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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113444, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076559

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is an important pathologic process in response to chronic or repetitive liver injury. It can advance to liver cirrhosis. Both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and Nogo-B play critical roles in fibrogenesis, while PPARγ is essential for the development. However, the effect of Nogo-B deficiency on the development of liver fibrosis in cell-specific PPARγ deficient mice remains unknown. In this study, hepatocyte or macrophage PPARγ deficient (hPPARγ KO or mPPARγ KO) mice, Nogo-B deficient mice, and cell-specific PPARγ plus Nogo-B double deficient (hPPARγ/Nogo-B DKO or mPPARγ/Nogo-B DKO) mice were induced liver fibrosis by CCl4 injection. We found hPPARγ KO mice showed enhanced liver fibrotic signatures compared to mPPARγ KO mice after CCl4 administration. Hepatocyte or macrophage PPARγ deficiency further enhanced CCl4-induced severe inflammation infiltration, apoptosis and M1 macrophage polarization in the liver. In contrast, Nogo-B deficiency effectively ameliorated PPARγ deficiency-aggravated liver injury and fibrosis. It ameliorated PPARγ deficiency-aggravated liver inflammation and fibrosis by suppressing hepatic stellate cell activation, TLR4-NF-κB/TNF-α signaling and M1 macrophage polarization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that PPARγ deficiency increases susceptibility of mice to develop CCl4-induced liver injury/fibrosis, which is potently reduced by Nogo-B deficiency, indicating Nogo-B inhibition might be a therapeutic approach for liver fibrosis treatment.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , PPAR gama , Animais , Fibrose , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Nogo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7142314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082081

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) is a common pathological process that causes kidney injury. Previous studies have indicated that both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and microRNA-21 (miR-21) exert protective effects against RIRI. However, their relationship is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the PPARγ/miR-21/programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) axis in IRI, both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro cell hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and in vivo RIRI models were established, and cell viability, cell apoptosis, and key molecule expression profiles were analyzed. Our results showed that both PPARγ and miR-21 had protective effects against RIRI to varying degrees, and there was an interaction between PPARγ and miR-21. PPARγ could promote the expression of miR-21 and partially protect against RIRI by reducing the level of the miR-21 target protein (PDCD4). Our findings underscore the potential utility of future clinical investigations of PPARγ activation and targeting of the underlying miR-21/PDCD4/caspase-3 pathway, which may participate in the pathogenesis of human IRI.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , PPAR gama , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Apoptose , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Sci Immunol ; 7(75): eabj0140, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112694

RESUMO

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterized by accumulation of surfactant lipoproteins within the lung alveoli. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are crucial for surfactant clearance, and their differentiation depends on colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), which regulates the establishment of an AM-characteristic gene regulatory network. Here, we report that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ß (C/EBPß) is essential for the development of the AM identity, as demonstrated by transcriptome and chromatin accessibility analysis. Furthermore, C/EBPß-deficient AMs showed severe defects in proliferation, phagocytosis, and lipid metabolism, collectively resulting in a PAP-like syndrome. Mechanistically, the long C/EBPß protein variants LAP* and LAP together with CSF2 signaling induced the expression of Pparg isoform 2 but not Pparg isoform 1, a molecular regulatory mechanism that was also observed in other CSF2-primed macrophages. These results uncover C/EBPß as a key regulator of AM cell fate and shed light on the molecular networks controlling lipid metabolism in macrophages.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Alveolares , Surfactantes Pulmonares , Cromatina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Tensoativos/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genom Data ; 23(1): 72, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated the antitumor activity of rosiglitazone (RGZ) in cancer cells, including breast cancer cells. However, the molecular targets of RGZ in the inhibition of angiogenesis in breast cancer cells remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the potential targets of RGZ in inhibiting breast cancer angiogenesis using bioinformatics-based analysis. RESULTS: Venn diagram analysis revealed 29 TR proteins. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that TR regulated the adipocytokine, AMPK, and PPAR signaling pathways. Oncoprint analysis showed genetic alterations in FABP4 (14%), ADIPOQ (2.9%), PPARG (2.8%), PPARGC1A (1.5%), CD36 (1.7%), and CREBBP (11%) in patients with breast cancer in a TCGA study. The mRNA levels of FABP4, ADIPOQ, PPARG, CD36, and PPARGC1A were significantly lower in patients with breast cancer than in those without breast cancer. Analysis of gene expression using bc-GenExMiner showed that the mRNA levels of FABP, ADIPOQ, PPARG, CD36, PPARGC1A, and CREBBP were significantly lower in basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells than in non-basal-like and non-TNBC cells. In general, the protein levels of these genes were low, except for that of CREBBP. Patients with breast cancer who had low mRNA levels of FABP4, ADIPOQ, PPARG, and PPARGC1A had lower overall survival rates than those with high mRNA levels, which was supported by the overall survival related to DNA methylation. Correlation analysis of immune cell infiltration with TR showed a correlation between TR and immune cell infiltration, highlighting the potential of RGZ for immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: This study explored the potential targets of RGZ as antiangiogenic agents in breast cancer therapy and highlighted FABP4, ADIPOQ, PPARG, PPARGC1A, CD36, and CREBBP as potential targets of RGZ. These findings require further validation to explore the potential of RGZ as an antiangiogenic agent.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Adipocinas , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5461, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115863

RESUMO

Valvular inflammation triggered by hyperlipidemia has been considered as an important initial process of aortic valve disease; however, cellular and molecular evidence remains unclear. Here, we assess the relationship between plasma lipids and valvular inflammation, and identify association of low-density lipoprotein with increased valvular lipid and macrophage accumulation. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveals the cellular heterogeneity of leukocytes, valvular interstitial cells, and valvular endothelial cells, and their phenotypic changes during hyperlipidemia leading to recruitment of monocyte-derived MHC-IIhi macrophages. Interestingly, we find activated PPARγ pathway in Cd36+ valvular endothelial cells increased in hyperlipidemic mice, and the conservation of PPARγ activation in non-calcified human aortic valves. While the PPARγ inhibition promotes inflammation, PPARγ activation using pioglitazone reduces valvular inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice. These results show that low-density lipoprotein is the main lipoprotein accumulated in the aortic valve during hyperlipidemia, leading to early-stage aortic valve disease, and PPARγ activation protects the aortic valve against inflammation.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Calcinose , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Calcinose/genética , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Imunomodulação , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Transcriptoma
6.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1679-1689, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063125

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Kuhuang (KH) injection is a widely used anticholestatic drug in the clinic and the mechanisms are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study uses a new 3D tissue-engineered (TE) liver platform to study the ability of kuhuang to ameliorate liver injury induced by chlorpromazine (CPZ) and the possible mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TE livers (n = 25) were divided into 5 groups (n = 5 livers/group) as 3D, 3D + CPZ, 3D + CPZ + KH, 3D + CPZ + GW9662 (a PPARγ inhibitor) and 3D + CPZ + KH + GW9662. The treatments with kuhuang (1 mg/mL) and GW9662 (10 µmol/L) were given to the desired groups on the 7th day of the experimental process. 20 µmol/L CPZ was added on the 8th day. RESULTS: According to the 2D experimental results, the minimum effective concentration of kuhuang is 10 µg/mL and the optimal effective concentration is 1 mg/mL. Kuhuang ameliorated tissue damage in the TE livers both in terms of tissue structure and culture supernatant. Kuhuang significantly reduced TBA accumulation (38%) and downregulated CYP7A1 (38%) and CYP8B1 (79%). It reduced hepatic levels of ROS (14%), MDA (27%) but increased the levels of GSH (41%), SOD (12%), BSEP (4.4-fold), and MRP2 (74%). Moreover, kuhuang downregulated DR5 (99%) but increased the mRNA expression of PPARγ (4-fold). Molecular docking analyses determined the bioactivity of the active compounds of kuhuang through their specific bindings to PPARγ. CONCLUSIONS: Kuhuang could alleviate CPZ-induced cholestatic liver injury by activating PPARγ to reduce oxidative stress. Applying kuhuang for the treatment of CPZ-induced liver injury could be suggested.


Assuntos
Clorpromazina , PPAR gama , Clorpromazina/metabolismo , Clorpromazina/farmacologia , Fígado , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 968336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052067

RESUMO

Many respiratory viruses cause lung damage that may evolve into acute lung injury (ALI), a cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ultimately, death. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) family of transcription factors, regulates transcription by forming heterodimers with another NHR family member, Retinoid X Receptor (RXR). Each component of the heterodimer binds specific ligands that modify transcriptional capacity of the entire heterodimer by recruiting different co-activators/co-repressors. However, the role of PPARγ/RXR ligands in the context of influenza infection is not well understood. PPARγ is associated with macrophage differentiation to an anti-inflammatory M2 state. We show that mice lacking the IL-4Rα receptor, required for M2a macrophage differentiation, are more susceptible to mouse-adapted influenza (A/PR/8/34; "PR8")-induced lethality. Mice lacking Ptgs2, that encodes COX-2, a key proinflammatory M1 macrophage mediator, are more resistant. Blocking the receptor for COX-2-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was also protective. Treatment with pioglitazone (PGZ), a PPARγ ligand, increased survival from PR8 infection, decreased M1 macrophage gene expression, and increased PPARγ mRNA in lungs. Conversely, conditional knockout mice expressing PPARγ-deficient macrophages were significantly more sensitive to PR8-induced lethality. These findings were extended in cotton rats: PGZ blunted lung inflammation and M1 cytokine gene expression after challenge with non-adapted human influenza. To study mechanisms by which PPARγ/RXR transcription factors induce canonical M2a genes, WT mouse macrophages were treated with IL-4 in the absence or presence of rosiglitazone (RGZ; PPARγ ligand), LG100754 (LG; RXR ligand), or both. IL-4 dose-dependently induced M2a genes Arg1, Mrc1, Chil3, and Retnla. Treatment of macrophages with IL-4 and RGZ and/or LG differentially affected induction of Arg1 and Mrc1 vs. Chil3 and Retnla gene expression. In PPARγ-deficient macrophages, IL-4 alone failed to induce Arg1 and Mrc1 gene expression; however, concurrent treatment with LG or RGZ + LG enhanced IL-4-induced Arg1 and Mrc1 expression, but to a lower level than in WT macrophages, findings confirmed in the murine alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S. These findings support a model in which PPARγ/RXR heterodimers control IL-4-induced M2a differentiation, and suggest that PPARγ/RXR agonists should be considered as important tools for clinical intervention against influenza-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Influenza Humana , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Ligantes , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores X de Retinoides/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958801, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091002

RESUMO

Fatal influenza (flu) virus infection often activates excessive inflammatory signals, leading to multi-organ failure and death, also referred to as cytokine storm. PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) agonists are well-known candidates for cytokine storm modulation. The present study identified that influenza infection reduced PPARγ expression and decreased PPARγ transcription activity in human alveolar macrophages (AMs) from different donors. Treatment with PPARγ agonist Troglitazone ameliorated virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine secretion but did not interfere with the IFN-induced antiviral pathway in human AMs. In contrast, PPARγ antagonist and knockdown of PPARγ in human AMs further enhanced virus-stimulated proinflammatory response. In a mouse model of influenza infection, flu virus dose-dependently reduced PPARγ transcriptional activity and decreased expression of PPARγ. Moreover, PPARγ agonist troglitazone significantly reduced high doses of influenza infection-induced lung pathology. In addition, flu infection reduced PPARγ expression in all mouse macrophages, including AMs, interstitial macrophages, and bone-marrow-derived macrophages but not in alveolar epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the influenza virus specifically targets the PPARγ pathway in macrophages to cause acute injury to the lung.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Troglitazona
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077003

RESUMO

New quinazoline-sulfonylurea hybrids were prepared and examined for their in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activities in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats using glibenclamide as a reference drug. Compounds VI-6-a, V, IV-4, VI-4-c, IV-6, VI-2-a, IV-1, and IV-2 were more potent than the reference glibenclamide. They induced significant reduction in the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats: 78.2, 73.9, 71.4, 67.3, 62, 60.7, 58.4, and 55.9%, respectively, while the reference glibenclamide had 55.4%. Compounds IV-1, VI-2-a, IV-2, V, and IV-6 showed more prolonged antidiabetic activity than glibenclamide. Moreover, molecular docking and pharmacokinetic studies were performed to examine binding modes of the prepared compounds against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The highest active compounds exhibited good binding affinity with high free energy of binding against PPARγ. In silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicity (ADMET) studies were performed to investigate pharmacokinetics and safety of the synthesized compounds. They showed considerable human intestinal absorption with low toxicity profile.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , PPAR gama , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Sulfonilureias/agonistas
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077103

RESUMO

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR-γ is one of three PPAR nuclear receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. In immune cells, the skin, and other organs, PPAR-γ regulates lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. The receptor translates nutritional, pharmacological, and metabolic stimuli into the changes in gene expression. The activation of PPAR-γ promotes cell differentiation, reduces the proliferation rate, and modulates the immune response. In the skin, PPARs also contribute to the functioning of the skin barrier. Since we know that the route from identification to the registration of drugs is long and expensive, PPAR-γ agonists already approved for other diseases may also represent a high interest for psoriasis. In this review, we discuss the role of PPAR-γ in the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of skin and immune cells affected by psoriasis and in contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. We also evaluate whether the agonists of PPAR-γ may become one of the therapeutic options to suppress the inflammatory response in lesional psoriatic skin and decrease the influence of comorbidities associated with psoriasis.


Assuntos
Psoríase , Dermatopatias , Humanos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Psoríase/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077166

RESUMO

Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis. Cilostazol exerts favorable cellular and metabolic effects; however, the effect of cilostazol on the expression of PCSK9 has not been previously reported. Our study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms of action of cilostazol on the expression of PCSK9 and lipid homeostasis. We evaluated the effects of cilostazol on the expression of PCSK9 in HepG2 cells and evaluated potential molecular mechanisms by measuring signaling molecules in the liver and serum lipid profiles in high-fat diet-induced obese mice and normal chow-fed mice. Cilostazol treatment significantly induced the messenger RNA and protein expression of PCSK9 in HepG2 cells and enhanced PCSK9 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that cilostazol treatment enhanced PCSK9 transcription by binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) via the PPARγ DNA response element. PPARγ knockdown attenuated the stimulatory effect of cilostazol on PCSK9. In vitro, cilostazol treatment increased PCSK9 expression in vehicle-treated HepG2 cells but decreased PCSK9 expression in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. In vivo, cilostazol treatment increased the serum levels of PCSK9 in normal mice but significantly reduced PCSK9 levels in obese mice. The expressions of PCSK9-relevant microRNAs also showed similar results. Clinical data showed that cilostazol treatment significantly reduced serum PCSK9 levels in patients with obesity. The obesity-dependent effects of cilostazol on PCSK9 expression observed from bench to bedside demonstrates the therapeutic potential of cilostazol in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Pró-Proteína Convertases , Animais , Cilostazol/farmacologia , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertases/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Subtilisinas
12.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078070

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease that is accompanied by skeletal muscle atrophy and cardiomyopathy. Tissues affected by HD (central nervous system [CNS], skeletal muscle, and heart) are known to suffer from deteriorated cellular energy metabolism that manifests already at presymptomatic stages. This work aimed to test the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist-rosiglitazone on grip strength and heart function in an experimental HD model-on R6/1 mice and to address the mechanisms. We noted that rosiglitazone treatment lead to improvement of R6/1 mice grip strength and cardiac mechanical function. It was accompanied by an enhancement of the total adenine nucleotides pool, increased glucose oxidation, changes in mitochondrial number (indicated as increased citric synthase activity), and reduction in mitochondrial complex I activity. These metabolic changes were supported by increased total antioxidant status in HD mice injected with rosiglitazone. Correction of energy deficits with rosiglitazone was further indicated by decreased accumulation of nucleotide catabolites in HD mice serum. Thus, rosiglitazone treatment may not only delay neurodegeneration but also may ameliorate cardio- and myopathy linked to HD by improvement of cellular energetics.


Assuntos
Doença de Huntington , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Huntington/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Rosiglitazona/uso terapêutico
13.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2022: 7853482, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065376

RESUMO

The adipose tissue NLRP3 inflammasome has recently emerged as a contributor to obesity-related metabolic inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome cleaves gasdermin D (GSDMD) and induces pyroptosis, a proinflammatory programmed cell death. However, whether GSDMD is involved in the regulation of adipose tissue function and the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GSDMD in adipose tissue inflammation as well as whole-body metabolism using GSDMD-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks. The effects of GSDMD deficiency on adipose tissue, liver, and isolated macrophages from wild-type (WT) and GSDMD knockout (KO) mice were examined. In addition, 3T3-L1 cells were used to examine the expression of GSDMD during adipogenesis. The results demonstrate that although HFD-induced inflammation was partly ameliorated in isolated macrophages and liver, adipose tissue remained unaffected by GSDMD deficiency. Compared with the WT HFD mice, GSDMD KO HFD mice exhibited a mild increase in HFD-induced glucose intolerance with increased systemic and adipose tissue IL-1ß levels. Interestingly, GSDMD deficiency caused accumulation of fat mass when challenged with HFD, partly by suppressing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The expression of GSDMD mRNA and protein was dramatically suppressed during adipocyte differentiation and was inversely correlated with PPARγ expression. Together, these findings indicate that GSDMD is not a prerequisite for HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation and suggest a noncanonical function of GSDMD in regulation of fat mass through PPARγ.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Intolerância à Glucose , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética
14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 16: 2919-2931, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068789

RESUMO

Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects on the brain, and its clinical potential in the treatment of cognitive impairment in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) is currently being explored. This review focused on the reported beneficial effects of pioglitazone on cognitive dysfunction and summarized the associated mechanisms associated with pioglitazone-induced improvement in cognitive dysfunction. Our review of the relevant literature indicated that there is conclusive evidence of the effect of pioglitazone on improving cognitive impairment via its agonistic effect on PPAR-γ. Further, several mechanisms of action have been reported, and these include enhanced NF-kB and p38 activity; regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α; inhibition of Aß production; alterations in the levels of mitochondrial proteins such as mitoNEET; regulation of protein kinases such as CDK5 and JNK; regulation of ROS and MDA levels and the levels of the antioxidant proteins TRX1 and PON2; and increased expression of thyroid hormone receptors. Despite these promising findings, pioglitazone treatment is also associated with cardiovascular risks, such as weight gain and edema, which subsequently increase the risk of mortality. Further, it has been documented that pioglitazone may be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier when administered in certain forms, and it can also cause cell death when administered at high concentrations. Therefore, further research is required to explore the effects of acute and chronic pioglitazone treatment on memory function and the associated risks, in order to determine its clinical applicability in the treatment of cognitive disorders. Nonetheless, the current literature does demonstrate that pioglitazone promotes the function of PPAR receptors in ameliorating inflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis, and hypothyroidism, and enhancing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function. Therefore, these mechanisms of PPAR receptors warrant further investigation in order to establish the clinical applicability of pioglitazone in the treatment of cognitive disorders, such as PD and AD, and neuronal impairment in conditions such as diabetes.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Tiazolidinedionas , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Pioglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
15.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13769, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127314

RESUMO

The composition of amino acid and fatty acid has a vital function on meat quality and animal health. However, the underlying mechanism of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in sheep during different grazing periods is still unclear. In this study, a total of 12 sheep were employed in different grazing periods. Our results showed that the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues was significantly altered between dry grass (DG) period and green grass (GG) period. Changes in the activities of the metabolism-related enzymes including BCKD, BCAT2, ACC, SCD, HSL, GSK3ß, p-GSK3ß, and FABP4 were observed in muscle and adipose during different grazing periods. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of ACC, FAS, SCD, HSL, LPL, and DGAT1 in muscle and adipose tissue were changed markedly in different grazing periods. Furthermore, the expression levels of mTOR and ß-catenin/PPARγ/C/EBPα pathway-related proteins were predominantly altered in muscle and adipose among DG and GG. Taken together, all investigations simplified the process of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism disorders caused by different grazing periods, and the mTOR and ß-catenin/PPARγ/C/EBPα play the essential role in this process, which provided an underlying mechanism of metabolism and meat quality.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Ácidos Graxos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Músculos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
16.
JCI Insight ; 7(18)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134662

RESUMO

Therapy with radiation plus cisplatin kills HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) by increasing reactive oxygen species beyond cellular antioxidant capacity. To explore why these standard treatments fail for some patients, we evaluated whether the variation in HPV oncoprotein levels among HPV+ OPSCCs affects mitochondrial metabolism, a source of antioxidant capacity. In cell line and patient-derived xenograft models, levels of HPV full-length E6 (fl-E6) inversely correlated with oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant capacity, and therapy resistance, and fl-E6 was the only HPV oncoprotein to display such correlations. Ectopically expressing fl-E6 in models with low baseline levels reduced mitochondrial mass, depleted antioxidant capacity, and sensitized to therapy. In this setting, fl-E6 repressed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α/estrogen-related receptor α (PGC-1α/ERRα) pathway for mitochondrial biogenesis by reducing p53-dependent PGC-1α transcription. Concordant observations were made in 3 clinical cohorts, where expression of mitochondrial components was higher in tumors of patients with reduced survival. These tumors contained the lowest fl-E6 levels, the highest p53 target gene expression, and an activated PGC-1α/ERRα pathway. Our findings demonstrate that E6 can potentiate treatment responses by depleting mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and provide evidence for low E6 negatively affecting patient survival. E6's interaction with the PGC-1α/ERRα axis has implications for predicting and targeting treatment resistance in OPSCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/terapia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1480345, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124070

RESUMO

In order to achieve a sufficient population of cardiac-committed progenitor cells, it is crucial to know the mechanisms of cardiac progenitor formation. Previous studies suggested ROS effect on cardiac commitment events to play a key role in the cell signaling and activate cardiac differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. We previously reported that PPARγ activity is essential for cardiac progenitor cell commitment. Although several studies have conducted the involvement of PPARγ-related signaling pathways in cardiac differentiation, so far, the regulatory mechanisms of these signaling pathways have not been discussed and cleared. In this study, we focus on the role of PPARγ agonist in ROS generation and its further effects on the differentiation of cardiac cells from mESCs. The results of this study show that the presence of ROS is necessary for heart differentiation in the precursor stage of cardiac cells, and the coenzyme Q10 antioxidant precludes proper cardiac differentiation. In addition, this antioxidant prevents the action of pioglitazone in increasing oxygen radicals as well as beating cardiomyocyte differentiation properties. In this case, it can be concluded that PPARγ is required to modulate ROS levels during cardiac differentiation.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , PPAR gama , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
BMC Urol ; 22(1): 156, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) seriously endangers public health, but effective biomarkers for BC diagnosis, particularly in the early stage, are still lacking. Identification of reliable biomarkers associated with early-stage BC is of great importance to early treatment and an improved outcome. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using four publicly available early-stage BC gene-expression profiles. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and survival analysis for hub genes was evaluated. The correlation between methylation of genes and prognosis was evaluated using the MethSurv database. Co-expressed genes were explored using Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database and the corresponding expression were assessed in vitro. The competing endogenous RNA network and the immune cell infiltration in BC were generated using data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. RESULTS: Ten hub genes of the 213 integrated DEGs were identified, including CDH1, IGFBP3, PPARG, SDC1, EPCAM, ACTA2, COL3A1, TPM1, ACTC1, and ACTN1. CDH1 appeared to increase from tumor initiation stage and negatively correlated with methylation. Six methylated sites in CDH1 indicated a good prognosis and one site indicated an aberrant prognosis. High CDH1 expression was negatively correlated with infiltrations by most immune cells, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), regulatory T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, DCs, and natural killer cells. CDH1 was highly positively correlated with EPCAM and appeared to be directly regulated by miR-383. CONCLUSIONS: The identified oncogenic alterations provide theoretical support for the development of novel biomarkers to advance early-stage BC diagnosis and personalized therapy.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/metabolismo , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 955593, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120427

RESUMO

Pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, is used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). PPARγ is highly expressed in adipose tissue (AT), however the effects of pioglitazone to improve insulin sensitivity are also evident in other tissues and PPARγ agonism has been shown to alter cancer derived extracellular vesicle (EV)-miRNAs. We hypothesized that pioglitazone modifies the cargo of circulating AT-derived EVs to alter interorgan crosstalk in people with diabetes. We tested our hypothesis in a 3-month trial in which 24 subjects with T2D were randomized to treatment with either pioglitazone 45 mg/day or placebo (NCT00656864). Levels of 42 adipocyte-derived EV-miRNAs were measured in plasma EVs using low density TaqMan arrays. Levels of differentially expressed EV-miRNAs and their most relevant target genes were also measure in adipose tissue from the same participants, using individual TaqMan assays. Levels of 5 miRNAs (i.e., miR-7-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-195-5p, and miR-374b-5p) were significantly downregulated in EVs in response to pioglitazone treatment relative to placebo. The opposite occurred for miR-195-5p in subcutaneous AT. Changes in miRNA expression in EVs and AT correlated with changes in suppression of lipolysis and improved insulin sensitivity, among others. DICER was downregulated and exosomal miRNA sorting-related genes YBX1 and hnRNPA2B1 displayed a downregulation trend in AT. Furthermore, analysis of EV-miRNA targeted genes identified a network of transcripts that changed in a coordinated manner in AT. Collectively, our results suggest that some beneficial pharmacologic effects of pioglitazone are mediated by adipose-specific miRNA regulation and exosomal/EV trafficking. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT00656864.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Vesículas Extracelulares , Resistência à Insulina , MicroRNAs , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/metabolismo
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113503, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076592

RESUMO

Arctium lappa (A. lappa) leaves are widely used in various traditional Chinese herbal formulae to ameliorate atherosclerosis (AS) and its complications such as stroke; however, there is no literature reporting the anti-atherosclerotic effect and mechanism of A. lappa leaves thus far. In the present study, we used network pharmacology and molecular docking approaches to examine the protective effect and potential mechanism of A. lappa leaves against AS in vivo and in vitro. From the network pharmacology, PPARG, HMGCR and SREBF2 were identified as the core targets of A. lappa leaves against AS. Further enrichment analyses of GO and KEGG pathways suggested that A. lappa leaves might play an anti-AS role by regulating metabolic processes and PPAR signalling pathways. The results of molecular docking experiment revealed that the major components of A. lappa leaves interacted with cholesterol efflux-regulating core proteins (PPARG, LXRα, ABCA1, and ABCG1), AMPK and SIRT1. Both in vivo and in vitro experimental results demonstrated that treatment with A. lappa leaves significantly lowered TC and LDL-C, increased HDL-C, and reduced cholesterol accumulation in the liver and aorta of the AS rat model and the foam cell model. Importantly, both in vivo and in vitro experimental results demonstrated that A. lappa leaves regulate the activity of the PPARG/LXRα signalling and AMPK/SIRT1 signalling pathways. Moreover, after treatment with the AMPK inhibitor Compound C in vitro, the improvement induced by A. lappa leaves was significantly reversed. In conclusion, A. lappa leaves attenuated AS-induced cholesterol accumulation by targeting the AMPK-mediated PPARG/LXRα pathway and promoting cholesterol efflux.


Assuntos
Arctium , Aterosclerose , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Farmacologia em Rede , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
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