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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 30-46, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1150661

RESUMO

O autoconceito pode ser concebido como uma construção teórica que o indivíduo realiza sobre si a partir de sua interação com o meio social, que assume importante papel na compreensão do processo de desenvolvimento humano. Variáveis como desempenho escolar e práticas educativas parentais tem sido relatadas como relevantes para o estabelecimento do autoconceito. Tendo em vista a relevância do tema na adolescência o presente artigo objetivou investigar as possíveis relações entre o autoconceito, desempenho escolar e práticas educativas dos pais, em adolescentes escolares. Fizeram parte desta pesquisa 57 adolescentes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 12 e 16 anos (M= 13,44; DP=1,13) do 6º ao 9º ano de uma escola pública de Ensino Fundamental. Para isso, foram utilizados a Escala de Autoconceito Infanto ­Juvenil (EAC-IJ), a Escala de Responsividade e Exigência Parental e análise documental na escola para o desempenho escolar. Os resultados demonstraram que houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis do estudo, destacando-se as correlações estabelecidas entre autoconceito e desempenho escolar, desempenho escolar e exigência da mãe, assim como do autoconceito com a responsividade do pai. Discute-se sobre a importância da qualidade da relação familiar e do grupo de amigos no estabelecimento do autoconceito dos adolescentes.(AU)


Self-concept may be conceived as a theoretical construction that the individual has about himself from his interaction with society that assumes an important role in the comprehension of the human development process. Variables such as school performance and parental educational practices have been reported as relevant for the establishment of self-concept. Since this theme can be relevant in adolescence the present article sought to investigate the possible relations between self-concept, school performance and educational practices from parents in school-aged teens. Were part of this research 57 teenagers, from both sexes, with ages between 12 and 16 years old (M= 13,44; DP=1,13) from 6th to9th years of an public elementary school. For that we used the "Escala de Autoconceito Infanto-Juvenil (EAC-IJ)", the "Escala de Responsividade e Exigencia Parental" and analysis of school papers for the school performance. The results showed that there's a significant relation between the variables of study, featuring the relations established between self-concept and school performance, school performance and mother exigency, as for self-concept and father responsiveness. We argue about the importance of a quality family relationship and group of friends in the establishment of self-concept of teenagers.(AU)


El autoconcepto puede ser determinado como una construcción teórica que el individuo realiza sobre sí por medio de su interacción con el medio social, que adquiere importante papel en la comprensión del proceso de desarrollo humano. Variables como el desempeño escolar y las prácticas educativas parentales han sido relatadas como relevantes para la determinación del autoconcepto. Teniendo en cuenta la relevancia del tema en la adolescencia el presente artículo tuvo como objetivo investigar las posibles relaciones entre el autoconcepto, desempeño escolar y prácticas educativas de los padres, en adolescentes escolares. Participaron de esta investigación 57 adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 16 años (M = 13,44, SD = 1,13) del 6 al 9 de grado de una escuela pública de enseñanza primaria. Para eso, fueron utilizadas la Escala de Autoconcepto Infantil Juvenil (EAC-IJ), la Escala de Responsividad y Exigencia Parental y análisis documental en escuela para el desempeño escolar. Los resultados demostraron que hubo correlación significativa entre las variables del estudio, resaltándose las correlaciones establecidas entre autoconcepto y desempeño escolar, desempeño escolar y exigencia de la madre, asi como del autoconcepto con la responsividad del padre. Se discute sobre la importancia de la calidad de la relación familiar y del grupo de amigos en la determinación del autoconcepto de los adolescentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Pais , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Relações Familiares , Desempenho Acadêmico , Amigos , Desenvolvimento Humano
2.
Occup Ther Int ; 2021: 5564364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121956

RESUMO

Culture is a core context within occupational therapy, with a recent literature emphasizing the importance of cultural competence, as well as culturally sensitive assessment and intervention. The recent literature has indicated the efficacy of the Cognitive-Functional intervention (Cog-Fun) for children with ADHD among the general Israeli population, yet no studies to date have examined the necessity of cultural adaptations for minority groups. The current study examines the necessity of adapting the intervention protocol and process to the Ultraorthodox (UO) population, as perceived by occupational therapists. The study included 28 occupational therapists certified to use the Cog-Fun intervention, who reported using this approach with UO children. Participants responded to an online questionnaire developed for this study, regarding characteristics of the UO population and necessary adaptions to the Cog-Fun intervention process and protocol. Findings were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Results of the study point to the necessity of addressing various features of the UO community, including daily routines and habits, cultural values, knowledge regarding ADHD, and accessibility of information. Participants also reported a need to adapt the graphic content of the intervention materials. The qualitative data expanded on the perceptions of the participants through four main themes: (a) knowledge regarding ADHD diagnosis and intervention; (b) perceptions and attitudes regarding ADHD diagnosis and medication; (c) factors affecting communication between the OT, parents, and teachers; and (d) adapting the intervention protocol to habits, routines, and lifestyle of UO families. This study has direct implications for therapists utilizing the Cog-Fun with UO children and may also provide insights relevant to occupational therapists using other treatment approaches with children from this culture, as well as other minority or traditional groups. Furthermore, this study may serve as an important addition to the limited literature describing cultural adaptations of evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Terapia Ocupacional , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Atitude , Criança , Competência Cultural , Humanos , Pais
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(6): 1540-1544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between perceived primary parenting styles and attachment styles between single-parent children and children living with both parents. Methods: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, from September 2017 to March 2018, and comprised an equal number of children from single-parent families and those living with both the parents. Data was collected using the parental authority questionnaire and the Urdu version of the inventory of parental and peer attachment. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 200 children, 100(50%) were in each of the two groups, and both the groups had 50(50%) girls and boys each. The overall mean age of the sample was 14.56±3.03 years (range: 11-18 years). There was a significant negative correlation between permissive parenting styles with mother's communication (p<0.05); authoritarian parenting style had negative correlation with parental communication and trust(p<0.001). Authoritative parenting had significant positive relationship with trust (p<0.001), and communication with parents (p<0.001), and there was negative relationship between authoritative parenting with feeling alienated from parents (p<0.01). Single-parent children perceived their parents as authoritarian (p<0.001) and had more alienated attachment with parents (p<0.001), whereas children living with both the parents had more trust (p<0.001) and had better communication with their parents (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to understand the role of parents and different parenting styles in building up strong parentchild attachment.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Relações Pais-Filho , Permissividade , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(2): 177-181, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the difference of parent's cognition of children's space loss and its influencing factors, to provide reference for children's oral health education, in order to reduce the incidence of malocclusion. METHODS: A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the basic information and related problems of 36 parents whose children received space loss treatment. SPSS 22.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Parents paid more attention to the common oral problems of their children, the awareness of oral prevention and health care were weak, the attention to treatment was higher than that of prevention. The attitude of parents to the cognition and targeted treatment of malocclusion caused by space loss was low(27.78%), which was significantly different from that of caries (75.00%) and premature loss of deciduous teeth (63.89%). The total cognition of space loss was 61.11%. The cognitive degree of parents with different characteristics was different: the cognitive degree of parents over 50 years old was lower(14.29%), the cognitive degree of parents with higher education was higher(82.35%), there was no significant difference in cognitive degree among different gender, occupation and family monthly income groups. Parents paid more attention to the basic oral health of their children, most of the interval time between this visit and the last visit was 3 months(63.89%). The main purpose of the visit was caries or tooth pain caused by caries(63.89%). Most of parents did not know the harmful effect of space loss(72.22%). There were more parents who did not know the necessity of treatment to space loss(58.33%). Parents mainly learned the treatment to space loss through the doctor's education during dental visits(72.22%). The number of active visits were less when space loss occured(22.22%), and most of parents were recommended by dentist when they came to the clinics(72.22%). Most parents were able to accept the dentists' advice on the treatment of space loss(77.78%). CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to strengthen the propaganda, coverage and depth of oral health education care, strengthen the awareness of oral preventive health care, especially for the parents with special personality on the importance of space loss, to prevent primary teeth caries and premature loss of primary teeth, avoid the loss of dental space, make the complete primary dentition to form a normal permanent dentition.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Criança , Cognição , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dente Decíduo
5.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1086-1092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Study of psychophysiological features of children depending on gender in the dynamics of the school year and the action of parents on preventive measures among primary school children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study of biological adaptation of primary school students was conducted in two stages among second-graders (children 7-8 years) in the dynamics of the week and year. A total of 46 children (24 girls and 22 boys). The psychophysiological part of the study included electroencephalography (EEG) recording to assess the individual characteristics of the nervous system and determine mental performance. The next step was to determine mental performance, which is one of the important criteria for the health of schoolchildren, which characterizes the relationship between the functional state of the child's body and learning load. The analysis of mental capacity was conducted at school with the permission of parents during the first school week and the last school week. RESULTS: Results: Based on the recorded EEG, the average values of the peak frequencies in each lead in the five ranges were calculated. When comparing the average values of indicators recorded in the modes of quiet wakefulness and mental load (mental account) at the beginning of the year, using a nonparametric criterion of signs revealed significant (p <0,05) differences between peak frequencies in the ranges ß1 and ß2 . The average peak frequency in the ß1 range at rest (14.3 ± 0.5 Hz) is higher than during mental stress (13.8 ± 0.4 Hz). autonomy of regulation (p <0.01) in girls at the end of the school year is characterized by higher values. Analysis of data on the mental capacity of first-graders showed that the dynamics of the week among boys the number of traced signs increased from (120.5 ± 2.6) to (122.3 ± 4.8) signs, (p > 0.05) by the end of the week , and had the largest number of signs on Wednesday (127.4 ± 4.2) but had no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Preventive measures such as sleep and rest, walks in the fresh air aimed at promoting health can be the same for both girls and boys, but more attention and control over the implementation of these measures should be paid to boys.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais , Estresse Psicológico
6.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1369-1372, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the stress level and commonly used coping strategies of parents having children with special needs. METHODS: The correlational study was conducted from January to April 2019 in Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised parents of special children from three special schools of the city. Data was collected using the Coping Strategies Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 24. RESULTS: Of the 150 children, 98(65%) were aged <10 years. Among the parents, 108(65.5%) faced moderate stress, 8(4.8%) faced low stress and 34(20.6%) faced high level of stress. Mean score was the highest for cognitive restructuring as the coping strategy 14.95±2.87, followed by problem-solving 14.81±2.98. There was a significant negative correlation of stress with cognitive restructuring (<0.01), positive link with problem-focused engagement (p<0.05), positive correlation with self-criticism (p<0.001), social withdrawal (p<0.01), and emotion-focussed disengagement (p<0.001). High level of stress was positively associated with high level of disengagement (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Parents were found to be using more positive and practical strategies to cope with stress induced by taking care of children with special needs.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Adaptação Psicológica , Criança , Humanos , Paquistão , Pais , Apoio Social
7.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e44, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092271

RESUMO

AIMS: Alienation towards parents often occurs when parents divorce; however, it can also occur when one or both parents leave for work for more than 6 months. Our previous investigation has confirmed a high level of feelings of alienation towards parents among Chinese left-behind children. However, the longitudinal prediction of alienation on children's mental health outcomes remains largely unknown. This study aims to observe the prediction of alienation towards parents on children's depression 12 months later and potential mediators and moderators. METHODS: A total of 1090 Chinese left-behind children took part in this 12-month follow-up investigation, using the Chinese version of the Inventory of Alienation towards Parents (IAP), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Adolescent Self-Rating Life-events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Adolescent Resilience Scale. RESULTS: Alienation towards parents was high (16.42 ± 7.27 for mother, 15.63 ± 7.17 for father) in left-behind children, and 21.01% of children reported depression. Alienation towards parents predicted current depression of children directly and later depression indirectly; children's alienation toward their mothers was a stronger predictor of depression than alienation towards fathers. In models, stressful life-events acted as a risk mediator. Previous depression was the strongest risk predictor, resilience was the strongest protective factor, and duration of fathers' absence and parents' marital status moderated the predictive effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to longitudinally confirm that alienation towards parents is a predictor of children's later depression. The results provide important suggestions for families and schools; i.e. to prevent depression in left-behind children, parent-child bonds especially alienation towards mothers, should be carefully considered, and individuals with more negative life-events and weaker resilience need further attention.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mães , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the past decade there has been some evaluation of transition programmes for adolescents with chronic conditions. However, this has rarely involved process evaluations focusing on mechanisms leading to outcomes, thus hampering implementation of these complex interventions. Our aim was to (I) describe adolescents' and parents' experiences of participating in a person-centred transition programme aiming to empower them in transition to adulthood and (II) explore the mechanisms of impact. METHODS: A qualitative process evaluation was performed, embedded in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a transition programme for adolescents with congenital heart disease in Sweden. A purposive sample of 14 adolescents and 12 parents randomized to the intervention group were interviewed after participation in the programme. Data were analysed deductively and inductively in NVivo v12. RESULTS: Experiences of participation in the transition programme were generally positive. Meeting a transition coordinator trained in person-centred care and adolescent health and embarking on an educational process based on the adolescents' prerequisites in combination with peer support were considered key change mechanisms. However, support to parents were not sufficient for some participants, resulting in ambivalence about changing roles and the unmet needs of parents who required additional support. CONCLUSIONS: Participants experienced increased empowerment in several dimensions of this construct, thus demonstrating that the transition programme was largely implemented as intended and the evidence-based behaviour-change techniques used proved effective in reaching the outcome. These findings can inform future implementation of transition programmes and illuminate challenges associated with delivering a complex intervention for adolescents with chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Empoderamento , Humanos , Suécia
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 228, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children's voices are seldom heard in process evaluations concerning health promotion programmes. A Healthy School Start Plus (HSSP) is a parental support programme, conducted in Sweden, with the aim of promoting healthy diet, physical activity and preventing obesity in preschool class children. The 6-month programme includes: (1) Health information to parents; (2) Motivational Interviewing with parents by school nurses; (3) Classroom activities and home assignments for children; (4) A self-test of type-2 diabetes risk for parents. We aimed to describe children's experiences of the third component regarding barriers and facilitators of participating in and learning from the classroom activities in the HSSP. METHODS: In total 36 children from 7 schools in Sweden, mean age 6 years, participated in 7 focus group discussions. Purposeful sampling with maximum variation was used to collect the data. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Four categories were identified; (1) Time available to work on intervention activities; (2) Others' interest; (3) Abilities and interests in intervention activities; and (4) Practicing the concept of health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings may improve the HSSP and other similar interventions that include classroom-based learning regarding health by highlighting the following points to consider: aiming for homework to be an integrated part of the school-setting to enhance parental involvement; using flexible material, tailored to the children's abilities and giving children adequate time to finish the intervention activities; and making teachers and parents aware of the importance of verbal and body language regarding intervention activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Healthy School Start Plus trial was retrospectively registered in the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry on January 4, 2018 and available online at ClinicalTrials.gov: No. NCT03390725 .


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Suécia
10.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20508, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002802

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to overlap with the seasonal influenza epidemic, increasing the risk of overextending the health system capacity in Switzerland. Influenza vaccine uptake has remained low in most countries, including Switzerland. The aim of the study was to determine parents’ intentions towards influenza vaccination of their children, as well as themselves, and to assess regional differences. METHODS: Parents presenting to four paediatric emergency departments (Zurich, Bern, Bellinzona, Geneva) were asked to complete an online survey during and after the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic (April to June 2020). The anonymised survey included demographic information, vaccination history and intentions to vaccinate against influenza, as well as attitudes towards future vaccination against COVID-19. RESULTS: The majority of children (92%; 602/654) were up-to-date on their vaccination schedule. In 2019/2020, 7.2% (47/654) were vaccinated against influenza. Children with chronic illnesses were more frequently vaccinated than healthy children (19.2% vs 5.6%; p = 0.002). For the coming winter season, 111 (17%) parents stated they plan to vaccinate their children against influenza, more than double the rate from last year, and 383 (59.2%) parents suggested they will vaccinate against COVID-19 once a vaccine is available. Regional differences between “German” and “Latin” Switzerland were found for parents’ intent to have their children vaccinated against influenza next season (Zurich and Bern 14.3%, Bellinzona and Geneva 27.2%, p <0.001), but not for a hypothetical vaccination against COVID-19 (Zurich and Bern 59.1%, Bellinzona and Geneva 59.7%, p = 0.894). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a substantial increase of parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against influenza, especially in hard-hit “Latin” Switzerland. The Swiss government and public health organisations can leverage these regional results to promote influenza vaccination among children for the coming seasons.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Suíça
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251720, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supportive parenting is critical for promoting healthy child development in the face of stressors, such as those occurring during COVID-19. Here, we address a knowledge gap regarding specific household risk factors associated with parenting quality during the pandemic and incorporate first-person accounts of family challenges and needs. METHODS: Mixed methods were applied to data collected between April 14th - 28th, 2020 from the "Parenting During the Pandemic" survey. Participants included 656 primary caregivers (e.g., mothers, fathers, foster parents) of least one child age 1.5-8 years of which 555 (84.6%) responded to at least one parenting questionnaire. Parenting quality was assessed across stressful, negative, and positive parenting dimensions. Household risk was examined across pandemic- linked (e.g., caregiver depression, unmet childcare needs) and stable factors (i.e., annual income, mental illness history). Significant correlates were examined with regressions in Mplus. Thematic analysis identified caregiver challenges and unmet needs from open-ended questions. FINDINGS: Caregiver depression, higher child parity, unmet childcare needs, and relationship distress predicted lower-quality parenting. Caregiver depression was the most significant predictor across every parenting dimension, with analyses indicating medium effect sizes, ds = .39 - .73. Qualitative findings highlighted severe strains on parent capacities including managing psychological distress, limited social supports, and too much unstructured time. INTERPRETATIONS: Lower quality parenting during COVID-19 is associated with multiple household and pandemic risk factors, with caregiver depression consistently linked to parent- child relationship disruptions. Focused efforts are needed to address caregiver mental health to protect child health as part of the pandemic response.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Humanos , Lactente , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946949

RESUMO

Eating habits appear to become less healthy once children move into adolescence. Adolescence is characterized by increasing independence and autonomy. Still, parents continue influencing adolescents' eating habits. This cross-sectional study used a Self-Determination Theory perspective to examine how parents can support preadolescents' food-related autonomy and competence and how these factors are associated with healthy eating motivation and food consumption at school. In addition, the effect of relative healthy food availability at home on preadolescents' food consumption at school was explored. In total, 142 Dutch preadolescents (mean age 12.18) and 81 parents completed questionnaires. The results showed that preadolescents perceived themselves as having higher food-related autonomy and lower competence to eat healthily as compared to their parents' perceptions. A path analysis was conducted to test the hypothesized model. Although parental support was positively associated with food-related autonomy, higher food-related autonomy was related to less healthy food intake at school. On the other hand, competence to eat healthily indirectly affected preadolescents' healthy intake ratio through their healthy eating motivation. Finally, the relative availability of healthy options at home was positively associated with preadolescents' healthy intake ratio outside the home. Findings from the study advance the understanding of individual and environmental factors that influence eating habits during the key life period of early adolescence. The results may inform interventions aiming to guide preadolescents to make healthy food choices on their own.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Competência Mental , Pais , Autonomia Pessoal , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 228, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our goal was to accurately detect young children at risk for long-term psychiatric disturbances after potentially traumatic experiences in the course of relocation. In addition to detailed assessment of parent-rated parent and child symptomatology, we focused on disruptive behaviors in the education environment summarized as survival states, as these frequently lead to clinical referral. METHODS: We screened 52 refugee children aged 3-7 (M = 5.14 years, SD = 1.17) for symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screening (CATS) in parent rating. The parents' mental health was assessed using the Refugee Health Screener (RHS-15). Furthermore, the child's educators were asked to evaluate the pathological survival states of the child and we made a general assessment of the children's symptoms with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) rated by parents and educators. Children in the refugee sample completed a working memory learning task (Subtest Atlantis from the Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children, KABC-II) and delivered saliva samples for testing of the cortisol level. RESULTS: The parental rating of their child's PTSD symptoms was significantly related to their own mental well-being (r = .50, p < .001). Children with survival states in educator ratings exhibited weaker learning performance (F = 3.49, p < .05) and higher evening cortisol levels (U = 113, z = - 1.7, p < .05, one-tailed). CONCLUSIONS: Survival states are promising indicators for children's learning performance and distress level complementary to parent rating of child PTSD, which is highly intercorrelated with the parents' own symptom load. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: DRKS00021150 on DRKS Date of registration: 04.08.2020 retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(1): 9-12, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002701

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel pacifier-based saliva collection method on children and infants in comparison to an oral swab-based saliva collection method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed during spring 2018 in a clinical non-sponsored setting at Queen Silvia Children's Hospital pediatric emergency ward. Saliva collection was performed by comparing oral swab (Salimetrics® SalivaBio's Children's Swab) with a pacifier-based saliva collection method (Salivac®). All participating children used both saliva collection systems. The amount of saliva collected in 2 minutes was measured. The amount of time needed for the healthcare professional was recorded. Parental preference was evaluated by a questionnaire. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed in collected saliva (174 µL for pacifier-based saliva collection and 158 µL for oral swab). The healthcare professional spent significantly less (p < 0.001) mean time with the pacifier-based saliva collection method than with the oral swab (31 vs 150 sec). A total of 48 out of the 52 caretakers preferred the pacifier-based saliva collection method compared to the oral swab. CONCLUSION: The novel pacifier-based saliva collection method proved to be a feasible, appreciated, and effective way of collecting saliva that simplifies the saliva collection method among children and infants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The pacifier-based saliva collection method simplifies saliva testing. The closed vacutainer system minimizes the risk of saliva contamination and opens up for novel home testing strategies.


Assuntos
Chupetas , Saliva , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pais , Manejo de Espécimes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(4): 298-315, 2021 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977877

RESUMO

Psychoeducation for Parents of Children with Learning Disorders: A Satisfaction Study The present study investigates the implementation of psychoeducation for conveying a diagnosis of specific learning disorders to the parents of affected children. It addresses the question of how such consultations are structured and which factors predict how satisfied parents are with the psychoeducation they receive. 167 parents of children with specific learning disorders from Germany were surveyed via an online questionnaire and asked about their experiences and satisfaction with the psychoeducational aspects of their individual consultation. The results show that the implementation of psychoeducation was strongly heterogeneous. For example, the duration of the consultation varied from 4 to 120 minutes and the child in question was only present in around half of the cases. The methodical diversity was rather limited and the causes of learning disorders were rarely discussed with the parents. 54 % of the parents were satisfied or very satisfied with the psychoeducation. The findings of a regression analysis show that the consultant's professional and emotional competence as well as the practical value significantly predicted the parents' satisfaction. Overall, this regression model is able to explain 81.8 % variance in parents' satisfaction. An open and empathetic atmosphere during the consultation as well as specific and practical tips on how to support their child are particularly important.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Satisfação Pessoal , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/terapia , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(4): 282-297, 2021 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977880

RESUMO

Differential Stability and Interrater-Dependencies in the Assessment of Psychopathological Symptoms: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the SDQ in Children with and without Specific Learning Disabilities A widely used open access instrument for screening of internalising and externalising problem behaviour is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). For the use of the SDQ in clinical practice, information about its differential validity and applicability for follow-up assessments is relevant. Therefore, the aim was to study the SDQ regarding differential stability in the repeatedly collected child, parent and teacher reports. As the social context influences the perception of symptoms, we additionally explored the extent to which the child, parent and teacher reports influenced each other. Also, we studied differences in problem behaviour between children with and without specific learning disabilities and between girls and boys. To this end, 60 children from 5th and 6th grade with and without specific learning disabilities and their parents and teachers filled in the SDQ at three time points during secondary school. The results of the cross-lagged-panel-analyses showed substantial stability for almost all subscales. This shows that in their SDQ-reports, parents, children and teachers can separate the stable parts of problem behaviour from situational variations therein. Inter-rater dependencies between the different reports in the form of cross-delayed effects could be identified mainly from the adult to the child reports and clarify the caregiver's influence on the children's symptom perception. With respect to specific learning disabilities, the results showed differences only for the subscale related to hyperactivity: children with specific learning disabilities had more parent-reported, but less self-reported hyperactive symptoms than children without. Girls reported more emotional problems and boys more conduct problems and less prosocial behavior. Teacher and parents reported almost no differences between boys and girls. The results support the usefulness of the SDQ for repeated assessments in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Deficiências da Aprendizagem , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pais , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 456, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The separation of parents and their prematurely born children during care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can have far-reaching consequences for the well-being of the parents and also of the children. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of webcams on NICUs and to conduct a systematic assessment of their possible effects on parents and clinical staff. In addition, it aims at determining the need for webcams  in German NICUs and to identify possible barriers and moderators. The development and evaluation of practical guidance for the use of webcams will enable the comprehensive education of clinical staff and parents and, as a result, is intended to mitigate any potential undesirable consequences. METHODS: The study will be based on a mixed methods approach including all groups concerned in the care. Qualitative data will be collected in interviews and focus groups and evaluated using content analysis. The collection of quantitative data will be based on written questionnaires and will aim to assess the status quo as regards the use of webcams on German NICUs and the effects on parents, physicians, and nursing staff. These effects will be assessed in a randomised cross-over design. Four NICUs will be involved in the study and, in total, the parents of 730 premature babies will be invited to take part in the study. The effects on the nursing staff, such as additional workload and interruptions in workflows, will be evaluated on the basis of observation data. DISCUSSION: This study will be the largest multicentre study known to us that systematically evaluates the use of webcams in neonatal intensive care units. The effects of the  implementation of webcams on both parents and care providers will be considered. The results provide evidence to decide whether to promote the use of webcams on NICUs or not and what to consider when implementing them. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at the German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS). Number of registration: DRKS00017755 , date of registration: 25.09.2019.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pais , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 878, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the importance of children's play from a public health perspective, given the links between play and children's physical and mental health. The present research aimed to develop and evaluate a new parent-report questionnaire that measures the time children spend playing across a range of places and includes a supplement to evaluate how adventurously children play. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed with input from a diverse group of parents and experts in children's play. It was designed to yield a range of metrics including time spent playing per year, time spent playing outside, time spent playing in nature and level of adventurous play. The reliability of the questionnaire was then evaluated with 245 parents (149 mothers, 96 fathers) of 154 children aged 5-11 years. All participants completed the measure at time 1. At time 2, an average of 20 days later, 184 parents (111 mothers and 73 fathers) of 99 children completed the measure again. RESULTS: Cross-informant agreement, evaluated using Concordance Correlation Coefficients (CCCs), ranged from 0.36 to 0.51. These fall in the poor to moderate range and are largely comparable to cross-informant agreement on other measures. Test-retest reliability for mothers was good (range 0.67-0.76) for time spent playing metrics. For fathers, test-retest reliability was lower (range 0.39-0.63). For both parents the average level of adventurous play variable had relatively poor test retest reliability (mothers = 0.49, fathers = 0.42). This variable also showed a significant increase from time 1 to time 2. This instability over time may be due to the timing of the research in relation to the Covid-19 lockdown and associated shifts in risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: The measure will be of value in future research focusing on the public health benefits and correlates of children's play as well as researchers interested in children's outdoor play and play in nature specifically. The development of the measure in collaboration with parents and experts in children's play is a significant strength. It will be of value for future research to further validate the measure against play diaries or activity monitors.


Assuntos
Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043397, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Investigate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on feelings of loneliness and social isolation in parents of school-age children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey of parents of primary and secondary school-age children. SETTING: Community setting. PARTICIPANTS: 1214 parents of school-age children in the UK. METHODS: An online survey explored the impact of lockdown on the mental health of parents with school-age children, and in particular about feelings of social isolation and loneliness. Associations between the UCLA Three-Item Loneliness Scale (UCLATILS), the Direct Measure of Loneliness (DMOL) and the characteristics of the study participants were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported measures of social isolation and loneliness using UCLATILS and DMOL. RESULTS: Half of respondents felt they lacked companionship, 45% had feelings of being left out, 58% felt isolated and 46% felt lonely during the first 100 days of lockdown. The factors that were associated with higher levels of loneliness on UCLATILS were female gender, parenting a child with special needs, lack of a dedicated space for distance learning, disruption of sleep patterns and low levels of physical activity during the lockdown. Factors associated with a higher DMOL were female gender, single parenting, parenting a child with special needs, unemployment, low physical activity, lack of a dedicated study space and disruption of sleep patterns during the lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown has increased feelings of social isolation and loneliness among parents of school-age children. The sustained adoption of two modifiable health-seeking lifestyle behaviours (increased levels of physical activity and the maintenance of good sleep hygiene practices) wmay help reduce feelings of social isolation and loneliness during lockdown.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Reino Unido
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 642932, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981665

RESUMO

Background: Schools and outdoor public spaces play a substantial role in children's physical activity. Yet, the COVID-19 shelter-in-place mandates bound many children to their available home spaces for learning, movement, and development. The exact effect this mandate had on children's physical activity may vary among families. Objective: To understand, from the perspective of parents, how the COVID-19 shelter-in-place mandates affected children's physical activity, while also considering families' socioeconomic status. Design: Open-ended survey. Setting: Online. Method: Data were collected from 321 parents living in the United States of America. Parents answered an open-ended prompt to describe their children's physical activity during COVID-19 shelter-in-place mandates. Following data collection, inductive and deductive content analysis examined patterns in the data. Results: Analyses indicated that shelter-in-place mandates restricted children's opportunities for physical activity. However, if families had access to outdoor spaces or equipment, they could encourage and support more physical activity opportunities than those without. Families in the lower-income bracket had less access to outdoor space and subsequently those children had fewer opportunities to be physically active. Parents supported their children's physical activity through their involvement and encouragement. Conclusion: These findings underscore the importance of access to outdoor spaces and equipment for increasing children's physical activity. Findings can be used by educators and policymakers to equitably support families of lower socioeconomic status who reported less access to outdoor spaces.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pais , Estados Unidos
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