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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 6859798, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686235

RESUMO

For toxicity research, a total of 100 fertilized nonincubated eggs were used for this study. There were two trials in this experiment which were further divided into 2 phases based on a different days of sewage water treatment and observation days. In each trial, 50 eggs were used and divided into 5 groups. Group A, B, and C were treated with three different concentrations of pure and diluted sewage water (100%, 70%, and 30%), respectively. Control group D was given 0.3 ml saline solution (0.9% NaCl) and group E was uninjected. Different parameters such as the embryo's body weight, body length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and head diameter were determined. In trial 1, eggs were treated with sewage water on 7th day of incubation and opened on 8th day (phase I) and 9th day (phase II). When the trial 1 (phase I) findings were compared to the control groups, it was observed that body weight, body length, forelimb length, and hindlimb length were highly statistically significant differences (p < 0.01), but the head diameter was not significant (p > 0.05). Phase II result showed embryo's head diameter was a highly statistically significant difference (p < 0.01), whereas forelimb length was significant (p < 0.05), and body weight, body length, and hindlimb length were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). In trial 2, eggs were treated with sewage water on 14th day of incubation and opened on 15th day (phase I) and 16th day (phase II). Results of 15th day showed a highly statistically significant (p < 0.01) difference in hindlimb length, while body weight, body length, forelimb length, and head diameter were nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Phase II of trial 2 showed that on 16th day, body weight, body length, forelimb length, hindlimb length, and head diameter showed a nonsignificant (p > 0.05) difference between experimental and control groups. Embryos were observed to be deforming on the 9th day (after 48 hours of exposure to sewage water). Other phases showed no signs of deformation. Except on 8th day of incubation, dose-related mortalities were present in experimental groups, while the control group showed no mortality.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Esgotos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ovos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Esgotos/efeitos adversos
2.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111348, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650977

RESUMO

Marinated egg is one of the traditional egg products in China; however, its low digestibility has limited its further industrial application. In this study, the mechanism involved in the amelioration of the protein digestibility of whole marinated eggs by strong alkali pickling was investigated. The results revealed that the water content of strong alkali-pickled whole marinated egg (SPME) exhibited an increasing trend during the alkali pickling process. Furthermore, as the pickling process progressed, the hardness, net charge, and ß-sheets of the SPME first increased and then decreased, and the stability of the secondary structure of the SPME gradually decreased. In addition, long-term strong alkali pickling damaged the gel properties and protein structure of SPME, which resulted in the degradation of the protein. Thus, the alkali pickling significantly enhanced the digestibility of the SPME protein and the number of peptides present in the enzymolysis product of SPME. In summary, strong alkali pickling effectively improved the protein digestibility of marinated egg.


Assuntos
Álcalis , Proteômica , Álcalis/química , Fenômenos Químicos , China , Ovos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
3.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111318, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651073

RESUMO

In this work, high-intensity ultrasound (HIU) was used to accelerate the pickling of the reduced-sodium salted duck eggs (RSSDE). Meanwhile, it was evidenced that HIU treatment was also helpful to improve the overall quality of RSSDE. When the optimized HIU at 80 W was used, it resulted in favorably higher hardness (1.83 N), springiness (4.20 mm), and chewiness (4.83 mJ) of RSSDE whites, while the lowest hardness (1.12 N) of RSSDE yolks. The average particle size of RSSDE whites was significantly reduced (230.37 nm, 7.14%) as well. Apart from that, the absolute zeta potential and hydrophobicity were increased to -8.63 mV by 14.30% and 164.70 µg by 3.12%, respectively, attributed to the destruction of protein aggregation by cavitation effects. The oil exudation showed an obvious rising during the 14 days of the salting. HIU treatment at 80 W destroyed the emulsification state of lipid droplets and led to higher oil exudation (39.30%). The structural analysis of RSSDE proteins revealed marked alterations following HIU, with a reduction in α-helix and an increase in ß-turn and random coil. The highest r-value reached 1.32 after HIU treatment at 80 W, which was attributed to the exposure of both tyrosine and tryptophan residues caused by the hydrophobic rearrangement of RSSDE protein. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that HIU altered the architecture of RSSDE proteins, resulting in more irregular pores. This work proved that HIU was a promising tool to shorten the salting period of RSSDE with much better quality.


Assuntos
Patos , Ovos , Animais , Gema de Ovo/química , Sódio/análise , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
4.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 41, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duration of fertility (DF) is an important economic trait in poultry production because it has a strong effect on chick output. Various criteria or traits to assess DF on individual hens have been reported but they are affected by many nongenetic factors. Thus, a reliable definition and associated genetic parameters are needed. Because egg production is also vital in chicken breeding, knowledge of the relationship between DF and laying performance is needed for designing selection programs. METHODS: We used five traits that consider both fertility and embryonic livability to delineate DF. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed for 2094 hens, with measurements of DF at 35 and 60 weeks of age and hatching egg production at 400 days of age (HEP400). The selection differentials for DF and HEP400 were evaluated. RESULTS: DF is largely independent of the number of oviposited eggs in the peak laying period but both egg production and DF naturally decline with age. The heritability of the five DF traits ranged from 0.11 to 0.13 at 35 weeks of age and increased slightly in the later laying period, ranging from 0.14 to 0.17 (except for efficient duration, time between insemination and the first unhatched egg). Estimates of the genetic correlation for a given trait measured at the two ages were moderate (0.37-0.44), except for efficient duration. However, number of viable embryos depends strongly on egg production. Estimates of genetic correlations of fertility duration day (FDD) at both ages with HEP were weak. Selection for FDD improved DF but without a significant change in laying performance. Selection for increased HEP400 did not contribute to DF improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Although estimates of heritability of the five traits related to DF were low, selection to improve DF based on any one of them is possible. Among these, FDD is an effective selection criterion when the eggs are collected for approximately two weeks after insemination. The best selection procedure for DF improvement would involve multiple measurements at various ages. FDD is independent of laying performance and can be incorporated into a breeding program with egg production to improve reproductive efficiency.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Oviposição/genética , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9857, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701458

RESUMO

The phylum Tardigrada comprises ~ 1400 described species that inhabit a wide range of ecosystems throughout the globe. Tardigrades are generally considered taxonomically challenging due to a strongly limited number of taxonomically informative morphological traits and microscopic size. Of all tardigrade groups, the taxonomy of Milnesium Doyère, 1840 is particularly difficult because in comparison with most other eutardigrades, the genus lacks the taxonomically informative egg shell ornamentation and/or placoids in the muscle pharynx. Therefore, any new morphological traits that could be used in species delineation and identification are priceless. In this contribution, we review and evaluate taxonomic value of the dorsal cuticle morphology. Specifically, by means of experimental taxonomy, we demonstrate the first extreme case of ontogenetic variability in dorsal epicuticle sculpturing using a new species from Portugal, Milnesium decorum sp. nov. Furthermore, we verify the existence of dorsal gibbosities in Milnesium reticulatum Pilato, Binda, Lisi, 2002, the only species of the genus allegedly exhibiting these structures. Finally, we provide a diagnostic key to the Milnesium granulatum morphogroup.


Assuntos
Tardígrados , Animais , Ecossistema , Ovos , Portugal
6.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354221105485, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced adverse effects (CIAEs) remain a challenging problem due to their high incidences and negative impacts on treatment in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We aimed to identify risk factors and predictive markers for CIAEs using food/nutrition data in CRC patients receiving post-operative capecitabine-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Food/nutrition data from 130 Chinese CRC patients were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify CIAE-related food/nutrition factors. Prediction models were constructed based on the combination of these factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discrimination ability of models. RESULTS: A total of 20 food/nutrition factors associated with CIAEs were identified in the univariate analysis after adjustments for total energy and potential confounding factors. Based on multivariate analysis, we found that, among these factors, dessert, eggs, poultry, and milk were associated with several CIAEs. Most importantly, poultry was an overall protective factor; milk and egg were risk factors for hand-foot syndrome (HFS) and bone marrow suppression (BMS), respectively. Developed multivariate models in predicting grade 1 to 3 CIAEs and grade 2/3 CIAEs both had good discrimination (AUROC values from 0.671 to 0.778, 0.750 to 0.946 respectively), which had potential clinical application value in the early prediction of CIAEs, especially for more severe CIAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that patients with high milk and egg intakes should be clinically instructed to control their corresponding dietary intake to reduce the likelihood of developing HFS and BMS during capecitabine-based chemotherapy, respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03030508.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Capecitabina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Ovos , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Mão-Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Humanos , Leite , Fatores de Risco
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(3): 497-508, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the monitoring status of veterinary drug residues in chickens and eggs sold in Ningxia from 2016 to 2020, and to evaluate the health risks of human intake. METHODS: A total of 303 chicken and 237 eggs were collected from 2016 to 2020, and the veterinary drug residues in chickens and eggs sold in Ningxia were detected and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The food safety index method was used to assess the health risks in combination with the dietary intake of residents. RESULTS: The detection rate of veterinary drug residues in chicken was 38.0%(115/303), and the over-standard rate was 7.6%(23/303). The detection rate of veterinary drug residues in eggs was 26.6%(63/237), and the over-standard rate was 19.8%(47/237). The food safety index of doxycycline in chicken was 4.59, and the food safety indexes of doxycycline, flumequine and flufenicol in eggs were 7.09, 26.5 and 2.33, respectively, all of which were much higher than 1, suggesting that there were health risks. The food safety indexes of other substances were all less than 1, and the food safety indexes were all acceptable. CONCLUSION: Veterinary drugs were widely detected in chicken and eggs in Ningxia from 2016 to 2020. Some veterinary drugs had hidden health risks.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas , Drogas Veterinárias , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Doxiciclina/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
9.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101889, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504065

RESUMO

Canthaxanthin is widely used as a feed additive to improve skin and yolk color in poultry. It is insoluble in water and sensitive to oxidation, so commercial canthaxanthin is often microencapsulated with wall materials to improve its solubility and stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of canthaxanthin microencapsulation on yolk color and canthaxanthin deposition in egg yolk of laying hens. A total of 288 Hyline Brown laying hens (48 wk of age) were allocated to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 12 hens each, and fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5 mg/kg canthaxanthin microencapsulated with modified starch (CMMS), gelatin (CMG), and sodium lignosulfonate (CMSL), respectively. Canthaxanthin supplementation did not affect laying performance of hens, but improved (P < 0.05) yolk color of fresh, fried, boiled, and stored (4 and 25°C) eggs. The improvement of yolk color of fresh eggs was greatest in the CMSL group and least in the CMG group (P < 0.05). Both CMMS and CMSL resulted in higher (P < 0.05) yolk canthaxanthin concentration than CMG. The CMSL resulted in higher (P < 0.05) yolk color score of fried eggs than CMMS and CMG and higher (P < 0.05) yolk color score of boiled eggs than CMG, but no difference was observed in stored eggs among three canthaxanthin groups. In conclusion, CMMS and CMSL were more effective in yolk pigmentation than CMG, and CMSL was slightly better than CMMS.


Assuntos
Cantaxantina , Gema de Ovo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cantaxantina/farmacologia , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Óvulo
10.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101892, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523046

RESUMO

Antibiotic residues contained in poultry eggs pose threat to human health. However, the classes and concentrations of antibiotics in poultry egg in southwestern China is unknown due to insufficient monitoring and research. A total of 513 egg samples were collected from supermarkets and farm markets in Kunming city in 2020 and the levels of 7 antibiotics were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.990 for all antibiotics tested. The limits of detection and limits of quantification in poultry eggs were 0.002 to 0.010 µg/g and 0.007 to 0.033 µg/g, respectively. The average recoveries of the 7 analytes from poultry egg samples were 80.00 to 128.01%, with relative standard deviations of less than 13.97%. A total of 93 (18.13%) samples tested positive for antibiotics, with the highest concentration being 2.48 µg/g. The concentration range of ofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and sulfamethoxazole in poultry eggs was 0.01 to 0.37 µg/g, 0.06 to 0.48 µg/g, 0.05 to 0.29 µg/g, 0.03 to 0.16 µg/g, 0.06 to 1.00 µg/g, 0.05 to 0.37, and 0.07 to 2.48 µg/g, respectively. Sulfamonomethoxine was detected from hen eggs with the highest concentration level at 1.00 µg/g. Sulfamethoxazole was detected with the highest concentration level from both duck and quail eggs, at 1.87 and 2.48 µg/g, respectively. The antibiotic with the highest residue level in pheasant eggs was danofloxacin, which was 0.37 µg/g. Sulfamethoxypyridazine was identified in 30 samples with the highest positive rate of 5.85%, sulfadimethoxine was identified in 3 samples with the lowest positive rate of 0.58%. We observed that 7 targeted antibiotic residues in quail eggs and 3 targeted antibiotic residues in pheasant eggs. We also found that there were antibiotic residues in free-range hen eggs and the concentration was not low. The antibiotic with the highest residue level in free-range eggs was sulfamonomethoxine, which was 1.00 µg/g. These findings suggest that continual antibiotic residue monitoring of poultry eggs is essential in China.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas , Sulfametoxipiridazina , Sulfamonometoxina , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Óvulo/química , Aves Domésticas , Extração em Fase Sólida/veterinária , Sulfadimetoxina/análise , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Sulfametoxipiridazina/análise , Sulfamonometoxina/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária
11.
Animal ; 16(6): 100532, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576638

RESUMO

Magnolol and its isomer honokiol are polyphenols with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the effects of magnolol and honokiol supplementation alone or in combination with hen diets during the late laying cycle. A total of 540 Jingfen pink-shell laying hens (50 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six treatments: a control diet and diets supplemented with 300 mg/kg magnolol (M300), honokiol (H300), or 300 mg/kg total phenols with a magnolol/honokiol ratio of 2:1 (M200H100), 1:2 (M100H200), and 1:1 (M150H150). Compared with that of the control, all supplementation groups had higher laying rates and the M300, M100H200, and M150H150 groups showed comparatively lower feed conversion ratios. Magnolol and honokiol supplementation increased the Haugh units of fresh eggs at week 62 and alleviated the decline of the Haugh units of eggs stored for 14 days. Compared with that of the control group, the serum total antioxidant capacity of the M100H200 and M150H150 groups significantly increased, and all supplementation groups had higher total antioxidant capacity and lower malondialdehyde content in the liver. With respect to lipid metabolism, the M200H100 and M150H150 groups had lower total and relative liver weights compared with those of the control and H300 groups. The mRNA expression levels of CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase and stearyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 involved in lipogenesis; microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein B involved in fatty acid transport; and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta were lower in all supplementation groups compared with those in the control. With respect to gut health, the heights of the jejunum and ileum villi significantly increased in all supplementation groups compared with those of the control, and the jejunum villus heights of the M300 and M150H150 groups were higher than those of the H300 and M100H200 groups. The H300 and M150H150 groups had higher mRNA expression levels of zonula occludens-1 in the ileum compared with those in the control and M300 groups, whereas all supplementation groups had higher mRNA levels of claudin-1 than that of the control group. In conclusion, magnolol and honokiol improved hen performance and the albumen quality of fresh and stored eggs by improving the antioxidant capacity, liver lipid metabolism, and intestinal health of laying hens. The combination of magnolol and honokiol at a 1:1 ratio may be an optimal choice for hen diet supplementation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Feminino , Lignanas , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566355

RESUMO

The difference of nutrient composition between organic eggs and conventional eggs has always been a concern of people. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique combined with multivariate statistical analyses was conducted to identify the metabolite different in egg yolk and egg white in order to reveal the nutritional components information between organic and conventional eggs. The results showed that the nutrient content and composition characteristics were different between organic and conventional eggs, among which the content of glucose, putrescine, amino acids and their derivatives were found higher in the organic eggs yolk, while phospholipids were demonstrated higher in conventional eggs yolk. Organic acid, alcohol, amine, choline and amino acids were higher in conventional eggs white, but glucose and lactate in organic egg were higher. Our study demonstrated that there are more nutritive components and higher nutritional value in organic eggs than conventional eggs, especially for the growth and development of infants and young children, and conventional eggs have more advantages in promoting lipid metabolism, preventing fatty liver, and reducing serum cholesterol. Eggs have important nutritional value to human body, and these two kinds of eggs can be selected according to the actual nutrient needs.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Ovos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Discriminante , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591184

RESUMO

Assessment of the freshness of hen eggs destinated to human consumption is an extremely important goal for the modern food industry and sale chains, as eggs show a rapid natural aging which also depends on the storage conditions. Traditional techniques, such as candling and visual observation, have some practical limitations related to the subjective and qualitative nature of the analysis. The main objective of this paper is to propose a robust and automated approach, based on the use of pulsed phase thermography (PPT) and image processing, that can be used as an effective quality control tool to evaluate the freshness of eggs. As many studies show that the air chamber size is proportional to the egg freshness, the technique relies on the monitoring of the air chamber parameters to infer egg aging over time. The raw and phase infrared images are acquired and then post-processed by a dedicated algorithm which has been designed to automatically measure the size of the air chamber, in terms of normalized area and volume. The robustness of the method is firstly assessed through repeatability and reproducibility tests, which demonstrate that the uncertainty in the measure of the air chamber size never exceeds 5%. Then, an experimental campaign on a larger sample of 30 eggs, equally divided into three size categories (M, L, XL), is conducted. For each egg, the main sizes of the air chamber are measured with the proposed method and their evolution over time is investigated. Results have revealed, for all the egg categories, the existence of an analytic relationship and a high degree of correlation (R2 > 0.95) between the geometric data of the air chamber and the weight loss, which is a well-known marker of egg aging.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Termografia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Food Chem ; 389: 133129, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526291

RESUMO

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is often used on eggs to remove microorganisms, but the cuticle will be damaged, causing bacterial invasion and deterioration of egg quality during preservation. Therefore, a combination of SAEW disinfection with chitosan (CS) and pectin (PT) composite coating (CS + PT) was tried in preventing bacterial invasion and prolonging the shelf life of eggs. The results showed the order of decontamination effectiveness on contaminated eggs was SAEW > Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) + SAEW > ERW > deionized water. The CS + PT coating used on SAEW-disinfected eggs inhibits the S. enteritidis invasion (reduced by 63.3%) and was successfully used to maintain the quality of eggs (Haugh unit 48.63, Weight loss 7.34%, Yolk index 0.29, pH 8.93) after 8 weeks storage at 25 ℃. The results revealed that the combination of SAEW and CS + PT was a very promising method for egg preservation.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Ácidos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Ovos , Eletrólise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinas , Salmonella enteritidis , Água/química
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 147: 28-36, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413627

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine whether the addition of Ilex paraguariensis residue to the basal diet of laying hens improves bird health, production, fatty acids, egg quality, and transfer of chlorogenic acids to the egg. One hundred twenty birds of the Hy-line lineage were used, divided into five groups with six replicates and four birds per replicate, as follows: T0 (control group, without IPPR supplementation), T0.5 (basal diet plus 0.5% of IPPR), T1 (basal diet plus 1% IPPR), T1.5 (basal diet plus 1.5% IPPR), and T2 (basal diet plus 2% IPPR), for two consecutive cycles of 21 days each. The productive performance of the birds, physicochemical composition of eggs, fatty acid profile, the concentration of chlorogenic acids in eggs, leukocyte count, serum biochemistry, oxidant and antioxidant status, total bacterial count in eggs, and feces were evaluated at 21 and 42 days of the experiment. The addition of IPPR to the birds' diet no-change eggs production and feed conversion. In the egg yolks of birds that consumed IPPR, there were chlorogenic acids. There was a reduction in the total bacterial count in the feces and eggshells of the birds that received 2% of the IPPR. IPPR intake also reflected a reduction in total saturated fatty acid levels and increased monounsaturated fatty acids. These findings suggest that IPPR is a compelling alternative for laying hens; however, its ingestion also has negative effects that are discussed in below. Chlorogenic acids in the egg are desirable, as these phenolics have nutraceutical effects in humans.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Ilex paraguariensis , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/química , Ovos , Feminino , Óvulo
16.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106471, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430266

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) survives in the egg stage under unfavorable environmental conditions. In this study, we assessed the survival of Ae. aegypti eggs under natural winter conditions as an overwintering mechanism. To address this, field collected eggs (from Buenos Aires city) were exposed for three months during the winter season in three sites of Santa Rosa and General Acha (La Pampa province, Argentina). Eggs survival and hatching response were analyzed considering two factors (site of exposure and time of oviposition). Of the 1397 analyzed eggs, 936 (67%) were viable at the end of the study. Egg survival showed to be high in all sites (between 53% and 84%), except in one site of Santa Rosa. Also, eggs survival was higher in eggs laid in May (94%) (late-fall) as compared to those laid in March (61%) and April (56%) (early- and mid-fall respectively). Eggs hatching response was only affected by the time of oviposition, being lower for eggs laid in May (33%) as compared to March (38%) and April (50%). These results provide information regarding the winter resistance of Ae. aegypti at the limit of its distribution in temperate regions. Given the high percentages of survival found in this study, we consider that the low winter temperatures would not be a limitation for its establishment in southern areas.


Assuntos
Aedes , Estações do Ano , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Ovos , Feminino , Oviposição
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(6): 101869, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477136

RESUMO

The fatty acid content of microalgae, especially the high content of omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), could enrich eggs when fed to laying hens. Moreover, the properties and bioactive components of omega-3 fatty acids could positively influence the health and production performance of laying hens. In this study, the effects of dried Nannochloropsis limnetica inclusions in diets on yolk omega-3 fatty acid content, laying hen performance, nutrient retention, intestinal morphometry and systemic inflammatory markers were measured. A total of 240 twenty-five-wk-old laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 treatments distributed among 30 pens. Treatment A received the reference diet, while diets in treatments B, C, and D contained the control diet with 1, 2, and 3% microalgae added, respectively. In treatment E, a portion of ingredients of the control diet was replaced with rapeseed meal to induce a mild nutritional challenge, along with an inclusion of 3% microalgae. Compared to the control group the rate of lay increased by approximately 5% (P = 0.039) when birds were fed 2 or 3% microalgae. Furthermore, inclusion of 2 and 3% microalgae resulted in higher feed intake compared to the control group (126, 125, and 119 g/hen/d respectively; P = 0.001). Other performance parameters such as nutrient retention and egg characteristics were not affected by the dietary treatments. The EPA and DHA content of the yolk increased with increasing microalgae inclusion level (P < 0.001). A 2% algal inclusion resulted in 58.3 (EPA) and 603 (DHA) mg per 100 g dry yolk, respectively. Plasma haptoglobin levels of laying hens in both treatments receiving 3% microalgae were almost 3 times lower compared to the control group (1.25 and 1.62 vs. 5.60; P < 0.001), regardless of the inclusion of rapeseed in the diet. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the inclusion of N. limnetica enriches the egg yolk without negatively affecting the performance of laying hens and egg characteristics. Due to the positive effect on feed intake, microalgae in the diet provide nutritional benefits for laying hens. However, the positive effects of microalgae, especially on the health of laying hens, warrants further research.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Microalgas , Estramenópilas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Nutrientes , Óvulo
18.
Circulation ; 145(20): 1506-1520, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research highlighting the importance of exogenous dietary cholesterol intake and endogenous serum cholesterol level in human health, a thorough evaluation of the associations is lacking. Our study objective was to examine overall and cause-specific mortality in relation to dietary and serum cholesterol, as well as egg consumption, and conduct an updated meta-regression analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 27 078 men in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention). Multivariable-controlled cause-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 31-year absolute mortality risk differences. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was also performed (PROSPERO [URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42021272756]). RESULTS: Based on 482 316 person-years of follow-up, we identified 22 035 deaths, including 9110 deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Greater dietary cholesterol and egg consumption were associated with increased risk of overall and CVD-related mortality. Hazard ratios for each additional 300 mg cholesterol intake per day were 1.10 and 1.13 for overall and CVD-related mortality, respectively; for each additional 50-g egg consumed daily, hazard ratios were 1.06 and 1.09, respectively, for overall and CVD-related mortality (all P values<0.0001). After multivariable adjustment, higher serum total cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of CVD-related mortality (hazard ratios per 1 SD increment, 1.14; P<0.0001). The observed associations were generally similar across cohort subgroups. The updated meta-analysis of cohort studies on the basis of 49 risk estimates, 3 601 401 participants, and 255 479 events showed consumption of 1 additional 50-g egg daily was associated with significantly increased CVD risk (pooled relative risk, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.08]; I2=80.1%). In the subgroup analysis of geographic regions (Pinteraction=0.02), an increase of 50-g egg consumed daily was associated with a higher risk of CVD in US cohorts (pooled relative risk, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.02-1.14]) and appeared related to a higher CVD risk in European cohorts with borderline significance (pooled relative risk, 1.05), but was not associated with CVD risk in Asian cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis, greater dietary cholesterol and egg consumption were associated with increased risk of overall and CVD-related mortality. Our findings support restricted consumption of dietary cholesterol as a means to improve long-term health and longevity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Colesterol na Dieta , Causas de Morte , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Environ Manage ; 314: 115096, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462255

RESUMO

Poultry eggs, the basic foodstuffs of human society, have been extensively consumed for domestic and industrial uses. A large amount of eggshell waste is generated and discarded every year, resulting in a waste of natural resources and a threat to the environment. In this context, the reutilization of eggshell waste has gained increasing attentions. Meanwhile, the overuse of antibiotics has led to the emergence of many drug-resistant bacteria, which greatly endangers public health. Therefore, manufacturing new materials with strong antimicrobial activities has become the focus of many researchers. Recent studies have revealed that eggshells can be applied as solid substances, the raw materials for calcium oxide, and the calcium source for synthesizing hydroxyapatite or other materials with antimicrobial activities. Herein, the preparation methods, antibacterial mechanisms and the applications of these eggshell waste-derived antibacterial materials are summarized in this review. Finally, the current challenges and future directions in this field are discussed.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ovos , Humanos , Resíduos
20.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 132: 105170, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460801

RESUMO

Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly prescribed in an extralabel manner for treating chickens in urbanized settings. The objectives of this study were to determine meloxicam depletion profiles in eggs and ovarian follicles and to estimate associated withdrawal intervals (WDI) in laying hens following a single intravenous or repeated oral administration. The observed peak concentration of meloxicam in ovarian follicles were consistently higher than in egg yolk and egg white samples. Terminal half-lives were 31-h, 113-h and 12-h in ovarian follicles, egg yolk and egg white samples, respectively, for repeated oral administrations at 1 mg/kg for 20 doses at 12-h intervals. The terminal half-life following a single intravenous administration at 1 mg/kg was 50-h for ovarian follicles. Meloxicam WDI estimations using ovarian follicle and egg yolk concentration data following 20 doses at 12-h intervals were 36 and 12 days, respectively. Meloxicam WDI estimation using egg yolk concentration data following 8 doses at 24-h intervals was 12 days. These results improve our understanding on the residue depletion of meloxicam from chickens' reproductive tracts and egg products and provide WDIs to help ensure food safety for humans consuming eggs from treated laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Resíduos de Drogas , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Gema de Ovo , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Meloxicam/análise , Folículo Ovariano
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