Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.071
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(733): 675-679, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830698

RESUMO

Hen's egg allergy is the second major cause of food allergy in children and is rare in adults. It can present with diverse and sometimes severe symptoms that can be challenging for patients and clinicians. Allergy history represents the main diagnostic tool, and can be completed with skin tests, specific IgE testing and in selected cases with an oral challenge test. All patients with egg anaphylaxis should benefit from an emergency kit in case of reaction and specialized allergologic evaluation. Strict eviction of eggs can be difficult to achieve because of hidden allergens. For safety purpose, an oral tolerance induction is helpful selected patients. A pre-vaccination assessment is required in rare selected cases.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Ovo , Adulto , Alérgenos , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/diagnóstico , Ovos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Lactente , Testes Cutâneos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803951

RESUMO

Medicinal plants with antibacterial effects have been used by humans for centuries. In the recent decade, due to the development of antibiotic resistant strains, many studies have focused on the use of natural compounds as feed additives in livestock. Ginger, among all, have repetitively shown numerous biological activities, antibacterial, and antibiotic properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ginger root powder (GP) on the performance, egg quality, and blood parameters of Japanese quail. A total of 240 10-weeks old female quails were used in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments, 4 replicates, and 15 birds per replicate. Dietary treatment were basal diet (control) and basal diet containing 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of ginger root powder. Growth performance and exterior and interior quality of egg were measured biweekly over eight-week period. At the end of experiment blood parameters were evaluated. The results showed that diet supplementation with different levels of GP had no significant effect on egg production, egg mass weight, and egg weight (p > 0.05). However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly lower in the treatment group than the control in the whole period (p < 0.05). Egg Quality traits (shape index, albumen index, the percentage of albumen, yolk and shell, yolk pH, and shell thickness and strength) were not affected by the supplements in the whole trial period. Addition of GP significantly increased the albumen height, Haugh unit, and albumen pH in comparison with the control treatment (p < 0.05). GP reduced blood triglyceride level yet was ineffective on blood total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with GP, could improve productive performance and the egg quality of Japanese quails. Nonetheless a comprehensive study needs to be performed in order to evaluate the impact of quail dietary ginger supplementation on productive performance and egg quality and their stability during storage time for commercial use.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Gengibre , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Feminino , Humanos , Pós
3.
Oecologia ; 195(4): 861-872, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709254

RESUMO

Avian obligate brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species that may provide care for the foreign offspring. Brood parasitism often imparts substantial fitness losses upon host nestlings when they are raised alongside the typically more competitive, larger, and older parasitic chick(s). Whereas fitness costs due to reduced host offspring survival in parasitized broods have been studied in detail, the physiological changes in host nestlings caused by parasitic nestmate(s) are less well known. We compared prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) nestlings, a host of the nest-sharing brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), in experimentally parasitized vs. non-parasitized broods. Our aim was to determine whether cohabitation with brood parasitic young impacted host nestling baseline corticosterone plasma concentrations, immune responses, body condition, and mortality. Corticosterone levels and body condition of host nestlings were similar between nests with or without a cowbird nestmate, whereas host immune responses were lower and nestling mortality was greater in parasitized broods, irrespective of variation in brood size or total brood mass. We detected no trade-offs of baseline corticosterone levels with either immune responses or with body condition. These results suggest that this host species' nestlings experience some adverse fitness-relevant physiological effects in parasitized broods, but are also resilient in other aspects when coping with brood parasitism.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Passeriformes , Animais , Corticosterona , Ovos
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669220

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare folate contents in hen eggs from four different farming systems, namely organic, free range, barn, and cage one. Folate retention during egg boiling was studied as well. The contents of individual folate vitamers were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC), following trienzyme treatment. Folate content in eggs differed significantly (p < 0.05) due to the rearing system, with the highest mean content determined in the eggs from organic farming (113.8 µg/100 g). According to this study, one egg (60 g) may provide 40-86 µg of folates, which corresponds to 10-22% of the recommended daily intake for adults, 400 µg according to the Nutrition Standards for the Polish Population. The predominant folate form found in egg was 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which showed considerably greater stability under boiling compared to 10-formylfolic acid present in a lower amount. In most eggs tested, the losses in total folate content did not exceed 15%. The color of yolk of the most folate-abundant organic eggs, had the highest value of lightness (L*) and the lowest value of redness (a*). This, however, does not correspond to consumer preferences of intense golden yolk color.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cor , Culinária , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/química , Adulto Jovem
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100949, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652523

RESUMO

Intestinal integrity, digestive enzyme activity, nutrient utilization, and egg quality of laying hens at different ages were evaluated and compared in this study. A total of 192 Hy-line Brown laying hens at 195-d-old (D195 group), 340-d-old (D340 group), and 525-d-old (D525 group) were allocated into one of 3 groups in accordance with their ages. Each group had 8 replicates of 8 birds each, and all birds were fed a maize-soybean meal basal diet for a 2-wk experiment. Compared with the D195 group, intestinal villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth, as well as serum D-lactate content increased in the D525 group (P < 0.05). The sucrase and maltase activities in the jejunal mucosa, amylase activity in the pancreas, and trypsin activity in the jejunal chyme of 525-d-old hens were lower than their 195-d-old counterparts (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a decline of trypsin and lipase activities in the ileal chyme of hens from D525 group in comparison with D195 or D340 group (P < 0.05). Apparent retention of dry matter and crude protein of birds in D340 and D525 group decreased when compared with the D195 group (P < 0.05). Moreover, birds in the D525 group exhibited a lower level of ether extract retention, and higher contents of several excreted amino acids than those in the D195 group (P < 0.05). Compared with the D195 group, eggs harvested from D525 group exhibited lower albumen height, eggshell strength and thickness, and a higher egg weight (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increased intestinal permeability (higher serum D-lactate content), compromised digestive function (lower digestive enzyme activities and apparent nutrient retention, and higher concentrations of excreted amino acids), and poor egg quality (lower albumen height, eggshell strength, and thickness) were observed with increasing age in the laying hens.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Digestão , Ovos , Intestinos , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100965, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652534

RESUMO

We studied the correlations between egg geometrical parameters (i.e., egg shape index, sphericity, geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume) and eggshell qualities, or the organic matrix in eggshell. Eggs were collected from 5 poultry breeds belonging to 3 species (commercial Hy-line Brown Chicken, Shaoxing Duck, Jinding Duck, Taihu Goose, and Zhedong White Goose). The geometrical parameters showed high variation among 3 species of poultry, and even between breeds in the same species. The five geometrical parameters were grouped into 2 sets, one contained shape index and sphericity, the other comprised geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume. The parameters in the same set can be perfectly fitted to one another. Egg weight, shell membrane weight, and calcified shell weight were significantly correlated with geometric mean diameter, surface area, and volume. In accordance with false discovery rate-adjusted P value, both shell membrane relative weight and calcified shell thickness showed no significant correlations with any of the geometrical parameters. However, the correlations between geometrical parameters and other shell variables (calcified shell weight, shell relative weight, calcified shell thickness uniformity, and eggshell breaking strength) depend on breed. Both constitutive proportions and percentage contents of 3 eggshell matrix components (acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and both acid and water facultative-soluble matrix) had no effects on egg shape and size. The correlations between the amounts of various shell matrix, egg shape and size depend on breed or species. This study provides a methodology and the correlation between geometrical parameters and eggshell qualities, and between geometrical parameters and organic matrix components in calcified shells.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/classificação , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/classificação , Casca de Ovo/anatomia & histologia , Casca de Ovo/química , Ovos , Gansos/anatomia & histologia , Gansos/classificação , Óvulo , Aves Domésticas/anatomia & histologia , Aves Domésticas/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 49(1): 79-86, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy is often based on both a compatible clinical history and either elevated IgE levels or a positive skin prick test. However, the gold standard is the oral food challenge (OFC). Previous studies have pointed to a correla­tion between IgE levels and OFC outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between IgE levels and the outcome of OFC, seeking to establish cut-off OFC values that indicate a high likelihood of positive OFC results. METHODS: A total of 198 patients who underwent OFC (and a serological IgE antibody assay within the three preceding months) were reviewed and divided by OFC type (i.e., baked, cooked, or raw egg). IgE-specific levels were assessed against the challenge outcome as well as cut-offs proposed by other authors. RESULTS: Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis yielded a potentially useful ovomucoid IgE-specific cutoff used in OFC with cooked egg and several egg white and ovalbu­min IgE-specific cut-offs for OFC with raw egg. We found no significant relationship between other specific IgE concentrations and the challenge threshold level with baked eggs. CONCLUSIONS: IgE-specific concentrations are useful as predictors of OFC outcome and should be considered when selecting patients challenge testing with boiled or raw egg. However, patients should undergo OFC with baked egg regardless of IgE levels


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Imunoglobulina E/análise , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/imunologia , Ovos/efeitos adversos
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 835-843, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518137

RESUMO

Magnolol is a multifunctional plant polyphenol. To evaluate the effects of magnolol on laying hens in the late laying period, 360 (50-week-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: a non-supplemented control diet (C), and control diets supplemented with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of magnolol (M100, M200, and M300), respectively. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens per replicate. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg of magnolol increased the laying rate and the M200 group had a lower feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). Magnolol supplementation (200 and 300 mg/kg) could linearly increase albumen height and Haugh unit of fresh eggs in the late phase of the laying cycle (P < 0.01). And magnolol linearly alleviated the decline of the albumen height and Haugh unit of eggs stored for 14 d (P < 0.01). The total superoxide dismutase activity in the ovaries of M100 group was greater than that in the other treatments (P < 0.05). As dietary magnolol levels increased, villus height of jejunum and ileum linearly increased (P < 0.01). M200 and M300 groups had higher expression level of occludin in the ileum compared with group C (P < 0.01). The level of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the ileum of M200 group were lower than that in the C group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg magnolol can improve hen performance, albumen quality of fresh and storage eggs, and hepatic lipid metabolism in the late laying cycle. Also, magnolol has a good effect on increasing villi and improving the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier function.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Óvulo
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 452-460, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518096

RESUMO

Ovomucoid is a major egg white protein which is considered as the most dominant allergen in chicken eggs. Owing to the difficulty of separating ovomucoid from egg whites, researchers have adopted genetic deletion for development of hypoallergenic eggs. Previously, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to establish chickens with ovomucoid gene (OVM) mutations, but it remained unknown whether such hens could produce eggs at maturity. Here, we have reported on eggs laid by OVM-targeted hens. Except for watery egg whites, the eggs had no evident abnormalities. Real-time PCR revealed alternative splicing of OVM mRNA in hens, but their expression was limited. Immunoblotting detected neither mature ovomucoid nor ovomucoid-truncated splicing variants in egg whites. Sixteen chicks hatched from 28 fertilized eggs laid by OVM-targeted hens, and fourteen of the sixteen chicks demonstrated healthy growth. Taken together, our results demonstrated that OVM knockout could almost completely eliminate ovomucoid from eggs, without abolishing fertility. Thus, the eggs developed in this study have potential as a hypoallergenic food source for most patients with egg allergies.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Ovos/normas , Mutação , Ovomucina/genética , Alérgenos/genética , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Clara de Ovo/efeitos adversos , Clara de Ovo/química , Clara de Ovo/normas , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Masculino , Oviposição/genética , Ovomucina/efeitos adversos , Óvulo
10.
Animal ; 15(1): 100030, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579651

RESUMO

Gregarious nesting has often been observed in laying hens, where hens prefer to visit a nest already occupied by other hens over empty nests. This may result in overcrowding of the nests which is considered a welfare issue and, moreover, can increase the economic issue of floor eggs. This study aimed to describe gregarious nesting and spatial behavior in broiler breeders and how this relates to genetic background, fearfulness and mating behavior. Five commercially available genetic lines of broiler breeders were housed in 21 pens of 550 females and 50 males (six pens for lines 1 and 2, five pens for line 3 and two pens for lines 4 and 5) during the ages 20-60 weeks. Every 10 weeks, the plumage condition and wounds were assessed of 50 random hens per pen. Avoidance distance and novel object tests were performed to assess fearfulness at four time points. Distribution of eggs over nests was observed for 6 weeks at the onset of egg production at 26 weeks of age, and use of space was recorded at four time points, while (floor) egg production was noted daily per pen. We found differences between genetic lines over time in plumage condition and prevalence of wounds. Fear of humans was highest at the earliest age tested and did not correlate with general fearfulness as assessed by the novel object test. The distribution of eggs over nests was related to genetic background and was more uneven at the earliest age compared to later ages, and a more uneven distribution was correlated with an increased percentage of floor eggs. Distribution of birds over the litter area differed between the genetic lines, and less use of the litter area was correlated with an increased fear of humans and presence of wounds, suggesting an association with aggressive mating behavior. This difference in distribution of the birds could also explain the correlation between increased presence of wounds and decreased percentage of floor eggs. It is concluded that broiler breeders do show gregarious nesting, which is affected by genetic background. Both increased gregarious nesting and wounds are related to increased floor egg percentage, which should be studied further in broiler breeder research. Genetic selection for even use of the available nests and of the litter and slatted area would therefore support both broiler breeder welfare and performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Ovos , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Oviposição , Óvulo , Reprodução
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2218: 277-290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606239

RESUMO

Rapid innovations in core proteomic technologies and proteome-based bioinformatics fortified by recent genome sequencing allow the characterization and quantification of proteins on a global scale. These capabilities empower research to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how changes in protein expression and modification can affect complex signaling and regulatory networks. The consequences of these studies have significant implications for understanding how myriad activities are regulated in biological systems.Proteomic approaches have been applied to investigate the physiology, developmental biology, and impact of contaminants in fishes as model organisms. Here, we describe the use of label-free protein quantification and global proteome profiling to characterize eggs of different quality grades in the zebrafish .


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ovos , Feminino , Masculino , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
12.
Food Chem ; 351: 129289, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621922

RESUMO

Reliable human health risk assessment associated with chlorinated paraffins (CPs) exposure is limited by the lack of data on the fate of this complex family of contaminants. To gain knowledge on the accumulation and distribution of CPs in biota after ingestion, laying hens were dietary exposed to technical mixtures of short- (SCCPs), medium- (MCCPs), or long-chain (LCCPs) CPs of various chlorine contents during 91 days, at 200 ng/g of feed, each. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and serum were collected at the steady-state, along with excreta. All C10-C36 CPs were detected in liver. However, differences were observed in CP distribution: LCCPs high %Cl were retained in the liver; LCCPs low %Cl circulated through the serum and were distributed in the different compartments, but were mostly excreted through the eggs; SCCPs and MCCPs were found in all tissues at similar levels. Finally, a mass balance indicated a potential for biotransformation.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Exposição Dietética , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Parafina/análise , Tecido Adiposo/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
13.
Food Chem ; 351: 129279, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631615

RESUMO

The use of the antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENR) in poultry is controversial. A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fast-scanning fluorescence detection (HPLC-FSFD) method for the determination of ENR in egg white, egg yolk, and lyophilized samples was developed. In a first analysis, the long-term administration of ENR (100 days) to laying hens was carried out to determine its presence in egg white, yolk, or both. The predominance of ENR was observed in egg white and variations in the weight of egg white and eggshell was evidenced, showing a potential problem in the industry. Eventually, the presence of ENR was confirmed in commercial lyophilized egg white samples in concentration values around 350 µg kg-1. The consumer exposure assessment was estimated for children, adolescents, and adults. The result displayed that, in an intake of lyophilized egg white with food-producing animals, the %ADI exceeds 100%, showing toxicological levels.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Ovos/análise , Enrofloxacina/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Clara de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 603-614, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518113

RESUMO

Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) is a globally distributed, virulent member of the avian paramyxovirus type-1. The PPMV-1-associated disease poses a great threat to the pigeon industry. The innate immune response is crucial for antiviral infections and revealing the pathogenic mechanisms of PPMV-1. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of a PPMV-1 strain LHLJ/110822 in one-month-old domestic pigeons, as well as the host immune responses in PPMV-1-infected pigeons. We observed typically clinical sign in infected pigeons by 3 dpi. The morbidity rate and the mortality in pigeons inoculated with the PPMV-1 strain were up to 100% and 30%, respectively. The virus could replicate in all of the examined tissues, namely trachea, lung, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. In addition, the infected pigeons had developed anti-PPMV-1 antibodies as early as 8 dpi; and the antibody level increased over the time in this study. The expression level of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR3 TLR15, IFN-γ, and IL-6 were significantly upregulated by the PPMV-1 infection in some tissues of pigeons. By contrast, PPMV-1 infection results in downregulation of IL-18 expression in most of investigated tissues except for bursa of Fabricius in this study. The current results confirmed that this virus could replicate in pigeons and induce host immune responses, then leading to produce serum antibody titers. Meanwhile, the PPMV-1 infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in pigeon which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/fisiologia , Embrião de Galinha , Ovos/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 675-684, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518121

RESUMO

In the present study, 200 Brown commercial egg-type layers (60 wk old) were used to study the effects of different levels of ecofriendly synthesis of calcium (Ca) nanoparticles (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kg diet) with biocompatible Sargassum latifolium algae extract (SL-CaNps) on exterior egg quality traits, electronic microscopic view of eggshells, Ca and phosphorus (P) retention, serum Ca and P concentrations, and the histology of the uterus. Hens fed with dietary SL-CaNps powder had higher egg weight and shell weight % values than those of the control group. All SL-CaNps treatment groups had the greatest values of shell weight per unit surface area and shell thickness. Dietary supplementation of SL-CaNps at graded levels up to 1.5 g/kg diet had higher serum Ca and inorganic P levels than that of the control. Laying hens fed with SL-CaNps-added diets had beneficial effects on shell ultrastructure in terms of well-developed palisade and mammillary layers. The numbers of apical cells along the branched tubular gland were greater in SL-CaNps-treated groups than those of control. Conclusively, supplementing SL-CaNps powder up to 1.5 g/kg to the diet of laying hens improved eggshell thickness, shell weight% and shell weight per unit surface and has no adverse effect on their eggshell quality or electronic microscopic view of their eggshell.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/ultraestrutura , Ovos/normas , Nanopartículas , Sargassum/química , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/veterinária
16.
IEEE Pulse ; 12(1): 7-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630735

RESUMO

With seasonal influenza, Ebola, shingles, pneumonia, human papillomavirus, and other pathogens-combined now with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-the world's demand for vaccines is on a steep incline. New vaccine development is progressing rapidly, as seen with recent announcements of coronavirus options [1], [2], but what about their manufacture?


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Reatores Biológicos , /prevenção & controle , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Ovos , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578927

RESUMO

Detailed information about the amount of allergenic protein ingested by the patient prior to an allergic reaction yields valuable information for the diagnosis, guidance and management of food allergy. However, the exact amount of ingredients is often not declared on the label. In this study the feasibility was studied for estimating the amount of allergenic protein from milk, eggs, peanuts and hazelnuts in frequently consumed composite and non-composite foods and per bite or sip size in different age groups in the Netherlands. Foods containing milk, egg, peanut or hazelnut most frequently consumed were selected for the age groups 2-3, 4-6 and 19-30 years. If the label did not yield clear information, the amount of allergenic protein was estimated based on food labels. Bite or sip sizes were determined in these age groups in 30 different foods. The amount of allergenic protein could be estimated in 47/70 (67%) of composite foods, which was complex. Estimated protein content of milk, egg, peanut and hazelnut was 2-3 g for most foods but varied greatly from 3 to 8610 mg and may be below threshold levels of the patient. In contrast, a single bite or sip can contain a sufficient amount of allergenic protein to elicit an allergic reaction. Bite and sip sizes increased with age. In every day practice it is hard to obtain detailed and reliable information about the amount of allergenic protein incorporated in composite foods. We encourage companies to disclose the amount of common allergenic foods on their labels.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Arachis/química , Arachis/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corylus/química , Corylus/imunologia , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Leite/química , Leite/imunologia , Países Baixos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104336, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513432

RESUMO

Observational studies in the wild suggest that birds select material to build their nests based on functional aspects of material that promote reproductive success. How birds select material for nest building from the variety of materials available in their environment is unclear. In the current laboratory experiment we manipulated breeding success (i.e. raising fledglings) of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs to test if this affects the subsequent selection of nest material between a familiar versus a novel material, that differ in structural properties. All birds experienced one breeding attempt using coconut fiber as nest material during which their breeding success was manipulated: half of the breeding pairs fledged their nestlings while the remaining pairs had their eggs removed to simulate nest failure. In a second nest-building attempt, all pairs were given access to both familiar nesting material (coconut fiber) and a novel nesting material (white cotton string). Pairs that were successful in their first breeding attempt built their second nest with significantly more familiar material compared to novel material. Pairs that were unsuccessful, however, incorporated similar amounts of familiar and novel material in their second attempt. Our results show that experiencing either a successful or an unsuccessful breeding attempt influences how birds select between familiar and novel material with different structural properties (e.g. flexibility, thickness) to build a second nest. Moreover, our experiment shows that learning from experience plays an important role for decision making in future structure-building endeavors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Aves Canoras , Animais , Ovos , Reprodução
19.
Animal ; 15(1): 100051, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516007

RESUMO

Mottled eggs in layer chickens are gaining increasing attention because of the economic impact on the egg industry caused by the reduced sale value of commodity eggs. However, the genetic architecture underlying mottled eggs is not well understood. The genetic architecture underlying the mottled egg trait was investigated using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by high-density arrays, using a total of 407 pink eggs and 799 blue eggs from an F2 resource population generated by crossing Dongxiang Blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens. The mottled egg score in blue eggs was found to be higher than that in pink eggs. The single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of mottled egg at laying day and storage for 7 days was 0.18 and 0.20, respectively. Bivariate GWAS provided 29 significant loci, mainly located on GGA2, GGA3, GGA8, GGA10, GGA15, GGA17, and GGA23, affecting mottled egg on laying day. Candidate genes RIMS2, SLC25A32, RIMBP2, VPS13B, and RGS3 were obtained for mottled eggshell by bivariate GWAS and gene annotation. Our findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of mottled egg in hens, and demonstrate that a genomic selection method would be profitable for breeding out the mottled egg trait.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Casca de Ovo , Ovos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Nucleotídeos , Óvulo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Gene ; 777: 145449, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482277

RESUMO

Ovarian development is a complex process involving many genes and pathways. A well-developed ovary is essential for poultry to keep high egg production and egg fertility. In order to better understand the mechanism of egg production performance, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on ovaries of black Muscovy ducks at the early (BE), peak (BP) and late laying (BL) stages. 1683 DEGs were identified from BL-vs-BE, BL-vs-BP and BP-vs-BE, and the up-regulated genes were 41, 835, 260, the down-regulated genes were 60, 255, 730, respectively. Besides, there were 32, 20 and 424 DEGs co-expressed in the two comparison groups, and 11 DEGs were co-expressed in the three comparison groups. HOXA10, HtrA3, StAR, ZP2 and TAT were found to be involved in the regulation of ovarian development were significantly differentially expressed at different laying stages, which helped to regulate ovarian maturation and egg production. Moreover, we discovered several important functional pathways, such as steroid hormone biosynthesis and ovarian steroidogenesis, that appear to be much more active in the BP ovary compared to those of the BE and BL. Furthermore, 17 coding and 244 non-coding new transcripts were detected in the three comparison groups, the gene structures were optimized and the gene annotation informations were improved. These findings will provide a solid foundation on ovarian development in black Muscovy ducks and other poultry animals at different laying stages, and help to understand the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of ovary.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Ovário/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , China , Ovos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodução/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...