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1.
Anal Chem ; 96(15): 6072-6078, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577757

RESUMO

The urgent need for sensitive and accurate assays to monitor acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) arises from the imperative to safeguard human health and protect the ecosystem. Due to its cost-effectiveness, ease of operation, and rapid response, nanozyme-based colorimetry has been widely utilized in the determination of AChE activity and OPs. However, the rational design of nanozymes with high activity and specificity remains a great challenge. Herein, trace amount of Bi-doped core-shell Pd@Pt mesoporous nanospheres (Pd@PtBi2) have been successfully synthesized, exhibiting good peroxidase-like activity and specificity. With the incorporation of trace bismuth, there is a more than 4-fold enhancement in the peroxidase-like performance of Pd@PtBi2 compared to that of Pd@Pt. Besides, no significant improvement of oxidase-like and catalase-like activities of Pd@PtBi2 was found, which prevents interference from O2 and undesirable consumption of substrate H2O2. Based on the blocking impact of thiocholine, a colorimetric detection platform utilizing Pd@PtBi2 was constructed to monitor AChE activity with sensitivity and selectivity. Given the inhibition of OPs on AChE activity, a biosensor was further developed by integrating Pd@PtBi2 with AChE to detect OPs, capitalizing on the cascade amplification strategy. The OP biosensor achieved a detection limit as low as 0.06 ng mL-1, exhibiting high sensitivity and anti-interference ability. This work is promising for the construction of nanozymes with high activity and specificity, as well as the development of nanozyme-based colorimetric biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanosferas , Agentes Neurotóxicos , Praguicidas , Humanos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados , Praguicidas/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ecossistema , Oxirredutases , Peroxidase , Colorimetria
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 282, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609896

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1) is an important subunit of ferro-storing proteins and is indispensable for iron metabolism. Though it has been extensively studied in numerous organs and diseases, the relationship between FTH1 and osteoarthritis (OA) is unclear. DESIGN: Primary murine chondrocytes and cartilage explants were treated with FTH1 siRNA for 72 h. Mice were injected with adenovirus expressing FTH1 after destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. These approaches were used to determine the effect of FTH1 expression on the pathophysiology of OA. RESULTS: FTH1 expression was down regulated in OA patients and mice after DMM surgery. Knock down of FTH1 induced articular cartilage damage and extracellular matrix degradation in cartilage explants. Further, over expression of FTH1 reduced the susceptibility of chondrocytes to ferroptosis and reversed decrements in SOX9 and aggrecan after DMM surgery. Moreover, FTH1 relieved OA by inhibition of the chondrocyte MAPK pathway. CONCLUSION: This study found FTH1 to play an essential role in extracellular matrix degradation, ferroptosis, and chondrocytes senescence during OA progression. Further, injection of adenovirus expressing FTH1 may be a potential strategy for OA prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Adenoviridae/genética , Agrecanas , Condrócitos , Matriz Extracelular , Ferritinas , Osteoartrite/genética , Oxirredutases
3.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 89(2): 241-256, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622093

RESUMO

Genes of putative reductases of α,ß-unsaturated carboxylic acids are abundant among anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic microorganisms, yet substrate specificity has been experimentally verified for few encoded proteins. Here, we co-produced in Escherichia coli a heterodimeric protein of the facultatively anaerobic marine bacterium Vibrio ruber (GenBank SJN56019 and SJN56021; annotated as NADPH azoreductase and urocanate reductase, respectively) with Vibrio cholerae flavin transferase. The isolated protein (named Crd) consists of the sjn56021-encoded subunit CrdB (NADH:flavin, FAD binding 2, and FMN bind domains) and an additional subunit CrdA (SJN56019, a single NADH:flavin domain) that interact via their NADH:flavin domains (Alphafold2 prediction). Each domain contains a flavin group (three FMNs and one FAD in total), one of the FMN groups being linked covalently by the flavin transferase. Crd readily reduces cinnamate, p-coumarate, caffeate, and ferulate under anaerobic conditions with NADH or methyl viologen as the electron donor, is moderately active against acrylate and practically inactive against urocanate and fumarate. Cinnamates induced Crd synthesis in V. ruber cells grown aerobically or anaerobically. The Crd-catalyzed reduction started by NADH demonstrated a time lag of several minutes, suggesting a redox regulation of the enzyme activity. The oxidized enzyme is inactive, which apparently prevents production of reactive oxygen species under aerobic conditions. Our findings identify Crd as a regulated NADH-dependent cinnamate reductase, apparently protecting V. ruber from (hydroxy)cinnamate poisoning.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases , Vibrio , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Cinamatos , Oxirredução , Vibrio/genética , Vibrio/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/química , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Flavinas/química , Transferases , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/metabolismo
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 455, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625667

RESUMO

This study is to understand the fate and ecological consequences of pyroxasulfone in aridisols of Punjab, a detailed dissipation study in soil, its influence on soil enzymes, microbial count and succeeding crops was evaluated. Half-lives (DT50) increased with an increase in the application rate of pyroxasulfone. Dissipation of pyroxasulfone decreased with increase in organic matter content of soil and was slower in clay loam soil (DT50 12.50 to 24.89) followed by sandy loam (DT50 8.91 to 17.78) and loamy sand soil (DT50 6.45 to 14.89). Faster dissipation was observed under submerged conditions (DT50 2.9 to 20.99 days) than under field capacity conditions (DT50 6.45 to 24.89 days). Dissipation increased with increase in temperature with DT50 varying from 6.46 to 24.88, 4.87 to 22.89 and 2.97 to 20.99 days at 25 ± 2, 35 ± 2 and 45 ± 2 °C, respectively. Dissipation was slower under sterile conditions and about 23.87- to 33.74-fold increase in DT50 was observed under sterile conditions as compared to non-sterile conditions. The application of pyroxasulfone showed short-lived transitory effect on dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and soil microbial activity while herbicide has non-significant effect on soil urease activity. PCA suggested that dehydrogenase and bacteria were most sensitive among enzymatic and microbial activities. In efficacy study, pyroxasulfone effectively controlled Phalaris minor germination, with higher efficacy in loamy sand soil (GR50 2.46 µg mL-1) as compared to clay loam soil (GR50 5.19 µg mL-1).


Assuntos
Isoxazóis , Areia , Solo , Sulfonas , Argila , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oxirredutases
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(4): e0014624, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557120

RESUMO

The metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans occurs in metal-rich environments. In auriferous soils, the bacterium is challenged by a mixture of copper ions and gold complexes, which exert synergistic toxicity. The previously used, self-made Au(III) solution caused a synergistic toxicity of copper and gold that was based on the inhibition of the CupA-mediated efflux of cytoplasmic Cu(I) by Au(I) in this cellular compartment. In this publication, the response of the bacterium to gold and copper was investigated by using a commercially available Au(III) solution instead of the self-made solution. The new solution was five times more toxic than the previously used one. Increased toxicity was accompanied by greater accumulation of gold atoms by the cells. The contribution of copper resistance determinants to the commercially available Au(III) solution and synergistic gold-copper toxicity was studied using single- and multiple-deletion mutants. The commercially available Au(III) solution inhibited periplasmic Cu(I) homeostasis, which is required for the allocation of copper ions to copper-dependent proteins in this compartment. The presence of the gene for the periplasmic Cu(I) and Au(I) oxidase, CopA, decreased the cellular copper and gold content. Transcriptional reporter gene fusions showed that up-regulation of gig, encoding a minor contributor to copper resistance, was strictly glutathione dependent. Glutathione was also required to resist synergistic gold-copper toxicity. The new data indicated a second layer of synergistic copper-gold toxicity caused by the commercial Au(III) solution, inhibition of the periplasmic copper homeostasis in addition to the cytoplasmic one.IMPORTANCEWhen living in auriferous soils, Cupriavidus metallidurans is not only confronted with synergistic toxicity of copper ions and gold complexes but also by different gold species. A previously used gold solution made by using aqua regia resulted in the formation of periplasmic gold nanoparticles, and the cells were protected against gold toxicity by the periplasmic Cu(I) and Au(I) oxidase CopA. To understand the role of different gold species in the environment, another Au(III) solution was commercially acquired. This compound was more toxic due to a higher accumulation of gold atoms by the cells and inhibition of periplasmic Cu(I) homeostasis. Thus, the geo-biochemical conditions might influence Au(III) speciation. The resulting Au(III) species may subsequently interact in different ways with C. metallidurans and its copper homeostasis system in the cytoplasm and periplasm. This study reveals that the geochemical conditions may decide whether bacteria are able to form gold nanoparticles or not.


Assuntos
Cupriavidus , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Cobre/metabolismo , Ouro/toxicidade , Ouro/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Cupriavidus/genética , Cupriavidus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Solo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo
6.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(4): 801-808, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583953

RESUMO

Isoliquiritigenin formation is a key reaction during deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, chalcone synthase (CHS) and reductase (CHR). The substrates for CHS are established. However, the substrate for CHR is unknown. In this study, an in vitro reaction was performed to confirm whether naringenin chalcone can be a substrate. Naringenin chalcone was used as a substrate during the CHR reaction. Analyzing the product revealed that isoliquiritigenin was produced from naringenin chalcone, indicating that naringenin chalcone is a substrate. This study is the first to identify a substrate for CHR, reveals that deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis diverges from naringenin chalcone, endorses the term "chalcone reductase," and answers the long-standing questions about doubly-labeled acetic acid uptake pattern in deoxyflavonoid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Chalcona , Chalconas , Oxirredutases
7.
Biotechnol J ; 19(4): e2300557, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581092

RESUMO

The halogenase-based catalysis is one of the most environmentally friendly methods for the synthesis of halogenated products, among which flavin-dependent halogenases (FDHs) have attracted great interest as one of the most promising biocatalysts due to the remarkable site-selectivity and wide substrate range. However, the complexity of constructing the NAD+-NADH-FAD-FADH2 bicoenzyme cycle system has affected the engineering applications of FDHs. In this work, a coenzyme self-sufficient tri-enzyme fusion was constructed and successfully applied to the continuous halogenation of L-tryptophan. SpFDH was firstly identified derived from Streptomyces pratensis, a highly selective halogenase capable of generating 6-chloro-tryptophan from tryptophan. Then, using gene fusion technology, SpFDH was fused with glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and flavin reductase (FR) to form a tri-enzyme fusion, which increased the yield by 1.46-fold and making the coenzymes self-sufficient. For more efficient halogenation of L-tryptophan, a continuous halogenation bioprocess of L-tryptophan was developed by immobilizing the tri-enzyme fusion and attaching it to a continuous catalytic device, which resulted in a reaction yield of 97.6% after 12 h reaction. An FDH from S. pratensis was successfully applied in the halogenation and our study provides a concise strategy for the preparation of halogenated tryptophan mediated by multienzyme cascade catalysis.


Assuntos
Halogenação , Triptofano , Coenzimas , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Flavinas/metabolismo
8.
Biotechnol J ; 19(4): e2300567, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581100

RESUMO

An attractive application of hydrogenases, combined with the availability of cheap and renewable hydrogen (i.e., from solar and wind powered electrolysis or from recycled wastes), is the production of high-value electron-rich intermediates such as reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides. Here, the capability of a very robust and oxygen-resilient [FeFe]-hydrogenase (CbA5H) from Clostridium beijerinckii SM10, previously identified in our group, combined with a reductase (BMR) from Bacillus megaterium (now reclassified as Priestia megaterium) was tested. The system shows a good stability and it was demonstrated to reach up to 28 ± 2 nmol NADPH regenerated s-1 mg of hydrogenase-1 (i.e., 1.68 ± 0.12 U mg-1, TOF: 126 ± 9 min-1) and 0.46 ± 0.04 nmol NADH regenerated s-1 mg of hydrogenase-1 (i.e., 0.028 ± 0.002 U mg-1, TOF: 2.1 ± 0.2 min-1), meaning up to 74 mg of NADPH and 1.23 mg of NADH produced per hour by a system involving 1 mg of CbA5H. The TOF is comparable with similar systems based on hydrogen as regenerating molecule for NADPH, but the system is first of its kind as for the [FeFe]-hydrogenase and the non-physiological partners used. As a proof of concept a cascade reaction involving CbA5H, BMR and a mutant BVMO from Acinetobacter radioresistens able to oxidize indole is presented. The data show how the cascade can be exploited for indigo production and multiple reaction cycles can be sustained using the regenerated NADPH.


Assuntos
Hidrogenase , Hidrogenase/química , NAD , Hidrogênio/química , NADP , Oxirredutases
9.
Inorg Chem ; 63(15): 6776-6786, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572830

RESUMO

The heme-containing chlorite dismutases catalyze the rapid and efficient decomposition of chlorite (ClO2-) to yield Cl- and O2, and the catalytic efficiency of chlorite dismutase from Dechloromonas aromatica (DaCld) in catalyzing the decomposition of bromite (BrO2-) was dependent on pH, which was supposed to be caused by the conversion of active Cpd I to the inactive Cpd II by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the pocket Tyr118 to the propionate side chain of heme at high pH. However, the direct evidence of PCET and how the pH affects the efficiency of DaCld, as well as whether Cpd II is really inactive, are still poorly understood. Here, on the basis of the high-resolution crystal structures, the computational models in both acidic (pH 5.0) and alkaline (pH 9.0) environments were constructed, and a series of quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations were performed. On the basis of our calculation results, the O-Br bond cleavage of BrO2- always follows the homolytic mode to generate Cpd II rather than Cpd I. It is different from the O-O cleavage of O2/H2O2 or peracetic acid catalyzed by the other heme-containing enzymes. Thus, in the subsequent O-O rebound reaction, it is the Fe(IV)═O in Cpd II that combines with the O-Br radical. Because the porphyrin ring in Cpd II does not bear an unpaired electron, the previously suggested PCET from Tyr118 to the propionate side chain of heme was not theoretically recognized in an alkaline environment. In addition, the O-O rebound step in an alkaline solution corresponds to an energy barrier that is larger than that in an acidic environment, which can well explain the pH dependence of the activity of DaCld. In addition, the protonation state of the propionic acid side chains of heme and the surrounding hydrogen bond networks were calculated to have a significant impact on the barriers of the O-O rebound step, which is mainly achieved by affecting the reactivity of the Fe(IV)═O group in Cpd II. In an acidic environment, the relatively weaker coordination of the O2 atom to Fe leads to its higher reactivity toward the O-O rebound reaction. These observations may provide useful information for understanding the catalysis of chlorite dismutases.


Assuntos
Betaproteobacteria , Cloretos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredutases , Propionatos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Catálise , Prótons , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Heme/química
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 255: 116259, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574559

RESUMO

Carbon-based nanozymes possessing peroxidase-like activity have attracted significant interest because of their potential to replace native peroxidases in biotechnology. Although various carbon-based nanozymes have been developed, their relatively low catalytic efficiency needs to be overcome to realize their practical utilization. Here, inspired by the elemental uniqueness of Cu and the doped elements N and S, as well as the active site structure of Cu-centered oxidoreductases, we developed a new carbon-based peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme, single-atom Cu-centered N- and S-codoped reduced graphene oxide (Cu-NS-rGO), which preserved many Cu-N4 and Cu-N4S active sites and showed dramatically high peroxidase-like activity without any oxidase-like activity, yielding up to 2500-fold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) than that of pristine rGO. The high catalytic activity of Cu-NS-rGO might be attributed to the acceleration of electron transfer from Cu single atom as well as synergistic effects from both Cu-N4 and Cu-N4S active sites, which was theoretically confirmed by Gibbs free energy calculations using density functional theory. The prepared Cu-NS-rGO was then used to construct an electrochemical bioassay system for detecting choline and acetylcholine by coupling with the corresponding oxidases. Using this system, both target molecules were selectively determined with high sensitivity that was sufficient to clinically determine their levels in physiological fluids. Overall, this study will facilitate the development of nanocarbon-based nanozymes and their electrochemical biosensing applications, which can be extended to the development of miniaturized devices in point-of-care testing environments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Grafite , Peroxidase , Peroxidase/química , Domínio Catalítico , Peroxidases/química , Oxirredutases , Carbono/química
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 232, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum, one of the four major cut flowers all over the world, is very sensitive to salinity during cultivation. DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors play important roles in biological processes in plants. The response mechanism of CmDOF18 from chrysanthemum to salt stress remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, CmDOF18 was cloned from Chrysanthemum morifolium, and its expression was induced by salinity stress. The gene encodes a 291-amino acid protein with a typical DOF domain. CmDOF18 was localized to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells and showed transcriptional activation in yeast. CmDOF18 transgenic plants were generated to identify the role of this gene in resistance to salinity treatment. Chrysanthemum plants overexpressing CmDOF18 were more resistant to salinity stress than wild-type plants. Under salinity stress, the malondialdehyde content and leaf electrolyte conductivity in CmDOF18-overexpressing transgenic plants were lower than those in wild-type plants, while the proline content, chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase activity and peroxidase activity were higher than those in wild-type plants. The opposite findings were observed in gene-silenced plants compared with wild-type plants. The gene expression levels of oxidoreductase increased in CmDOF18-overexpressing transgenic plants but decreased in CmDOF18-SRDX gene-silenced transgenic plants. CONCLUSION: In summary, we analyzed the function of CmDOF18 from chrysanthemum, which may regulate salinity stress in plants, possibly due to its role in the regulation of oxidoreductase.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Oxirredutases , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Salinidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(4): e2425, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the clinical application value of pre-conception expanded carrier screening (PECS) in the Chinese Han ethnicity population of childbearing age. METHODS: The results of genetic testing of infertile parents who underwent PECS in the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China, from September 2019 to December 2021, were retrospectively analyzed. The carrier rate of single gene disease, the detection rate of high-risk parents, and the clinical outcome of high-risk parents were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1372 Chinese Han ethnicity patients underwent PECS, among which 458 patients underwent the extended 108-gene test, their overall carrier rate was 31.7%, and the detection rate of high-risk parents was 0.3%. The highest carrier rates were SLC22A (2.4%), ATP7B (2.4%), MMACHC (2.2%), PAH (1.8%), GALC (1.8%), MLC1 (1.3%), UNC13D (1.1%), CAPN3 (1.1%), and PKHD1 (1.1%). There were 488 women with fragile X syndrome-FMR1 gene detection, and 6 patients (1.2%) had FMR1 gene mutation. A total of 426 patients were screened for spinal muscular atrophy-SMN1, and the carrier rate was 3.5%, and the detection rate of parents' co-carrier was 0.5%. CONCLUSION: Monogenic recessive hereditary diseases had a high carrier rate in the population. Pre-pregnancy screening could provide good prenatal and postnatal care guidance for patients and preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic/single gene disorders (PGT-M) and prenatal diagnosis could provide more precise reproductive choices for high-risk parents.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Atrofia Muscular Espinal , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Mutação , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética
13.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 168: 104111, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508343

RESUMO

The insect cuticle is a non-cellular matrix composed of polysaccharide chitins and proteins. The cuticle covers most of the body surface, including the trachea, foregut, and hindgut, and it is the body structure that separates the intraluminal environment from the external environment. The cuticle is essential to sustain their lives, both as a physical barrier to maintain homeostasis and as an exoskeleton that mechanically supports body shape and movement. Previously, we proposed a theory about the possibility that the cuticle-forming system contributes to the "evolution and success of insects." The main points of our theory are that 1) insects evolved an insect-specific system of cuticle formation and 2) the presence of this system may have provided insects with a competitive advantage in the early land ecosystems. The key to this theory is that insects utilize molecular oxygen abundant in the atmosphere, which differs from closely related crustaceans that form their cuticles with calcium ions. With newly obtained knowledge, this review revisits the significance of the insect-specific system for insects to adapt to terrestrial environments and also discusses the long-standing question in entomology as to why, despite their great success in terrestrial environments, they poorly adapt to marine environments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Oxirredutases , Animais , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Insetos/genética , Insetos/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo
14.
J Biotechnol ; 386: 19-27, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521166

RESUMO

Vanillin is a valuable natural product that can be used as a fragrance and additive. Recent research in the biosynthesis of vanillin has brought attention to a key enzyme, carboxylic acid reductase (CAR), which catalyzes the reduction of vanillic acid to vanillin. Nevertheless, the biosynthesis of vanillin is hampered by the low activity and stability of CAR. As such, a rational design campaign was conducted on a well-documented carboxylic acid reductase from Segniliparus rugosus (SrCAR), using vanillic acid as the model substrate. After combined active site saturation and iterative site-specific mutagenesis, the best quadruple mutant N292H/K524S/A627L/E1121W (M3) was successfully obtained. In comparison to the wildtype SrCAR, M3 demonstrated a 4.2-fold increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km), and its half-life (t1/2) was enhanced by 3.8 times up to 385.08 minutes at 40 °C. In silico docking and molecular dynamics simulation provided insights into the improved activity and stability. In the subsequent preparative-scale reaction with 100 mM (16.8 g L-1) vanillic acid, the whole cell catalysis utilizing M3 produced 10.15 g·L-1 of vanillin and 1.11 g·L-1 of vanillyl alcohol, respectively. This work demonstrates a dual improvement in the activity and thermal stability of SrCAR, thereby potentially facilitating the application of carboxylic acid reductase in the biosynthesis of vanillin.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases , Ácido Vanílico , Oxirredutases/química , Benzaldeídos
15.
J Biotechnol ; 385: 1-12, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428504

RESUMO

Emerging consumer demand for safer, more sustainable flavors and fragrances has created new challenges for the industry. Enzymatic syntheses represent a promising green production route, but the broad application requires engineering advancements for expanded diversity, improved selectivity, and enhanced stability to be cost-competitive with current methods. This review discusses recent advances and future outlooks for enzyme engineering in this field. We focus on carboxylic acid reductases (CARs) and unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs) that enable selective productions of complex flavor and fragrance molecules. Both enzyme types consist of natural variants with attractive characteristics for biocatalytic applications. Applying protein engineering methods, including rational design and directed evolution in concert with computational modeling, present excellent examples for property improvements to unleash the full potential of enzymes in the biosynthesis of value-added chemicals.


Assuntos
Odorantes , Oxirredutases , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo
16.
Theranostics ; 14(5): 1939-1955, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505601

RESUMO

Rationale: Cancer continues to be a significant public health issue. Traditional treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy often fall short because of intrinsic issues such as lack of specificity and poor drug delivery, leading to insufficient drug concentration at the tumor site and/or potential side effects. Consequently, improving the delivery of conventional chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin (DOX) is crucial for their therapeutic efficacy. Successful cancer treatment is achieved when regulated cell death (RCD) of cancer cells, which includes apoptotic and non-apoptotic processes such as ferroptosis, is fundamental to successful cancer treatment. The developing field of nanozymes holds considerable promise for innovative cancer treatment approaches. Methods: A dual-metallic nanozyme system encapsulated with DOX was created, derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), designed to combat tumors by depleting glutathione (GSH) and concurrently liberating DOX. The initial phase of the study examined the GSH oxidase-mimicking function of the dimetallic nanozyme (ZIF-8/SrSe) through enzyme kinetic assays and Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations. Following this, we probed the ability of ZIF-8/SrSe@DOX to release DOX in response to the tumor microenvironment in vitro, alongside examining its anticancer capabilities and mechanisms prompting apoptosis or ferroptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, we established tumor-bearing animal models to corroborate the anti-tumor effectiveness of our nanozyme complex and to identify the involved apoptotic and ferroptotic pathways implicated. Results: Enzyme kinetic analyses demonstrated that the ZIF-8/SrSe nanozyme exhibits substantial GSH oxidase-like activity, effectively oxidizing reduced GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG), while also inhibiting glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11). This inhibition led to an imbalance in iron homeostasis, pronounced caspase activation, and subsequent induction of apoptosis and ferroptosis in tumor cells. Additionally, the ZIF-8/SrSe@DOX nanoparticles efficiently delivered DOX, causing DNA damage and further promoting apoptotic and ferroptotic pathways. Conclusions: This research outlines the design of a novel platform that combines chemotherapeutic agents with a Fenton reaction catalyst, offering a promising strategy for cancer therapy that leverages the synergistic effects of apoptosis and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Neoplasias , Morte Celular Regulada , Animais , Apoptose , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glutationa , Dissulfeto de Glutationa , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Oxirredutases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(3): 1381-1399, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437181

RESUMO

Bilirubin oxidases (BODs) [EC 1.3.3.5 - bilirubin: oxygen oxido-reductase] are enzymes that belong to the multicopper oxidase family and can oxidize bilirubin, diphenols, and aryl amines and reduce the oxygen by direct four-electron transfer from the electrode with almost no electrochemical overpotential. Therefore, BOD is a promising bioelectrocatalyst for (self-powered) biosensors and/or enzymatic fuel cells. The advantages of electrochemically active BOD enzymes include selective biosensing, biocatalysis for efficient energy conversion, and electrosynthesis. Owing to the rise in publications and patents, as well as the expanding interest in BODs for a range of physiological conditions, this Review analyzes scientific literature reports on BOD enzymes and current hypotheses on their bioelectrocatalysis. This Review evaluates the specific research outcomes of the BOD in enzyme (protein) engineering, immobilization strategies, and challenges along with their bioelectrochemical properties, limitations, and applications in the fields of (i) biosensors, (ii) self-powered biosensors, and (iii) biofuel cells for powering bioelectronics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Oxirredutases , Oxigênio , Bilirrubina
18.
J Ovarian Res ; 17(1): 66, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 2 (QSOX2) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase that is known to be involved in protein folding, cell growth regulation, and redox state modification through oxidative activities. Earlier studies demonstrated the tissue and cellular localization of QSOX2 in the male reproductive tract, as well as the highly-regulated mechanism of QSOX2 protein synthesis and expression through the coordinated action of testosterone and epididymal-enriched amino acid, glutamate. However, the presence and the functions of QSOX2 in female reproduction are unknown. In this study, we applied the Cre-loxP gene manipulation system to generate the heterozygous and homozygous Qsox2 knockout mice and examined its effects on ovarian function. RESULTS: We demonstrated that QSOX2 was detected in the follicle-supporting cells (granulosa and cumulus cells) of ovarian follicles of all stages but was absent in the corpus luteum, suggesting its supportive role in folliculogenesis. In comparison with reproductive organogenesis in wild-type mice, there was no difference in testicular and epididymal structure in male Qsox2 knockout; however, Qsox2 knockout disrupted the regular ovulation process in female mice as a drastic decrease in the formation of the corpus luteum was detected, and no pregnancy was achieved when mating males with homozygous Qsox2 knockout females. RNAseq analyses further revealed that Qsox2 knockout altered critical signaling pathways and genes that are responsible for maintaining ovarian functions. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated for the first time that Qsox2 is critical for ovarian function in mice.


Assuntos
Células da Granulosa , Oxirredutases , Tamoxifeno , Feminino , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Ovário , Ovulação , Camundongos Knockout
19.
Luminescence ; 39(3): e4713, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515291

RESUMO

As large numbers of people are suffering from gout, an accurate, rapid, and sensitive method for the detection of gout biomarker, uric acid, is important for its effective control, diagnosis, and therapy. Although colorimetric detection methods based on uricase have been considered, they still have limitations as they produce toxic H2O2 and are expensive and not stable. Here, a novel uricase-free colorimetric method was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of uric acid based on the light-induced oxidase-mimicking activity of a new photosensitized covalent organic framework (COF) (2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile-4-[2-(4-formylphenyl)ethynyl]benzaldehyde COF [DCTP-EDA COF]). DCTP-EDA COF has a strong ability to harvest visible light, and it could catalyze the oxidation of 1,4-dioxane, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine under visible light irradiation to produce obvious color changes. With the addition of uric acid, however, the significant inhibition of the oxidase-mimicking activity of DCTP-EDA COF remarkably faded the color, and thus uric acid could be colorimetrically detected in the range of 2.0-150 µM with a limit of detection of 0.62 µM (3σ/K). Moreover, the present colorimetric method exhibited high selectivity; uric acid level in serum samples was successfully determined, and the recoveries ranged from 96.5% to 105.64%, suggesting the high accuracy of the present colorimetric method, which demonstrates great promise in clinical analysis.


Assuntos
Gota , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Humanos , Oxirredutases , Ácido Úrico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Colorimetria/métodos , Urato Oxidase
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(4): e0000724, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501861

RESUMO

With its estrogenic activity, (S)-equol plays an important role in maintaining host health and preventing estrogen-related diseases. Exclusive production occurs through the transformation of soy isoflavones by intestinal bacteria, but the reasons for variations in (S)-equol production among different individuals and species remain unclear. Here, fecal samples from humans, pigs, chickens, mice, and rats were used as research objects. The concentrations of (S)-equol, along with the genetic homology and evolutionary relationships of (S)-equol production-related genes [daidzein reductase (DZNR), daidzein racemase (DDRC), dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR), tetrahydrodaidzein reductase (THDR)], were analyzed. Additionally, in vitro functional verification of the newly identified DDRC gene was conducted. It was found that approximately 40% of human samples contained (S)-equol, whereas 100% of samples from other species contained (S)-equol. However, there were significant variations in (S)-equol content among the different species: rats > pigs > chickens > mice > humans. The distributions of the four genes displayed species-specific patterns. High detection rates across various species were exhibited by DHDR, THDR, and DDRC. In contrast, substantial variations in detection rates among different species and individuals were observed with respect to DZNR. It appears that various types of DZNR may be associated with different concentrations of (S)-equol, which potentially correspond to the regulatory role during (S)-equol synthesis. This enhances our understanding of individual variations in (S)-equol production and their connection with functional genes in vitro. Moreover, the newly identified DDRC exhibits higher potential for (S)-equol synthesis compared to the known DDRC, providing valuable resources for advancing in vitro (S)-equol production. IMPORTANCE: (S)-equol ((S)-EQ) plays a crucial role in maintaining human health, along with its known capacity to prevent and treat various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndromes, osteoporosis, diabetes, brain-related diseases, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and inflammation. However, factors affecting individual variations in (S)-EQ production and the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. This study examines the association between functional genes and (S)-EQ production, highlighting a potential correlation between the DZNR gene and (S)-EQ content. Various types of DZNR may be linked to the regulation of (S)-EQ synthesis. Furthermore, the identification of a new DDRC gene offers promising prospects for enhancing in vitro (S)-EQ production.


Assuntos
Equol , Isoflavonas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos , Suínos , Equol/genética , Equol/metabolismo , Racemases e Epimerases , Galinhas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo
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