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1.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107466, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055056

RESUMO

Psychological reactance (PR) is a psychological state or trait typified by resistant responses to threats to behavioral freedom. PR has been linked with negative health behaviors, including risky substance use; however, factors that may foster approaches to mitigate the impact of PR on these behaviors, as well as rejection of other health promotion communications is less understood. The current studies examined relations between parental warmth and monitoring with trait PR and responses to preventive cannabis communications and usage intentions. Two in-school surveys were administered to two difference samples of middle school students (Study 1, N = 1,416; Study 2, N = 1,118). Path analytic models tested multivariable linkages among relevant parenting variables, PR, and outcomes associated with cannabis use. Follow-up regression analyses explored significant interaction effects. In Study 1 (p <0.001) and Study 2 (p <0.01), parental warmth moderated the relation between monitoring and trait PR: High monitoring was a protective factor only when combined with high warmth. In turn, PR mediated the relationships between parenting practices and cannabis intentions in both studies (p <0.001). In Study 2, PR also was linked with resistance to persuasion via more unfavorable reactions to anti-cannabis appeals (p <0.001). Findings indicated that low parental warmth combined with high parental monitoring was associated with high trait reactance in adolescents, which predisposed them to stronger resistance to preventive communications. Interventions might focus on counseling parents about the likely outcomes of parenting style, and ways to implement beneficial approaches.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
2.
J Atten Disord ; 27(2): 124-144, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of ADHD, but associations between risk factors and ADHD symptom severity in affected children remain unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes evidence on the association between familial factors and symptom severity in children with ADHD (PROSPERO CRD42020076440). METHOD: PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for eligible studies. RESULTS: Forty-three studies (N = 11,123 participants) were meta-analyzed. Five additional studies (N = 2,643 participants) were considered in the supplemental review. Parenting stress (r = .25), negative parenting practices (r = .19), broken parental partnership (r = .19), critical life events (r = .17), parental psychopathologies (r = .14-.16), socioeconomic status (r = -.10), and single-parent family (r = .10) were significantly associated with ADHD symptom severity. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that psychosocial familial factors show small but significant associations with symptom severity in children with ADHD. Implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar
3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30072, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive deficits are common among children who receive central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy for childhood cancer. Parents report that they lack information from and communication with oncology providers about neurocognitive impacts of therapy. Furthermore, oncology providers report they lack training and institutional support to appropriately address the neurocognitive needs of these patients/families. METHODS: A parent/provider stakeholder informed, quality improvement (QI) project was conducted to educate providers about neurocognitive impacts, increase parent/provider communication, and improve adherence to supportive care guidelines for neuropsychological assessment for children receiving CNS-directed therapy. A 1-h Continuing Medical Education (CME) course was developed to educate providers about neurocognitive impacts and their relation to schooling. A provider-focused electronic medical record (EMR) strategy was used to deliver parent stakeholder-informed return-to-school "roadmaps," with prompts to scaffold parent/provider communication and enhance documentation of findings. RESULTS: Hospital-based CME sessions were attended by 76% (41 out of 54) of providers from our institution. Among the 34 who completed both pretest and posttest, the mean knowledge score improved from 56% at pretest to 74% at posttest. Compliance with the EMR strategy was 80% and there was a 42% increase in neuropsychological assessment referrals. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that this QI project is an example of a successful parent/provider stakeholder collaboration that achieved demonstrable positive change in the areas of provider knowledge, patient/provider communication, and alignment of neuropsychological assessment referrals with existing guidelines. Our results confirm that improving knowledge, communication, and compliance with neuropsychological standards of care is possible with this evidence-based approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Humanos , Comunicação , Oncologia , Pais/psicologia
4.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP819-NP846, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343305

RESUMO

Although most parental discipline research examines the effects of discipline in children and adolescents, recent research has demonstrated that emerging adults continue to receive parental discipline. Importantly, a newly validated instrument for assessing discipline specifically during emerging adulthood has been created. Scales from this instrument include maternal and paternal approval, disappointment, and abuse, and these scales were associated with other parenting behaviors and psychological outcomes during emerging adulthood. However, a person-centered approach has not been conducted with this instrument. Given that discipline occurs at an idiographic level and that group norms inform such behaviors, a person-centered approach would identify highly informative emerging adult profiles based on patterns of discipline they receive from their parents. Thus, the current study utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) of 1110 participants attending a Southern United States university to identify emerging adult discipline profiles. These groups were then associated with parental and emerging adult psychological problems to gain an understanding of how these factors relate to different patterns of discipline across gender. Results best supported four profiles labeled as approving, distant, disappointed, and abusive. These groups reported increasingly higher parental and personal psychological problems across approving, distant, disappointed, and abusive profiles. Gender moderated some of these effects. Implications and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Pais , Adulto , Adolescente , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pai
5.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP646-NP669, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531607

RESUMO

Childhood trauma exposure, including witnessing or experiencing family violence, is associated with a variety of poor outcomes such as increased likelihood of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors across the lifespan. Early treatment may help to buffer these effects, but parents and youth display only moderate levels of agreement in reporting family violence, making it more difficult to identify children who have been exposed. Additionally, most studies on family violence reporting have focused primarily on small samples in specific high-risk populations, and little is known about the generalizability of these findings. Thus, the present study assessed concordance in family violence reporting and its correlates using the population-based, demographically diverse sample from the U.S. Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD®) study. Participants were 10,532 children between 9 and 10 years old, and their parent or guardian, from 21 sites across the United States. Overall, 30% (N = 3119) of the sample reported family violence and most of those reports (N = 2629) had discordant violence reporting, meaning child- and parent-report did not correspond with each other. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of participants belonging in one of the following groups: no violence reported, concordant violence reported, and discordant violence reported. Results indicated that Black or Non-Hispanic children, male children, and children with greater externalizing problems were more likely to report family violence, and parents with lower levels of education and income were more likely to report family violence. These findings likely reflect differences in distribution of risk factors among racial and ethnic minoritized individuals including increased parenting stress and decreased access to mental health treatment. Among those reporting violence, Hispanic children and children with less externalizing problems were more likely to be in the discordant group. Findings suggest that both parent and child reports are needed to assess violence and screen for appropriate services.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Pais , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Criança , Pais/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Cognição , Encéfalo
6.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP588-NP612, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354327

RESUMO

Exposure to parental violence in childhood is a significant predictor of psychological distress in adulthood. Factors at the individual level may explain the variance in psychological distress among adults exposed to parental violence. The current study examined the effect of exposure to different forms (i.e., physical violence and psychological aggression) and different patterns of parental violence (i.e., witnessing interparental violence, experiencing parental violence) on later psychological distress. The mediating role of sense of coherence (SOC) and the moderating role of gender in this relationship were also examined. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 604 married Arab adults in Israel (age = 20-60, M = 33.5, SD = 6.52) using a retrospective, self-administered questionnaire. Results indicate a significant positive relationship between all forms and types of parental violence explored in the current study with levels of psychological distress. Furthermore, exposure to parental violence correlated negatively with SOC, and low levels of SOC predicted higher levels of psychological distress. SOC was found to partially mediate the relationship between exposure to parental violence and psychological distress. Gender differences were found only with regard to experiencing physical violence as a predictor of psychological distress, indicating that the relationship between these variables is stronger in females. These results highlight the importance of SOC as a personal resource and its role in promoting psychological wellbeing. Healthcare practitioners should be aware of possible gender differences in psychological distress among Arab adults exposed to parental violence.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Senso de Coerência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Árabes/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Israel/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Violência
7.
J Atten Disord ; 27(1): 98-107, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether neuropsychological function in ADHD can be improved by the New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP), that combines standard parenting strategies with self-regulatory skills training, or predict ADHD and quality of life (QoL) treatment effects. METHOD: Participants were 93 medication-naive preschool children with ADHD (3-7 years) randomized to either NFPP (n = 49) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 44) in a recent randomized trial. Laboratory measures of executive function, reaction time variability, and delay of gratification were collected along with parent ratings of ADHD and QoL at baseline and post treatment. Ratings were collected again at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: NFPP did not improve neuropsychological function (compared to TAU), and baseline neuropsychological function did not predict treatment-related ADHD or QoL effects. CONCLUSION: Although NFPP includes a neuropsychological training element and has been shown to improve several clinical outcomes, it did not improve the neuropsychological functions it targets.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Prazer , Função Executiva
8.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 57-64, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents play a critical role in adolescents' psychological adjustment, especially in stress response. Few studies have investigated parental impact on adolescents' psychological adjustment in the pandemic. The longitudinal study examined how parental psychosocial factors at the surging period of the pandemic (T1) in China predicted adolescents' anxiety and depression concurrently and at the remission periods three (T2) and six months (T3) later. METHODS: Middle and high school students and their parents from three schools in Shanghai, China, completed online surveys on March 10, 2020 (T1), June 16, 2020 (T2), and Sep 25, 2020 (T3). Adolescents' anxiety/depression levels were assessed by matching self- and parent-reports at T1, T2, T3, and parents reported their psychological state (emotion and psychopathology), pandemic response (appraisal and coping), and perceived social support (PSS) at T1. RESULTS: Parental positive/negative emotions, anxiety, depression, control-appraisal, forward- and trauma-focus coping style and PSS were all significantly related to their children's anxiety/depression at T1. All factors, except coping style, predicted adolescents' anxiety/depression at T2 and T3, even after controlling for T1 adjustment levels. Parental positive emotion and depression had the strongest impact on adolescents' adjustment. LIMITATIONS: Some participants didn't complete the surveys at later time points, and the participants were only recruited in Shanghai. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that parents' psychosocial factors played a pivotal role on adolescents' psychological adjustment during COVID-19, highlighting the need to provide help to parents who were suffering from potential psychological distress.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ajustamento Emocional , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Relações Pais-Filho , Estudos Longitudinais , China/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia
9.
J Intensive Care Med ; 38(1): 11-20, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine medical and psychosocial risk factors associated with the development of acute stress in parents of patients unexpectedly admitted to the PICU. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary care children's hospitals with mixed medical/surgical/cardiac PICU. PATIENTS: Parents of patients unexpectedly admitted to the PICU. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 265 parents of 188 children were enrolled of whom 49 parents (18%) met ASD qualification and 108 (41%) parents developed ASD symptoms as determined by the ASDS-5 scale. Risk factors making parents likely to meet ASD qualification include parents from area served by Penn State (p < 0.001), prior psychiatric illness (p < 0.01), and female gender (p < 0.05), while graduating college was protective (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, parents from area served by Penn State (OR 3.00 (1.49-6.05) p < 0.01) and parents with prior psychiatric illness (OR 2.16 (1.03-4.52) p < 0.05) were associated with ASD qualification. Parents who graduated college or had prior medical problems were not significant.Risk factors making parents more likely to develop ASD symptoms (significant symptoms that do not meet ASD qualification) include patients with higher PRISM-III scores (p < 0.01), patients receiving cardiovascular support (p < 0.05), parents with a history of prior physical/sexual abuse (p < 0.01), parental involvement in the past with a major disaster/accident (p < 0.01), a family member admitted to an ICU in the past (p < 0.05) and preexisting parental psychiatric/medical disorders (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, prior parental psychiatric disorder (OR 4.11 (1.80-6.42) p < 0.001), history of parental abuse (OR 3.11 (1.14-5.08) p < 0.05), and parental prior medical problem (OR 2.03 (1.01-3.05) p < 0.05) were associated with the development of ASD symptoms. However, PRISM-III score and prior involvement in major disaster were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of psychosocial parental risk factors and patient factors were associated with acute stress in parents. Further studies evaluating targeted hospital interventions towards parents most at-risk are needed.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Pais , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pais/psicologia , Hospitalização , Fatores de Risco
10.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 41: 124-131, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428040

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of parents in forensic mental health services with regard to their cooperation with healthcare professionals and their role as parent carers. 15 participants were interviewed using qualitative, in-depth interviews and transcripts were analysed thematically. The identified themes were 'Medical dominance', 'Interactions with healthcare professionals', and 'Advocating for their daughter/son'. The themes were associated with the overall theme 'perceived impact on the parents' everyday lives'. The results suggest that parent carers perceive a malalignment between the institutional medicalised treatment focus and the need for an integrated holistic approach, which would include them as partners.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Criança , Humanos , Cuidadores/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 690, 2022 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric classifications are understood in many different ways. For children with ADHD and their parents, psychoeducation is an important source of information for shaping their understanding. Moreover, psychoeducation is often taken by children and parents to represent how their story is understood by the therapist. As a result, the way psychoeducation is formulated may affect the therapeutic alliance, one of the most robust mediators of treatment outcome. In addition, psychoeducation may indirectly influence the way we understand psychological differences as a society. METHODS: To better understand how the classification ADHD is given meaning through psychoeducation, we analyzed 41 written psychoeducational materials from four different countries; the USA, UK, Netherlands and Hungary. RESULTS: We identified five patterns of how the materials construct the discourse on ADHD. Notably, tension between biomedical and psychosocial perspectives resulted in conflict within a single thematic stance on ADHD as opposed to a conflict between parties with a different vision on ADHD. There were only few differences between countries in the way they constructed the discourse in the materials. CONCLUSIONS: These conflicts cause confusion, misrepresentation and decontextualization of ADHD. Ultimately, for those diagnosed with ADHD and their parents, conflicting information in psychoeducation materials may hamper their ability to understand themselves in the context of their difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Cognição , Resultado do Tratamento , Países Baixos
12.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364760

RESUMO

Protein, iron, zinc, and choline affect early brain development and are found in beef. The aims of this study were to describe (1) early feeding practices related to introduction of beef in the rural US west (Idaho); (2) parental perceptions of beef as a first food, and (3) associations between early beef consumption and child cognition at 1-5 years. A total of 61 children and their parents were enrolled. Parents completed a survey and a food frequency questionnaire to assess perceptions of beef and early feeding practices along with their child's dietary intake at 6-12 months. Children's cognitive function was assessed using the Bayley-4 Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (12-35 months) and the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (3-5 years). Parents introduced beef at 7.79 ± 2.65 months of age, primarily so that their children could eat what the family was eating. Higher intake of beef (r = 0.41, p = 0.02), zinc (r = 0.45, p = 0.01), and choline (r = 0.39, p = 0.03) at 6-12 months was associated with better attention and inhibitory control at 3-5 years of age. These findings support the role of beef as an early food for cognitive development, although controlled dietary intervention studies are needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Lactente , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cognição , Colina , Zinco , Poder Familiar
13.
Res Dev Disabil ; 131: 104368, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334402

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research has established the association of maladaptive behaviours exhibited by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with an increase in the extent of care burden among their caregivers. The mental health needs of caregivers and their effective management, therefore, need to be given due consideration. The main aim of this paper is to reiterate the significance of the role of training programmes for caregivers in enhancing their knowledge and enabling them to manage behavioural challenges with more independence and confidence. METHODS: The aims, structure, and content of the ASD training programme for caregivers implemented by the specialist child and adolescent mental health service, Hamad Medical Corporation, are described. Sixty families have benefited from this initiative so far. A summary of the feedback provided by forty caregivers, all biological parents, is also summarised. RESULTS: The mean score related to knowledge among participants before and after attending the training increased from 3.28 to 4.41. Out of the 40 parents who provided feedback, 27 (67.5%) reported an increase in their understanding of the topic after attendance. CONCLUSION: This initiative consolidates the significance of programmes focusing on enhancing awareness and improving coping among caregivers of children and young people with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Catar , Pais/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Família
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2011, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exploring parental motives for providing smartphones and tablets to young children is important to better understand ways to optimise healthy use of mobile screens in early childhood. To date, no study has qualitatively examined the factors underpinning parental motives of providing mobile screens to young children, using a theoretically driven approach. METHODS: We conducted 45 in-depth, semi structured online interviews with primary caregivers of toddlers and pre-schoolers from diverse family backgrounds who participated in a large online survey in Australia. Themes were generated from the transcribed interviews using template thematic analysis. The coding was completed deductively using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and data-driven induction. RESULTS: Participants consistently reported a spectrum of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control aspects which drove their decision to provide or not provide a mobile screen device to their child. Five main descriptive themes were generated, guided by the TPB: (1) Convenience, connection, and non-traditional learning experience; (2) Negative behavioural consequences and potential activity displacement through mobile screens; (3) Influences of society and resources; (4) Managing and achieving a balance; (5) External challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings demonstrated that parents experienced cognitive dissonance between their attitudes and behaviour, primarily from perceived behavioural control and subjective norms negating the influence of attitudes on their motives to provide a device. These insights offer important avenues for public health messaging and resources to better involve and support parents in decision-making relating to mobile screens in everyday lives of young children.


Assuntos
Computadores de Mão , Pais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Atitude , Smartphone , Motivação
15.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 267, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex constellations of socio-emotional and behavioural problems (i.e., mental health problems) in childhood and adolescence are common and heighten the risk for subsequent personality, anxiety and mood disorders in adulthood. Aims of this study included the examination of patterns of mental health problems (e.g., externalizing-internalizing co-occurrence) and their transitions to reported mental disorders by using a longitudinal person-centered approach (latent class and latent transition analysis). METHODS: The sample consisted of 1255 children and adolescents (51.7% female, mean age = 12.3 years, age range 8-26 years) from three time points of the comprehensive mental health and wellbeing BELLA study. Children and their parents completed the German SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, Goodman, 1997) and reported on diagnoses of ADHD, depression, and anxiety. RESULTS: Latent class analysis identified a normative class, an emotional problem class, and a multiple problem class. According to latent transition analysis, the majority of the sample (91.6%) did not change latent class membership over time; 14.7% of individuals showed a persistent pattern of mental health problems. Diagnoses of mental disorders were more likely to be reported by individuals in the emotional problem or multiple problem class. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the need for early prevention of mental health problems to avoid accumulation and manifestation in the transition to adolescence and young adulthood.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
16.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 71(7): 620-639, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382744

RESUMO

In general, little is known about the experiences of parents of a transgender child or adolescent when seeking health care services. In addition, there is little research on how parents interact with their child in the health care system. International studies show high vulnerability and psychological distress among those children and adolescents who assign themselves to a gender other than the one assigned at birth. Parental support represents a protective factor related to mental health. The aim of this study is to investigate parental interaction processes in medical-psychological treatment settings. For this purpose, guided qualitative interviews were conducted throughout Germany with twelve fathers and mothers of transgender children/adolescents. Most parents faced a number of challenges and barriers to their children's health care. A lack of knowledge and insecurities on the part of the health care practitioners up to psychopathologization of identity were ascertainable. At the same time, accepting, affectionate and supportive encounters were evident from the reports. Furthermore, it was found that the parents took an essential protective and supportive stance towards their children in the treatments. For improved health care, sensitization and education regarding gender variance in childhood and adolescence is necessary for health care practitioners in the health care system. The study can contribute to expanding the scientific discourse on life biographies of young trans* people and their parents.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Criança , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Humanos , Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Atenção à Saúde , Mães
17.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(11-12): 466-478, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383158

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sufficient sleep and good quality sleep are crucial aspects of children's healthy development. While previous research has suggested associations between sleep and positive mental health, few studies have been conducted in Canadian children. METHODS: This study used data from the 2019 Canadian Health Survey on Children and Youth. Parents of children aged 5 to 11 years (N = 16 170) reported on their children's sleep habits and mental health. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate means and percentages for sleep and mental health indicators. Logistic regression was used to compare mental health outcomes by meeting sleep duration recommendations (9-11 hours of sleep vs. < 9 or > 11 hours of sleep), sleep quality (difficulties getting to sleep) and having enforced rules for bedtime. RESULTS: Overall, 86.2% of children aged 5 to 11 years met sleep duration recommendations (9-11 hours of sleep), 90.0% had high sleep quality and 83.1% had enforced rules for bedtime. While 83.0% of children had high general mental health, mental health diagnoses were reported for 9.5% of children, and 15.8% of children required or received mental health care. High sleep quality was consistently associated with better mental health, enforced rules for bedtime were associated with some negative mental health outcomes and meeting sleep duration recommendations tended not to be associated with mental health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Sleep quality was strongly associated with mental health among children in this study. Future research should explore longitudinal associations between sleep and mental health in Canadian children.


INTRODUCTION: Un sommeil suffisant et un sommeil de bonne qualité sont des composantes cruciales du développement sain des enfants. Si des recherches antérieures laissent entrevoir des associations entre le sommeil et une bonne santé mentale, peu d'études ont été menées chez les enfants canadiens. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Cette étude se fonde sur les données de l'Enquête canadienne sur la santé des enfants et des jeunes de 2019. Des parents d'enfants âgés de 5 à 11 ans (N = 16 170) ont fait état des habitudes de sommeil et de la santé mentale de leurs enfants. Des statistiques descriptives ont servi à calculer les moyennes et les pourcentages des indicateurs du sommeil et de la santé mentale. Une régression logistique a été utilisée pour comparer les résultats en matière de santé mentale en fonction du respect des recommandations sur la durée du sommeil (9 à 11 heures de sommeil contre moins de 9 heures ou plus de 11 heures), la qualité du sommeil (difficulté à s'endormir) et l'application de règles relatives à l'heure du coucher. RÉSULTATS: Dans l'ensemble, 86,2 % des enfants de 5 à 11 ans respectaient les recommandations sur la durée du sommeil (9 à 11 heures de sommeil), 90,0 % avaient un sommeil de grande qualité et 83,1 % avaient des règles à respecter concernant l'heure du coucher. Si 83,0 % des enfants avaient un niveau élevé de santé mentale générale, des diagnostics en matière de santé mentale ont tout de même été déclarés pour 9,5 % des enfants, et 15,8 % ont eu besoin de soins de santé mentale ou en ont reçus. Un sommeil de grande qualité a été systématiquement associé à une meilleure santé mentale, l'application de règles relatives à l'heure du coucher a été associée à certains effets négatifs sur la santé mentale et le respect des recommandations sur la durée du sommeil ne semble pas avoir d'incidence sur la santé mentale. CONCLUSION: Cette étude révèle une forte association entre la qualité du sommeil et la santé mentale chez les enfants. Les recherches futures devraient se pencher sur les associations longitudinales entre le sommeil et la santé mentale des enfants canadiens.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Sono , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pais/psicologia
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1350, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic necessitated rapid adoption of remote provision across child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). The study aimed to understand young people's, parents'/carers', and professionals' experiences of remote provision across CAMHS in one NHS Trust in the North West of England to inform future recovery practice so that remote sessions can continue where they have been well received but re-thought or replaced where they have not. METHODS: The study sample comprised three groups: (i) young people, (ii) parents/carers, and (iii) clinical staff. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were used to collect data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three overarching themes were identified: 'Remote therapeutic experiences'; 'Spaces and places of therapy'; and 'Future of CAMHS'. Although remote appointments increased flexibility within the service, the quality of the relational experience was altered, typically for the worse. Clinicians felt less able to examine vital forms of non-verbal communication, which were considered instrumental in assessing and engaging people experiencing difficulties, leaving some questioning their professionalism. Although some young people suggested that remote provision increased comfort levels, others felt their place of comfort and safety was invaded. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced travel time for both clinicians and families may increase capacity, enabling the service to meet the increased demand if clinical effectiveness can be preserved. In considering future models of provision, assessing clinical need, patient and family preference, and access to space and hardware are all critical when deciding which modality to use for the best outcomes for each individual.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia
19.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 90(10): 827-836, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although cognitive behavioral treatments (CBTs) are well-established evidence-based interventions for anxiety disorders in youth, there is long-standing underrepresentation of Hispanic/Latino (H/L) families in youth anxiety clinical trials research. The impact of such underrepresentation is that clinicians who work with H/L youth have minimal evidence-based guidance on best practices. The present study moves toward informing best practices for working with H/L youth with anxiety disorders by examining H/L parents' acculturation and enculturation as moderators of youth anxiety outcomes following CBTs. METHOD: Two hundred eleven H/L youths ages 6-16 (M = 9.41 years, SD = 2.39 years; 43.8% female) and their parents were assigned to individual-youth CBT or one of two parent involvement CBTs: one targeted decreasing parent psychological control, the other targeted decreasing parent use of negative reinforcement. Parent acculturation and enculturation were measured at pretreatment; youth anxiety severity was measured at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up evaluations. RESULTS: Youth anxiety outcomes were enhanced in both parent involvement CBTs compared with individual-youth CBT. Parent acculturation, but not enculturation, significantly moderated outcomes. At lower levels of parent acculturation, youth anxiety outcomes were enhanced in the parent involvement CBT that targeted negative reinforcement. At higher levels of parent acculturation, youth anxiety outcomes were enhanced in the parent involvement CBT that targeted psychological control. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further support the efficacy of CBTs for anxiety disorders in H/L youth and suggest guidance for tailoring parent involvement treatments based on parent acculturation levels. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aculturação , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Masculino , Hispânico ou Latino , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e068212, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is essential for the WHO cervical cancer elimination initiative. In Cameroon, HPV vaccine uptake is currently 5%. To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of parents of young girls aged 9-14 years about HPV vaccines within rural communities in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. METHODS: During January-May 2022, we conducted 45 one-on-one interviews using a semistructured interview guide in the localities of Mbingo, Njinikom and Fundong. Participants were parents of girls aged 9-14 years who speak English or Pidgin English. Healthcare workers were excluded. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using ATLAS.ti V.9. Member checking was conducted presenting our findings and getting feedback from a focus group of parents. RESULTS: Thirty-five mothers and 10 fathers were interviewed with a mean age of 42 years. Ninety-one per cent of parents had ever been vaccinated. Seventy-seven per cent had no or only primary school education. Thirty-two parents (71.12%) had daughters who had not been vaccinated against HPV. The themes identified include: perceived effectiveness of the HPV vaccine, affective behaviour (how they feel about the vaccine), accessibility (ability to get the vaccine), intervention coherence, ethicality (including parental informed consent), opportunity cost (future potential financial implications of cancer prevention), decision-making in the home (predominantly paternalistic), self-efficacy (extent to which education initiatives were effective) and quality initiatives (use of village infrastructure including fons/qwifons, village crier, healthcare worker presenting at the njangi house, schools and churches). Member checking with 30 women from two other communities confirmed our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of awareness concerning the availability and purpose of the HPV vaccination was prevalent. Use of mainstream media and top-down health education activities are not effective. Novel approaches should engage local community health workers and use established community social and leadership structures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT05325138).


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Camarões , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Adolescente
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