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1.
Skin Res Technol ; 30(7): e13829, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the continuous endeavor to find safe and efficient treatments for Atopic Dermatitis (AD), there remains a considerable focus on dietary adjustments. Nevertheless, the limited availability of research and conflicting findings in the academic literature pose a hurdle in establishing conclusive recommendations. METHOD: Mendelian randomization (MR) was applied to the most comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data on tea intake (447 485), green tea intake (n = 64 949), flavored milk intake (n = 64 941), never eat eggs, dairy, wheat, sugar: Wheat products(n = 461 046), never eat eggs, dairy, wheat, sugar: Sugar or foods/drinks containing sugar (n = 461 046), never eat eggs, dairy, wheat, sugar: I eat all of the above (n = 461 046) and atopic dermatitis (n = 218 467). We used the inverse-variance weighted method (IVW) as the primary method. RESULTS: The IVW analyses have demonstrated an increased tea intake was genetically associated with a reduced risk of AD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.646, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.430-0.968, p = 0.034). Furthermore, green tea intake was significantly negatively associated with AD (IVW OR: 0.986, 95% CI: 0.975-0.998; p = 0.024) in the IVW model. AD risk could be reduced by never eating wheat products (IVW OR: 8.243E-04, 95% CI: 7.223E-06-9.408E-02, p = 0.003). There was no association between never eating eggs, dairy, wheat, sugar: Sugar, or foods/drinks containing sugar, I eat all of the above and AD. CONCLUSIONS: Our MR study suggests a causal relationship between tea intake, green tea intake, and the avoidance of eating wheat products with atopic dermatitis. Our findings recommend that preventing and managing atopic dermatitis may be achieved by never eating wheat products while increasing tea and green tea intake.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Dieta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Humanos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Chá , Ovos , Leite , Triticum/genética , Laticínios , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306648, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children are recommended to consume animal source foods (ASF) as part of diversified diets. However, ASF consumption practice of infant and young children (IYC) is less studied and contributing factors are not exhaustively identified. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess consumption of ASF and identify associated factors among 6-23 months old IYC from selected rural districts in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 606 IYC from selected rural districts of Oromia and Sidama regional states in Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select participants. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Frequencies, percentages and mean scores with standard deviations were generated to describe participants and report univariate outcomes. Consumption of ASF was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. Logistic regression analysis was applied to identify contributing factors contributed to IYC's ASF consumption practice. RESULTS: Dairy, eggs and meat were consumed by 41.2%, 16.4% and 2.3% of IYC, respectively. Household food security increased odds of dairy [AOR = 1.66 (95%CI: 1.16 2.38), P = 0.006], eggs [AOR = 2.15 (95%CI: 1.33, 3.49), P = 0.002] and meat [AOR = 5.08 (95%CI: 1.09, 23.71), P = 0.039] consumption. Cow [AOR = 1.86 (95%CI: 1.28, 2.70), P = 0.001], donkey [AOR = 1.83 (95%CI: 1.08, 3.11), P = 0.024] and chicken [AOR = 1.53 (95%CI: 1.05, 2.22), P = 0.027] ownership increased the odds of dairy consumption. Grades 5-8 [AOR = 1.74 (95%CI: 1.06, 2.86), P = 0.028] or ≥9 [AOR = 2.96 (95%CI: 1.62, 5.42), P <0.001] maternal educational achievements were also associated with better dairy consumption. Children from households that owned chicken [AOR = 3.20 (95%CI: 1.97, 5.19), P <0.001] or produce root crops [AOR = 1.67 (95%CI: 1.05, 2.66), P = 0.031] were with increased odds to consume eggs. CONCLUSIONS: Low proportion of children consumed ASF. Household food security, livestock ownership, household income, root crop production and maternal education contributed to ASF consumption. Nutrition sensitive agricultural extension activities aided by nutrition education should be considered and evaluated for their effect on IYC's ASF consumption practice.


Assuntos
Ovos , População Rural , Humanos , Etiópia , Lactente , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Carne , Laticínios , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1529, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonellosis is one of the most common food-borne diseases in industrialised and developing countries. In recent year, an increase in antimicrobial resistance among different Salmonella serotypes has been observed. OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from local chicken eggs in four selected towns in Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 115 eggs were examined to detect Salmonella by using standard microbiological methods. The susceptibilities of the isolates to nine antimicrobials were tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. RESULT: The study revealed that of the 115 eggs examined, 22 (19.1%) were positive for Salmonella of which 14 (12.2%) and 8 (7%) of the isolates were from shells and contents, respectively. The occurrence of Salmonella in egg shells and content and between different altitudes did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Most isolates were resistant to more than three antimicrobials with a high resistance to kanamycin, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, cotrimoxazole, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the potential importance of local chicken eggs as source of multiple antimicrobial-resistant salmonellae and the need for proper cooking before consumption. Further studies are required to describe the epidemiology of Salmonella in various agroclimatic zones of Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonella , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos
4.
Food Res Int ; 190: 114607, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945617

RESUMO

Salmonella, a prominent foodborne pathogen, has posed enduring challenges to the advancement of food safety and global public health. The escalating concern over antibiotic misuse, resulting in the excessive presence of drug residues in animal-derived food products, necessitates urgent exploration of alternative strategies for Salmonella control. Bacteriophages emerge as promising green biocontrol agents against pathogenic bacteria. This study delineates the identification of two novel virulent Salmonella phages, namely phage vB_SalS_ABTNLsp11241 (referred to as sp11241) and phage 8-19 (referred to as 8-19). Both phages exhibited efficient infectivity against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE). Furthermore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of two phages to control SE in three different foods (whole chicken eggs, raw chicken meat, and lettuce) at different MOIs (1, 100, and 10000) at 4°C. It's worth noting that sp11241 and 8-19 achieved complete elimination of SE on eggs after 3 h and 6 h at MOI = 100, and after 2 h and 5 h at MOI = 10000, respectively. After 12 h of treatment with sp11241, a maximum reduction of 3.17 log10 CFU/mL in SE was achieved on raw chicken meat, and a maximum reduction of 3.00 log10 CFU/mL was achieved on lettuce. Phage 8-19 has the same effect on lettuce as sp11241, but is slightly less effective than sp11241 on chicken meat (a maximum 2.69 log10 CFU/mL reduction). In conclusion, sp11241 and 8-19 exhibit considerable potential for controlling Salmonella contamination in food at a low temperature and represent viable candidates as green antibacterial agents for food applications.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactuca , Carne , Fagos de Salmonella , Salmonella enteritidis , Lactuca/microbiologia , Animais , Ovos/microbiologia , Ovos/virologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/virologia , Carne/microbiologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Virulência
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(6)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38927732

RESUMO

Egg production plays a pivotal role in the economic viability of hens. To analyze the genetic rules of egg production, a total of 3151 Luhua chickens were selected, the egg production traits including egg weight at first laying (Start-EW), egg weight at 43 weeks (EW-43), egg number at 43 weeks (EN-43), and total egg number (EN-All) were recorded. Then, the effects of related factors on egg production traits were explored, using a multi-trait animal model for genetic parameter estimation and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The results showed that body weight at first egg (BWFE), body weight at 43 weeks (BW-43), age at first egg (AFE), and seasons had significant effects on the egg production traits. Start-EW and EW-43 had moderate heritability of 0.30 and 0.21, while EN-43 and EN-All had low heritability of 0.13 and 0.16, respectively. Start-EW exhibited a robust positive correlation with EW-43, while Start-EW was negatively correlated with EN-43 and EN-All. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) results indicated that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and Frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7) related to EW-43, Cyclin D1 (CCND1) and A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) related to EN-All, and have been found to be mainly involved in metabolism and growth processes, and deserve more attention and further study. This study contributes to accelerating genetic progress in improving low heritability egg production traits in layers, especially in Luhua chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Ovos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fenótipo
6.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 28(7): 100284, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the important factors in cognitive function, dietary habits and metal exposures are interactive with each other. However, fewer studies have investigated the interaction effect of them on cognitive dysfunction in older adults. METHODS: 2,445 registered citizens aged 60-85 years from 51 community health centers in Luohu District, Shenzhen, were recruited in this study based on the Chinese older adult cohort. All subjects underwent physical examination and Mini-cognitive assessment scale. A semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain their food intake frequency, and 21 metal concentrations in their urine were measured. RESULTS: Elastic-net regression model, a machine learning technique, identified six variables that were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in older adults. These variables included education level, gender, urinary concentration of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), and the frequency of monthly intake of egg and bean products. After adjusting for multiple factors, As and Cd concentrations were positively associated with increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the older people, with OR values of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.05-1.42) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01-1.74), respectively. In addition, older adults with high frequency of egg intake (≥30 times/month) and bean products intake (≥8 times/month) had a reduced risk of MCI than those with low protein egg intake (<30 times/month) and low bean products intake (<8 times/month), respectively. Furthermore, additive interaction were observed between the As exposure and egg products intake, as well as bean products. Cd exposure also showed additive interactions with egg and bean products intake. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of eggs and bean products, as well as the levels of exposure to the heavy metals Cd and As, have been shown to have a substantial influence on cognitive impairment in the elderly population.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Cádmio , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cádmio/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , China/epidemiologia , Arsênio/urina , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovos , Fatores de Risco , População do Leste Asiático
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880057

RESUMO

A reliable liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 13 ß-agonist residues in bovine liver, meat, milk, kidney, poultry, and egg. Dispersive-solid phase extraction (d-SPE) using acetonitrile (ACN) was used to prepare the samples. The analyte in the extracts was separated on a reversed-phase Accucore aQ (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.6 µm) using a mobile phase of an aqueous solution containing 2 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile (ACN) 0.1 % formic acid. The method was validated in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (CIR) EU 2021/808 at six different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 µg/kg. The mean recoveries ranged from 65 to 94 %, while repeatability and reproducibility values were all below 13 %. The linearity, as correlation coefficients (R2) ranged from 0.9955 to 0.9999. The decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCß) ranges were 0.11-0.13 µg/kg and 0.12-0.15 µg/kg, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.004-0.048 µg/kg and 0.010-0.075 µg/kg, respectively. Of the 180 samples that were collected from local markets in Egypt, 21.11 % had ß-agonist residues. The mean concentration (µg/kg) and detection frequency (%) of the most frequently found ß-agonist in the samples were as follows: terbutaline (2.63 µg/kg and 90 %), ractopamine (5.14 µg/kg and 23.3 %). The method's applicability was verified by successfully completing two rounds of proficiency testing (PT).


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas , Limite de Detecção , Carne , Leite , Extração em Fase Sólida , Animais , Bovinos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Leite/química , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carne/análise , Modelos Lineares , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/análise , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/isolamento & purificação , Ovos/análise , Fígado/química , Rim/química , Aves Domésticas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
8.
Appetite ; 200: 107559, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880280

RESUMO

While moral concern for animals has become increasingly important for both consumer food choice and food policy makers, previous research demonstrated that meat eaters attribute lower moral status and mental capacities to animals raised for meat compared to non-food animals. The current research investigated whether this strategic flexibility in moral concern and mind perceptions also occurs when considering aquatic food animals and animals used for dairy and egg products, and the degree to which these concerns and perceptions are evident in pescatarians and vegetarians. We compared perceptions (mind attributions and moral concern) of land food animals versus aquatic food animals, and of animals in the meat versus dairy and egg industry between omnivores (n = 122), pescatarians (n = 118), vegetarians (n = 138), vegans (n = 120), and flexitarians (n = 60). Pescatarians scored lower than other dietary groups on moral concern and mind attribution for aquatic animals relative to farmed land animals. Unlike the other dietary groups, pescatarians and vegetarians scored lower on moral concern and mind attribution for dairy than beef cows and for layer chickens than broiler chickens. These findings demonstrate that pescatarians and vegetarians were flexible in their moral thinking about different types of food animals in ways that suited their consumption habits, even when the same animal was evaluated (e.g., dairy vs beef cows). This research highlights the psychological barriers that might prevent people from reducing animal product consumption and may need to be addressed in interventions to encourage transitioning towards more plant-based diets.


Assuntos
Carne , Princípios Morais , Vegetarianos , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Vegetarianos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Ovos , Dieta/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Bovinos , Adolescente , Galinhas , Veganos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Laticínios
9.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data regarding the early introduction of the consumption of allergenic food among Asian infants. METHODS: We examined infants who had early-onset eczema before 6 months of age and received instructions from certified allergists for the early introduction of hen's eggs, milk, wheat, peanuts, and tree nuts. RESULTS: The consumption rates of hen's eggs were 100% at 24 months. For peanuts and walnuts, the consumption rate was moderate at 12 months (48.5% and 30.3%, respectively), but by 24 months, it had progressed to 78.8% and 81.3%, respectively. In contrast, cashews remained at lower levels than other allergens at 20.7% at 12 months and 41.4% at 24 months. No adverse events related to early introductions occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In infants with eczema, allergenic foods could be introduced early and well tolerated in Asian infants. However, having eczema may indicate a predisposition to food allergies, so caution is necessary when introducing allergenic foods. The early introduction of peanuts and tree nuts was still more challenging in real-world practice in Asia as well as in Western countries.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Eczema , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Alérgenos/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Povo Asiático , Eczema/epidemiologia , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Nozes/imunologia
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(24): 5846-5854, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830814

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important endogenous gas transmitter that plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes and can also cause a negative impact on foodstuffs. In this study, we designed and synthesized a simple, easily available, high-yield, and low-cost near-infrared (λem = 710 nm) fluorescent probe, DEM-H2S, with a substantial Stokes shift (205 nm) for the detection of H2S. DEM-H2S features high selectivity and sensitivity (LOD = 80 nM) toward H2S, accompanied by a noticeable color change. Upon interaction with H2S, DEM-H2S exhibits a restored ICT (Intramolecular Charge Transfer) process, thereby manifesting near-infrared fluorescence. DEM-H2S has been successfully utilized to detect H2S in actual water samples and to monitor the spoilage of food items, such as pork, shrimp, and eggs. Furthermore, DEM-H2S enables the imaging of endogenous and exogenous H2S in living MCF-7 cells and zebrafish. Hence, DEM-H2S provides an attractive method for the detection of H2S in environmental, food, and biological systems, holding potential value in physiological and pathological research.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Peixe-Zebra , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Humanos , Animais , Células MCF-7 , Água/química , Imagem Óptica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Ovos/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104568, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839227

RESUMO

The plasmid of emerging S. Infantis (pESI) or pESI-like plasmid in Salmonella enterica Infantis are consistently reported in poultry and humans worldwide. However, there has been limited research on these plasmids of S. Infantis isolated from eggs. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of S. Infantis carrying the pESI-like plasmid from eggs in egg grading and packing plants. In this study, the pESI-like plasmid was only detected in 18 (78.3%) of 23 S. Infantis isolates, and it was absent in the other 9 Salmonella serovars. In particular, S. Infantis isolates carrying the pESI-like plasmid showed the significantly higher resistance to ß-lactams, phenicols, cephams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines than Salmonella isolates without the pESI-like plasmid (p < 0.05). Moreover, all S. Infantis isolates carrying the pESI-like plasmid were identified as extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producer, harboring the blaCTX-M-65 and blaTEM-1 genes, and carried non-ß-lactamase resistance genes (ant(3'')-Ia, aph(4)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, aph(3')-Ic, sul1, tetA, dfrA14, and floR) against five antimicrobial classes. However, all isolates without the pESI-like plasmid only carried the blaTEM-1 gene among the ß-lactamase genes, and either had no non-ß-lactamase resistance genes or harbored non-ß-lactamase resistance genes against one or two antimicrobial classes. Furthermore, all S. Infantis isolates carrying the pESI-like plasmid carried class 1 and 2 integrons and the aadA1 gene cassette, but none of the other isolates without the pESI-like plasmid harbored integrons. In particular, D87Y substitution in the gyrA gene and IncP replicon type were observed in all the S. Infantis isolates carrying the pESI-like plasmid but not in the S. Infantis isolates without the pESI-like plasmid. The distribution of pulsotypes between pESI-positive and pESI-negative S. Infantis isolates was clearly distinguished, but all S. Infantis isolates were classified as sequence type 32, regardless of whether they carried the pESI-like plasmid. This study is the first to report the characteristics of S. Infantis carrying the pESI-like plasmid isolated from eggs and can provide valuable information for formulating strategies to control the spread of Salmonella in the egg industry worldwide.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ovos , Plasmídeos , beta-Lactamases , Plasmídeos/genética , República da Coreia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Animais , beta-Lactamases/genética , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Humanos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/classificação
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(23): 13348-13359, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829852

RESUMO

Lasalocid sodium is a polyether carboxylic ionophore agent authorized by the EU for use as a coccidiostat in broilers, turkeys, and pullets up to 16 weeks of age, except for laying hens. However, laying hens are the most common nontarget species exposed to lasalocid sodium, mainly due to cross-contamination from feed mills. This exposure may result in potential drug residue deposition in eggs, which could potentially expose consumers to the drug. The breeds commonly used for commercial egg production in Poland are Isa Brown and Green-legged Partridge hens, which have been found to significantly differ in egg-laying performance. This variability may also affect the pharmacokinetics of lasalocid. Data on lasalocid plasma pharmacokinetics in laying hens are lacking. In this study, we aimed to determine typical population pharmacokinetic parameters, absolute oral bioavailability, and how breed may influence the pharmacokinetics of lasalocid. Twenty-layer hens of the two breeds were used in this study. Lasalocid was administered orally at a single dose of either 1 mg or 5 mg/kg body weight or intravenously at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight, in a crossover design with a three-week washout period between study periods. Blood samples were collected for 72 h, and lasalocid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. A population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. Standard numerical and graphical criteria were used to select the best model, and a stepwise covariate modeling approach was used to determine any influencing factors. The best model was a three-compartment mammillary model with first-order absorption, transit compartments, and linear elimination. The estimated absolute oral bioavailability was low (36%). It was found that breed significantly influenced not only absorption but also the elimination of lasalocid. This study revealed that lasalocid absorption and elimination varied between the two breeds. This variability in pharmacokinetics may result in breed-related differences in drug residue accumulation in eggs, and ultimately, the risk associated with consumer exposure to drug residues may also vary.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Galinhas , Lasalocida , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Lasalocida/farmacocinética , Lasalocida/administração & dosagem , Lasalocida/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Coccidiostáticos/farmacocinética , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiostáticos/sangue , Ovos/análise , Polônia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305099, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843257

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different doses of limestone, light durations, light intensities, and vitamins on both the productive performance and egg quality. The study utilized two rearing houses (control and treatment), each accommodating 75000 Lohmann Brown Classic chicks reared in open-sided rearing cages from one day old until they reached 89 weeks of age. Throughout the laying period, the hens were subjected to a specific light regimen (light = 14 h; dark = 10 h a day). At the end of experiment, the treatment group displayed significant (p<0.05) differences compared to the control group across various parameters. Notably, the treatment group exhibited lower daily feed intake (treatment: 112 g/bird vs control: 115 g/bird), 9.6% higher egg production (treatment: 78.5% vs control: 68.9%), lower body weight (treatment: 2057 g vs control: 2073 g), lower feed conversion ratio (FCR)/egg (treatment: 1.44 vs control: 1.69), higher egg weight (treatment: 69.4 g vs control: 68.5 g), greater egg mass (treatment: 56.14 vs control: 48.76), greater shell thickness (treatment: 3.52 mm vs control: 3.44 mm), and greater shell weight (treatment: 9.3 g vs control: 8.79 g). However, the albumin weight, yolk weight, yolk diameter, shape index, and Haugh units (HU) were not significantly (p˃0.05) affected after 75 weeks of treatment when compared with those of the control group. Therefore, this study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that different ratios of limestone, different durations and intensities of light, and different vitamin supplementation doses in the treatment group (subjected to the novel rearing recommendations described in this study) may yield a profit of 180,541 USD, exceeding the baseline profit of the control group (subjected to conventional rearing methods).


Assuntos
Galinhas , Animais , Feminino , Ovos , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Carbonato de Cálcio , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Casca de Ovo , Luz , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304791, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861508

RESUMO

The use of blockchain technology to establish food traceability chains has the potential to provide transparent information of food stuffs along the entire supply chain and also aid in the documentation or even execution of official food control processes. Particularly in instances where analytical methodologies cannot provide definitive data for food control questions under study, the certificate-based approach of a traceability chain may offer a way of regulatory control for state authorities. Given the rising importance of organic produce and the high share of eggs among the organic produce in the European Union as well as the new EU regulation on organic products and labelling that came into force in 2022, we analyze here how the control of egg production type and marketing standards can be represented within a blockchain-based traceability chain such as to maximize the traceability in compliance with the current relevant EU regulations. Intended for the use by the official food control authorities, a traceability chain for organically produced eggs in the EU would need to be implemented as a permissioned blockchain, since only select entities are allowed to participate. By combining a proof of authority consensus mechanism with issuance of soulbound tokens, we effectively suggest a 'proof of soulbound authority' consensus process. The soulbound tokens are issued throughout the administrative chain from the European Commission down to the official food control authorities in individual member states that ultimately certify the control bodies for organic produce. Despite the general limitation of not providing unambiguous proof of the organic status of individual products, the concept discussed here offers advantages with respect to allocation of authority at EU level and therefore might have positive effects beyond the traceability chain.


Assuntos
Ovos , União Europeia , Ovos/análise , Blockchain , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Alimentos Orgânicos/normas , Alimentos Orgânicos/provisão & distribuição , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1729: 465040, 2024 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838450

RESUMO

In this work, porous polyimide microfibers (PI-µF) were prepared by high-pressure wet spinning method, and successfully applied as adsorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in water and food samples. The PI-µFs of ∼10, 25, 50, 100 µm in diameter could be controlled by the inner diameter of quartz capillary nozzles. The flow resistance of SPE cartridges packed with 10 µm PI microfiber (10-PI-µF) and 25-PI-µF was comparable to or even lower than that of commercial SPE cartridges, while the flow resistance of 50-PI-µF and 100-PI-µF SPE cartridges was increased obviously due to tiny broken pieces. The 10-PI-µF and 25-PI-µF have a specific surface area of 102 m2 g-1 and 76 m2 g-1, mesopores of 22-32 nm, and large breakthrough volume of 110 mL/5 mg and 85 mL/5 mg for FQs, while the 50-PI-µF and 100-PI-µF had much lower specific surface area and hardly had retention for FQs. FQs from tap water, egg and milk samples were then extracted by PI-µF SPE, and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). SPE parameters as type of elution solvent, elution solvent volume, pH value of sample solution, flow rate of sample solution, and breakthrough volume were first optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the PI-µF SPE/HPLC-FLD method showed high recoveries (96.8%-107%), wide linearity (0.05-50 µg L-1, or 0.01-10 µg L-1), high determination coefficients (R2 ≥0.9992), and low limits of detection (LODs, 0.005-0.014 µg L-1). For the real tap water, egg and milk samples, the recoveries and RSDs were 81-119% and 0.8-9.8%, respectively. The results show that porous microfiber up to 25 µm in diameter is a promising solid-phase extraction adsorbent with the lowest flow resistance that can be used for trace organic pollutants in water and food samples.


Assuntos
Fluoroquinolonas , Limite de Detecção , Leite , Extração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/isolamento & purificação , Fluoroquinolonas/química , Porosidade , Leite/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Animais , Ovos/análise , Adsorção , Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Resinas Sintéticas/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Nutrients ; 16(12)2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38931281

RESUMO

(1) Background: Despite the important role choline plays in child development, there are no data on dietary choline intake in early childhood in Australia. (2) Aim: In this cross-sectional study, we estimated the usual total choline intake and the proportion exceeding the Adequate Intake (AI) and determined the main dietary sources of choline in infants 6-12 months (n = 286) and toddlers 12-24 months (n = 475) of age. (3) Methods: A single 24-h food record with repeats collected during the 2021 Australian Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (OzFITS 2021) was used to estimate dietary choline intake. (4) Results: The mean choline intake was 142 ± 1.9 mg/day in infants and 181 ± 1.2 mg/day in toddlers. Only 35% of infants and 23% of toddlers exceeded the AI for choline based on Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for Australia and New Zealand. Breastmilk was the leading source of choline, contributing 42% and 14% of total choline intake in infants and toddlers, respectively; however, egg consumers had the highest adjusted choline intakes and probability of exceeding the AI. (5) Conclusions: Findings suggest that choline intake may be suboptimal in Australian infants and toddlers. Further research to examine the impact of low choline intake on child development is warranted.


Assuntos
Colina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Humanos , Lactente , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/análise , Austrália , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/química , Registros de Dieta , Ovos/análise , Desenvolvimento Infantil
17.
Food Funct ; 15(13): 7032-7045, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864191

RESUMO

Red palm oil, a natural repository abundant in tocotrienols, tocopherols and carotenoids, is frequently employed as a pigment and nutritional enhancer in food products. The principal aim of this study is to explore the disparities in vitamin A levels, fatty acid profiles and gut microbiota among healthy adults who consume carotenoid-enriched eggs compared to those who consume normal eggs. A total of 200 hens were randomly assigned to either the red palm oil group or the soybean oil group, with the objective of producing carotenoid-enriched eggs and normal eggs. Throughout a six-month, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, participants were instructed to consume one carotenoid-enriched or normal egg daily at a fixed time. Fecal and blood samples were collected from the participants at the start and conclusion of the six-month intervention period for further analysis. Our findings indicated that there was no significant change in the vitamin A level for daily supplementation with one carotenoid-enriched egg, but there were significant changes in some indicators of fatty acid profiles and gut microbiota compared to the control group of the population. Nonetheless, the consumption of eggs, regardless of carotenoid-enriched eggs or normal eggs, positively influenced dietary habits by reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids and enhancing the intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the population.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Galinhas , Ovos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vitamina A , Ovos/análise , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Alimentos Fortificados , Óleo de Palmeira , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753970

RESUMO

Clopidol is extensively used in livestock farming and residues of this antibiotic can persist in animal tissues, posing a risk to humans and the environment. In this study, we investigated the depletion of clopidol in various edible tissues of chickens (muscle, liver, kidney, fat, and eggs) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after the administration of a clopidol-contaminated diet (at 250 mg kg-1 for the high (1x) dose). After 14 d of exposure, the clopidol concentrations were highest in eggs (median: 9.83 mg/kg), followed by liver (3.56 mg/kg), kidney (3.01 mg/kg), muscle (1.56 mg/kg), and fat (0.727 mg/kg) at low exposure group, indicating that clopidol accumulated primarily in eggs rather than the other edible tissues. In addition, the maternal transfer ratios were estimated, and the transfer efficiencies of clopidol in muscle (egg-to-tissue ratio, ETR:1.81) and fat (2.06-58.2) were higher than those in liver (0.731-31.1) and kidney (0.832-38.9). Furthermore, we conducted a cumulative risk assessment for clopidol in edible chicken tissues using the hazard quotient (HQ) method. This assessment revealed that the exposure levels for Korean consumers pose an acceptable risk. However, for eggs from the 1x dose exposure group, the HQ values were greater than 1 for all age groups, particularly for young children (<18 y), suggesting that the higher daily consumption of eggs combined with the higher clopidol residues in eggs resulted in higher HQ values, which requires further attention. The findings of this study can assist in the management and monitoring of clopidol residues in chicken tissues and eggs.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Animais , Medição de Risco , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Ovos/análise , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo
19.
J Nutr ; 154(7): 2290-2299, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal source foods are rich in multiple nutrients. Regular egg consumption may improve infant growth in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of daily egg consumption on linear growth among 6-12-mo olds in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a 2 × 4 factorial cluster-randomized controlled trial allocating clusters (n = 566) to treatment for enteric pathogens or placebo and a daily egg, protein supplement, isocaloric supplement, or control. All arms received nutrition education. Here, we compare the effect of the egg intervention versus control on linear growth, a prespecified aim of the trial. Infants were enrolled at 3 mo. We measured length and weight at 6 and 12 mo and visited households weekly to distribute eggs and monitor compliance. We used linear regression models to compare 12-mo mean length, weight, and z-scores for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length, and weight-for-age (WAZ), and log-binomial or robust Poisson regression to compare prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight between arms. We used generalized estimating equations to account for clustering and adjusted models for baseline measures of outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 3051 infants (n = 283 clusters) across arms, with complete 6 and 12 mo anthropometry data from 1228 infants (n = 142 clusters) in the egg arm and 1109 infants (n = 141 clusters) in the control. At baseline, 18.5%, 6.0%, and 16.4% were stunted, wasted, and underweight, respectively. The intervention did not have a statistically significant effect on mean LAZ (ß: 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.01, 0.10) or stunting prevalence (ß: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13) at 12 mo. Mean weight (ß: 0.07 kg, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.11) and WAZ (ß: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.11) were significantly higher in the egg compared with control arms. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of a daily egg for 6 mo to infants in rural Bangladesh improved ponderal but not linear growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03683667, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03683667.


Assuntos
Ovos , População Rural , Humanos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Lactente , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Dieta
20.
J Nutr ; 154(7): 2236-2243, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with increasing prevalence due to population aging. Eggs provide many nutrients important for brain health, including choline, omega-3 fatty acids, and lutein. Emerging evidence suggests that frequent egg consumption may improve cognitive performance on verbal tests, but whether consumption influences the risk of Alzheimer's dementia and AD is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of egg consumption with Alzheimer's dementia risk among the Rush Memory and Aging Project cohort. METHODS: Dietary assessment was collected using a modified Harvard semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants' first food frequency questionnaire was used as the baseline measure of egg consumption. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the associations of baseline egg consumption amount with Alzheimer's dementia risk, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Subgroup analyses using Cox and logistic regression models were performed to investigate the associations with AD pathology in the brain. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine the mediation effect of dietary choline in the relationship between egg intake and incident Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: This study included 1024 older adults {mean [±standard deviation (SD)] age = 81.38 ± 7.20 y}. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up of 6.7 ± 4.8 y, 280 participants (27.3%) were clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. Weekly consumption of >1 egg/wk (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34, 0.83) and ≥2 eggs/wk (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.81) was associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer's dementia. Subgroup analysis of brain autopsies from 578 deceased participants showed that intakes of >1 egg/wk (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.76) and ≥2 eggs/wk (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.90) were associated with a lower risk of AD pathology in the brain. Mediation analysis showed that 39% of the total effect of egg intake on incident Alzheimer's dementia was mediated through dietary choline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that frequent egg consumption is associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's dementia and AD pathology, and the association with Alzheimer's dementia is partially mediated through dietary choline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Colina , Dieta , Ovos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Risco , Colina/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Coortes
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