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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 236-251, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394822

RESUMO

Down Syndrome: Perception of Mothers and Fathers About Parenting a Child with Intellectual Disability Parents of children with intellectual disabilities report increased stress levels as well as experiences of personal growth and a positive impact on family relationship. 30 mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome in school age complete questionnaires on the family impact of childhood disability, parental stress and child behavioral symptoms. Mothers as well as fathers report more positive than negative perceptions of the impact on the family. Negative impact is associated with the subjective level of stress. Mothers report more symptoms of stress than fathers. Behavioral problems of the child - as perceived by the parents - does not appear as a significant predictor of parenting stress in this sample. The results of a regression analysis suggest a significant contribution of paternal stress to the level of maternal stress. The results may help to understand family coping processes in the case of Down syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMJ ; 369: m853, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between parental mental illness and the risk of injuries among offspring. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Swedish population based registers. PARTICIPANTS: 1 542 000 children born in 1996-2011 linked to 893 334 mothers and 873 935 fathers. EXPOSURES: Maternal or paternal mental illness (non-affective psychosis, affective psychosis, alcohol or drug misuse, mood disorders, anxiety and stress related disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders) identified through linkage to inpatient or outpatient healthcare registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of injuries (transport injury, fall, burn, drowning and suffocation, poisoning, violence) at ages 0-1, 2-5, 6-9, 10-12, and 13-17 years, comparing children of parents with mental illness and children of parents without mental illness, calculated as the rate difference and rate ratio adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Children with parental mental illness contributed to 201 670.5 person years of follow-up, while children without parental mental illness contributed to 2 434 161.5 person years. Children of parents with mental illness had higher rates of injuries than children of parents without mental illness (for any injury at age 0-1, these children had an additional 2088 injuries per 100 000 person years; number of injuries for children with and without parental mental illness was 10 235 and 72 723, respectively). At age 0-1, the rate differences ranged from 18 additional transport injuries to 1716 additional fall injuries per 100 000 person years among children with parental mental illness compared with children without parental mental illness. A higher adjusted rate ratio for injuries was observed from birth through adolescence and the risk was highest during the first year of life (adjusted rate ratio at age 0-1 for the overall association between any parental mental illness that has been recorded in the registers and injuries 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 1.33). Adjusted rate ratios at age 0-1 ranged from 1.28 (1.24 to 1.32) for fall injuries to 3.54 (2.28 to 5.48) for violence related injuries. Common and serious maternal and paternal mental illness was associated with increased risk of injuries in children, and estimates were slightly higher for common mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Parental mental illness is associated with increased risk of injuries among offspring, particularly during the first years of the child's life. Efforts to increase access to parental support for parents with mental illness, and to recognise and treat perinatal mental morbidity in parents in secondary care might prevent child injury.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Pai/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163421

RESUMO

In the current study a three-generational design was used to investigate intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) using multiple sources of information on child maltreatment: mothers, fathers and children. A total of 395 individuals from 63 families reported on maltreatment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to combine data from mother, father and child about maltreatment that the child had experienced. This established components reflecting the convergent as well as the unique reports of father, mother and child on the occurrence of maltreatment. Next, we tested ITCM using the multi-informant approach and compared the results to those of two more common approaches: ITCM based on one reporter and ITCM based on different reporters from each generation. Results of our multi-informant approach showed that a component reflecting convergence between mother, father, and child reports explained most of the variance in experienced maltreatment. For abuse, intergenerational transmission was consistently found across approaches. In contrast, intergenerational transmission of neglect was only found using the perspective of a single reporter, indicating that transmission of neglect might be driven by reporter effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that including multiple informants may be necessary to obtain more valid estimates of ITCM.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228911, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore parents' experiences of seeking health care for their children and instead being accused by healthcare professionals of Shaken Baby Syndrome/Abusive Head Trauma (SBS/AHT), being reported to Social Services, undergoing judiciary processing, and the impact of these events on family (dis)integration. METHODS: Design: A qualitative study based on qualitative content analysis. Participants: Twelve parents in Sweden, mothers and fathers, seeking health care for their infants, encountering allegations of SBS/AHT, losing custody of their infants, and being subjected to a judiciary process, and finally regaining custody of their children. Data collection: In-depth interviews. RESULTS: An overarching theme 'Fighting for protection of their child after being trapped by doctors' and four sub-themes were developed to reflect the parents' experiences, reactions and interpretations. The first sub-theme, 'Being accused of injuring the child', illuminated the shock experienced when seeking care and instead being accused of being a perpetrator. The second, 'Chaos and powerlessness', refers to the emotions experienced when losing custody of the child and being caught in the enforcement of legislation by the authorities. The third, ´The unified fight against the doctors' verdict´, illustrates the parents' fight for innocence, their worry for the lost child, and their support and resistance. The fourth, 'The wounded posttraumatic growth', describes the emotions, grief, panic, anxiety, and challenges in reuniting the family, but also the parents' reflections on personal growth. Unanimously, they had experienced the authorities' inability to reconsider, and expressed a deep mistrust of paediatric care. CONCLUSIONS: Being wrongly accused of child abuse and alleged SBS/AHT evoked emotions of intense stress, but parents endured because of a successful fight to regain custody of their child. However, the trauma had a long-term impact on their lives with residual posttraumatic stress symptoms and mistrust towards healthcare services and the authorities. The results provide important inferences for restoring system failures within child protection services.


Assuntos
Custódia da Criança/ética , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Decepção , Emoções , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Síndrome do Bebê Sacudido , Suécia
5.
Lancet ; 395(10222): 408-409, 2020 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035543
6.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 24: e-1280, fev.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1051326

RESUMO

Introdução: a participação dos homens, como pais, também é muito importante para desenvolvimento do recém-nascido, especialmente quando ele é hospitalizado. Para tanto, o pai também deve ter suas necessidades compreendidas e assistidas no contexto da assistência neonatal. Objetivo: descrever os sentimentos paternos acerca da hospitalização do filho em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Método: trata-se de estudo exploratório e descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, que foi desenvolvido em uma unidade neonatal de um hospital público de ensino. Os sujeitos foram pais de recém-nascidos hospitalizados. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, realizada individualmente em local privativo. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e analisadas segundo análise de conteúdo proposta por Minayo. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, sob o Parecer nº 1.387.229, CAAE: 50873215.9.0000.5404. Resultados: realizou-se entrevista com 21 pais, com idades que variaram de 18 a 49 anos. Dos discursos dos pais emergiram três categorias temáticas: a) sentimentos paternos; b) hospitalização como experiência árdua; c) enfrentamento da hospitalização por meio da fé. Os pais demandam suporte e apoio ao longo da experiência de hospitalização do filho tanto quanto as mães. Os resultados denotam que eles também vivenciam dificuldades e não sabem como lidar com elas, enquanto tentam dar suporte ao filho, mulher e família. Considerações finais: o cuidado intencional e direcionado aos pais poderá atenuar sentimentos negativos e favorecer os positivos que emergiram nos discursos dos pais do presente estudo, como amor, alegria e gratidão.(AU)


Introduction: the participation of men as parents is also very important for the development of the newborn, especially when he is hospitalized. Therefore, the father must also have his needs understood and assisted in the context of neonatal care. Objective: to describe the father's feelings about the child's hospitalization in a neonatal intensive care unit. Method: this is an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach, developed in a neonatal unit of a public teaching hospital. The participants were fathers of the hospitalized newborns. Data collection took place through semistructured interviews, carried out individually in a private location. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to content analysis proposed by Minayo. The Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Estadual de CampinasUnicamp approved the study under Opinion No. 1,387,229, CAAE: 50873215.9.0000.5404. Results: we conducted an interview with 21 parents, aged between 18 and 49 years..(AU)


Introducción: la participación del hombre, como padre, es muy importante para el desarrollo del recién nacido, especialmente cuando el propio niño está hospitalizado. Por lo tanto, deben tenerse en cuenta sus sentimientos dentro del contexto de atención neonatal. Objetivo: describir los sentimientos del padre sobre la hospitalización del propio niño en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Método: estudio exploratorio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo, desarrollado en la unidad neonatal de un hospital escuela público. Los sujetos eran los padres de recién nacidos hospitalizados. La recogida de datos se llevó a cabo a través de una entrevista semiestructurada individual a cada padre realizada en un lugar privado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y analizadas de acuerdo con el análisis de contenido propuesto por Minayo. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas, bajo el dictamen No. 1,387,229, CAAE: 50873215.9.0000.5404. Resultados: se realizó una entrevista a cada uno de los 21 padres, con edades entre 18 y 49 años. De los discursos de los padres surgieron tres categorías temáticas: a) los sentimientos paternos; b) la hospitalización como una ardua experiencia; c) el hacer frente a la hospitalización a través de la fe. Los padres precisan apoyo y respaldo durante la experiencia de hospitalización de sus hijos, tanto como las madres. Los resultados muestran que también sienten dificultades y no saben cómo manejarlas, mientras tratan de brindar apoyo al hijo, a la mujer y a la familia. Consideraciones finales: la atención intencional dirigida a los padres podría mitigar los sentimientos negativos y favorecer los positivos que surgieron en sus discursos tales como amor, alegría y gratitud.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Criança Hospitalizada , Emoções , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 105, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in children and usually develops due to reactivation of the foci in the genitourinary tract after the latency period following initial infection. Urogenital TB in children has no pathognomonic clinical features that can result in overlooking or misdiagnosing this clinical entity. Here, we report important findings regarding the pathogenesis and transmission of TB by using genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a study of renal TB case in a child. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital because of high fever, severe dry cough, flank pain and painful urination. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT revealed an 8 mm calculus in the kidney, and clinical findings were initially interpreted as nephrolithiasis. Nevertheless, due to the atypical clinical presentation of kidney stone disease, additional investigations for possible TB were performed. The QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus test was positive, and the Mantoux test resulted in 15 mm of induration, confirming infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Chest X-ray was normal. Chest CT revealed calcified intrathoracic lymph nodes. The urine sample tested positive for acid-fast bacilli, and Mtb cultures were obtained from urine and bronchial aspirate samples, resulting in a final diagnosis of intrathoracic lymph node and renal TB. Contact investigation revealed that the child's father was diagnosed with TB when the child was 1 year old. Genotyping and WGS analysis of Mtb isolates of the child and his father confirmed the epidemiological link and pointed to the latency of infection in the child. CONCLUSIONS: This case report confirmed the development of active TB from calcified lesions in adolescent after 12 years of exposure, demonstrated the absence of microevolutionary changes in the Mtb genome during the period of latency, and proved the importance of appropriate evaluation and management to prevent the progression of TB infection to active TB disease. The use of WGS provided the ultimate resolution for the detection of TB transmission and reactivation events.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico , Nefrolitíase/microbiologia , Tuberculose Renal/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adolescente , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Pai , Genótipo , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Renal/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Harefuah ; 159(1): 49-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930809

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During July 2018, Israel went through a social turmoil due to the completion of the legislation of the surrogacy act which exclude gay men from the option of having their own children through surrogate pregnancy. Gay men were outraged also because this denial of the state means that such treatment will not be subsidize since these treatments are quite expensive. In light of the public and media mayhem following the above mentioned law, we revise the relevant literature regarding surrogate pregnancies, mainly for the social aspect of this issue. It seems that most women, who experience surrogate pregnancy, are not affected physically or mentally. However, these finding may not be relevant to surrogate women in underdeveloped countries who, sometimes, are doing it for the financial benefit. More specifically, this review deals with the new Israeli legislation, which incorporates in it religious elements, hence it prevents certain populations (such as gay men) from the only feasible possibility to become fathers. We emphasize that we describe the situation as it is presented in the current literature as spectators but not as judges.


Assuntos
Mães Substitutas , Criança , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Gravidez
9.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125412, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995873

RESUMO

Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning has devastating effects on neurodevelopment and causes overt clinical signs including convulsions and coma. Health effects including hypertension and various reproductive problems have been reported in adults. Historical Pb mining in Zambia's Kabwe town left a legacy of environmental pollution and childhood Pb poisoning. The current study aimed at establishing the extent of Pb poisoning and exposure differences among family members in Kabwe as well as determining populations at risk and identify children eligible for chelation therapy. Blood samples were collected in July and August 2017 from 1190 household members and Pb was measured using a portable LeadCare-II analyser. Participants included 291 younger children (3-months to 3-years-old), 271 older children (4-9-years-old), 412 mothers and 216 fathers from 13 townships with diverse levels of Pb contamination. The Blood Lead Levels (BLL) ranged from 1.65 to 162  µg/dL, with residents from Kasanda (mean 45.7  µg/dL) recording the highest BLL while Hamududu residents recorded the lowest (mean 3.3  µg/dL). Of the total number of children sampled (n = 562), 23% exceeded the 45  µg/dL, the threshold required for chelation therapy. A few children (5) exceeded the 100  µg/dL whereas none of the parents exceeded the 100  µg/dL value. Children had higher BLL than parents, with peak BLL-recorded at the age of 2-years-old. Lead exposure differences in Kabwe were attributed to distance and direction from the mine, with younger children at highest risk. Exposure levels in parents were equally alarming. For prompt diagnosis and treatment, a portable point-of-care devise such as a LeadCare-II would be preferable in Kabwe.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mineração , Mães , Registros , Reprodução , Manejo de Espécimes , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 92, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Latino fathers may play important roles in adolescents' physical activity and screen time. However, informant discrepancies regarding paternal activity parenting practices may challenge studies supporting evidence-based applications. This study examined Latino adolescent-father discrepancies in reporting paternal activity parenting practices, types of discrepancies by participant characteristics, and associations between discrepancy types and adolescents' physical activity and screen time. METHODS: The sample for this cross-sectional study included Latino early adolescents and their fathers (n = 138 dyads) from baseline data collected for a family-centered, healthy lifestyle intervention in a metropolitan area. In parallel measures, Latino adolescents and fathers reported paternal activity parenting practices related to expectation or allowance, behavioral modeling, and providing opportunities for physical activity or screen time. Level of agreement and discrepancies were examined using the percentage of agreement, weighted kappa statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and paired-sample t-tests. Undesirable discrepancy types included adolescents reporting lower scores for paternal physical activity parenting practices or higher scores for paternal screen time parenting practices than fathers. Participants' sociodemographic characteristics and weight status were compared by discrepancy type using between-group t-tests or Chi-square tests. Associations between discrepancy type and adolescents' physical activity and screen time were examined using multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: The study sample was low-income with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity. Adolescent and paternal reports of activity parenting practices had poor agreement (percentages of agreement: 22.2-34.3%, weighted kappa statistics: < 0.2, and correlation coefficients: 0.06-0.25). An undesirable discrepancy type for certain parenting practices was more likely to be observed among fathers without full-time employment, girls, older adolescents, and adolescents and fathers within overweight or obese BMI categories. Discrepancies in paternal expectation regarding physical activity and allowance of screen time had adverse associations with adolescents' physical activity (ß = - 0.18, p = 0.008) and screen time (ß = 0.51, p <  0.001). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Discrepancies in reporting activity parenting practices were evident between Latino adolescents and their fathers, especially among certain sociodemographic and weight status groups. Adolescents' perceptions on paternal parenting practices tended to be better indicators of their activity levels than fathers' reports.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Tempo de Tela , Autorrelato/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 159-175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738658

RESUMO

Drawing on the information processing model for the development of aggression, children's acquisition of aggressive responses could be associated with parenting that communicated norms favoring aggression. Extending this view, the present study examined the mediating role of children's normative beliefs about relational aggression (NBRA) on the association between psychologically controlling parenting and children's relational aggression (RA), and further explored whether this possible indirect effect would be contingent on the child's gender. 341 upper elementary school students (174 boys and 166 girls) reported perceived paternal psychological control (PPC) and maternal psychological control (MPC) during their fifth-grade fall semester, rated their NBRA during their sixth-grade fall semester, and assessed RA through a peer-nomination procedure during their sixth-grade spring semester. Results demonstrated that the indirect effects of perceived PPC and MPC on children's RA via their NBRA were both significant among the entire sample. However, by means of conditional process analysis, we found that whereas perceived PPC positively predicted boys' and girls' NBRA, perceived MPC positively predicted boys' but not girls' NBRA. In addition, children's NBRA was only positively predictive of RA for girls. As such, the indirect effect was exclusively significant for perceived PPC among girls.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes
12.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e36-e43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850482

RESUMO

The author has delved into the most significant Italian and European court rulings related to heterologous fertilization and surrogate motherhood between 2012 and 2019, with a close focus on same-sex couples seeking to have their donor-conceived children born abroad legally registered in their country of origin. Undeniably, surrogacy has brought about a crisis in the traditional family model, made up of a mother and a father. The paper draws upon European Court of Human Rights established jurisprudence that upholds the children's best interests. Italian Court rulings are expounded upon as well, which have been instrumental in establishing the principles by which parental figures do not necessarily coincide with those who have generated the children (through biological bonds or delivery), but rather with those who wish to be recognized as parents. The cases herein examined involve homosexual couples who decided to travel abroad in order to gain access to surrogacy, from which children were born. In the case regarding two fathers, the child had no genetic tie with either one intended parent. The Italian Supreme Court's joint sessions have ruled that such children cannot be legally registered in Italy, since their foreign-issued birth certificates indicate no genetic connection between the children and their intended parents. The Author believes that the Supreme Court decision is valuable, but further legislative interventions will be necessary on account of scientific advancements; the issue of surrogacy is utterly complex and multi-faceted.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Pai/legislação & jurisprudência , Fertilização In Vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Casamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Mães Substitutas/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American family structure has changed in the past few decades due to a rise in the divorce rate and unmarried women with children. Research suggests a salary disparity between men and women, especially for those women after pregnancy. However, these studies were confined to individuals within traditional families, and there is a lack of information of income disparity and poverty status between single mothers and fathers. The current study explored the disparities in single-parent families based on the household income and the poverty status using a set of nationwide censor data. METHODS: The current study used data from the 2011 and 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1135). Multivariate regression models were used in the analysis. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics of the weighted population showed that taxable income, total income, and poverty status were higher for single fathers than mothers, while non-work income was higher for single mothers than fathers. Single mothers were much more likely to be at the crisis category than single fathers. Multivariate analyses showed that gender, age, marital status, years of experience, and geographic region had effects on taxable income, and only gender, marital status, and region had effects on poverty status. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that vulnerable group of single mothers was acknowledged according to income and poverty status. Age, marital status, years of experience, and region would be the critical factors for predicting the income and poverty status for single parenthood.


Assuntos
Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais Solteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos
17.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(12): 1212-1217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on aggressive behavior in twin children, and to provide clues for further exploring the causal relationship between such factors and aggressive behavior. METHODS: A questionnaire was used to investigate aggressive behavior, temperament type and parenting style among 261 twin children aged 4-12.8 years. The Holzinger method and the maximum likelihood method were used to construct a structural equation model for the estimation of heritability. Binary logistic regression analysis, multivariate linear regression analysis and general linear model analysis were used to analyze the association between aggressive behavior and environmental factors in twin children. RESULTS: The heritability of aggressive behavior was 44.4% in twin children and the score of aggressive behavior showed moderate heritability (60.9% in boys and 65.6% in girls). The multivariate analysis showed that the score of aggressive behavior in twin children was affected by the mother's emotional warmth/understanding, the mother's punishment/severity and the father's overprotection (P<0.05). There was an interaction between the mother's emotional warmth/understanding and the father's overprotection (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both genetic and environmental factors have influence on children's aggressive behavior, and parenting style is the main environmental factor affecting the aggressive behavior of twin children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Poder Familiar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos
18.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 81, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has mostly focused on the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of maternal caregiving. We present a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design to examine the effects of intranasal administration of oxytocin and vasopressin on parenting behavior and the neural and behavioral responses to infant cry sounds and infant threat. In addition, we will test whether effects of oxytocin and vasopressin administration are moderated by fathers' early childhood experiences. METHODS: Fifty-five first-time fathers of a child between two and seven months old will participate in three experimental sessions with intervening periods of one to two weeks. Participants self-administer oxytocin, vasopressin or a placebo. Infant-father interactions and protective parenting responses are observed during play. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to examine the neural processing of infant cry sounds and infant threat. A handgrip dynamometer is used to measure use of handgrip force when listening to infant cry sounds. Participants report on their childhood experiences of parental love-withdrawal and abuse and neglect. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will provide important insights into the hormonal, behavioral and neural correlates of fathers' parenting behavior during the early phase of fatherhood. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register: NTR (ID: NL8124); Date registered: October 30, 2019.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pai , Neurofisinas/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Paterno/efeitos dos fármacos , Precursores de Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861215

RESUMO

Enabling parents to create a smoke-free home is one of the key ways that children's exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) can be reduced. Smoke-free home interventions have largely targeted mothers who smoke, and there is little understanding of the barriers and facilitators that fathers experience in creating a smoke-free home. Systematic searches combining terms for fathers, homes, and SHS exposure were run in April 2019 in Web of Science's Citation Indices, PsycINFO, and PubMed for English-language studies published since 2008. The searches identified 980 records for screening, plus 66 records from other sources. Twelve studies reported in 13 papers were included in this scoping review. Eight of the studies were conducted in Asian countries (five in China, one in India, one in Japan, and one in Iran), three were conducted in Canada, and one in Turkey. Findings were extracted in verbatim text for thematic analysis. The review identified that attitudes and knowledge, cultural and social norms, gender power relations, and shifting perceptions and responsibilities related to fatherhood can impact on fathers' views of their role in relation to creating and maintaining a smoke-free home. There were too few published studies that had assessed smoke-free home interventions with fathers to draw conclusions regarding effective approaches. Research is clearly needed to inform our understanding of fathers' roles, successes and challenges in creating and maintaining a smoke-free home, so that father-inclusive rather than mother-led interventions can be developed to benefit entire households and improve gender equity as well as health.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Adulto , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1470, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of the family environment-in particular, the kind of parenting children receive in their early years-plays a critical role in influencing children's growth and development. To facilitate the development and delivery of appropriate parenting and family interventions for Chinese parents, this study explores the prevalence of the difficulties that may arise in the course of child-rearing, the associated sociodemographic factors and parents' help-seeking behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional self-reporting survey was conducted with a sample of 2229 parents of children between 6 and 35 months of age. Using a stratified random-digit design, parents from 15 Chinese cities were surveyed to determine their child-rearing difficulties, support-seeking behavior and their preferences for service delivery. The sociodemographic factors that influenced major child-rearing difficulties were analyzed using bivariate and logistic analyses. RESULTS: The majority (87.5%) of Chinese parents of children aged 6-35 months reported experiencing child-rearing difficulties. Nearly one third (31.5%) of parents reported experiencing major difficulties. Feeding and sleep problems were most often reported. Regression analysis revealed that major child-rearing difficulties most often involved male children (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11-1.64), single-child households (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.77), and households with financial problems (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85). Just over one third of parents (33.44%) sought professional support, while 21.37% had attended a parenting course in the past year. Prefer ways of sourcing parental support included professional online platform (69.24%), self-help books (43.70%), face-to-face consultation (24.99%), and attending lectures (36.57%). CONCLUSIONS: Child-rearing difficulties are common among parents of children between 6 and 35 months of age in Chinese cities. The family with boys, single-child, financial problems, and father not joining in child-rearing may face the high risk to major child-rearing difficulties. The national initiative to provide more guidance and support for child-rearing difficulties is worthwhile, as is the development of online parenting programs.


Assuntos
Educação Infantil/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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