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1.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14265, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556740

RESUMO

Plant species distribution across ecosystems is influenced by multiple environmental factors, and recurrent seasonal stress events can act as natural selection agents for specific plant traits and limit species distribution. For that, studies aiming at understanding how environmental constraints affect adaptive mechanisms of taxonomically closely related species are of great interest. We chose two Scabiosa species inhabiting contrasting environments: the coastal scabious S. atropurpurea, typically coping with hot-dry summers in a Mediterranean climate, and the mountain scabious S. columbaria facing cold winters in an oceanic climate. A set of functional traits was examined to assess plant performance in these congeneric species from contrasting natural habitats. Both S. atropurpurea and S. columbaria appeared to be perfectly adapted to their environment in terms of adjustments in stomatal closure, CO2 assimilation rate and water use efficiency over the seasons. However, an unexpected dry period during winter followed by the typical Mediterranean hot-dry summer forced S. atropurpurea plants to deploy a set of photoprotective responses during summer. Aside from reductions in leaf water content and Fv/Fm, photoprotective molecules (carotenoids, α-tocopherol and anthocyanins) per unit of chlorophyll increased, mostly as a consequence of a severe chlorophyll loss. The profiling of stress-related hormones (ABA, salicylic acid and jasmonates) revealed associations between ABA and the bioactive jasmonoyl-isoleucine with the underlying photoprotective response to recurrent seasonal stress in S. atropurpurea. We conclude that jasmonates may be used together with ABA as a functional trait that may, at least in part, help understand plant responses to recurrent seasonal stress in the current frame of global climate change.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Ciclopentanos , Ecossistema , Oxilipinas , Estações do Ano , Clorofila , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Água
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 209: 108533, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520967

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) toxicity is an emerging contaminant of global concern. It is known to cause oxidative stress, affecting plant growth and yield. Plantago ovata, a major cash crop known for its medicinal properties, is often cultivated in Se-contaminated soil. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) seed priming technique to mitigate Se-induced phytotoxicity. The results demonstrated that Se stress inhibited P. ovata growth, biomass and lowered chlorophyll content in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 1 µM MeJA enhanced the antioxidant defence system via ROS signalling and upregulated key enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway, PAL (1.9 times) and CHI (5.4 times) in comparison to control. Caffeic acid, Vanillic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Coumaric acid and Luteoloside were the most abundant polyphenols. Enzymatic antioxidants involved in ROS scavenging, such as CAT (up to 1.3 times) and GPOX (up to 1.4 times) were raised, while SOD (by 0.6 times) was reduced. There was an upregulation of growth-inducible hormones, IAA (up to 2.1 fold) and GA (up to 1.5 fold) whereas, the stress-responsive hormones ABA (by 0.6 fold) and SA (by 0.5 fold) were downregulated. The alleviation of Se toxicity was also evident from the decrease in H2O2 and MDA contents under MeJA treatment. These findings suggest that MeJA can effectively improve Se tolerance and nutraceutical value in P. ovata by modulating the phytohormone regulatory network, redox homeostasis and elicits accumulation of polyphenols. Therefore, MeJA seed priming could be an efficient way to enhance stress resilience and sustainable crop production.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Plantago , Selênio , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo
3.
Curr Protoc ; 4(3): e992, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439570

RESUMO

Oxylipins are oxidized metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They represent a class of risk markers and/or therapeutic targets for diseases associated with inflammation, including cardiovascular disease and brain disorders. Because the biological activities of free PUFAs and oxylipins depend on their chemical structures and concentrations, monitoring PUFAs and oxylipin levels in biological systems is critical for understanding their roles in health and disease. Traditionally, accurate quantification of free PUFAs and oxylipins in biological samples was performed separately, as PUFAs are often 1000-fold more abundant than the derived oxidized fatty acids (oxylipins). This article describes a liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of five free PUFAs and 88 oxylipins in various biological fluids, including plasma, platelet supernatants, and tissues. The same approach can also be used in conjunction with an alkaline hydrolysis step to quantify total oxylipins in fish oils. We observed that in some samples, linoleic acid levels in plasma and eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid levels in brain tissue were above the upper limit of quantification. To address this issue, we developed a data analysis method to obtain PUFA and oxylipin concentrations in these samples without additional sample preparation, thus significantly saving time and labor. © 2024 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Quantification of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and oxylipins using liquid chromatography multiple reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry Support Protocol 1: Preparation of internal standard mixed working solution Support Protocol 2: Preparation of standard mixed stock solution Support Protocol 3: Preparation of standard mixed working solution Alternate Protocol 1: Extraction and quantitation of free PUFAs and oxylipins from mouse brain tissue Alternate Protocol 2: Extraction and quantitation of total PUFAs and oxylipins from fish oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Oxilipinas , Animais , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Ácido Linoleico , Óleos de Peixe
4.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 232, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rose is one of the most important ornamental flowers in the world for its aesthetic beauty but can be attacked by many pests such as aphids. Aphid infestation causes tremendous damage on plant tissues leading to harmed petals and leaves. Rose cultivars express different levels of resistance to aphid infestation yet the information remains unclear. Not only that, studies about the transcriptional analysis on defending mechanisms against aphids in rose are limited so far. RESULTS: In this study, the aphid resistance of 20 rose cultivars was evaluated, and they could be sorted into six levels based on the number ratio of aphids. And then, a transcriptome analysis was conducted after aphid infestation in one high resistance (R, Harmonie) and one highly susceptibility (S, Carefree Wonder) rose cultivar. In open environment the majority of rose cultivars had the highest aphid number at May 6th or May 15th in 2020 and the resistance to infestation could be classified into six levels. Differential expression analysis revealed that there were 1,626 upregulated and 767 downregulated genes in the R cultivar and 481 upregulated and 63 downregulated genes in the S cultivar after aphid infestation. Pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that upregulated genes in R and S cultivars were both enriched in defense response, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoid, alkaloid, and flavonoid), carbohydrate metabolism (galactose, starch, and sucrose metabolism) and lipid processing (alpha-linolenic acid and linolenic acid metabolism) pathways. In the jasmonic acid metabolic pathway, linoleate 13S-lipoxygenase was specifically upregulated in the R cultivar, while genes encoding other crucial enzymes, allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were upregulated in both cultivars. Transcription factor analysis and transcription factor binding search showed that WRKY transcription factors play a pivotal role during aphid infestation in the R cultivar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated the potential roles of jasmonic acid metabolism and WRKY transcription factors during aphid resistance in rose, providing clues for future research.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Oxilipinas , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ciclopentanos , Fatores de Transcrição
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108483, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457948

RESUMO

Plants produce a myriad of specialized compounds in response to threats such as pathogens or pests and different abiotic factors. The stress-related induction of specialized metabolites can be mimicked using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as an elicitor, which application in conservation agriculture has gained interest. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AgNO3 triggers the accumulation of indole glucosinolates (IGs) and the phytoalexin camalexin as well as pheylpropanoid-derived defensive metabolites such as coumaroylagmatins and scopoletin through a yet unknown mechanism. In this work, the role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling in the AgNO3-triggered specialized metabolite production was investigated. To attain this objective, AgNO3, MeJA and SA were applied to A. thaliana lines impaired in JA or SA signaling, or affected in the endogenous levels of IGs and AGs. Metabolomics data indicated that AgNO3 elicitation required an intact JA and SA signaling to elicit the metabolic response, although mutants impaired in hormone signaling retained certain capacity to induce specialized metabolites. In turn, plants overproducing or abolishing IGs production had also an altered hormonal signaling response, both in the accumulation of signaling molecules and the molecular response mechanisms (ORA59, PDF1.2, VSP2 and PR1 gene expression), which pointed out to a crosstalk between defense hormones and specialized metabolites. The present work provides evidence of a crosstalk mechanism between JA and SA underlying AgNO3 defense metabolite elicitation in A. thaliana. In this mechanism, IGs would act as retrograde feedback signals dampening the hormonal response; hence, expanding the signaling molecule concept.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Nitrato de Prata/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108521, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484680

RESUMO

The Agrobacterium rhizogenes root oncogenic locus (rol) genes interfere with hormone balance by altering their synthesis and/or recognition, giving rise to varied impacts on the physiological characteristics of plants and cell cultures. The homolog of the rolB and rolC genes from Ipomoea batatas, named Ib-rolB/C, similarly induces morphological and physiological alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana; however, its role in plant hormonal homeostasis has not been previously defined. In this study, we found that external application of salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) significantly upregulated Ib-rolB/C in detached I. batatas leaves. Furthermore, heterologous expression of Ib-rolB/C in A. thaliana markedly enhanced the accumulation of SA and MeJA, and to a lesser extent, elevated abscisic acid (ABA) levels, through the modulation of genes specific to hormone biosynthesis. Even though the RolB/RolC homolog protein has a notable structural resemblance to the RolB protein from A. rhizogenes, it exhibits a distinct localization pattern, predominantly residing in the cytoplasm and certain discrete subcellular structures, instead of the nucleus. Consequently, the functions of RolB/RolC in both naturally and artificially transgenic plants are linked to changes in the hormonal state of the cells, though the underlying signaling pathways remain to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Arabidopsis , Ciclopentanos , Ipomoea batatas , Oxilipinas , Arabidopsis/genética , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo
7.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(3): 72, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446239

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SbMYC2 functions as a key regulator under JA signaling in enhancing drought tolerance of sorghum through direct activating SbGR1. Drought stress is one of the major threats to crop yield. In response to drought stress, functions of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) have been reported in Arabidopsis and rice, but little is known for sorghum. Here, we characterized the function of SbMYC2, a bHLH TF in sorghum, and found that SbMYC2 responded most significantly to PEG-simulated drought stress and JA treatments. Overexpression of SbMYC2 significantly enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. In addition, it reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and increased chlorophyll content in sorghum leaves. While silencing SbMYC2 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in compromised drought tolerance of sorghum seedlings. Moreover, SbMYC2 can directly activate the expression of GLUTATHIONE-DISULFIDE REDUCTASE gene SbGR1. SbGR1 silencing led to significantly weakened drought tolerance of sorghum, and higher ROS accumulation and lower chlorophyll content in sorghum leaves were detected. In addition, SbMYC2 can interact with SbJAZs, suppressors of JA signaling, and thus can mediate JA signaling to activate SbGR1, thereby regulating sorghum's tolerance to drought stress. Overall, our findings demonstrate that bHLH TF SbMYC2 plays an important role in sorghum's response to drought stress, thus providing one theoretical basis for genetic enhancement of sorghum and even rice.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ciclopentanos , Oryza , Oxilipinas , Sorghum , Resistência à Seca , Sorghum/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Clorofila , Grão Comestível , Oryza/genética
8.
Mar Drugs ; 22(3)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535456

RESUMO

Floridoside is a galactosyl-glycerol compound that acts to supply UDP-galactose and functions as an organic osmolyte in response to salinity in Rhodophyta. Significantly, the UDP-galactose pool is shared for sulfated cell wall galactan synthesis, and, in turn, affected by thallus development alongside carposporogenesis induced by volatile growth regulators, such as ethylene and methyl jasmonate, in the red seaweed Grateloupia imbricata. In this study, we monitored changes in the floridoside reservoir through gene expression controlling both the galactose pool and glyceride pool under different reproductive stages of G. imbricata and we considered changing salinity conditions. Floridoside synthesis was followed by expression analysis of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) as UDP-galactose is obtained from UDP-glucose and glucose-1P, and through α-galactosidase gene expression as degradation of floridoside occurs through the cleavage of galactosyl residues. Meanwhile, glycerol 3-phosphate is connected with the galactoglyceride biosynthetic pathway by glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PD), monogalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (MGDGS), and digalactosyl diacylglyceride synthase (DGDGS). The results of our study confirm that low GALT transcripts are correlated with thalli softness to locate reproductive structures, as well as constricting the synthesis of UDP-hexoses for galactan backbone synthesis in the presence of two volatile regulators and methionine. Meanwhile, α-galactosidase modulates expression according to cystocarp maturation, and we found high transcripts in late development stages, as occurred in the presence of methyljasmonate, compared to early stages in ethylene. Regarding the acylglyceride pool, the upregulation of G3PD, MGDGS, and DGDGS gene expression in G. imbricata treated with MEJA supports lipid remodeling, as high levels of transcripts for MGDGS and DGDGS provide membrane stability during late development stages of cystocarps. Similar behavior is assumed in three naturally collected thalli development stages-namely, fertile, fertilized, and fertile-under 65 psu salinity conditions. Low transcripts for α-galactosidase and high for G3PD are reported in infertile and fertilized thalli, which is the opposite to high transcripts for α-galactosidase and low for G3PD encountered in fertile thalli within visible cystocarps compared to each of their corresponding stages in 35 psu. No significant changes are reported for MGDGS and DGDGS. It is concluded that cystocarp and thallus development stages affect galactose and glycerides pools with interwoven effects on cell wall polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Glicerofosfatos , Oxilipinas , Rodófitas , Alga Marinha , Galactose , alfa-Galactosidase , Galactanos , Glucose , Difosfato de Uridina
9.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14250, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467566

RESUMO

The necrotrophic fungus Seiridium cardinale is the main responsible for Cypress Canker Disease (CCD), a pandemic affecting many Cupressaceae worldwide. The present study aims to elucidate the signalling of the early responses in the bark and foliage of CCD-susceptible and -resistant C. sempervirens clones to S. cardinale inoculation (SI and RI, respectively). In the bark of SI, a peaking production of ethylene (Et) and jasmonic acid (JA) occurred at 3 and 4 days post inoculation (dpi), respectively, suggesting an attempted plant response to the pathogen. A response that, however, was ineffective, as confirmed by the severe accumulation of malondialdehyde by-products at 13 dpi (i.e., lipid peroxidation). Differently, Et emission peaked in RI bark at 3 and 13 dpi, whereas abscisic acid (ABA) accumulated at 1, 4 and 13 dpi, resulting in a lower MDA accumulation (and unchanged levels of antioxidant capacity). In the foliage of SI, Et was produced at 1 and 9 dpi, whereas JA and salicylic acid (SA) accumulated at 1 and 3 dpi. Conversely, an increase of ABA and SA occurred at 1 dpi in the RI foliage. This outcome indicates that some of the observed metabolic alterations, mainly occurring as local defence mechanisms, might be able to gradually shift to a systemic resistance, although an accumulation of MDA was observed in both SI and RI foliage (but with an increased antioxidant capacity reported only in the resistant clone). We believe that the results reported here will be useful for the selection of clones able to limit the spread and damage of CCD.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Cupressus , Etilenos , Cupressus/metabolismo , Cupressus/microbiologia , Antioxidantes , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473801

RESUMO

Epidermal cells are the main avenue for signal and material exchange between plants and the environment. Leaf epidermal cells primarily include pavement cells, guard cells, and trichome cells. The development and distribution of different epidermal cells are tightly regulated by a complex transcriptional regulatory network mediated by phytohormones, including jasmonic acid, and transcription factors. How the fate of leaf epidermal cells is determined, however, is still largely unknown due to the diversity of cell types and the complexity of their regulation. Here, we characterized the transcriptional profiles of epidermal cells in 3-day-old true leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana using single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified two genes encoding BASIC LEUCINE-ZIPPER (bZIP) transcription factors, namely bZIP25 and bZIP53, which are highly expressed in pavement cells and early-stage meristemoid cells. Densities of pavement cells and trichome cells were found to increase and decrease, respectively, in bzip25 and bzip53 mutants, compared with wild-type plants. This trend was more pronounced in the presence of jasmonic acid, suggesting that these transcription factors regulate the development of trichome cells and pavement cells in response to jasmonic acid.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Células Epidérmicas , Fatores de Transcrição , Folhas de Planta , Tricomas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473825

RESUMO

Flower color is an important trait for the ornamental value of colored rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), as the plant is becoming more popular. However, the color fading of red petals of rapeseed is a problem for its utilization. Unfortunately, the mechanism for the process of color fading in rapeseed is unknown. In the current study, a red flower line, Zhehuhong, was used as plant material to analyze the alterations in its morphological and physiological characteristics, including pigment and phytohormone content, 2 d before flowering (T1), at flowering (T2), and 2 d after flowering (T3). Further, metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses were also performed to reveal the molecular regulation of petal fading. The results show that epidermal cells changed from spherical and tightly arranged to totally collapsed from T1 to T3, according to both paraffin section and scanning electron microscope observation. The pH value and all pigment content except flavonoids decreased significantly during petal fading. The anthocyanin content was reduced by 60.3% at T3 compared to T1. The content of three phytohormones, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, melatonin, and salicylic acid, increased significantly by 2.2, 1.1, and 30.3 times, respectively, from T1 to T3. However, auxin, abscisic acid, and jasmonic acid content decreased from T1 to T3. The result of metabolomics analysis shows that the content of six detected anthocyanin components (cyanidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin) and their derivatives mainly exhibited a decreasing trend, which was in accordance with the trend of decreasing anthocyanin. Transcriptomics analysis showed downregulation of genes involved in flavonol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, genes regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis were preferentially expressed at early stages, indicating that the degradation of anthocyanin is the main issue during color fading. The corresponding gene-encoding phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, JASMONATE-ZIM-DOMAIN PROTEIN, was deactivated to repress anthocyanin biosynthesis, resulting in fading petal color. The results clearly suggest that anthocyanin degradation and phytohormone regulation play essential roles in petal color fading in rapeseed, which is a useful insight for the breeding of colored rapeseed.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Antocianinas , Multiômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Flavonoides , Flores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473957

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are bioactive compounds widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Carthamus tinctorius is an important economic crop, and its suspension cells are rich in CGAs. However, little is known about the biosynthesis and regulation of CGAs in Carthamus tinctorius cells. This study first elucidated the regulatory mechanism of CGA biosynthesis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated Carthamus tinctorius cells and the role of the MeJA-responsive hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) gene in enhancing their CGA accumulation. Firstly, temporal changes in intracellular metabolites showed that MeJA increased the intracellular CGA content up to 1.61-fold to 100.23 mg·g-1. Meanwhile, 31 primary metabolites showed significant differences, with 6 precursors related to increasing CGA biosynthesis. Secondly, the transcriptome data revealed 3637 new genes previously unannotated in the Carthamus tinctorius genome and 3653 differentially expressed genes. The genes involved in the plant signaling pathway and the biosynthesis of CGAs and their precursors showed a general up-regulation, especially the HCT gene family, which ultimately promoted CGA biosynthesis. Thirdly, the expression of a newly annotated and MeJA-responsive HCT gene (CtHCT, CtNewGene_3476) was demonstrated to be positively correlated with CGA accumulation in the cells, and transient overexpression of CtHCT enhanced CGA accumulation in tobacco. Finally, in vitro catalysis kinetics and molecular docking simulations revealed the ability and mechanism of the CtHCT protein to bind to various substrates and catalyze the formation of four hydroxycinnamic esters, including CGAs. These findings strengthened our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of CGA biosynthesis, thereby providing theoretical support for the efficient production of CGAs.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Carthamus tinctorius , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Transferases , Transferases/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transcriptoma , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504376

RESUMO

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is a signalling compound involved in the regulation of cellular defence and development in plants. In this study, we investigated the roles of a JA-responsive MYB transcription factor, JMTF1, in the JA-regulated defence response against rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). JMTF1 did not interact with any JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing JMTF1 showed a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and enhanced resistance against Xoo. JMTF1 upregulated the expression of a peroxidase, OsPrx26, and monoterpene synthase, OsTPS24, which are involved in the biosynthesis of lignin and antibacterial monoterpene, γ-terpinene, respectively. OsPrx26 was mainly expressed in the vascular bundle. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsPrx26 showed enhanced resistance against Xoo. In addition to the JA-hypersensitive phenotype, the JMTF1-overexpressing rice plants showed a typical auxin-related phenotype. The leaf divergence and shoot gravitropic responses were defective, and the number of lateral roots decreased significantly in the JMTF1-overexpressing rice plants. JMTF1 downregulated the expression of auxin-responsive genes but upregulated the expression of OsIAA13, a suppressor of auxin signalling. The rice gain-of-function mutant Osiaa13 showed high resistance against Xoo. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEXPA4, a JMTF1-downregulated auxin-responsive gene, showed increased susceptibility to Xoo. JMTF1 is selectively bound to the promoter of OsPrx26 in vivo. These results suggest that JMTF1 positively regulates disease resistance against Xoo by coordinating crosstalk between JA- and auxin-signalling in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Oryza/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
14.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14260, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511471

RESUMO

Bacosides are dammarane-type triterpenoidal saponins in Bacopa monnieri and have various pharmacological applications. All the bacosides are diversified from two isomers, i.e., jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin. The biosynthetic pathway of bacoside is not well elucidated. In the present study, we characterized a UDP-glycosyltransferase, UGT79A18, involved in the glycosylation of pseudojujubogenin. UGT79A18 shows higher expression in response to 5 h of wounding, and 3 h of MeJA treatment. The recombinant UGT79A18 shows in vitro activity against a wide range of flavonoids and triterpenes and has a substrate preference for protopanaxadiol, a dammarane-type triterpene. Secondary metabolite analysis of overexpression and knockdown lines of UGT79A18 in B. monnieri identify bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside N2 and pseudojujubogenin glucosyl rhamnoside as the major bacosides that were differentially accumulated. In the overexpression lines of UGT79A18, we found 1.7-fold enhanced bacopaside II, 8-fold enhanced bacopasaponin D, 3-fold enhanced pseudojujubogenin glucosyl rhamnoside, and 1.6-fold enhanced bacopaside N2 content in comparison with vector control plant, whereas in the knockdown lines of UGT79A18, we found 1.4-fold reduction in bacopaside II content, 3-fold reduction in the bacopasaponin D content, 2-fold reduction in the pseudojujubogenin glucosyl rhamnoside content, and 1.5-fold reduction in bacopaside N2 content in comparison with vector control. These results suggest that UGT79A18 is a significant UDP glycosyltransferase involved in glycosylating pseudojujubogenin and enhancing the pseudojujubogenin-derived bacosides.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Bacopa , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Saponinas , Triterpenos , Bacopa/genética , Bacopa/química , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Difosfato de Uridina , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(3)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540383

RESUMO

Many monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) produced in Catharanthus roseus have demonstrated biological activities and clinical potential. However, their complex biosynthesis pathway in plants leads to low accumulation, limiting therapeutic applications. Efforts to elucidate the MIA biosynthetic regulatory mechanism have focused on improving accumulation levels. Previous studies revealed that jasmonic acid (JA), an important plant hormone, effectively promotes MIA accumulation by inducing the expression of MIA biosynthesis and transport genes. Nevertheless, excessive JA signaling can strongly inhibit plant growth, decreasing MIA productivity in C. roseus. Therefore, identifying key components balancing growth and MIA production in the JA signaling pathway is imperative for effective pharmaceutical production. Here, we identify a homolog of the jasmonate transporter 1, CrJAT1, through co-expression and phylogenetic analyses. Further investigation demonstrated that CrJAT1 can activate JA signaling to promote MIA accumulation without compromising growth. The potential role of CrJAT1 in redistributing intra/inter-cellular JA and JA-Ile may calibrate signaling to avoid inhibition, representing a promising molecular breeding target in C. roseus to optimize the balance between growth and specialized metabolism for improved MIA production.


Assuntos
Catharanthus , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540697

RESUMO

Lipoxygenases make several biological functions in cells, based on the products of the catalyzed reactions. In diatoms, microalgae ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, lipoxygenases have been noted for the oxygenation of fatty acids with the production of oxylipins, which are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in marine organisms. The interest in diatoms' lipoxygenases and oxylipins has increased due to their possible biotechnological applications, ranging from ecology to medicine. We investigated using bioinformatics and molecular docking tools the lipoxygenases of diatoms and the possible interaction with substrates. A large-scale analysis of sequence resources allowed us to retrieve 45 sequences of lipoxygenases from diatoms. We compared and analyzed the sequences by multiple alignments and phylogenetic trees, suggesting the possible clustering in phylogenetic groups. Then, we modelled the 3D structure of representative enzymes from the different groups and investigated in detail the structural and functional properties by docking simulations with possible substrates. The results allowed us to propose a classification of the lipoxygenases from diatoms based on their sequence features, which may be reflected in specific structural differences and possible substrate specificity.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Lipoxigenases , Lipoxigenases/química , Lipoxigenases/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Oxilipinas , Filogenia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ecossistema , Biologia Computacional
17.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540727

RESUMO

Purpose: to determine the metabolomics profiles in the plasma samples of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Methods: The plasma samples from 20 POAG patients under intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication treatment and 20 control subjects were subjected to the untargeted metabolomics analysis, among which 10 POAG patients and 10 control subjects were further subjected to the oxylipin-targeted metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The prediction accuracy of the differentially abundant metabolites was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Pathway analysis and correlation analysis on the differentially abundant metabolites and clinical and biochemical parameters were also conducted. Results: Untargeted metabolomics profiling identified 33 differentially abundant metabolites in the POAG patients, in which the metabolism of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, phenylalanine, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were enriched. The correlation analysis indicated that the differentially abundant metabolites were associated with central corneal thickness, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, visual field defects, and lymphocytes. The oxylipin-targeted metabolomics analysis identified 15-keto-Prostaglandin F2 alpha, 13,14-Dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D2, 11-Dehydro-thromboxane B2, 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid to be significantly decreased in the POAG patients and enriched in the arachidonic acid (AA) pathway. Conclusions: This study revealed that the metabolites in the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway are differentially abundant, suggesting high IOP may not be the only detrimental factor for optic nerve cell damage in this group of POAG patients. Lipid metabolism instability-mediated alterations in oxylipins and AA pathways may be important in POAG, suggesting that oxidative stress and immune-related inflammation could be valuable directions for future therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Humanos , Oxilipinas , Ácido Araquidônico , Retina , Pressão Intraocular
18.
Anticancer Res ; 44(3): 1087-1095, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) is a botanical stress hormone that serves as a defense mechanism to inhibit growth in stressed plants. It is well known that MeJa exhibits an anticancer effect by reducing intracellular ATP, activating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. Presently, no report has been published on MeJa-induced changes in intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i), and TRPM7 as an Mg2+ transporter in cancer cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the Mg2+ homeostatic changes and apoptotic effects following MeJa treatment using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT assay was used to assess the cell viability and half-inhibitory concentration, microscopic two-photon excitation wavelength spectrophotometry was used to measure the [Mg2+]i, a luminescent assay determined intracellular ATP levels, western blot assay measured TRPM7 levels, antioxidant capacities, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and MAPK signaling pathways, while the fluorescence assay evaluated ROS concentrations and the cell apoptotic index. RESULTS: This study provides evidence that MeJa has an antiapoptotic effect on MCF-7 cells. The increase in [Mg2+]i led to decreased TRPM7 expression, which is related to elevated ROS production, in addition to elevated ER stress and MAPK signaling pathway activity and decreased ATP content. CONCLUSION: The increase in [Mg2+]i leads to decreased TRPM7 expression and may be the epicenter of MeJa-induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Neoplasias da Mama , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Humanos , Feminino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Magnésio/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
19.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 26(1): 51, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is typically preceded by an extended preclinical period where circulating autoantibodies, particularly anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), are detectable in the absence of clinical arthritis. Increased dietary intake of anti-inflammatory omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to be associated with a lower the risk of developing incident RA in large epidemiological studies. It is currently not known how changes in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may impact on the progression towards RA in at-risk individuals. To begin to address this question, we profiled serum FAs and oxylipins in an established cohort of at-risk ACPA-positive first-degree relatives (FDR) of RA patients (N = 31), some of whom developed RA (N = 4), and compared their profile to ACPA-negative FDR from the same population (N = 10). METHODS: Gas chromatography (GC) was used for FA quantitation. Oxylipins were extracted and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). RESULTS: Although we did not detect any meaningful differences in overall FA content between ACPA + and ACPA - FDR, the levels of oxylipins derived from FA metabolism demonstrated significant differences between the two groups, with the ACPA + group demonstrating enrichment in circulating arachidonic acid- and eicosapentaenoic acid-derived molecules. Compared with the ACPA - FDR group, the ACPA + FDR, including those who progressed into inflammatory arthritis, displayed higher levels of LOX-derived oxylipins. CONCLUSION: ACPA seropositivity in otherwise unaffected individuals at-risk for developing future RA based on family history (FDR) is associated with alterations in the serum oxylipin profile that suggests dysregulated LOX activity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiproteína Citrulinada , Artrite Reumatoide , Humanos , Oxilipinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Autoanticorpos , Lipoxigenases
20.
Photosynth Res ; 159(1): 69-78, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329704

RESUMO

The combined stress of drought and salinity is prevalent in various regions of the world, affects several physiological and biochemical processes in crops, and causes their yield to decrease. Photosynthesis is one of the main processes that are disturbed by combined stress. Therefore, improving the photosynthetic efficiency of crops is one of the most promising strategies to overcome environmental stresses, making studying the molecular basis of regulation of photosynthesis a necessity. In this study, we sought a potential mechanism that regulated a major component of the combined stress response in the important crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), namely the Rubisco activase A (RcaA) gene. Promoter analysis of the RcaA gene led to identifying Jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive elements with a high occurrence. Specifically, a Myelocytomatosis oncogenes 2 (MYC2) transcription factor binding site was highlighted as a plausible functional promoter motif. We conducted a controlled greenhouse experiment with an abiotic stress-susceptible barley genotype and evaluated expression profiling of the RcaA and MYC2 genes, photosynthetic parameters, plant water status, and cell membrane damages under JA, combined drought and salinity stress (CS) and JA + CS treatments. Our results showed that applying JA enhances barley's photosynthetic efficiency and water relations and considerably compensates for the adverse effects of combined stress. Significant association was observed among gene expression profiles and evaluated physiochemical characteristics. The results showed a plausible regulatory route through the JA-dependent MYC2-RcaA module involved in photosynthesis regulation and combined stress tolerance. These findings provide valuable knowledge for further functional studies of the regulation of photosynthesis under abiotic stresses toward the development of multiple-stress-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos , Hordeum , Oxilipinas , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/metabolismo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/farmacologia , Secas , Fotossíntese/genética , Estresse Salino , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/metabolismo , Salinidade
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