasts, bone resorption pit areas, and MMP-9, CTSK, and TRAP expression during osteoclast differentiation. Compared with DMSO treatment, CEE markedly inhibited RANK, TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), Proto-oncogene c-Fos (c-Fos), Nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) expressions, and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), NF-kappa B-p65 (p65) phosphorylation in osteoclasts. In conclusion, CEE significantly inhibits OVX-induced osteoporosis and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, potentially through modulating the Estrogen Receptor (ER)/RANK/NFATc1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoporose , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ovariectomia
11.
Cell Rep ; 43(3): 113936, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489269

RESUMO

Osteoclasts play a central role in cancer-cell-induced osteolysis, but the molecular mechanisms of osteoclast activation during bone metastasis formation are incompletely understood. By performing RNA sequencing on a mouse breast carcinoma cell line with higher bone-metastatic potential, here we identify the enzyme CYP11A1 strongly upregulated in osteotropic tumor cells. Genetic deletion of Cyp11a1 in tumor cells leads to a decreased number of bone metastases but does not alter primary tumor growth and lung metastasis formation in mice. The product of CYP11A1 activity, pregnenolone, increases the number and function of mouse and human osteoclasts in vitro but does not alter osteoclast-specific gene expression. Instead, tumor-derived pregnenolone strongly enhances the fusion of pre-osteoclasts via prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta (P4HB), identified as a potential interaction partner of pregnenolone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cyp11a1-expressing tumor cells produce pregnenolone, which is capable of promoting bone metastasis formation and osteoclast development via P4HB.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Osteogênese , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Pregnenolona/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Diferenciação Celular
12.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 56(4): 499-512, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439665

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, and good therapeutic results are often difficult to obtain due to its complex pathogenesis and diverse causative factors. After decades of research and exploration of OA, it has been progressively found that subchondral bone is essential for its pathogenesis, and pathological changes in subchondral bone can be observed even before cartilage lesions develop. Osteoclasts, the main cells regulating bone resorption, play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of subchondral bone. Subchondral osteoclasts regulate the homeostasis of subchondral bone through the secretion of degradative enzymes, immunomodulation, and cell signaling pathways. In OA, osteoclasts are overactivated by autophagy, ncRNAs, and Rankl/Rank/OPG signaling pathways. Excessive bone resorption disrupts the balance of bone remodeling, leading to increased subchondral bone loss, decreased bone mineral density and consequent structural damage to articular cartilage and joint pain. With increased understanding of bone biology and targeted therapies, researchers have found that the activity and function of subchondral osteoclasts are affected by multiple pathways. In this review, we summarize the roles and mechanisms of subchondral osteoclasts in OA, enumerate the latest advances in subchondral osteoclast-targeted therapy for OA, and look forward to the future trends of subchondral osteoclast-targeted therapies in clinical applications to fill the gaps in the current knowledge of OA treatment and to develop new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Cartilagem Articular , Osteoartrite , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Remodelação Óssea/fisiologia , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo
13.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(4): 1152-1161, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442009

RESUMO

Periodontitis, a chronic infectious disease in periodontal tissues, is characterized by an imbalance of alveolar bone resorption and remodeling, which eventually results in tooth loosening and even tooth loss. The etiology of periodontitis is polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis, in which Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is one of the primary pathogens responsible for periodontitis progression. The interplay of EphrinB2/EphB4 is crucial for osteoblast-osteoclast communication during bone remodeling and healing. This study investigates the mechanism of EphB4/EphrinB2 transduction modulating osteogenesis inhibition and bone resorption in periodontitis induced by P. gingivalis. An in vivo model of chronic periodontitis provoked by P. gingivalis was constructed, the inflammation and bone resorption were evaluated. The expression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 proteins in periodontal tissues was detected, which was also evaluated, respectively, in osteoblasts and osteoclasts infected with P. gingivalis in vitro. Then, a simulated coculture model of osteoblasts and osteoclasts was established to activate the forward and reverse pathways of EphB4/EphrinB2 with P. gingivalis infection. This study showed that P. gingivalis infection promoted alveolar bone resorption in rats and enhanced EphB4 and EphrinB2 expression in periodontal tissues. EphB4 and molecules associated with osteogenesis in osteoblasts infected with P. gingivalis were inhibited, while EphrinB2 and osteoclast differentiation-related markers in osteoclasts were activated. In conclusion, this study suggested that EphB4/EphrinB2 proteins were involved in alveolar bone remodeling in the process of periodontitis induced by P. gingivalis infection. Moreover, attenuated EphB4/EphrinB2 with P. gingivalis infection weakened osteoblast activity and enhanced osteoclast activity.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Periodontite , Ratos , Animais , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Transdução de Sinais , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Receptor EphB4/genética , Receptor EphB4/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7042, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528074

RESUMO

In China, traditional medications for osteoporosis have significant side effects, low compliance, and high costs, making it urgent to explore new treatment options. Probiotics have demonstrated superiority in the treatment of various chronic diseases, and the reduction of bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is closely related to the degradation and metabolism of intestinal probiotics. It is crucial to explore the role and molecular mechanisms of probiotics in alleviating PMOP through their metabolites, as well as their therapeutic effects. We aim to identify key probiotics and their metabolites that affect bone loss in PMOP through 16srDNA sequencing combined with non-targeted metabolomics sequencing, and explore the impact and possible mechanisms of key probiotics and their metabolites on the progression of PMOP in the context of osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency. The sequencing results showed a significant decrease in Lactobacillus acidophilus and butyrate in PMOP patients. In vivo experiments confirmed that the intervention of L. acidophilus and butyrate significantly inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity, improved intestinal barrier permeability, suppressed B cells, and the production of RANKL on B cells, effectively reduced systemic bone loss induced by oophorectomy, with butyric acid levels regulated by L. acidophilus. Consistently, in vitro experiments have confirmed that butyrate can directly inhibit the formation of osteoclasts and bone resorption activity. The above research results indicate that there are various pathways through which L. acidophilus inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption activity through butyrate. Intervention with L. acidophilus may be a safe and promising treatment strategy for osteoclast related bone diseases, such as PMOP.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Osteoporose , Probióticos , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Butiratos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Diferenciação Celular , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos
15.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2384, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493144

RESUMO

MALAT1, one of the few highly conserved nuclear long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), is abundantly expressed in normal tissues. Previously, targeted inactivation and genetic rescue experiments identified MALAT1 as a suppressor of breast cancer lung metastasis. On the other hand, Malat1-knockout mice are viable and develop normally. On a quest to discover the fundamental roles of MALAT1 in physiological and pathological processes, we find that this lncRNA is downregulated during osteoclastogenesis in humans and mice. Remarkably, Malat1 deficiency in mice promotes osteoporosis and bone metastasis of melanoma and mammary tumor cells, which can be rescued by genetic add-back of Malat1. Mechanistically, Malat1 binds to Tead3 protein, a macrophage-osteoclast-specific Tead family member, blocking Tead3 from binding and activating Nfatc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, which results in the inhibition of Nfatc1-mediated gene transcription and osteoclast differentiation. Notably, single-cell transcriptome analysis of clinical bone samples reveals that reduced MALAT1 expression in pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts is associated with osteoporosis and metastatic bone lesions. Altogether, these findings identify Malat1 as a lncRNA that protects against osteoporosis and bone metastasis.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteoporose/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 202: 107121, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431091

RESUMO

Bone homeostasis is maintained by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation. A dramatic decrease in estrogen levels in postmenopausal women leads to osteoclast overactivation, impaired bone homeostasis, and subsequent bone loss. Changes in the gut microbiome affect bone mineral density. However, the role of the gut microbiome in estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that the abundance of Clostridium sporogenes (C. spor.) and its derived metabolite, indole propionic acid (IPA), were decreased in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In vitro assays suggested that IPA suppressed osteoclast differentiation and function. At the molecular level, IPA suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-induced pregnane X receptor (PXR) ubiquitination and degradation, leading to increased binding of remaining PXR with P65. In vivo daily IPA administration or repeated C. spor. colonization protected against OVX-induced bone loss. To protect live bacteria from the harsh gastric environment and delay the emptying of orally administered C. spor. from the intestine, a C. spor.-encapsulated silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel system was developed, which achieved bone protection in OVX mice comparable to that achieved with repeated germ transplantation or daily IPA administration. Overall, we found that gut C. spor.-derived IPA was involved in estrogen deficiency-induced osteoclast overactivation by regulating the PXR/P65 complex. The C. spor.-encapsulated SF hydrogel system is a promising tool for combating postmenopausal osteoporosis without the disadvantages of repeated germ transplantation.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Clostridium , Osteoclastos , Propionatos , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Receptor de Pregnano X/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Hidrogéis , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473802

RESUMO

Glucose-insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone that induces insulin secretion and decreases blood glucose levels. In addition, it has been reported to suppress osteoclast formation. Native GIP is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). (D-Ala2)GIP is a newly developed GIP analog that demonstrates enhanced resistance to DPP-4. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of (D-Ala2)GIP on osteoclast formation and bone resorption during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, mice received supracalvarial injections of LPS with or without (D-Ala2)GIP for 5 days. Osteoclast formation and bone resorption were evaluated, and TNF-α and RANKL expression were measured. In vitro, the influence of (D-Ala2)GIP on RANKL- and TNF-α-induced osteoclastogenesis, LPS-triggered TNF-α expression in macrophages, and RANKL expression in osteoblasts were examined. Compared to the LPS-only group, calvariae co-administered LPS and (D-Ala2)GIP led to less osteoclast formation, lower bone resorption, and decreased TNF-α and RANKL expression. (D-Ala2)GIP inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL and TNF-α and downregulated TNF-α expression in macrophages and RANKL expression in osteoblasts in vitro. Furthermore, (D-Ala2)GIP suppressed the MAPK signaling pathway. The results suggest that (D-Ala2)GIP dampened LPS-triggered osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vivo by reducing TNF-α and RANKL expression and directly inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoclastos , Animais , Camundongos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473934

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an ongoing inflammatory condition that affects the joints and can lead to severe damage to cartilage and bones, resulting in significant disability. This condition occurs when the immune system becomes overactive, causing osteoclasts, cells responsible for breaking down bone, to become more active than necessary, leading to bone breakdown. RA disrupts the equilibrium between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, resulting in serious complications such as localized bone erosion, weakened bones surrounding the joints, and even widespread osteoporosis. Antibodies against the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a crucial stimulator of osteoclast differentiation, have shown great effectiveness both in laboratory settings and actual patient cases. Researchers are increasingly focusing on osteoclasts as significant contributors to bone erosion in RA. Given that RA involves an overactive immune system, T cells and B cells play a pivotal role by intensifying the immune response. The imbalance between Th17 cells and Treg cells, premature aging of T cells, and excessive production of antibodies by B cells not only exacerbate inflammation but also accelerate bone destruction. Understanding the connection between the immune system and osteoclasts is crucial for comprehending the impact of RA on bone health. By delving into the immune mechanisms that lead to joint damage, exploring the interactions between the immune system and osteoclasts, and investigating new biomarkers for RA, we can significantly improve early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this condition.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Osteoclastos , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474093

RESUMO

The treatment of patients with advanced cancer poses clinical problems due to the complications that arise as the disease progresses. Bone metastases are a common problem that cancer patients may face, and currently, there are no effective drugs to treat these individuals. Prostate, breast, and lung cancers often spread to the bone, causing significant and disabling health conditions. The bone is a highly active and dynamic tissue and is considered a favorable environment for the growth of cancer. The role of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the process of bone remodeling and the way in which their interactions change during the progression of metastasis is critical to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease. These interactions create a self-perpetuating loop that stimulates the growth of metastatic cells in the bone. The metabolic reprogramming of both cancer cells and cells in the bone microenvironment has serious implications for the development and progression of metastasis. Insight into the process of bone remodeling and the systemic elements that regulate this process, as well as the cellular changes that occur during the progression of bone metastases, is critical to the discovery of a cure for this disease. It is crucial to explore different therapeutic options that focus specifically on malignancy in the bone microenvironment in order to effectively treat this disease. This review will focus on the bone remodeling process and the effects of metabolic disorders as well as systemic factors like hormones and cytokines on the development of bone metastases. We will also examine the various therapeutic alternatives available today and the upcoming advances in novel treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Mol Ther ; 32(4): 1158-1177, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332583

RESUMO

Osteoclast precursors (OCPs) are thought to commit to osteoclast differentiation, which is accelerated by aging-related chronic inflammation, thereby leading to osteoporosis. However, whether the fate of OCPs can be reshaped to transition into other cell lineages is unknown. Here, we showed that M2 macrophage-derived extracellular vesicles (M2-EVs) could reprogram OCPs to downregulate osteoclast-specific gene expression and convert OCPs to M2 macrophage-like lineage cells, which reshaped the fate of OCPs by delivering the molecular metabolite glutamate. Upon delivery of glutamate, glutamine metabolism in OCPs was markedly enhanced, resulting in the increased production of α-ketoglutarate (αKG), which participates in Jmjd3-dependent epigenetic reprogramming, causing M2-like macrophage differentiation. Thus, we revealed a novel transformation of OCPs into M2-like macrophages via M2-EVs-initiated metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic modification. Our findings suggest that M2-EVs can reestablish the balance between osteoclasts and M2 macrophages, alleviate the symptoms of bone loss, and constitute a new approach for bone-targeted therapy to treat osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Osteoporose , Humanos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/genética , Osteoporose/terapia , Osteoporose/metabolismo
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