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1.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(319): 31-34, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926634

RESUMO

Becoming a father is a process that covers different situations. In addition to the well-known situations of traditional conception and sperm donation, there are others that need to be considered. These situations concern in particular access to parenthood for transgender men who have made a social transition.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Pessoas Transgênero , Pai , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(2): 15579883211005617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845678

RESUMO

Black Americans remain disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that employment in certain occupations (e.g., essential; frontline) may place individuals at higher-risk for contracting COVID-19. The current investigation examined how Black American fathers' COVID-19 perceived work risk was associated with their individual well-being (COVID-19 diagnosis; depressive and anxiety symptoms; sleep disturbance; sleep quality) as well as spillover into family contexts. Participants were 466 Black American fathers (M = 36.63; SD = 11.00) who completed online surveys in June-July 2020. Adjusted binomial logistic and multiple regressions were estimated to examine how fathers' work context was associated with COVID-19 health outcomes, psychological functioning, sleep health, and family stress. Descriptive analyses revealed that 32% of fathers reported a personal diagnosis of COVID-19 and 21% indicated that an immediate family member had been diagnosed. Adjusted binomial logistic regression analyses revealed that fathers working in higher-risk contexts for contracting COVID-19 had a greater odds ratio for both a personal (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.68) and an immediate family member diagnosis (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.52, 4.36). Working in a higher-risk context for contracting COVID-19 was associated with poorer psychological functioning, greater sleep disturbance, and higher levels of family discord. Findings suggest that Black fathers working in higher risk contexts may be at risk for COVID-19 exposure and infection. Further, this study indicates that these effects extend to their own well-being, including mental and sleep health as well as increased family stress.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , /transmissão , Pai/psicologia , Ocupações , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805855

RESUMO

Family functioning is salient in explaining adolescents' problematic internet use (PIU), and precisely this family functioning is under pressure after parental divorce. Moreover, growing up with divorced parents is identified as a risk factor for PIU. Therefore, examining which factors are associated with adolescents' PIU after divorce is particularly important. Based on self-report data from N = 244 adolescents of divorced families (49.6% boys, M = 13.42), structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine the associations of PIU with interparental conflict, triangulation, maternal and paternal warmth, and adolescents' self-esteem. Potential buffering effects of self-esteem were tested, as well as gender differences in associations. The results showed that more triangulation and less maternal warmth were related to higher levels of PIU, but these effects disappeared after adding self-esteem to the models. Adolescent self-esteem did not significantly buffer the effects of the different family factors on PIU, nor were there any significant gender differences in association. Hence, especially adolescents' self-esteem seems to be a key aspect for PIU in adolescents from divorced families.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Divórcio , Adolescente , Pai , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Autoimagem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807468

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 335 Palestinian refugees (M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.05, 49% males), recruited from four United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) schools at the Al-Baqa'a and Jabal Al-Hussein refugee camps in Jordan, rated their neighborhood physical environment and neighborhood support and cohesion, separately rated their mothers' and fathers' parenting on several dimensions, and reported on their adjustment to these circumstances (internalizing symptoms, self-concept clarity, and norm breaking). Living in more dangerous physical environments was associated with higher levels of refugee youths' internalizing symptoms and norm breaking, but effects were not significant when parenting was considered. Our study showed that higher levels of psychological control-disrespect (significantly for fathers and marginally for mothers) and marginally, higher levels of maternal harsh punishment were associated with more teen internalizing symptoms. In addition, fathers' greater psychological control and lower levels of support had a marginally significant effect on teens' greater norm breaking. For behavioral control, only mothers' greater behavioral control was associated with refugee youths' greater self-concept clarity but not with paternal behavioral control. Thus, fathers' psychological control and mothers' behavioral control had the biggest association with adolescent outcomes.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Árabes , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 208, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a challenging period for mothers and fathers. This study aimed to investigate the effect of counseling on stress and anxiety levels of fathers. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 102 spouses of pregnant women in Ardabil, Iran. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group attended four 60-min counseling sessions at weekly intervals. The perceived stress and anxiety questionnaires were completed before and 4 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: The mean scores of state anxiety in the intervention group decreased significantly 4 weeks after the intervention compared with the control group (MD: -2.4; 95%CI: - 4.7 to - 0.2; p = 0.030). Four weeks after the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of trait anxiety (p = 0.472) and perceived stress (p = 0.635). CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that counseling reduced state anxiety in expectant fathers; therefore, this intervention is recommended to be used to reduce fathers' anxiety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT2017042910324N38 . Registered 25 June 2017.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Pai , Ansiedade/terapia , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799538

RESUMO

Research into the effects of violent video games on levels of aggression has raised concerns that they may pose a significant social risk, especially among younger people. The objective of this study was to analyze, through structural equation models, the mediating role of psychological engagement in the relationship between the consumption of violent video games and child-to-parent violence (CPV) against the mother and the father. The sample consisted of 916 students from the third and fourth grades of compulsory secondary education, first and second grades of high school, and first cycle of vocational training (483 males and 433 females), of whom a total of 628 were video game players, aged between 13 and 19. The exposure to video games was assessed through an author-elaborated questionnaire, engagement was evaluated with the game engagement questionnaire, and CPV was assessed through the child-to-parent aggression questionnaire. The structural equation models indicated that exposure to violent video games was related to lower rates of CPV against both parents. Conversely, the flow (a sense of being in control, being one with activity, and experiencing distortions in the perception of time) dimension of engagement positively correlated with the level of CPV against the mother, whereas the flow and absorption (total engagement in the current experience) dimensions correlated with CPV against the father. In conclusion, the results confirm the role of violent video game consumption, reducing CPV rates against both parents, a role that is offset to the extent that these violent games provoke engagement in the user.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808366

RESUMO

Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are vulnerable to traumatic injuries. Parents of children with ADHD experience undesirable impacts more frequently than parents of children without ADHD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether traumatic injuries are more prevalent in parents of children with ADHD than in parents of children without ADHD. We compared the prevalence of traumatic injuries between parents of children with and without ADHD by using data from the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2017. The Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to examine differences in burn injury, fracture, and traumatic brain injury between parents of children with and without ADHD after adjustment for age, urbanicity, and income level. In total, 81,401 fathers and 87,549 mothers who had at least one offspring with ADHD and 1,646,100 fathers and 1,730,941 mothers with no offspring with ADHD were included in the analysis. The results indicated that both fathers and mothers of children with ADHD had higher risks of burn injury, fracture, and traumatic brain injury than fathers and mothers of children without ADHD. Mothers of children with ADHD had higher risks for all kinds of traumatic events than fathers of children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(16): 1182-1185, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902251

RESUMO

Genetic analysis was performed on a family of fraternal twins affected with Dravet syndrome by genetic tests whose parents were normal. To further analyze the cause of the disease, the fraternal twins were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES), and the family was verified by Sanger sequencing, with the father semen and peripheral blood DNA were further analysed by target sequencing. The WES test identified a heterozygous c.5348C>T (p.Ala1783Val) variant of the SCN1A gene in the fraternal twins, which was predicted to be pathogenic and was detected in the father peripheral blood and semen, but not in the mother. So the mosaicism mutation of paternal SCN1A gene might be the genetic cause of Dravet syndrome in offspring.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Espasmos Infantis , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Pai , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Linhagem
9.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(319): 14-18, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926630

RESUMO

The social prescription of fatherhood for the modern father, with its array of new rights and the absence of ritual, often overlooks the profound identity crisis that accompanies fatherhood. Access to fatherhood for men is based on the early stages of child sexuality and psychological bisexuality, which are at the origin of a vulnerability that can be at psychopathological risk. The necessary reconciliation with parental imagos and narcissistic rearrangements may require specialised support, beyond the support role currently reserved for it in the context of motherhood.


Assuntos
Relações Pai-Filho , Pai , Criança , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(319): 19-21, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926631

RESUMO

Ante-natal consultations are major places of prevention, with regard to the psychological vulnerabilities of "becoming parents" specific to the pregnancy period. A study was carried out on future fathers and their impressions of ultrasound examinations. Men's impulsive ambivalence towards pregnancy is the main subject of this research, which shows how ultrasound scans are a place for exploring these impulsive movements of fathers.


Assuntos
Pai , Comportamento Paterno , Feminino , Humanos , Imaginação , Masculino , Pais , Gravidez
11.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(319): 22-26, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926632

RESUMO

With the intention of having a child and the subsequent question of filiation, "becoming a mother" as well as "becoming a father" always involve a risk. In both men and women, the plan to have a child or to become pregnant can lead to the revival of unresolved conflicts that can question the very organisation of their being. Sterility then comes as a defence against the risk of collapse.


Assuntos
Pai , Infertilidade Masculina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Paternidade
12.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(319): 27-30, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926633

RESUMO

The meeting between a father and his child when it is hindered by a still painful early history can benefit from specific support through interactive guidance therapy. This tailor-made support, through the viewing of filmed sequences of play between the father and his son, helps him to get in touch with the current interactions as the veils of the past are cleared. Through the experience of the video, the father discovers his skills and thus gradually develops confidence in his parenting abilities, enabling him to take his place as a father in the succession of generations.


Assuntos
Relações Pai-Filho , Pai , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-20.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53697

RESUMO

El programa Familias Fuertes: Amor y Límites es una intervención primaria de capacitación en habilidades de crianza y relación familiar encaminada a promover la salud y el bienestar de los y las adolescentes y prevenir conductas de riesgo. En respuesta al incremento de conductas de riesgo a edades cada vez más tempranas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) seleccionó este programa como una intervención modelo para su puesta en práctica con familias de América Latina. El propósito de este manual es guiar la formación de los recursos humanos encargados de la aplicación del programa, con objeto de estructurar y homogenizar las sesiones de capacitación en todos los países y de mantener la elevada calidad técnica del programa.


Assuntos
Família , Recursos Humanos , Educação , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos , Gênero e Saúde , Pai , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho , Promoção da Saúde
14.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-04-20.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53696

RESUMO

El programa Familias Fuertes: Amor y Límites es una intervención primaria de capacitación en habilidades de crianza y relación familiar encaminada a promover la salud y el bienestar de los y las adolescentes y prevenir conductas de riesgo. En respuesta al incremento de conductas de riesgo a edades cada vez más tempranas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) seleccionó este programa como una intervención modelo para su puesta en práctica con familias de América Latina. Esta guía se dirige a los países y partes interesadas que estén aplicando el programa o prevean hacerlo, con objeto de ayudarlos a mejorar los procesos de planificación, aplicación, monitoreo y evaluación.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Gênero e Saúde , Família , Adolescente , Pai , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho , Educação , América
15.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(3): 198-216, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641648

RESUMO

How do Adolescents see their Parents? Prevalences, Predictors and Relationships in Longitudinal and Cross-Section Research The parent-child relationship has a significant influence on the psychological and social development of a young person in adolescence. The parental image from the perspective of the adolescent has rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to examine the parental images of adolescents in terms of family cohesion, conflicts and overprotection for differences between the paternal and the maternal images and between girls and boys. Furthermore, a cross-section examines the relationship between the parental images and psychological disorders, and, in a longitudinal 10-year study, whether the parental images can be predicted through risk factors in childhood. The sample includes 343 young people with an average age of 14 years, 46 % are girls. The parental images were recorded with the "Elternbildfragebogen" (Parental Image Questionnaire; EBF-KJ; Titze u. Lehmkuhl, 2010). Compared to fathers, mothers are assessed more positively in terms of their cohesion, but at the same time they also show more conflictual and higher overprotection behavior. Very few differences were found between girls and boys. There were consistently significant correlations between the parental images and internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, such that cohesion is a protective factor and conflicts and overprotection are risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Some aspects of the images of the mother and father can be significantly predicted by the parents' education and by psychological disorders in childhood. Future research should examine the influence of possible mediators and moderators.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência
16.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652798

RESUMO

Coparenting quality and food parenting practices have been shown to have a strong influence on child outcomes. However, little is known about whether coparenting quality may influence food parenting practices. This study aimed to investigate how coparenting quality is associated with both mothers' and fathers' food parenting practices. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 58 mothers and 40 fathers enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study. The Coparenting Relationship Scale and the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire were used to measure coparenting and food parenting practices, respectively. Linear regressions using generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between coparenting quality and food parenting practices in mothers and fathers. Among mothers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower use of food for emotional regulation, restriction of food for health, and child control of food intake and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet, provision of a healthy home environment, and modeling of healthy eating behaviors. Among fathers, higher coparenting quality was associated with lower pressure to eat and with higher encouragement of a balanced and varied diet and provision of a healthy home environment. Coparenting quality is associated with food parenting practices among both mothers and fathers. Interventions aiming to improve food parenting practices should include fathers and should consider targeting parents' coparenting relationship.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ontário , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668562

RESUMO

Fathers play a unique and important role in shaping their children's physical activity (PA), independent from the mother. Lifestyle interventions focusing simultaneously on PA of fathers and their children ("co-PA") are therefore a novel and promising way to improve PA of both. A theory-based lifestyle intervention was co-created with fathers (i.e., the Run Daddy Run intervention), using the behavior change wheel as a theoretical framework. The aim of the present study is to describe the protocol of the Run Daddy Run intervention study, focusing on improving (co-)PA of fathers and children, and the prospected outcomes. The developed intervention consists of six (inter)active father-child sessions and an eHealth component, delivered over a 14-week intervention period. Baseline measurements will be conducted between November 2019-January 2020, post-test measurements in June 2020, and follow-up measurements in November 2020, with (co-)PA as the primary outcome variable. Outcomes will be measured using accelerometry and an online questionnaire. To evaluate the intervention, multilevel analyses will be conducted. This study will increase our understanding on whether a theory-based, co-created lifestyle intervention focusing exclusively on fathers and their children can improve their (co-)PA behavior and has important implications for future research and health policy, where targeting fathers might be a novel and effective approach to improve (co-)PA and associated health behaviors of both fathers and their children.


Assuntos
Pai , Estilo de Vida , Criança , Exercício Físico , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669600

RESUMO

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have to address various challenges mainly due to their children's atypia related to communication, emotion regulation and behaviors, arising also within the relationship with their caregivers. Several studies have pointed out that children with ASD can exhibit many difficulties regarding initiating and maintaining meaningful relationships with others. To date, little research has explored the interactions between children with ASD and their fathers, focusing more on mothers. In the context of parent-child interactions in the presence of autism, recent studies have highlighted the importance of parental attunement but there is little research considering solely the affective-bodily dimension. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the parental attunement in fathers of children with ASD observed during play interactions and to investigate the relationship between paternal attunement and the perception of their psychological characteristics related to care relationships. The results highlight that fathers who describe themselves as better in affective care and sensitivity toward others more likely have an absence of paternal attunement during play interactions. The data presented are discussed in the light of intervention hypotheses, aimed at improving the relationship between fathers and children with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670640

RESUMO

(1) Background: This study aims to explore children's social information processing (SIP) as an explanatory mechanism in the link between parent-child relationship and children's learning difficulties in kindergarten; (2) Methods: The sample included 115 kindergarteners (62 girls; 53 boys; Mage = 68.5 months, SD = 6.04), their parents and the school teacher. Parents reported on relationship quality with the child and teachers reported on children's learning difficulties and school achievements. Children's SIP was assessed with the social information processing interview-preschool version (3) Results: Mother and father relationship quality with the child associated with children's SIP; however, only the father's but not the mother's quality of relationship with the child was associated with children's learning difficulties and school achievements. Children's SIP mediated this latter link; (4) Conclusions: Parents' relationship quality with the child and children's SIP are pertinent factors in children's learning in the early years. The father-child relationship seems to be a strong determinant of a child's approach to learning and achievement and may have long lasting effects on children's mental health.


Assuntos
Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Pais-Filho , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012823, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental substance use is a substantial public health and safeguarding concern. There have been a number of trials of interventions relating to substance-using parents that have sought to address this risk factor, with potential outcomes for parent and child. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing parental substance use (alcohol and/or illicit drugs, excluding tobacco). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from their inception to July 2020: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Applied Social Science (ASSIA); Sociological Abstracts; Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP, and TRoPHI. We also searched key journals and the reference lists of included papers and contacted authors publishing in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included data from trials of complex psychosocial interventions targeting substance use in parents of children under the age of 21 years. Studies were only included if they had a minimum follow-up period of six months from the start of the intervention and compared psychosocial interventions to comparison conditions. The primary outcome of this review was a reduction in the frequency of parental substance use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 unique studies with a total of 2274 participants (mean age of parents ranged from 26.3 to 40.9 years), examining 24 experimental interventions. The majority of studies intervened with mothers only (n = 16; 73%). Heroin, cocaine, and alcohol were the most commonly reported substances used by participants. The interventions targeted either parenting only (n = 13; 59%); drug and alcohol use only (n = 5; 23%); or integrated interventions which addressed both (n = 6; 27%). Half of the studies (n = 11; 50%) compared the experimental intervention to usual treatment. Other comparison groups were minimal intervention, attention controls, and alternative intervention. Eight of the included studies reported data relating to our primary outcome at 6- and/or 12-month follow-up and were included in a meta-analysis. We investigated intervention effectiveness separately for alcohol and drugs. Studies were found to be mostly at low or unclear risk for all 'Risk of bias' domains except blinding of participants and personnel and outcome assessment.  We found moderate-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions are probably more effective at reducing the frequency of parental alcohol misuse than comparison conditions at 6-month (mean difference (MD) -0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.51 to -0.13; 6 studies, 475 participants) and 12-month follow-up (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.25, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.03; 4 studies, 366 participants). We found a significant reduction in frequency of use at 12 months only (SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.01; 6 studies, 514 participants, moderate-quality evidence). We examined the effect of the intervention type. We found low-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions targeting substance use only may not reduce the frequency of alcohol (6 months: SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.16; 2 studies, 89 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.61; 1 study, 34 participants) or drug use (6 months: SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.44; 2 studies; 87 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.81 to 0.65; 1 study, 32 participants). A parenting intervention only, without an adjunctive substance use component, may not reduce frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.04, 3 studies; 273 participants, low-quality evidence and 12 months: SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.64 to 0.41; 2 studies; 219 participants, very low-quality evidence) or frequency of drug use  (6 months: SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.30; 4 studies; 407 participants, moderate-quality evidence and 12 months: SMD -0.13, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.26; 3 studies; 351 participants, very low-quality evidence). Parents receiving integrated interventions which combined both parenting- and substance use-targeted components may reduce alcohol misuse with a small effect size (6 months: SMD -0.56, 95% CI -0.96 to -0.16 and 12 months: SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.03; 2 studies, 113 participants) and drug use (6 months: SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.03 and 12 months: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.07; 2 studies, 131 participants). However, this evidence was of low quality. Psychosocial interventions in which the child was present in the sessions were not effective in reducing the frequency of parental alcohol or drug use, whilst interventions that did not involve children in any of the sessions were found to reduce frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.47, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.18; 3 studies, 202 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.00; 2 studies, 147 participants) and drug use at 12-month follow-up (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.01; 2 studies, 141 participants). The quality of this evidence was low. Interventions appeared to be more often beneficial for fathers than for mothers. We found low- to very low-quality evidence of a reduction in frequency of alcohol misuse for mothers at six months only (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.04; 4 studies, 328 participants), whilst in fathers there was a reduction in frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.09; 2 studies, 147 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.00; 2 studies, 147 participants) and drug use (6 months: SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.04; 2 studies, 141 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.01; 2 studies, 141 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions probably reduce the frequency at which parents use alcohol and drugs. Integrated psychosocial interventions which combine parenting skills interventions with a substance use component may show the most promise. Whilst it appears that mothers may benefit less than fathers from intervention, caution is advised in the interpretation of this evidence, as the interventions provided to mothers alone typically did not address their substance use and other related needs. We found low-quality evidence from few studies that interventions involving children are not beneficial.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/terapia , Viés , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Intervalos de Confiança , Família , Pai , Feminino , Dependência de Heroína/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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