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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1366161, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38859894

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, overdose deaths increased near the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, which created availability and access barriers to addiction and social services. Especially in times of a crisis like a pandemic, local exposures, service availability and access, and system responses have major influence on people who use drugs. For policy makers to be effective, an understanding at the local level is needed. Methods: This retrospective epidemiologic study from 2019 through 2021 compares immediate and 20-months changes in overdose deaths from the pandemic start to 16 months before its arrival in Pinellas County, FL We examine toxicologic death records of 1,701 overdoses to identify relations with interdiction, and service delivery. Results: There was an immediate 49% increase (95% CI 23-82%, p < 0.0001) in overdose deaths in the first month following the first COVID deaths. Immediate increases were found for deaths involving alcohol (171%), heroin (108%), fentanyl (78%), amphetamines (55%), and cocaine (45%). Overdose deaths remained 27% higher (CI 4-55%, p = 0.015) than before the pandemic through 2021.Abrupt service reductions occurred when the pandemic began: in-clinic methadone treatment dropped by two-thirds, counseling by 38%, opioid seizures by 29%, and drug arrests by 56%. Emergency transport for overdose and naloxone distributions increased at the pandemic onset (12%, 93%, respectively) and remained higher through 2021 (15%, 377%,). Regression results indicate that lower drug seizures predicted higher overdoses, and increased 911 transports predicted higher overdoses. The proportion of excess overdose deaths to excess non-COVID deaths after the pandemic relative to the year before was 0.28 in Pinellas County, larger than 75% of other US counties. Conclusions: Service and interdiction interruptions likely contributed to overdose death increases during the pandemic. Relaxing restrictions on medical treatment for opioid addiction and public health interventions could have immediate and long-lasting effects when a major disruption, such as a pandemic, occurs. County level data dashboards comprised of overdose toxicology, and interdiction and service data, can help explain changes in overdose deaths. As a next step in predicting which policies and practices will best reduce local overdoses, we propose using simulation modeling with agent-based models to examine complex interacting systems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Masculino , Florida/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e57239, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overdose Fatality Review (OFR) is an important public health tool for shaping overdose prevention strategies in communities. However, OFR teams review only a few cases at a time, which typically represent a small fraction of the total fatalities in their jurisdiction. Such limited review could result in a partial understanding of local overdose patterns, leading to policy recommendations that do not fully address the broader community needs. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the potential to enhance conventional OFRs with a data dashboard, incorporating visualizations of touchpoints-events that precede overdoses-to highlight prevention opportunities. METHODS: We conducted 2 focus groups and a survey of OFR experts to characterize their information needs and design a real-time dashboard that tracks and measures decedents' past interactions with services in Indiana. Experts (N=27) were engaged, yielding insights on essential data features to incorporate and providing feedback to guide the development of visualizations. RESULTS: The findings highlighted the importance of showing decedents' interactions with health services (emergency medical services) and the justice system (incarcerations). Emphasis was also placed on maintaining decedent anonymity, particularly in small communities, and the need for training OFR members in data interpretation. The developed dashboard summarizes key touchpoint metrics, including prevalence, interaction frequency, and time intervals between touchpoints and overdoses, with data viewable at the county and state levels. In an initial evaluation, the dashboard was well received for its comprehensive data coverage and its potential for enhancing OFR recommendations and case selection. CONCLUSIONS: The Indiana touchpoints dashboard is the first to display real-time visualizations that link administrative and overdose mortality data across the state. This resource equips local health officials and OFRs with timely, quantitative, and spatiotemporal insights into overdose risk factors in their communities, facilitating data-driven interventions and policy changes. However, fully integrating the dashboard into OFR practices will likely require training teams in data interpretation and decision-making.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Grupos Focais , Design Centrado no Usuário , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Indiana/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 112, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, non-fatal overdose (NFOD) rates consequent to drug use, typically opioids, continue increasing at a startling rate. Existing quantitative research has revealed myriad factors and characteristics linked to experiencing NFOD, but it is critically important to explore the lived context underlying these associations. In this qualitative study, we sought to understand the experiences of NFOD among people who use drugs in a Scottish region in order to: enhance public policy responses; inform potential intervention development to mitigate risk; and contribute to the literature documenting the lived experience of NFOD. METHODS: From June to July 2021, two peer researchers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with people who use drugs who had experienced recent NFOD attending harm reduction services in Tayside, Scotland. These were transcribed verbatim and evaluated using thematic analysis with an inductive approach which had an experiential and essentialist orientation. RESULTS: Twenty people were interviewed across two sites. Of those, 15 (75%) were male and mean age was 38.2 (7.7) years. All had experienced at least one NFOD in the prior six months, and all reported polydrug use. Five themes were identified, within which 12 subthemes were situated. The themes were: social context; personal risk-taking triggers; planned and impulsive consumption; risk perception; and overdose reversal. The results spoke to the environmental, behavioural, cognitive, economic, and marketplace, factors which influence the context of NFOD in the region. CONCLUSIONS: A complex interplay of behavioural, psychological, and situational factors were found to impact the likelihood of experiencing NFOD. Structural inequities which policy professionals and civic leaders should seek to remedy were identified, while service providers may seek to reconfigure healthcare provision for people who use drugs to account for the interpersonal, psychological, and social factors identified, which appear to precipitate NFOD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Escócia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redução do Dano , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
4.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 94, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic had a disproportionate impact on the health and wellbeing of people who use drugs (PWUD) in Canada. However less is known about jurisdictional commonalities and differences in COVID-19 exposure and impacts of pandemic-related restrictions on competing health and social risks among PWUD living in large urban centres. METHODS: Between May 2020 and March 2021, leveraging infrastructure from ongoing cohorts of PWUD, we surveyed 1,025 participants from Vancouver (n = 640), Toronto (n = 158), and Montreal (n = 227), Canada to describe the impacts of pandemic-related restrictions on basic, health, and harm reduction needs. RESULTS: Among participants, awareness of COVID-19 protective measures was high; however, between 10 and 24% of participants in each city-specific sample reported being unable to self-isolate. Overall, 3-19% of participants reported experiencing homelessness after the onset of the pandemic, while 20-41% reported that they went hungry more often than usual. Furthermore, 8-33% of participants reported experiencing an overdose during the pandemic, though most indicated no change in overdose frequency compared the pre-pandemic period. Most participants receiving opioid agonist therapy in the past six months reported treatment continuity during the pandemic (87-93%), however, 32% and 22% of participants in Toronto and Montreal reported missing doses due to service disruptions. There were some reports of difficulty accessing supervised consumption sites in all three sites, and drug checking services in Vancouver. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest PWUD in Canada experienced difficulties meeting essential needs and accessing some harm reduction services during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can inform preparedness planning for future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Redução do Dano , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Pessoas Mal Alojadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades , Pandemias , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(5): e241262, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38819798

RESUMO

Importance: Since 1999, over 1 million people have died of a drug overdose in the US. However, little is known about the bereaved, meaning their family, friends, and acquaintances, and their views on the importance of addiction as a policy priority. Objectives: To quantify the scope of the drug overdose crisis in terms of personal overdose loss (ie, knowing someone who died of a drug overdose) and to assess the policy implications of this loss. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from a nationally representative survey of US adults (age ≥18 years), the fourth wave of the COVID-19 and Life Stressors Impact on Mental Health and Well-Being (CLIMB) study, which was conducted from March to April 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: Respondents reported whether they knew someone who died of a drug overdose and the nature of their relationship with the decedent(s). They also reported their political party affiliation and rated the importance of addiction as a policy issue. Logistic regression models estimated the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and political party affiliation and the probability of experiencing a personal overdose loss and between the experience of overdose loss and the perceived salience of addiction as a policy issue. Survey weights adjusted for sampling design and nonresponse. Results: Of the 7802 panelists invited to participate, 2479 completed the survey (31.8% response rate); 153 were excluded because they did not know whether they knew someone who died of a drug overdose, resulting in a final analytic sample of 2326 (51.4% female; mean [SD] age, 48.12 [0.48] years). Of these respondents, 32.0% (95% CI, 28.8%-34.3%) reported any personal overdose loss, translating to 82.7 million US adults. A total of 18.9% (95% CI, 17.1%-20.8%) of all respondents, translating to 48.9 million US adults, reported having a family member or close friend die of drug overdose. Personal overdose loss was more prevalent among groups with lower income (<$30 000: 39.9%; ≥$100 000: 26.0%). The experience of overdose loss did not differ across political party groups (Democrat: 29.0%; Republican: 33.0%; independent or none: 34.2%). Experiencing overdose loss was associated with a greater odds of viewing addiction as an extremely or very important policy issue (adjusted odds ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.72) after adjustment for sociodemographic and geographic characteristics and political party affiliation. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that 32% of US adults reported knowing someone who died of a drug overdose and that personal overdose loss was associated with greater odds of endorsing addiction as an important policy issue. The findings suggest that mobilization of this group may be an avenue to facilitate greater policy change.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Luto , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e46029, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted mental health and health care systems worldwide. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on ambulance attendances for mental health and overdose, comparing similar regions in the United Kingdom and Canada that implemented different public health measures. METHODS: An interrupted time series study of ambulance attendances was conducted for mental health and overdose in the United Kingdom (East Midlands region) and Canada (Hamilton and Niagara regions). Data were obtained from 182,497 ambulance attendance records for the study period of December 29, 2019, to August 1, 2020. Negative binomial regressions modeled the count of attendances per week per 100,000 population in the weeks leading up to the lockdown, the week the lockdown was initiated, and the weeks following the lockdown. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex and age. RESULTS: Ambulance attendances for mental health and overdose had very small week-over-week increases prior to lockdown (United Kingdom: incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.002, 95% CI 1.002-1.003 for mental health). However, substantial changes were observed at the time of lockdown; while there was a statistically significant drop in the rate of overdose attendances in the study regions of both countries (United Kingdom: IRR 0.573, 95% CI 0.518-0.635 and Canada: IRR 0.743, 95% CI 0.602-0.917), the rate of mental health attendances increased in the UK region only (United Kingdom: IRR 1.125, 95% CI 1.031-1.227 and Canada: IRR 0.922, 95% CI 0.794-1.071). Different trends were observed based on sex and age categories within and between study regions. CONCLUSIONS: The observed changes in ambulance attendances for mental health and overdose at the time of lockdown differed between the UK and Canada study regions. These results may inform future pandemic planning and further research on the public health measures that may explain observed regional differences.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1426, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) experience many health problems which result in a heavy economic and public health burden. To tackle this issue, France opened two drug consumption rooms (DCRs) in Paris and Strasbourg in 2016. This study assessed their long-term health benefits, costs and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: We developed a model to simulate two fictive cohorts for each city (n=2,997 in Paris and n=2,971 in Strasbourg) i) PWID attending a DCR over the period 2016-2026, ii) PWID attending no DCR. The model accounted for HIV and HCV infections, skin abscesses and related infective endocarditis, drug overdoses and emergency department visits. We estimated the number of health events and associated costs over 2016-2026, the lifetime number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS: The numbers of abscesses and associated infective endocarditis, drug overdoses, and emergency department visits decreased significantly in PWID attending DCRs (-77%, -69%, and -65%, respectively) but the impact on HIV and HCV infections was modest (-11% and -6%, respectively). This resulted in savings of €6.6 (Paris) and €5.8 (Strasbourg) millions of medical costs. The ICER of DRCs was €30,600/QALY (Paris) and €9,200/QALY (Strasbourg). In scenario analysis where drug consumption spaces are implemented inside existing harm reduction structures, these ICERs decreased to €21,400/QALY and €2,500/QALY, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that DCRs are highly effective and efficient to prevent harms in PWID in France, and advocate extending this intervention to other cities by adding drug consumption spaces inside existing harm reduction centers.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , França/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/economia , Adulto
8.
Am J Public Health ; 114(6): 599-609, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718338

RESUMO

Objectives. To assess heterogeneity in pandemic-period excess fatal overdoses in the United States, by location (state, county) and substance type. Methods. We used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models to estimate counterfactual death counts in the scenario that no pandemic had occurred. Such estimates were subtracted from actual death counts to assess the magnitude of pandemic-period excess mortality between March 2020 and August 2021. Results. Nationwide, we estimated 25 668 (95% prediction interval [PI] = 2811, 48 524) excess overdose deaths. Specifically, 17 of 47 states and 197 of 592 counties analyzed had statistically significant excess overdose-related mortality. West Virginia, Louisiana, Tennessee, Kentucky, and New Mexico had the highest rates (20-37 per 100 000). Nationally, there were 5.7 (95% PI = 1.0, 10.4), 3.1 (95% PI = 2.1, 4.2), and 1.4 (95% PI = 0.5, 2.4) excess deaths per 100 000 involving synthetic opioids, psychostimulants, and alcohol, respectively. Conclusions. The steep increase in overdose-related mortality affected primarily the southern and western United States. We identified synthetic opioids and psychostimulants as the main contributors. Public Health Implications. Characterizing overdose-related excess mortality across locations and substance types is critical for optimal allocation of public health resources. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(6):599-609. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307618).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ ; 385: e076509, 2024 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prescriber workforce exit, long term opioid treatment discontinuation, and clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental difference-in-differences study SETTING: 20% sample of US Medicare beneficiaries, 2011-18. PARTICIPANTS: People receiving long term opioid treatment whose prescriber stopped providing office based patient care or exited the workforce, as in the case of retirement or death (n=48 079), and people whose prescriber did not exit the workforce (n=48 079). MAIN OUTCOMES: Discontinuation from long term opioid treatment, drug overdose, mental health crises, admissions to hospital or emergency department visits, and death. Long term opioid treatment was defined as at least 60 days of opioids per quarter for four consecutive quarters, attributed to the plurality opioid prescriber. A difference-in-differences analysis was used to compare individuals who received long term opioid treatment and who had a prescriber leave the workforce to propensity-matched patients on long term opioid treatment who did not lose a prescriber, before and after prescriber exit. RESULTS: Discontinuation of long term opioid treatment increased from 132 to 229 per 10 000 patients who had prescriber exit from the quarter before to the quarter after exit, compared with 97 to 100 for patients who had a continuation of prescriber (adjusted difference 1.22 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.42). In the first quarter after provider exit, when discontinuation rates were highest, a transient but significant elevation was noted between the two groups of patients in suicide attempts (adjusted difference 0.05 percentage points (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.09)), opioid or alcohol withdrawal (0.14 (0.01 to 0.27)), and admissions to hospital or emergency department visits (0.04 visits (0.01 to 0.06)). These differences receded after one to two quarters. No significant change in rates of overdose was noted. Across all four quarters after prescriber exit, an increase was reported in the rate of mental health crises (0.39 percentage points (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.69)) and opioid or alcohol withdrawal (0.31 (0.014 to 0.58)), but no change was seen for drug overdose (-0.12 (-0.41 to 0.18)). CONCLUSIONS: The loss of a prescriber was associated with increased occurrences of discontinuation of long term opioid treatment and transient increases in adverse outcomes, such as suicide attempts, but not other outcomes, such as overdoses. Long term opioid treatment discontinuation may be associated with a temporary period of adverse health impacts after accounting for unobserved confounding.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Humanos , Masculino , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Medicare , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 15(11): 2091-2098, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747710

RESUMO

Xylazine (also known as "tranq") is a potent nonopioid veterinary sedative that has recently experienced a surge in use as a drug adulterant, most often combined with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. This combination may heighten the risk of fatal overdose. Xylazine has no known antidote approved for use in humans, and age-adjusted overdose deaths involving xylazine were 35 times higher in 2021 than 2018. In April 2023, the Biden Administration declared xylazine-laced fentanyl an emerging drug threat in the United States. In 2022, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) reported nearly a quarter of seized fentanyl powder contained xylazine. This dramatic increase in prevalence has solidified the status of xylazine as an emerging drug of abuse and an evolving threat to public health. The following narrative review outlines the synthesis, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and adverse effects of xylazine, as well as the role it may play in the ongoing opioid epidemic.


Assuntos
Xilazina , Xilazina/farmacologia , Humanos , Animais , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Fentanila/farmacologia , Fentanila/química , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
11.
Dan Med J ; 71(5)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of long-term isolation on the mental state of Danish youth. This study aimed to investigate trends in paracetamol overdoses among people under 18 years of age in Denmark during Covid-19 restrictions as an indicator of mental health. METHODS: All patients under the age of 18 years presenting with paracetamol overdose at one of the 18 paediatric departments in Denmark from 2016 to 2021 were included. They were identified in all Danish hospital databases using specific diagnostic codes. RESULTS: From 2016 to 2021, a total of 3,217 people under 18 years of age were admitted for paracetamol overdose. Among these, 86% (n = 2,755) were girls and 14% (n = 462) were boys. During 2020, a slight (7%) decrease in admissions was observed among both boys and girls compared with the preceding four-year mean value. In 2021, the number of overdoses among girls exceeded by 35% the former all-time high from 2016. Furthermore, the number of overdoses among girls exceeded the pre-four-year period mean value by 43%. Among boys, an 8% increase was seen from the highest ever previous value recorded in 2019 and a 23% increase compared with the previous four-year mean value. CONCLUSIONS: During the first year of restrictions, a slight decrease in paracetamol overdoses was observed, possibly associated with limited accessibility. The second year showed a considerable increase in paracetamol overdoses, which may imply an affected mental state among youth during the prolonged lockdown restrictions as seen in previous epidemics. Therefore, further studies are warranted to develop a pandemic preparedness plan to protect general mental health. FUNDING: None. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Analgésicos não Narcóticos , COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acetaminofen/intoxicação , Adolescente , Feminino , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Masculino , Criança , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/intoxicação , Pré-Escolar , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactente
14.
JAMA ; 331(20): 1741-1747, 2024 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703404

RESUMO

Importance: Youth (those aged <18 years) parental death has been associated with negative health outcomes. Understanding the burden of parental death due to drug poisoning (herein, drugs) and firearms is essential for informing interventions. Objective: To estimate the incidence of youth parental death due to drugs, firearms, and all other causes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted using vital registration, including all US decedents, and census data from January 1990 through December 2020. Data were analyzed from May 30, 2023, to March 28, 2024. Exposures: Parental death due to drug poisoning or firearms. Main Outcomes and Measures: A demographic matrix projection model was used to estimate the number and incidence of youth experiencing parental death, defined as the death of 1 or more parents, per 1000 population aged less than 18 years. Analyses evaluated parental deaths by drugs, firearms, and all other causes from 1999 through 2020 by race and ethnicity. Results: Between 1999 and 2020, there were 931 785 drug poisoning deaths and 736 779 firearm-related deaths with a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (16.3) years. Most deaths occurred among males (73.8%) and White decedents (70.8%) followed by Black (17.5%) and Hispanic (9.5%) decedents. An estimated 759 000 (95% CI, 722 000-800 000) youth experienced parental death due to drugs and an estimated 434 000 (95% CI, 409 000-460 000) youth experienced parental death due to firearms, accounting for 17% of all parental deaths. From 1999 to 2020, the estimated number of youth who experienced parental death increased 345% (95% CI, 334%-361%) due to drugs and 39% (95% CI, 37%-41%) due to firearms compared with 24% (95% CI, 23%-25%) due to all other causes. Black youth experienced a disproportionate burden of parental deaths, based primarily on firearm deaths among fathers. In 2020, drugs and firearms accounted for 23% of all parental deaths, double the proportion in 1999 (12%). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this modeling study suggest that US youth are at high and increasing risk of experiencing parental death by drugs or firearms. Efforts to stem this problem should prioritize averting drug overdoses and firearm violence, especially among structurally marginalized groups.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Morte Parental , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Causas de Morte , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Incidência , Morte Parental/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Parental/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Brancos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Am J Public Health ; 114(7): 714-722, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696735

RESUMO

Objectives. To identify relationships between US states' COVID-19 in-person activity limitation and economic support policies and drug overdose deaths among working-age adults in 2020. Methods. We used county-level data on 140 435 drug overdoses among adults aged 25 to 64 years during January 2019 to December 2020 from the National Vital Statistics System and data on states' COVID-19 policies from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker to assess US trends in overdose deaths by sex in 3138 counties. Results. Policies limiting in-person activities significantly increased, whereas economic support policies significantly decreased, overdose rates. A 1-unit increase in policies restricting activities predicted a 15% average monthly increase in overdose rates for men (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.20) and a 14% increase for women (IRR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.20). A 1-unit increase in economic support policies predicted a 3% average monthly decrease for men (IRR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.95, 1.00) and a 4% decrease for women (IRR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99). All states' policy combinations are predicted to have increased drug-poisoning mortality. Conclusions. The economic supports that states enacted were insufficient to fully mitigate the adverse relationship between activity limitations and drug overdoses. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(7):714-722. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307621).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Public Health ; 114(7): 705-713, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723222

RESUMO

Objectives. To describe national and city-level fatal drug overdose trends between 2005 and 2021 in Mexico. Methods. We calculated fatal overdose rates at the city level in 3-year periods from 2005 to 2021 and annually at the national level for people aged 15 to 64 years in Mexico. We calculated rate differences and rate ratios for each city between periods. Results. The national fatal overdose rate was 0.53 overdose deaths per 100 000 population and was almost twice as high in urban than in nonurban areas. The national fatal overdose rate was stable over the period 2005 to 2014 and increased monotonically to a peak in 2021. Fatal overdose rates varied across cities. Cities with the 8 highest fatal overdose rates in the period were all in states along the US-Mexico border. Conclusions. Fatal overdoses have doubled over the past 15 years in Mexico. Overdose rates are particularly high and increasing in cities close to the US-Mexico border. Public Health Implications. There is a need for enhanced overdose surveillance data and coordinated harm reduction strategies, particularly in the northern border region of Mexico. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(7):705-713. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307650).


Assuntos
Cidades , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA ; 331(19): 1621-1622, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648055

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses the 2024 presidential election in the context of the addiction and overdose crisis in the US, which has been a unifying challenge and a source of major ideological division in US politics.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Política de Saúde , Drogas Ilícitas , Política , Humanos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribuição , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 258: 111275, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking unregulated drugs has increased substantially in British Columbia. Intersecting with the ongoing overdose crisis, drug smoking-related overdose fatalities have correspondingly surged. However, little is known about the experiences of overdose among people who smoke drugs accessing the toxic drug supply. This study explores perceptions and experiences of overdose among people who smoke drugs. METHODS: We conducted interviews with 31 people who smoke drugs. Interviews covered a range of topics including overdose experience. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to participant perceptions and experiences of smoking-related overdose. RESULTS: Some participants perceived smoking drugs to pose lower overdose risk relative to injecting drugs. Participants reported smoking-related overdose experiences, including from underestimating the potency of drugs, the cross-contamination of stimulants with opioids, and responding to smoking-related overdose events. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the impact the unpredictable, unregulated, and toxic drug supply is having on people who smoke drugs, both among people who use opioids, and among those who primarily use stimulants. Efforts to address smoking-related overdose could benefit from expanding supervised smoking sites, working with people who use drugs to disseminate accurate knowledge around smoking-related overdose risk, and offering a smokable alternative to the unpredictable drug supply.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Drogas Ilícitas
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 74, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, stimulant use has increased among persons who use opioids in the rural U.S., leading to high rates of overdose and death. We sought to understand motivations and contexts for stimulant use among persons who use opioids in a large, geographically diverse sample of persons who use drugs (PWUD) in the rural settings. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with PWUD at 8 U.S. sites spanning 10 states and 65 counties. Content areas included general substance use, injection drug use, changes in drug use, and harm reduction practices. We used an iterative open-coding process to comprehensively itemize and categorize content shared by participants related to concurrent use. RESULTS: We interviewed 349 PWUD (64% male, mean age 36). Of those discussing current use of stimulants in the context of opioid use (n = 137, 39%), the stimulant most used was methamphetamine (78%) followed by cocaine/crack (26%). Motivations for co-use included: 1) change in drug markets and cost considerations; 2) recreational goals, e.g., seeking stronger effects after heightened opioid tolerance; 3) practical goals, such as a desire to balance or alleviate the effects of the other drug, including the use of stimulants to avoid/reverse opioid overdose, and/or control symptoms of opioid withdrawal; and 4) functional goals, such as being simultaneously energized and pain-free in order to remain productive for employment. CONCLUSION: In a rural U.S. cohort of PWUD, use of both stimulants and opioids was highly prevalent. Reasons for dual use found in the rural context compared to urban studies included changes in drug availability, functional/productivity goals, and the use of methamphetamine to offset opioid overdose. Education efforts and harm reduction services and treatment, such as access to naloxone, fentanyl test strips, and accessible drug treatment for combined opioid and stimulant use, are urgently needed in the rural U.S. to reduce overdose and other adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Motivação , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 258: 111261, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overdose rates in rural areas have been increasing globally, with large increases in the United States. Few studies, however, have identified correlates of non-fatal overdose among rural people who use drugs (PWUD). The present analysis describes correlates of nonfatal overdose among a large multistate sample of rural PWUD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data gathered via surveys with PWUD recruited through seven Rural Opioid Initiative (ROI) sites. Descriptive analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of past 30-day overdose. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate a series of multivariable models quantifying relationships of select factors to past-month overdose; factors were selected using the Risk Environment Framework. RESULTS: The multisite sample included 2711 PWUD, 6% of whom reported overdosing in the past 30 days. In the fully adjusted model, houselessness (AOR=2.27, 95%CI[1.48, 3.48]), a positive test result for Hepatitis C infection (AOR=1.73 95%CI[1.18, 2.52]) and heroin/fentanyl use (AOR= 8.58 95%CI [3.01, 24.50]) were associated with an increased risk of reporting past 30-day overdose, while having a high-school education or less was associated with reduced odds of overdose (AOR=0.52, 95% CI[0.37, 0.74]). CONCLUSION: As in urban areas, houselessness, Hepatitis C infection, and the use of heroin and fentanyl were significant correlates of overdose. Widespread access to overdose prevention interventions - including fentanyl test strips and naloxone - is critical in this rural context, with particular outreach needed to unhoused populations, people living with Hepatitis C, and people using opioids.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , População Rural , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Adolescente
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