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1.
Fertil Steril ; 117(5): 936-937, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512977

Assuntos
Pai , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1723, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520100

RESUMO

Introduction: Under section 31 of the Children Act 1989, public law care proceedings can be issued if there is concern a child is subject to, or at risk of significant harm, which can lead to removal of a child from parents. Appropriate and effective health and social support are required to potentially prevent some of the need for these proceedings. More comprehensive evidence of the health needs and vulnerabilities of parents will enable enhanced response from family courts and integrated other services. Objective: To examine health vulnerabilities of parents involved in care proceedings in the two-year period prior to involvement. Methods: Family court data provided by Cafcass Cymru were linked to population-based health records held within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank. Linked data were available for 8,821 parents of children involved in care proceedings between 2011 and 2019. Findings were benchmarked with reference to a comparison group of parents matched on sex, age, and deprivation (n = 32,006), not subject to care proceedings. Demographic characteristics, overall health service use, and health profiles of parents were examined. Descriptive and statistical tests of independence were used. Results: Nearly half of cohort parents (47.6%) resided in the most deprived quintile. They had higher levels of healthcare use compared to the comparison group across multiple healthcare settings, with the most pronounced differences for emergency department attendances (59.3% vs 37.0%). Health conditions with the largest variation between groups were related to mental health (43.6% vs 16.0%), substance use (19.4% vs 1.6%) and injuries (41.5% vs 23.6%). Conclusion: This study highlights the heightened socioeconomic and health vulnerabilities of parents who experience care proceedings concerning a child. Better understanding of the needs and vulnerabilities of this population may provide opportunities to improve a range of support and preventative interventions that respond to crises in the community.


Assuntos
Mães , Pais , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pais/psicologia , País de Gales
3.
Nature ; 605(7909): 197, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508729

Assuntos
Face , Boca , Animais , Pai , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(3): 187-194, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533121

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Introduction. The evidence about the effectiveness of fathers' or partners' involvement in breastfeeding interventions to promote initiation, duration, and exclusiveness rates has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To identify the perspectives and assessments of breastfeeding among partners of breastfeeding women and develop information to create adequate interventions that favor the inclusion of fathers in care spaces and in the support of breastfeeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study with a grounded theory design. Four focus groups were held with fathers. Data were processed defining free flow analysis units, coded in 2 levels, an open code, with emerging categories, and such categories grouped into 5 main topics. RESULTS: A total of 16 fathers participated. Five main topics were identified: fathers' knowledge about breastfeeding, feelings towards breastfeeding, partner's involvement in breastfeeding, development of the concept of fatherhood, breastfeeding in society. Breastfeeding was positively assessed. Although breastfeeding support was considered a shared family responsibility, there were not enough co-participation actions identified. Participants expressed their desire to play a more involved fatherhood role; however, they stated that these transformations are not supported at workplaces. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence showed a positive assessment of breastfeeding, adequate knowledge, and concern about difficulties. Breastfeeding support was considered a shared responsibility, but not enough specific coparticipation actions were mentioned.


Introducción. En los últimos años, creció la evidencia sobre la efectividad de la inclusión de los padres o las parejas en las intervenciones que promueven la lactancia para mejorar las tasas de iniciación, duración y exclusividad. Objetivos. Identificar perspectivas y valoraciones sobre la lactancia en las parejas de las personas que amamantan, y generar información que permita la creación de intervenciones apropiadas que favorezcan la incorporación de los padres en los espacios de cuidado y en el sostén de la lactancia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cualitativo, con diseño de teoría fundamentada. Se realizaron 4 grupos de enfoque con padres. Los datos fueron procesados definiendo unidades de análisis por flujo libre, codificadas en dos planos, una codificación abierta, en categorías que emergieron y la agrupación de las categorías en cinco temas principales. Resultados. Participaron 16 padres. Se identificaron 5 temas principales: conocimiento de los padres sobre la lactancia, sentimientos frente a la lactancia, participación de la pareja en la lactancia, construcción de la idea de paternidad, lactancia en la sociedad. La lactancia recibió una valoración positiva. Si bien se consensuó una responsabilidad familiar compartida en su sostén, no se identificaron acciones suficientes de coparticipación. Los participantes manifestaron el deseo de ejercer una paternidad más comprometida, sin embargo, relataron que los entornos laborales no acompañan estas transformaciones. Conclusión. Se evidenciaron valoraciones positivas hacia la lactancia, conocimientos adecuados y preocupación por las dificultades. Se asumió una responsabilidad compartida en su sostén, pero faltaron en los relatos la mención de acciones concretas de coparticipación.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Pai , Ingestão de Alimentos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35406119

RESUMO

In a recent study we found that fathers' but not mothers' onset of overweight in puberty was associated with asthma in adult offspring. The potential impact on offspring's adult lung function, a key marker of general and respiratory health, has not been studied. We investigated the potential causal effects of parents' overweight on adult offspring's lung function within the paternal and maternal lines. We included 929 offspring (aged 18-54, 54% daughters) of 308 fathers and 388 mothers (aged 40-66). Counterfactual-based multi-group mediation analyses by offspring's sex (potential moderator) were used, with offspring's prepubertal overweight and/or adult height as potential mediators. Unknown confounding was addressed by simulation analyses. Fathers' overweight before puberty had a negative indirect effect, mediated through sons' height, on sons' forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (beta (95% CI): -144 (-272, -23) mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (beta (95% CI): -210 (-380, -34) mL), and a negative direct effect on sons' FVC (beta (95% CI): -262 (-501, -9) mL); statistically significant effects on FEV1/FVC were not observed. Mothers' overweight before puberty had neither direct nor indirect effects on offspring's lung function. Fathers' overweight starting before puberty appears to cause lower FEV1 and FVC in their future sons. The effects were partly mediated through sons' adult height but not through sons' prepubertal overweight.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Pais
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103581, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367638

RESUMO

Narrative coherence reflects parents' ability to provide a believable, clear, relevant, and internally consistent story about their child. Parents demonstrating more narrative coherence have been theorized to show higher parental sensitivity, but this has not been examined in a normative sample, nor across the transition to parenthood, and only once in fathers. The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in narrative coherence across the transition to parenthood in mothers and fathers, as well as the relation between pre- and postnatal narrative coherence and postnatal parental sensitivity. The sample consisted of 105 primiparous expecting parents. Narrative coherence was measured at 36-weeks pregnancy and when the child was 4 months old, using the Five Minute Speech Sample procedure. Parental sensitivity was observed in three episodes. Results demonstrated that narrative coherence was moderately stable (correlations) across the transition to parenthood in fathers only. Both mothers' and fathers' narrative coherence improved over time. Furthermore, mothers and fathers were overall equally coherent, and maternal and paternal narrative coherence were positively interrelated during pregnancy only. Lastly, our findings showed weak evidence for the theorized link between narrative coherence and parental sensitivity: only postnatal narrative coherence predicted paternal sensitivity, only during free play. Our findings give new insight in the development of narrative coherence across the transition to parenthood, and how it relates to actual parenting. More research is needed to confirm our findings and further explore this topic.


Assuntos
Pai , Pais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Narração , Poder Familiar , Gravidez
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6138, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413962

RESUMO

The heredity of the malignant blood disorders, leukemias, lymphomas and myeloma, has so far been largely unknown. The present study comprises genealogical investigations of one hundred and twelve Scandinavian families with unrelated parents and two or more cases of malignant blood disease. For comparison, one large family with related family members and three hundred and forty-one cases of malignant blood disease from the Faroese population was included. The inheritance is non-Mendelian, a combination of genomic parental imprinting and feto-maternal microchimerism. There is significantly more segregation in maternal than in paternal lines, predominance of mother-daughter combinations in maternal lines, and father-son combinations in paternal lines. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most frequent diagnosis in the family material, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia has a transgenerational segregation that is unique in that inheritance of susceptibility to chronic lymphocytic leukemia is predominant in males of paternal lines. Male offspring with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in paternal lines have a birth-order effect, which is manifest by the fact that there are significantly more male patients late in the sibling line. In addition, there is contravariation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, i.e. lower occurrence than expected in relation to other diagnoses, interpreted in such a way that chronic lymphocytic leukemia remains isolated in the pedigree in relation to other diagnoses of malignant blood disease. Another non-Mendelian function appears in the form of anticipation, i.e. increased intensity of malignancy down through the generations and a lower age at onset of disease than otherwise seen in cases from the Cancer Registers, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, for example. It is discussed that this non-Mendelian segregation seems to spread the susceptibility genes depending on the gender of the parents and not equally to all children in the sibling line, with some remaining unaffected by susceptibility i.e. "healthy and unaffected", due to a birth order effect. In addition, anticipation is regarded as a non-Mendelian mechanism that can amplify, «preserve¼ these vital susceptibility genes in the family. Perhaps this segregation also results in a sorting of the susceptibility, as the percentage of follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lower in the family material than in an unselected material. Although leukemias, lymphomas and myelomas are potentially fatal diseases, this non-Mendelian distribution and amplification hardly play any quantitative role in the survival of Homo sapiens, because these diseases mostly occur after fertile age.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Leucemia , Linfoma Folicular , Mieloma Múltiplo , Criança , Pai , Humanos , Leucemia/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Linhagem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457646

RESUMO

Evidence on the effectiveness of workplace interventions for improving working conditions on the health and wellbeing of fathers is scarce. We reviewed studies on the effectiveness of various workplace interventions designed to improve working conditions for the health and wellbeing of employed fathers and their families. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials of workplace interventions applied to employees with the aim of improving working conditions of employed parents, compared with no intervention, other active arms, placebo, wait list, or usual practice were included. Studies involving only women were excluded. An electronic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC and SSCI was done for eligible studies. Studies were screened against predetermined criteria and assessment of risk of bias done using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions for RCTs and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies for non-RCTs. Of the 8229 records identified, 19 reports were included in this review: 14 reports from five RCTs and five reports from two quasi-RCT studies. The studies were conducted in four different countries among working populations from various sectors. Studies addressing issues related to improving working conditions of fathers alone were lacking. All included studies assessed intervention effects on various health-related outcomes, the most common being sleep disturbances and mental health outcomes. Interventions administered yielded positive effects on various health outcomes across all seven studies. All included studies had methodological limitations, while study designs and methodologies lacked comparability. Consequently, a narrative synthesis of evidence is provided. Based on our findings, providing workplace interventions for improving working conditions may improve some aspects of the health and wellbeing of employed parents, including fathers.


Assuntos
Pai , Local de Trabalho , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457588

RESUMO

Emotional availability (EA) in parent-child interactions is associated with positive child outcomes, including attachment security. However, little is known about EA in adoptive families. This study investigated the associations between secure representations of attachment in adopted children and the adoptive parents' EA. The participants (n = 75) included 26 mothers, 23 fathers, and 26 children who were aged 3 to 9 years. Children completed the Attachment Story Completion Task. Adult-child dyadic relationships were assessed using the EA® System. The results showed that the children's and parents' EA, age when adopted, and time elapsed since adoption were associated with more secure children's attachment representations. Implications for family support and public policy are discussed.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto , Emoções , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409930

RESUMO

Although the number of fathers taking childcare leave is increasing, the impact of paternity leave on father-infant bonding remains to be fully investigated. This study aimed to assess the association between paternity leave and father-infant bonding among fathers with children under two years old. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey study, a nationwide online survey conducted between July and August 2021 (N = 1194). Father-infant bonding was assessed by the Japanese version of the Mother-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS-J), which comprised two subscales (lack of affection (LA), and anger and rejection (AR)), with a higher score denoting poor bonding. Four hundred (33.5%) fathers self-reported taking childcare leave. Paternity leave was associated with higher total MIBS-J score and AR score after adjusting for covariates (coefficient 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.96, coefficient 0.26; 95% CI 0.03-0.49, respectively), but not with LA score (coefficient 0.10; 95% CI -0.13-0.34). There was no trend in the association between paternity leave and total MIBS-J score by children's age group (p for trend = 0.98). Paternity leave was associated with impaired bonding, especially with increased anger and rejection, among fathers with children under two years of age.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Licença Parental , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino
12.
J Obes ; 2022: 6728502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463868

RESUMO

Background: Obesity and eating disorders are increasing in occidental countries and can undermine physical and psychological health. Therefore, preventing the insurgency of unhealthy eating habits in childhood is fundamental. Parents can play an important role in assisting pediatricians, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists in the diagnosis of eating disorders because they have an active role in observing and assessing the quality of their children's eating habits. Methods: In our study, we collected data from a sample of children (n = 125) and their parents (n = 161) without symptoms related to eating disorders. Parents assessed the eating habits, behavior problems, and mental health of their children and parental stress. In addition, we measured body mass index, anxiety, and lifestyle in children. Data were analyzed with bivariate correlation and MIMIC models. Results: Both mothers' and fathers' assessments of children's eating habits are reliable. Unhealthy eating habits are connected with children's behavioral problems and parental stress. We did not find significant differences in feeding styles and ways of assessing the quality of eating habits between mothers and fathers. Our study showed greater sensitivity of mothers toward the physical fitness of their children rather than fathers. Conclusions: Mothers and fathers both proved to be good observers of their children's eating behavior, and they could cooperate with medical and psychological operators in preventing the risk of obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade , Pais
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 302, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic has put an unprecedented pressure on families with children. How parents were affected by the first Covid-19 lockdown during the early postpartum period, an already challenging period for many, is unknown. AIM: To investigate the associations between Covid-19 related stress, mental health, and insensitive parenting practices in mothers and fathers with young infants during the first Dutch Covid-19 lockdown. METHODS: The Dutch Covid-19 and Perinatal Experiences (COPE-NL) study included 681 parents of infants between 0 and 6 months (572 mothers and 109 fathers). Parents filled out online questionnaires about Covid-19 related stress, mental health (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms), and insensitive parenting. Hierarchical regression models were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Parents of a young infant reported high rates of Covid-19 related stress, with higher reported stress in mothers compared to fathers. Additionally, the percentages of mothers and fathers experiencing clinically meaningful mental health symptoms during the pandemic were relatively high (mothers: 39.7% anxiety, 14.5% depression; fathers: 37.6% anxiety, 6.4% depression). More Covid-19 related stress was associated with more mental health symptoms in parents and increased insensitive parenting practices in mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the strain of the pandemic on young fathers' and mothers' mental health and its potential negative consequences for parenting. As poor parental mental health and insensitive parenting practices carry risk for worse child outcomes across the lifespan, the mental health burden of the Covid-19 pandemic might not only have affected the parents, but also the next generation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poder Familiar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 285, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expectant fathers experience a range of different emotions during their wife's pregnancy; one of these feelings is fear. It has adverse consequences on both the father and his family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of midwifery-led counseling on the fear of childbirth among expectant fathers. METHODS: A two-armed parallel design randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to August 2020. Fifty expectant fathers with severe fear of childbirth at the 24th-27th weeks of gestation, in the Iranian setting, were assigned to intervention and control groups (allocation ratio1:1) using permuted block randomization. Participants assigned to the intervention group were engaged in six 60-90-min midwifery-led counseling sessions (twice a week) in the Skyroom platform. Measures were administered at recruitment, post-intervention, and one-month follow-up. The primary outcome was the change in fear of childbirth score between groups over time. Secondary outcomes were changes in the General Self-Efficacy score as well as changes in the frequency of the preferred type of delivery between groups over time. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 31.64 (3.33) years. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the fear of childbirth score in the intervention group significantly decreased (ß = - 11.84; 95% Confidence Interval: - 21.90 to - 1.78; P = 0.021) compared to that of the control group. In terms of secondary outcomes, the intervention group showed a significant increase in General Self-Efficacy compared to the intervention group at one-month follow-up measurement (ß = 1.43; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.28 to 2.58; P = 0.014). However, the frequency of preferred delivery type was not significantly different between the intervention and control groups (P = 0.139). CONCLUSIONS: Midwifery-led counseling can be an effective approach in reducing expectant fathers' childbirth fear with potential clinical significance. Although the inconclusive results imply more research on this issue. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration number: IRCT20150608022609N6 . Registered 12/04/2019.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Pai , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Tocologia/métodos , Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Smartphone
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(5): 1160-1167, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether fathers' residency status is associated with increased BMI z-scores among young and pre-adolescent children. METHODS: Propensity score matching was used to examine the effects of fathers' residency status on child BMI z-scores for children between the ages of 2-5 and 9-11 years old. Fathers self-reported their residency status as either being residential or nonresidential, based on the amount of time they lived in the same household as the child enrolled in the study. We conducted a series of cross-sectional matched analyses using three waves of data from 1448 families who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. RESULTS: We did not find a difference in BMI z-scores among children based on their father's residency status for children between the ages of 2-5 years old but did find a marginally significant difference in BMI z-scores for children between 9 and 11 years old. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings suggest that fathers' residency status is not associated with increased BMI z-scores among young children but may be slightly predictive of differences in BMI z-scores among pre-adolescent children. The results from our study begin to explore the scientific gains of analyzing the influence of diverse family structures on childhood obesity outcomes. Our focus on fathers' residency status adds to the literature by highlighting some of the risks and resources that fathers from diverse family structures bring to family functioning and children's health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Pai , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e053946, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of paternal intake of antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and (benzo)diazepines during the development of fertilising sperm with birth defects in offspring. DESIGN: Prospective registry-based cohort study. SETTING: Total Danish birth cohort 1997-2016 using Danish national registries. PARTICIPANTS: All 1 201 119 Danish liveborn singletons born 1997-2016 were eligible, 39 803 (3.3%) of whom had at least one major birth defect. EXPOSURE: Offspring were considered exposed if their father had filled at least one prescription in the relevant drug category during development of fertilising sperm (the 3 months prior to conception). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the diagnosis, in the first year of life, of at least one major birth defect as categorised in the EUROCAT guidelines. Secondary outcome was the diagnosis, in the first year of life, of at least one major birth defect in any of the EUROCAT subcategories. Adjusted ORs (AORs) were calculated, along with their 95% CIs, adjusted for year, education, smoking status and age of the mother, and education, disposable income and age of the father. RESULTS: This study found weak or null associations between birth defects and selected drugs. Specifically, antidepressants (17 827 exposed births) gave 3.5% birth defects (AOR 0.97 (0.89 to 1.05)). Diazepines, oxazepines, thiazepines and oxepines (as antipsychotics, 1633 offspring) gave 4.7% birth defects (AOR 1.22 (0.97 to 1.54)), attenuated to 1.13 when excluding by mothers' prescriptions. The study was well powered assuming 100% therapy adherence, while assuming 50% therapy adherence, the study remained well powered for the largest groups (SSRIs and antidepressants overall). CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, antidepressants, SSRIs and benzodiazepine-derived anxiolytics, when taken by the father during development of fertilising sperm, are generally safe with regard to birth defects.


Assuntos
Pai , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso , Sistema de Registros , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
17.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 58: 102682, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276567

RESUMO

The discovery of rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs started to move the field of forensic Y-STR analysis from male lineage identification towards male individual identification. Previously, the forensic value of RM Y-STRs for differentiating male relatives was limited due to the modest number of 13 identified RM Y-STRs. Recently, new RM Y-STRs were discovered, with strong expectations for significantly improving male relative differentiation; however, empirical evidence is missing yet. More recently, the genotyping method RMplex for efficiently analyzing 30 Y-STRs with high mutation rates, including all 26 currently known RM Y-STRs, was introduced. Here, we applied RMplex as well as the current state-of-the-art commercial Y-STR kit: Yfiler™ Plus PCR Amplification kit, to several hundreds of DNA-confirmed father-son pairs. Newly established estimates confirmed the high mutation rates of novel and previous RM Y-STRs. By combining current with previous data, we provide updated consensus estimates of mutation rates for all 49 Y-STRs targeted with both methods. Based on RMplex, 42% of 499 father-son pairs were differentiated, while 14% of 530 pairs based on Yfiler™ Plus, and 48% of 499 pairs based on both methods combined. Regarding brothers, RMplex also clearly outperformed Yfiler™ Plus, with differentiation rates of 62% and 33%, respectively. By combining both methods 72.9% of the brothers showed at least one mutation. For unrelated males, both methods achieved a discrimination capacity of 99.8% and a haplotype diversity of 0.999991, since all males had different haplotypes, except for two, perhaps indicating a hidden paternal relationship. Overall, this study underlines the value of RM Y-STRs in general and RMplex in particular for differentiating male relatives highly relevant in forensic genetics. It provides the first empirical evidence on the high value of RMplex for differentiating close male relatives, which for father-son pairs was almost 60% higher than with the initial set of 13 RM Y-STRs and three times higher than with Yfiler™ Plus. Based on our results from closely related males, we expect RMplex to also improve the differentiation of more distantly related males significantly, which needs empirical demonstration in future studies. We encourage the forensic community to apply RMplex in all forensic cases where a match with a commercial Y-STR kit was obtained between the male suspect and the evidence material, or to solely use RMplex in such cases, aiming to find out if the male suspect or any of his male paternal relatives left the evidence material at the crime scene.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Taxa de Mutação , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Pai , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mutação
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0254302, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271565

RESUMO

Birdsong is an important communication signal used in mate choice. In some songbird species, only the males produce songs. While the females of those species do not sing, they are sensitive to inter- and intra-species song variations, and the song preferences of females depend on their developmental experiences and/or genetic predispositions. For example, in Bengalese finches and zebra finches, adult females prefer the song to which they were exposed early in life, such as the father's song. In the current study, we aimed to test whether the preference for the father's song, as reported in previous Bengalese finch studies, can be interpreted as a mating preference. For this purpose, the subjects were raised exclusively with their family until they became sexually mature and then tested as adults. We measured copulation solicitation displays during playbacks of the father's song vs. unfamiliar conspecific songs and found that across individuals, the father's song elicited more displays than other songs. In addition, we analyzed if a bird's response to a given song could be predicted by the level of similarity of that song to the father's song. Although the birds expressed more displays to songs with greater similarity to the father's song, the effect was not statistically significant. These results suggest that female Bengalese finches can develop a strong mating preference for the father's song if they are exclusively exposed to the father's song early in life. However, it is not clear if such a preference generalizes to other cases in which birds are exposed to multiple male songs during development. In order to fully elucidate the possible contribution of experience and genetic factors in the development of female song preference in this species, future studies will need more detailed manipulation and control of the rearing conditions, including cross-fostering.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Animais , Pai , Feminino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329205

RESUMO

We report on the findings of a mixed methods longitudinal study of 84 African American fathers of young children who were enrolled into the study during the father's jail stay. Participants were assessed using interviews, self-report measures, and administrative records on frequency of father-child contact, father-caregiver relationship quality, family support, paternal pre-incarceration employment, fathers' plans to live with the child upon reentry, history of substance abuse, and new convictions one year following release from jail. Qualitative analysis revealed three primary identities of fathers during incarceration: father as nurturer, father as protector, and father as provider. Qualitative analysis of interview data detailed the ways in which the context of incarceration and the presence of the criminal justice system interacts with these identities to impact family structure, parent-child visits, plans for release, and motivation for desistance. Quantitative analysis indicated heterogeneity among fathers, with links between parent-child contact and desistance conditional on fathers' plans for coresidence with children as well as family support and relationship quality. Taken together, the findings highlight the strengths of African American fathers and their families despite the risks associated with incarceration, including the importance of family support and children as motivation for desistance. The results have implications for how the justice system weighs the bidirectional influences of fathers and families.


Assuntos
Reincidência , Pré-Escolar , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Prisões Locais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar
20.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 39(2): 441-459, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Alcoholism is a heterogeneous set of disorders caused by ethanol intake. Harmful effects of paternal consumption on the offspring are poorly explored and not fully understood. We analyzed the effect of paternal alcohol consumption on both their own reproductive capacity and that of their male offspring. METHODS: We used a model of ethanol consumption (15% v/v in drinking water) for 12 days in adult CF-1 male mice. DNA integrity and post-translational modifications of histones were assessed in sperm; testicular weight, histology, and DNA fragmentation were analyzed. Treated or untreated male mice were mated with non-treated females to obtain two cell embryos that were cultured for 7 days; morphology and embryonic cell death were evaluated. Males of both groups were mated with non-treated females. Adult male offspring was euthanized, and sperm and testicular parameters determined. RESULTS: Paternal ethanol consumption caused histological and epigenetic changes, as well as damage in DNA integrity in the testicular germline and sperm. These alterations gave rise to deleterious effects on embryonic development and to testicular and spermatic changes in the offspring. CONCLUSION: This study provides critical information on reproductive disturbances brought about by paternal alcohol consumption and the profound impact these could have on the male progeny. The need to explore the effects of paternal alcohol consumption in detail and warn about the importance of controlling alcohol intake for the well-being of future generations should not be underscored.


Assuntos
Pai , Histonas , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Animais , DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Espermatozoides
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