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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 21, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance research in uncomplicated urinary tract infection typically focuses on the main causative pathogen, Escherichia coli; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance burden of Klebsiella species, which can also cause uncomplicated urinary tract infections. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence and geographic distribution of antimicrobial resistance among Klebsiella species and antimicrobial resistance trends for K. pneumoniae in the United States (2011-2019). METHODS: K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca urine isolates (30-day, non-duplicate) among female outpatients (aged ≥ 12 years) with presumed uUTI at 304 centers in the United States were classified by resistance phenotype(s): not susceptible to nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, or fluoroquinolone, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-positive/not susceptible; and multidrug-resistant based on ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 resistance phenotypes. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence by census division and age, as well as antimicrobial resistance trends over time for Klebsiella species, were assessed using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: 270,552 Klebsiella species isolates were evaluated (250,719 K. pneumoniae; 19,833 K. oxytoca). The most frequent resistance phenotypes in 2019 were nitrofurantoin not susceptible (Klebsiella species: 54.0%; K. pneumoniae: 57.3%; K. oxytoca: 15.1%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole not susceptible (Klebsiella species: 10.4%; K. pneumoniae: 10.6%; K. oxytoca: 8.6%). Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-positive/not susceptible prevalence was 5.4%, 5.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. K. pneumoniae resistance phenotype prevalence varied (p < 0.0001) geographically and by age, and increased over time (except for the nitrofurantoin not susceptible phenotype, which was stable and > 50% throughout). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high antimicrobial resistance prevalence and increasing antimicrobial resistance trends among K. pneumoniae isolates from female outpatients in the United States with presumed uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Awareness of K. pneumoniae antimicrobial resistance helps to optimize empiric uncomplicated urinary tract infection treatment.


Assuntos
Klebsiella , Infecções Urinárias , Feminino , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47130, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids have traditionally been used to manage acute or terminal pain. However, their prolonged use has the potential for abuse, misuse, and addiction. South Korea introduced a new health care IT system named the Narcotics Information Management System (NIMS) with the objective of managing all aspects of opioid use, including manufacturing, distribution, sales, disposal, etc. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the impact of NIMS on opioid use. METHODS: We conducted an analysis using national claims data from 45,582 patients diagnosed with musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders between 2016 and 2020. Our approach included using an interrupted time-series analysis and constructing segmented regression models. Within these models, we considered the primary intervention to be the implementation of NIMS, while we treated the COVID-19 outbreak as the secondary event. To comprehensively assess inappropriate opioid use, we examined 4 key indicators, as established in previous studies: (1) the proportion of patients on high-dose opioid treatment, (2) the proportion of patients receiving opioid prescriptions from multiple providers, (3) the overlap rate of opioid prescriptions per patient, and (4) the naloxone use rate among opioid users. RESULTS: During the study period, there was a general trend of increasing opioid use. After the implementation of NIMS, significant increases were observed in the trend of the proportion of patients on high-dose opioid treatment (coefficient=0.0271; P=.01) and in the level of the proportion of patients receiving opioid prescriptions from multiple providers (coefficient=0.6252; P=.004). An abrupt decline was seen in the level of the naloxone use rate among opioid users (coefficient=-0.2968; P=.04). While these changes were statistically significant, their clinical significance appears to be minor. No significant changes were observed after both the implementation of NIMS and the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, in its current form, the NIMS may not have brought significant improvements to the identified indicators of opioid overuse and misuse. Additionally, the COVID-19 outbreak exhibited no significant influence on opioid use patterns. The absence of real-time monitoring feature within the NIMS could be a key contributing factor. Further exploration and enhancements are needed to maximize the NIMS' impact on curbing inappropriate opioid use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Entorpecentes , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Naloxona , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gestão da Informação , Tecido Conjuntivo
3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 17(2): e009960, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the type of an atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event potentially influences patients' likelihood of smoking cessation. METHODS: Using 2013 to 2018 data from the US based National Cardiovascular Data Registry Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence outpatient cardiac registry, we identified patients who were current smokers at a clinic visit and followed them over time for a subsequent ASCVD event. Self-reported smoking status was assessed at each consecutive visit and used to determine smoking cessation after each interim ASCVD event (myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease). We constructed separate multivariable Cox models with nonproportional hazards to examine the association of each interim ASCVD event with smoking cessation, compared with not having an interim ASCVD event. We estimated the relative association of ASCVD event type with smoking cessation using contrast tests. Analyses were stratified by presence versus absence of ASCVD at baseline. RESULTS: Across 530 cardiology practices, we identified 1 933 283 current smokers (mean age 62±15, male 54%, ASCVD at baseline 50%). Among the 322 743 patients who had an interim ASCVD event and were still smoking, 41 336 (12.8%) quit smoking by their first subsequent clinic visit, which was higher among those with baseline ASCVD (13.4%) as compared with those without baseline ASCVD (11.5%). Each type of ASCVD event was associated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Patients who had an myocardial infarction, underwent coronary artery bypass graft (hazard ratio, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.55-1.65]), or had a stroke or transient ischemic attack were more likely to quit smoking as compared with those who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention or had a new diagnosis of peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.17-1.22]). CONCLUSIONS: Only 13% of patients reported smoking cessation after an ASCVD event, with the type of event being associated with the likelihood of smoking cessation, prompting the need for patient-centered interventions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Infarto do Miocárdio , Doença Arterial Periférica , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 139-145, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322509

RESUMO

Objective: To establish the framework of a prediagnostic risk assessment system for outpatient dental care and to provide references for ensuring patient safety and improving the quality of medical services. Methods: A total of 15 medical workers in a tertiary-care stomatology hospital in Sichuan Province were selected for qualitative interviews between October 2019 and December 2019. On the basis of the results of literature analysis and the interviews, an expert consultation form for prediagnostic risk assessment system for outpatient dental care was developed. Then, consultation of 10 experts in the field of oral health care and nursing was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020. Eventually, the framework of prediagnostic risk assessment system for outpatient dental care was formulated. Results: Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews. Firstly, prediagnostic risks of dental outpatients involved mainly syncope, cardiovascular emergencies, and other emergency medical risks. Secondly, medical risks came from three sources, patients, healthcare professionals, and the environment. Thirdly, medical professionals of outpatient dental care had limited awareness of the prediagnostic medical risks of patient. Fourthly, medical professionals of outpatient dental care showed inadequate response to and management of the prediagnostic medical risks of patient. The expert consultation helped finalize the Dental Outpatient Prediagnostic Risk Assessment Questionnaire, which included 3 primary indicators (namely, general information, medical history [including history of allergy], and medication assessment), 12 secondary indicators (including patient demographics, patients' status upon admission, oral hygiene habits and special lifestyle habits, sensory disorders, special periods for female patients [ie, menstruation, pregnancy, and breastfeeding], allergy history [history of oral treatment-related allergies], past/present medical history, types of medication, route of medication administration, duration of medication administration, accuracy of medication administration, and adverse drug reactions), and 39 tertiary indicators. The effective recall rate of the expert consultation form was 100%, expert positivity was 100%, and the authority coefficient was 0.83. Kendall's harmony coefficient ranged from 0.808 to 0.839, which was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The framework of prediagnosis risk assessment system for outpatient dental care is found to be scientific and specific, but its applicability still needs further validation in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Assistência Odontológica
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(2): e2355387, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334995

RESUMO

Importance: The association of COVID-19 infection with outpatient care utilization is unclear. Many studies reported population surveillance studies rather than comparing outpatient health care use between COVID-19-infected and uninfected cohorts. Objective: To compare outpatient health care use across 6 categories of care (primary care, specialty care, surgery care, mental health, emergency care, and diagnostic and/or other care) between veterans with or without COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective cohort study of Veterans Affairs primary care patients, veterans with COVID-19 infection were matched to a cohort of uninfected veterans. Data were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Fee-for-Service Carrier/Physician Supplier file from January 2019 through December 2022. Data analysis was performed from September 2022 to April 2023. Exposure: COVID-19 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the count of outpatient visits after COVID-19 infection. Negative binomial regression models compared outpatient use over a 1-year preinfection period, and peri-infection (0-30 days), intermediate (31-183 days), and long-term (184-365 days) postinfection periods. Results: The infected (202 803 veterans; mean [SD] age, 60.5 [16.2] years; 178 624 men [88.1%]) and uninfected (202 803 veterans; mean [SD] age, 60.4 [16.5] years; 178 624 men [88.1%]) cohorts were well matched across all covariates. Outpatient use in all categories (except surgical care) was significantly elevated during the peri-infection period for veterans with COVID-19 infection compared with the uninfected cohort, with an increase in all visits of 5.12 visits per 30 days (95% CI, 5.09-5.16 visits per 30 days), predominantly owing to primary care visits (increase of 1.86 visits per 30 days; 95% CI, 1.85-1.87 visits per 30 days). Differences in outpatient use attenuated over time but remained statistically significantly higher at 184 to 365 days after infection (increase of 0.25 visit per 30 days; 95% CI, 0.23-0.27 visit per 30 days). One-half of the increased outpatient visits were delivered via telehealth. The utilization increase was greatest for veterans aged 85 years and older (6.1 visits, 95% CI, 5.9-6.3 visits) vs those aged 20 to 44 years (4.8 visits, 95% CI, 4.7-4.8 visits) and unvaccinated veterans (4.5 visits, 95% CI, 4.3-4.6 visits) vs vaccinated veterans (3.2 visits; 95% CI, 3.4-4.8 visits). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that outpatient use increased significantly in the month after infection, then attenuated but remained greater than the uninfected cohorts' use through 12 months, which suggests that there are sustained impacts of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , Veteranos , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicare , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , COVID-19/epidemiologia
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(2): 200-208, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315923

RESUMO

Screening for housing instability has increased as health systems move toward value-based care, but evidence on how health care-based housing interventions affect patient outcomes comes mostly from interventions that address homelessness. In this mixed-methods evaluation of a primary care-based housing program in Boston, Massachusetts, for 1,139 patients with housing-related needs that extend beyond homelessness, we found associations between program participation and health care use. Patients enrolled in the program between October 2018 and March 2021 had 2.5 fewer primary care visits and 3.6 fewer outpatient visits per year compared with those who were not enrolled, including fewer social work, behavioral health, psychiatry, and urgent care visits. Patients in the program who obtained new housing reported mental and physical health benefits, and some expressed having stronger connections to their health care providers. Many patients attributed improvements in mental health to compassionate support provided by the program's housing advocates. Health care-based housing interventions should address the needs of patients facing imminent housing crises. Such interventions hold promise for redressing health inequities and restoring dignity to the connections between historically marginalized patient populations and health care institutions.


Assuntos
Habitação , Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Serviço Social , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol ; 74(2): 70-77, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) present difficulties in self-regulation and interaction, which is a challenge for psychotherapists that is also addressed in BPD-specific interventions. Against this background, outpatient psychotherapists were surveyed about the factors playing a decisive role in their treatment offer for patients with BPD. METHODS: Psychotherapists for adults were contacted via their email address published on the website of the Kassenärztliche Vereinigung (Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians), 231 of whom answered an online questionnaire. The results were analysed descriptively and examined inferentially with regard to the psychotherapists' admission behaviour. RESULTS: Almost 90% reported that they would generally accept patients with BPD in therapy. However, of those, 85% did not have a therapy slot available. The psychotherapists' learned approach of treatment was not a decisive factor in determining whether they were willing to provide treatment. Most of the psychotherapists (85%) recommended a BPD disorder-specific therapy such as Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Mentalization-Based Treatment (MBT), Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) or Schema Therapy (ST). However, only just under 7% were certified in such a disorder-specific approach. Significant individual stress factors described by the psychotherapists were suicidal risk (70%) and potential other-directed aggression (59%). In addition, it was shown that it played a role whether the psychotherapists were trained in an additional therapy approach (with at least 16 teaching units) or not. CONCLUSION: The care situation for people with BPD seeking an outpatient psychotherapy place is clearly in need of improvement. This is mainly due to a general lack of available therapy places as well as various fears and anxieties, such as increased suicidality, which in turn can have a negative impact on the provision of outpatient therapy. Psychotherapists who have undergone disorder-specific further training feel less burdened by suicidal behaviour. However, since only a small number of them are able to offer BPD-specific therapies, it is essential to expand and (financially) support specific training programmes. In order to meet the demand for care, professional changes are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(7): e64, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of pediatric patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a crucial TB control strategy. LTBI is not a reportable communicable disease, and data regarding LTBI treatment in pediatric patients in Korea are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and treatment completion rates among pediatric patients with LTBI in Korea by analyzing National Health reimbursement claims data. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed outpatient prescription records for pediatric patients aged 18 or younger with LTBI-related diagnostic codes from 2016 to 2020. We compared the frequency of prescriptions for the standard treatment regimen (9 months of isoniazid [9H]) and an alternative treatment regimen (3 months of isoniazid plus rifampicin [3HR]). We also assessed the treatment incompletion rates by age group, treatment regimen, treatment duration, the level of medical facility, physician's specialty, and hospital location. We performed multivariable analysis to identify factors influencing treatment incompletion. RESULTS: Among the 11,362 patients who received LTBI treatment, 6,463 (56.9%) were prescribed the 9H regimen, while 4,899 (43.1%) received the 3HR regimen. Patients in the 3HR group were generally older than those in the 9H group. The proportion of 3HR regimen prescriptions significantly greater in the later period (2018-2020), in primary hospitals, under the management of non-pediatric specialists, and in metropolitan regions. The overall treatment incompletion rate was 39.7% (9H group: 46.9%, 3HR group: 30.3%). In the multivariable analysis, 9H regimen prescription was the strongest factor associated with treatment incompletion (adjusted odds ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-2.66; P < 0.001). Additionally, management in a primary hospital, a hospital's location in a non-metropolitan region, and management by a non-pediatric specialist were also significant risk factors for treatment incompletion. CONCLUSION: Our study results suggest that promoting the use of 3HR regimen prescriptions could be an effective strategy to enhance treatment completion. Physicians in primary hospitals, hospitals located in non-metropolitan regions, and physicians without a pediatric specialty require increased attention when administering LTBI treatment to pediatric patients to ensure treatment completion.


Assuntos
Isoniazida , Tuberculose Latente , Humanos , Criança , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , República da Coreia
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 229, 2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting integrated care is a key goal of the NHS Long Term Plan to improve population respiratory health, yet there is limited data-driven evidence of its effectiveness. The Morecambe Bay Respiratory Network is an integrated care initiative operating in the North-West of England since 2017. A key target area has been reducing referrals to outpatient respiratory clinics by upskilling primary care teams. This study aims to explore space-time patterns in referrals from general practice in the Morecambe Bay area to evaluate the impact of the initiative. METHODS: Data on referrals to outpatient clinics and chronic respiratory disease patient counts between 2012-2020 were obtained from the Morecambe Bay Community Data Warehouse, a large store of routinely collected healthcare data. For analysis, the data is aggregated by year and small area geography. The methodology comprises of two parts. The first explores the issues that can arise when using routinely collected primary care data for space-time analysis and applies spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive modelling to adjust for data complexities. The second part models the rate of outpatient referral via a Poisson generalised linear mixed model that adjusts for changes in demographic factors and number of respiratory disease patients. RESULTS: The first year of the Morecambe Bay Respiratory Network was not associated with a significant difference in referral rate. However, the second and third years saw significant reductions in areas that had received intervention, with full intervention associated with a 31.8% (95% CI 17.0-43.9) and 40.5% (95% CI 27.5-50.9) decrease in referral rate in 2018 and 2019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely collected data can be used to robustly evaluate key outcome measures of integrated care. The results demonstrate that effective integrated care has real potential to ease the burden on respiratory outpatient services by reducing the need for an onward referral. This is of great relevance given the current pressure on outpatient services globally, particularly long waiting lists following the COVID-19 pandemic and the need for more innovative models of care.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Pandemias , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1322949, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327577

RESUMO

Objectives: China has implemented reforms to enhance the operational efficiency of three-level medical services through medical consortiums (MCs). This study evaluated the impact of MCs reform on health services in Sanming, China. Methods: An interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) was conducted to assess the impact of MCs on changes in health service levels and trends across the overall situation of MCs and different institutional types within MCs, including county hospitals and grassroots medical institutions. The evaluation focused on various indicators such as outpatient and emergency visits, inpatients, average length of stay, occupancy rate of hospital beds, and hospital bed turnover times. Monthly data were collected from April 2015 to June 2019 through reports on the Sanming Municipal Health Commission website and the Sanming public hospital management monitoring platform. Results: After the intervention of MCs reform, a significant increase was observed in the total number of inpatients (ß3 = 174.28, p < 0.05). However, no statistically significant change was observed in the total number of outpatient and emergency visits (ß3 = 155.82, p = 0.91). Additionally, the implementation of MCs reform led to an amplification in service volumes provided by county hospitals, with significant increases in the number of outpatient and emergency visits (ß3 = 1376.54, p < 0.05) and an upward trend in the number of inpatients (ß3 = 98.87, p < 0.01). However, no significant changes were observed under the MCs policy for grassroots medical institutions regarding the number of outpatient and emergency visits (ß3 = -1220.72, p = 0.22) and number of inpatients (ß3 = 75.42, p = 0.09). Conclusion: The Sanming MCs reform has achieved some progress in augmenting service volumes. Nevertheless, it has not led to an increase in service volumes at the grassroots medical institutions. There persists an insufficiency in the efficiency of services and a need for further improvement in primary healthcare. To address these concerns, it is imperative for county hospitals to offer targeted assistance that can enhance motivation among grassroots medical institutions. Besides the MCs should explore initiatives, including improved management of medical equipment, allocation of funding, and personnel resources.


Assuntos
Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hospitais Públicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , China
11.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 633, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatitis caused by insects and mites, diagnosed as papular urticaria or scabies, is a common skin disease. However, there is still a lack of studies about the effects of weather and air pollution on outpatient visits for this disease. This study aims to explore the impacts of meteorological and environmental factors on daily visits of dermatitis outpatients. METHODS: Analyses are conducted on a total of 43,101 outpatient visiting records during the years 2015-2020 from the largest dermatology specialist hospital in Guangzhou, China. Hierarchical cluster models based on Pearson correlation between risk factors are utilized to select regression variables. Linear regression models are fitted to identify the statistically significant associations between the risk factors and daily visits, taking into account the short-term effects of temperatures. Permutation importance is adopted to evaluate the predictive ability of these factors. RESULTS: Short-term temperatures have positive associations with daily visits and exhibit strong predictive abilities. In terms of total outpatients, the one-day lagged temperature not only has a significant impact on daily visits, but also has the highest median value of permutation importance. This conclusion is robust across most subgroups except for subgroups of summer and scabies, wherein the three-day lagged temperature has a negative effect. By contrast, air pollution has insignificant associations with daily visits and exhibits weak predictive abilities. Moreover, weekdays, holidays and trends have significant impacts on daily visits, but with weak predictive abilities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that short-term temperatures have positive associations with daily visits and exhibit strong predictive abilities. Nevertheless, air pollution has insignificant associations with daily visits and exhibits weak predictive abilities. The results of this study provide a reference for local authorities to formulate intervention measures and establish an environment-based disease early warning system.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Dermatite , Ácaros , Escabiose , Humanos , Animais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , China/epidemiologia , Insetos , Material Particulado/análise
12.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2317450, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in non-dialysis individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) impacts their prognosis and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the variables associated with MCI in non-dialysis outpatient patients with CKD and to construct and verify a nomogram prediction model. METHODS: 416 participants selected from two hospitals in Chengdu, between January 2023 and June 2023. They were categorized into two groups: the MCI group (n = 210) and the non-MCI (n = 206). Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were employed to identify independent influences (candidate predictor variables). Subsequently, regression models was constructed, and a nomogram was drawn. The restricted cubic spline diagram was drawn to further analyze the relationship between the continuous numerical variables and MCI. Internally validated using a bootstrap resampling procedure. RESULTS: Among 416 patients, 210 (50.9%) had MCI. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, educational level, occupational status, use of smartphones, sleep disorder, and hemoglobin were independent influencing factors of MCI (all p<.05). The model's area under the curve was 0.926,95% CI (0.902, 0.951), which was a good discriminatory measure; the Calibration curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the Clinical Decision Curve suggested that the model had good calibration and clinical benefit. Internal validation results showed the consistency index was 0.926, 95%CI (0.925, 0.927). CONCLUSION: The nomogram prediction model demonstrates good performance and can be used for early screening and prediction of MCI in non-dialysis patients with CKD. It provides valuable reference for medical staff to formulate corresponding intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Nomogramas , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
BMJ Open Qual ; 13(1)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351032

RESUMO

The liver transplant assessment process involves a complex set of tests and clinical reviews to determine suitability for liver transplantation. We had an assessment process involving a 3-day inpatient stay and often experienced difficulties admitting patients to the prebooked bed due to a lack of inpatient bed availability.We aimed to change the process from a 3-day and 2-night inpatient stay to a 1-day day-case stay to reduce the demand for inpatient beds.Planning the new assessment process involved negotiations with many department staff to establish prebooked timeslots in 1 day. The improvement project was tested and refined through Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. The liver transplant assessment team used their established once-a-week meeting to learn what went well and to agree on revisions to the process for further testing. The process involved several adaptations, such as the removal and changing of individual time slots, reinforcement of early notification once patients had finished their tests and scheduling a separate outpatient appointment to provide time for junior doctor clerking and blood tests.The new day-case and outpatient coordinated liver transplant assessment process resulted in a reduction of inpatient hospital bed utilisation from an average of 257-20 inpatient bed days per annum. This reduction in inpatient bed utilisation was maintained for 3 years with a similar level of patient satisfaction. The cost avoidance was calculated at £381.96 per patient, which is a 63% reduction in cost. Assuming an average number of patients being assessed per annum of 110, this would result in an average cost avoidance of £42 016 per annum. The carbon footprint was calculated with an average reduction per patient from 618 kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent (kgCO2e) to 179 kgCO2e.This project has highlighted how to change a complex inpatient assessment process to an alternative day-case and outpatient approach and could be considered useful learning for other inpatient assessment services, not just liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pacientes Internados , Hospitalização , Satisfação do Paciente
14.
Trials ; 25(1): 121, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, approximately half a million people are diagnosed with cancer annually; this can be traumatic and lead to depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorders necessitating psycho-oncological intervention. Value-oriented behavioural activation, adopted from depression psychotherapy, aims to provide structured support to help patients adjust their personal values, goals, and activities within the context of their changed life situation. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of video-based value-oriented behavioural activation against German S3-Guideline-compliant aftercare for cancer patients dealing with psychological distress. METHODS: This trial will use covariate-adaptive randomisation according to gender and type of tumour disease to assign participants to one of two study arms (value-oriented behavioural activation consisting of 12 manualised follow-up sessions delivered via video consultation vs. S3-Guideline-compliant aftercare comprising three supportive talks). Psychological strain, psychosocial distress, quality of life, work-related outcomes, fear of cancer recurrence, goal adjustment, satisfaction with the consultant-participant relationship, and rumination will be measured at baseline, twice during treatment, posttreatment, and at the 6-month follow-up. The target sample of 146 tumour patients experiencing high psychosocial distress will be recruited at the Rehazentrum Oberharz, Germany. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to test the effectiveness of value-oriented behavioural activation in aftercare for tumour patients, focusing on its capacity to reduce distress and the potential for long-term effects evaluated through a 6-month follow-up. The study's possible challenges include enrolling a sufficient sample and ensuring adherence to treatment, mitigated through in-person recruitment and rigorous training of staff. If successful, the results will be of high public health relevance, especially for psychotherapeutic care in rural areas and among patients with limited mobility considering the video-based approach of the trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00031900 on Sep 19, 2023.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Seguimentos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e073136, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous urine testing for albumin (UAlb) and serum creatinine (SCr), that is, 'dual testing,' is an accepted quality measure in the management of diabetes. As chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by both UAlb and SCr testing, this approach could be more widely adopted in kidney care. OBJECTIVE: We assessed time trends and facility-level variation in the performance of outpatient dual testing in the integrated Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system. DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND MAIN MEASURES: This retrospective cohort study included patients with any inpatient or outpatient visit to the VHA system during the period 2009-2018. Dual testing was defined as UAlb and SCr testing in the outpatient setting within a calendar year. We assessed time trends in dual testing by demographics, comorbidities, high-risk (eg, diabetes) specialty care and facilities. A generalised linear mixed-effects model was applied to explore individual and facility-level predictors of receiving dual testing. KEY RESULTS: We analysed data from approximately 6.9 million veterans per year. Dual testing increased, on average, from 17.4% to 21.2%, but varied substantially among VHA centres (0.3%-43.7% in 2018). Dual testing was strongly associated with diabetes (OR 10.4, 95% CI 10.3 to 10.5, p<0.0001) and not associated with VHA centre complexity level. However, among patients with high-risk conditions including diabetes, <50% received dual testing in any given year. As compared with white veterans, black veterans were less likely to be tested after adjusting for other individual and facility characteristics (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.93, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Dual testing for CKD in high-risk specialties is increasing but remains low. This appears primarily due to low rates of testing for albuminuria. Promoting dual testing in high-risk patients will help to improve disease management and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Veteranos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Creatinina , Saúde dos Veteranos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
16.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 149(5): 216-222, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350606

RESUMO

Outpatient intensive nursing care offers individuals who require specialized intensive nursing care on a permanent basis the opportunity to survive outside of an intensive care unit in an ambulatory environment. With advancements in surgical and intensive medical practices, coupled with demographic changes in the population resulting in a higher number of older, multimorbid patients, the available treatment options have been continuously extended. Many patients survived their intensive care stays but could not be weaned from ventilation or they had to retain a tracheal cannula, even without ventilation therapy. Presently, this group constitutes the majority of patients receiving outpatient intensive nursing care in Germany and represents a substantial cost factor in healthcare. The care of these patients is governed by the Guideline of the Joint Federal Committee on the Prescription of Outpatient Intensive Nursing Care (AKI-RL), which is based on the Intensive Care and Rehabilitation Strengthening Act (GKV-IPReG) 2021.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Humanos , Atenção à Saúde , Respiração Artificial , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
17.
Transfusion ; 64(2): 223-235, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal hemoglobin (Hb) threshold for red blood cell transfusions in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been defined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a pilot randomized multi-center study of two transfusion algorithms (liberal, to maintain Hb 110-120 g/L, transfuse 2 units if Hb < 105 g/L and 1 unit if Hb 105-110 g/L vs. restrictive, 85-105 g/L, transfuse 2 units when Hgb < 85 g/L). Primary objectives were 70% compliance in maintaining the q2 week hemoglobin within the targeted range and the achievement of a 15 g/L difference in pre-transfusion Hb. Secondary outcomes included measures of quality of life (QOL), iron studies and safety. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were randomized between February 2015-2020, 13 to the restrictive arm and 15 to the liberal arm in three tertiary care centers. The compliance was 66% and 45% and the mean pre-transfusion Hb thresholds were 86 (standard deviation [SD] 8) and 98 g/L (SD 10) in the restrictive and liberal arms, (mean difference 11.8 g/L, p < .0001), respectively. Patients in the liberal arm experienced a mean of 3.4 (SD 2.6) more transfusion visits and received a mean of 5.3 (SD 5.5) more units of blood during the 12-week study. Ferritin increased by 1043 (SD 1516) IU/L and 148 (SD 1319) IU/L in the liberal and restrictive arms, respectively. Selected QOL scores were superior pre-transfusion and more patients achieved clinically important improvements in the liberal arm compared with the restrictive arm for selected symptoms and function domains. CONCLUSION: The results establish that policies for transfusion support can be delivered in practice at multiple hospitals, but further research is required to understand the full clinical effects and safety of liberal transfusion policies in MDS outpatients.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Adulto , Humanos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Projetos Piloto , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Hemoglobinas/análise
18.
BMJ Open Qual ; 13(1)2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic limited access to primary care and in-person assessments requiring healthcare providers to re-envision care delivery for acutely unwell outpatients. Design thinking methodology has the potential to support the robust evolution of a new clinical model. AIM: To demonstrate how design thinking methodology can rapidly and rigorously create and evolve a safe, timely, equitable and patient-centred programme of care, and to share valuable lessons for effective implementation of design thinking solutions to address complex problems. METHOD: We describe how design thinking methodology was employed to create a new clinical model of care. Using the example of a novel telemedicine programme to support acutely unwell, community-dwelling COVID-19-positive patients called the London Urgent COVID-19 Care Clinic (LUC3), we show how continuous quality outcomes (safety, timeliness, equity and patient-centredness), as well as patient experience survey responses, can drive iterative changes in programme delivery. RESULTS: The inspiration phase identified four key needs for this patient population: monitoring COVID-19 signs and symptoms; self-managing COVID-19 symptoms; managing other comorbidities in the setting of COVID-19; and escalating care as needed. Guided by these needs, a cross-disciplinary stakeholder group was engaged in the ideation and implementation phases to create a unique and comprehensive telemedicine programme (LUC3). During the implementation phase, LUC3 assessed 2202 community-based patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19; the collected quality outcomes and end-user feedback led to evolution of programme delivery. CONCLUSION: Design thinking methodology provided an essential framework and valuable lessons for the development of a safe, equitable, timely and patient-centred telemedicine care programme. The lessons learnt here-the importance of inclusive collaboration, using empathy to guide equity-focused interventions, leveraging continuous metrics to drive iteration and aiming for good-if-not-perfect plans-can serve as a road map for using design thinking for targeted healthcare problems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vida Independente , Humanos , Pandemias , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
19.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 8(1): 26, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is a vital metric for assessing healthcare quality and delivering patient-centered care. It can predict service utilization patterns by determining healthcare users' contentment with their providers. Consequently, evaluating patient satisfaction and its underlying factors is crucial to maintaining the quality of healthcare services. The present study aimed to assess patient satisfaction and its determinants in a tertiary care public hospital in Nepal. In this research, a cross-sectional design was employed to examine patient satisfaction within the Outpatient Department of Mental Hospital Lagankhel, Nepal. The study adopted a systematic random sampling approach for respondent selection, and stringent measures were implemented to uphold the validity and reliability of the collected data. To assess patient satisfaction comprehensively, the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-III (PSQ-III), developed by the RAND Corporation, was employed in conjunction with relevant sociodemographic variables. Utilizing mean scores and percentages, we calculated satisfaction levels across various dimensions. Additionally, a multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationships between patient satisfaction dimensions and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: This study encompassed perspective of 206 participants, with 57.3% representing patient relatives and 51% being male, median age of 32 years (standard deviation: 12.53). Notably, patients reported higher levels of satisfaction, particularly within the interpersonal relationship dimension, while the technical quality domain received comparatively lower satisfaction ratings. Multinomial logistic regression analysis underscored the significance of sociodemographic factors in shaping patient satisfaction, with age (p = 0.008), type of residence (p = 0.001), occupation (p = 0.0019), income status (p = 0.014), time to reach the healthcare facility (p = 0.013), and insurance enrollment status (p = 0.017) all demonstrating significant associations. These findings illuminate the intricate qualities of patient satisfaction within our healthcare context, offering actionable insights for enhancement and guiding the trajectory of future research endeavors. CONCLUSIONS: Overall patient expressed satisfaction with service provided by tertiary care hospital, however continuous improvement remains essential. Conducting large-scale, nationwide studies across hospital tiers is vital. This data-driven approach empowers policymakers to allocate resources effectively, inform decision-making, and enact policies that exceed patient expectations, fostering a healthcare system of unparalleled excellence.


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Nepal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cobertura do Seguro , Hospitais Públicos
20.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 24(1): 61, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium picosulfate (SP)/magnesium citrate (MC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus ascorbic acid are recommended by Western guidelines as laxative solutions for bowel preparation. Clinically, SP/MC has a slower post-dose defaecation response than PEG and is perceived as less cleansing; therefore, it is not currently used for major bowel cancer screening preparation. The standard formulation for bowel preparation is PEG; however, a large dose is required, and it has a distinctive flavour that is considered unpleasant. SP/MC requires a small dose and ensures fluid intake because it is administered in another beverage. Therefore, clinical trials have shown that SP/MC is superior to PEG in terms of acceptability. We aim to compare the novel bowel cleansing method (test group) comprising SP/MC with elobixibat hydrate and the standard bowel cleansing method comprising PEG plus ascorbic acid (standard group) for patients preparing for outpatient colonoscopy. METHODS: This phase III, multicentre, single-blind, noninferiority, randomised, controlled, trial has not yet been completed. Patients aged 40-69 years will be included as participants. Patients with a history of abdominal or pelvic surgery, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, or severe organ dysfunction will be excluded. The target number of research participants is 540 (standard group, 270 cases; test group, 270 cases). The primary endpoint is the degree of bowel cleansing (Boston Bowel Preparation Scale [BBPS] score ≥ 6). The secondary endpoints are patient acceptability, adverse events, polyp/adenoma detection rate, number of polyps/adenomas detected, degree of bowel cleansing according to the BBPS (BBPS score ≥ 8), degree of bowel cleansing according to the Aronchik scale, and bowel cleansing time. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to develop a "patient-first" colon cleansing regimen without the risk of inadequate bowel preparation by using both elobixibat hydrate and SP/MC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT; no. s041210067; 9 September 2021; https://jrct.niph.go.jp/ ), protocol version 1.5 (May 1, 2023).


Assuntos
Citratos , Ácido Cítrico , Dipeptídeos , Compostos Organometálicos , Picolinas , Polietilenoglicóis , Pólipos , Tiazepinas , Humanos , Catárticos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Colonoscopia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
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