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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4574-4581, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164420

RESUMO

Glycosyltransferases(UGTs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, which can catalyze the transfer of glycans from donor molecules to acceptor molecules, and form a variety of biologically active glycoside compounds. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, a large number of medicinal plant genome and transcriptome sequences have been catalyzed, while more and more UGT genes have been discovered and verified. The methods of discovering UGT genes include differential expression analysis, homologous sequence screening, gene cluster screening, chemical proteome screening. This paper summarized the research progress of UGT genes screening and functional verification of three valuable Panax medicinal materials P. notoginseng, P. ginseng, and P. quinquefolius, so as to provide a reference for the study of UGT genes in natural products.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Genoma de Planta , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Família Multigênica , Panax/genética
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4373-4381, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164365

RESUMO

Comparison of total organic carbon(TOC), total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP), soil microbial biomass carbon(MBC), nitrogen(MBN), phosphorus(MBP) and their stoichiometric ratios measuring from understory planting of Paris polyphylla and Panax japonicus rhizosphere soil with the data of the original forest soil will help us to understand the influence of different planting patterns between soil traits and soil microbial interaction and nutrient cycle characteristics. The results showed that the contents of TOC, TN and MBN were the highest in the rhizosphere soil of P. japonicus, while the highest values of TP, MBC and MBP were found in the rhizosphere soil of P. polyphylla. The changes of TOC∶TN, TOC∶TP, TN∶TP, MBC∶MBN, MBC∶MBP and MBN∶MBP of P. polyphylla and P. japonicus rhizosphere soil compared with the data of the original forest soil were 3.65 and 37.32%,-14.89 and 82.23%,-17.87 and 32.76%, 25.67 and-50.60%,-75.95 and-16.33% as well as-80.79 and 69.76%, respectively. TN and TP were significantly correlated with MBN and MBP respectively. Although, monoculture of P. polyphylla and P. japonicus changed soil nutrient level, it did not reach the state of nutrient deficiency. The demands for nitrogen and phosphorus between P. polyphylla and P. japonicus were quite different. According to their different habits, monoculture of P. polyphylla and P. japonicus could change the understory soil traits, resulting in allometric changes in part of soil nutrient stoichiometry and soil microbial stoichiometry, and then the disappearance of internal stability. The variations in the understory soil caused by P. polyphylla and P. japonicus is developing in completely different directions, whether this phenomenon indicates that the two species have less niche overlap needs further study.


Assuntos
Liliaceae , Panax , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4404-4410, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164369

RESUMO

The chemical fingerprints of American ginseng were established by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) coupled with similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditionanl Chinese medicine. The results were analyzed with use of stoichiometry methods(cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis), and meanwhile, a preliminary study on the antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity of colorectal cancer cells was conducted. By comparing the fingerprints of American ginseng before and after processing, the contents of five components in the eight ginseno-sides quantified in this paper increased, including ginsenoside Rc, Rg_2, Rb_2, Rb_3 and Rd, respectively, and a new component was produced after steaming. The activity study showed that steamed American ginseng had better antioxidant activity and anti-proliferation activity of colorectal cancer cells than raw American ginseng. The research results show that the steaming method of American ginseng used in this experiment has good stability and reproducibility, and the steaming of American ginseng produces similar changes as artificial red ginseng, which provides a certain reference for expanding the application range of American ginseng.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vapor
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4598-4605, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164423

RESUMO

The soil fertility quality is one of the most critical indicators of soil productivity. It directly affects the yield, quality and agricultural efficiency of Chinese medicinal materials. In order to establish the American ginseng planting soil fertility quality evaluation method based on the effective components of American ginseng, Wendeng district, Weihai city, Shandong province, the main producing area of American ginseng, was cited as a case for the study. Twenty-two 4-years American ginseng sampling sites are located at 7 towns. The samples of soil and plant root were collected in the autumn of 2017-2019. The saponin contents of American ginseng and 11 soil chemical properties were measured. The minimum data set(MDS) for assessment of the quality of soil fertility quality was established by correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The evaluation indexes were normalized by membership function. Soil quality index(SQI) that indicates soil comprehensive fertility quality level was calculated according to the critical value of membership function and weight value of each soil index in MDS. The results showed that the total saponin(Rg_1+Re+Rb_1) content of American ginseng in samples ranged from 1.76% to 7.94%. The yield of 8 plots in 2019 ranged from 3 818.7 kg·hm~(-2) to 8 996.4 kg·hm~(-2). MDS includes organic matter, alkaline nitrogen, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable magnesium, effective iron, effective copper, and effective zinc. Based on the mean of 4.825% of total saponin, threshold value of SQI for the region was determined to be 0.15, and 86.36% of soil samples in the county were above the threshold value. The methods and parameters are applicable to selection of high quality American ginseng planting sites and guiding rational fertilization. It also provides a reference for the evaluation of soil fertility quality of other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Agricultura , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4725-4731, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164439

RESUMO

To study the effect of Panax japonicas saponin Ⅳa(SPJ-Ⅳa) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) through miR-17-5 p/MFN2 signaling pathway. The nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model was induced by a high-fat diet combined with CCl_4 in Balb/c male mice. The mouse serum and liver were collected, the body weight and liver weight were measured, the liver index was calculated, and the serum biochemical indicators alanine amino transferase(ALT), triglyceride(TG), and glucose(Glu) were measured. The morphological changes in the liver were detected by HE and Masson staining, Real-time PCR was used to detect lipid metabolism-related genes, inflammation-related genes interleukin-6(IL-6) and interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), miR-17-5 p and MFN2 expressions, and Western blot was used to detect MFN2 protein expression level. Compared with the normal control group, the liver index in the HFD+CCl_4 group was significantly increased, and the contents of ALT, TG, and Glu were significantly increased; the morphology showed obvious steatosis and collagen fiber deposition; mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes, inflammation-related genes and miR-17-5 p increased significantly, the mRNA expression level of MFN2 decreased significantly, and the protein level of MFN2 decreased. After intervention with SPJ-Ⅳa, the levels of ALT, TG and Glu decreased, morphological steatosis decreased, collagen fiber deposition decreased, and mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes, inflammation-related genes and miR-17-5 p decreased. The mRNA expression level of MFN2 increased, and the protein level of MFN2 also increased. The results of this study indicated that miR-17-5 p/MFN2 signaling pathway may be involved in the occurrence and development of NASH, and SPJ-Ⅳa had a protective effect on NASH, its mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-17-5 p/MFN2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Panax , Saponinas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(9): 1313-1318, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of pretreatment of neuroblastoma cells with hot water extract of Korean ginseng on MNNG-induced parthanatos and its mechanism. METHODS: Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with 1 mg/L hot water extract of Korean ginseng before induction with 250 µmol/L MNNG for 1 h or 4 h. CCK-8 and cell flow cytometry were used to detect cell survival rate. Western blotting was used to detect the changes in poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) expression in the treated cells. Immunofluorescence assay was used to detect nuclear distribution of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and flow cytometry was used to detect the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. RESULTS: Compared with the blank control cells, MNNG-treated SH-SY5Y cells showed significantly decreased survival rate as the concentration of MNNG and the stimulation time increased (P < 0.05). Stimulation with MNNG also resulted in significantly increased expression of PAR protein in the cells (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of the cells with hot water extract of Korean ginseng obviously inhibited MNNG-induced cell death and significantly reduced AIF expression and nucleation in the cells (P < 0.05). MNNG stimulation significantly increased ROS level in the cells, which was decreased significantly by pretreatment of the cells with the extract (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with hot water extract of Korean ginseng reduces MNNG-induced parthanatos and ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Panax , Fator de Indução de Apoptose/metabolismo , Humanos , Panax/metabolismo , Parthanatos , República da Coreia
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 317: 123945, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805484

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the production of sugars from ginseng residues treated with laccase. Laccase was used to degrade lignin from ginseng residues in order to increase the yield of sugars. Reaction conditions, including solid loading, pH, enzyme concentration, incubation temperature, and incubation time, were investigated and optimized. The results showed that the optimum conditions were 20% of solid loading (w/v), pH 7, 300 IU/ml, temperature of 40 °C and incubation time of 6 h. The minimum residual lignin obtained was 59.89%. The results also showed that 56.58% sugars including 12.04% water soluble polysaccharides (WSP), 16.24% water insoluble polysaccharides (WIP) and 5.08% reducing sugar were afforded from delignify substance. Chemical characters of these sugars were analyzed. Pretreat of laccase delignification for sugars production is expected to be applied to other herbal residues.


Assuntos
Lignina , Panax , Lacase , Açúcares , Temperatura
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780763

RESUMO

Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. In the 100% complete feed and ginseng polysaccharide (Po) group, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was significantly increased, crypt depth was reduced, and villus height remained unaffected. Next, we studied the intestinal microbial composition of 32 Xuefeng black-bone chickens. A total of 10 phyla and 442 genera were identified, among which Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Sutterella and Asteroleplasma abundance increased and decreased, respectively, in the FP and Po groups. Sutterella abundance was positively correlated to villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and negatively correlated to crypt depth, and Asteroleplasma abundance was positively correlated to crypt depth and negatively correlated to villus height to crypt depth ratio. At the species level, the FP group showed significantly increased Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum and decreased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance, and the Po group showed significantly increased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance. Moreover, bacterial abundance was closely related to the jejunum histomorphology. Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance was positively correlated with crypt depth and negatively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio. Mycoplasma_gallinarum abundance was positively correlated to villus height, and Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum abundance was positively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio and negatively correlated with crypt depth. Therefore, fermented feeds with ginseng polysaccharides may be used as effective alternatives to antibiotics for improving intestinal morphology and microbial composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Fermentação , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/microbiologia
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4529-4535, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although ginseng seed oil (GSO) appears to have various roles in the body, its anti-cancer effect has not been investigated. Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer but shows adverse effects with drug resistance. This study investigated the effect of GSO in ER+ breast cancer cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability assays, western blots and Annexin V staining were conducted to examine cell viability and apoptosis. The synergistic effect of tamoxifen in combination with GSO or oleic acid (OA) was determined. RESULTS: GSO and OA caused apoptosis of MCF-7 ER+ breast cancer cells and had synergistic effects with tamoxifen in inhibiting tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TAMR) ER+ breast cancer cell growth. CONCLUSION: GSO may block ER+ breast cancer recurrence in combination with tamoxifen.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(12): 2938-2946, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627470

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the changes of intestinal flora in vascular aging mice, in order to explore the relationship between vascular aging and intestinal flora and the effects of extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma on intestinal flora of vascular aging mice. A model of vascular aging in mice was induced through intrape-ritoneal injection with streptozotocin(STZ) combined with high-fat diet. Biochemical detection was performed on serum cholesterol(CHO), triglyceride(TG), high-density liptein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density liptein cholesterol(LDL-C) and blood glucose(GLU). HE staining was used to detect mice thoracic aorta morphology, and the expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 A(p16) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 A(p21) protein in mice thoracic aorta were detected by Western blot. The 16 S rDNA gene of mice intestinal flora was detected by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology to explore the changes of intestinal flora in each group. The results demonstrated that the GLU level in low-dose and high-dose TCM groups decreased, but with unobvious changes in blood lipid indexes. Metformin could significantly decrease the levels of GLU(P<0.01), CHO and LDL-C in mice(P<0.05). Intravascular injury was not obvious in each drug group, and the expressions of p16 and p21 protein were significantly decreased(P<0.05). The intestinal flora of each group was mainly composed of Firmicutes(F) and Bacteroidetes(B) at the level of the phylum, but the B/F ratio was different from that of the youth group and the blank control group. The B/F ratio of the model group was significantly lower(P<0.01), and compared with the model group, the B/F ratio of the high-dose group and the metformin group was signi-ficantly higher(P<0.05). There were dominant and differential floras in the intestine of each group of mice. The results showed that extracts of Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma could improve the intestinal flora structure and create a good intestinal environment by increasing the B/F ratio, which provides a new possible pathway for lowering blood glucose and blood lipids and delaying vascular aging.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Panax , Envelhecimento , Animais , Glucose , Lipídeos , Camundongos
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2515-2522, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627483

RESUMO

Ethylene responsive factor(ERF), one of the largest families of transcriptional factors in plants, plays a key role in se-condary metabolism of herbal plants. To analyze the expression of ERF family genes, the heat map clustering method was used by analyzing the ginseng transcriptomes of different parts and different growth years. The contents of ginsenosides Rg_1, Re and Rb_1 in various concentrations of MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by UPLC-MS/MS method. The expression of key genes of ginsenoside biosynthesis(DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2) and ERF family genes in MeJA-treated ginseng adventitious roots were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation was adopted to analyze the gene expression pattern of DDS, CYP716A47, CYP716A53v2 gene and ERF family. The results showed that the content of ginseng diol ginsenoside Rb_1 in ginseng adventitious roots treated with different concentrations of MeJA increased, and the content of ginseng triol ginsenoside Rg_1 and Re decreased. It is consistent with the increase of DDS and CYP716A47 expression and the decrease of CYP716A53v2 gene expression. The expression of ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 genes was significantly positively correlated with CYP716A53v2, but negatively correlated with DDS. While the expression of ERF1B was significantly negatively correlated with CYP716A47.It is proved that ERF003, ERF118 and ERF012 were likely to inhibit the expression of DDS and promote the expression of CYP716A53v2, and ERF1B was likely to inhibit CYP716A47. This work could provide theoretical basis of ERF functional verification of regulating the biosynthesis of ginsenosides.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax , Cromatografia Líquida , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Transcrição
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(14): 3475-3480, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726064

RESUMO

This work describes the holistic fingerprinting method based on liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detection(CAD) to profile non-saponin from water-soluble parts and determination of dencichine in Panax ginseng(PG), P. quinquefolium(PQ) and P. notoginseng(PNG). Sample extraction was carried out by water with ultra sonication for 30 min, which was eluted by Retain PEP for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a Hypercarb of porous graphitized carbon(3.0 mm×150 mm, 3 µm) column with acetonitrile and 0.1% perfluoropentanoic acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL·min~(-1). Temperature of evaporator and nitrogen pressure for CAD were set at 50 ℃and 60.1 psi(1 psi≈6.895 kPa), respectively. As a result, dencichine and other polar components had a good performance on resolution and retention. The correlation coefficient(R~2) of dencichine was 0.998 2 in the concentration from 0.019 2 to 0.48 µg·mL~(-1). Limit of quantitation calculated by signal to noise of 10 was 7.4 ng·mL~(-1), and the recovery ranged from 95.52% to 102.7%. Chemical profile of the water-soluble part from PG, PQ and PNG was similar holistically, while the relative content for dencichine and other partial components varied significantly. The proposed method was used for characteristic of chemical profiling for non-saponin from water-soluble part, and determination of dencichine in PG, PQ and PNG.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng , Panax , Saponinas , Aerossóis , Diamino Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Raízes de Plantas , Água
13.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2479-2487, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fatigue is a distressing symptom in head & neck cancer patients before during and at the end of curative therapy. Pharmacologic and not pharmacologic treatments have been proposed with scarce or no evidence of efficacy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of American ginseng in respect to placebo in reducing fatigue in patients treated for head and neck cancer with curative intent. METHODS: Thirty-two patients who had completed oncological treatment for a primary Head & neck tumor for at least 1 year and had a global fatigue score > 4 by means of Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) were randomized to receive 1000 mg of American ginseng or placebo per day for 8 weeks with the aim to assess their efficacy. Changes in fatigue scores in the 2 subgroups of patients before and after the treatment with American ginseng or placebo, were assessed by the BFI at baseline and at the end of week 8. RESULTS: The mean of the mean values of the BFI measured at 8 weeks (end of treatment) was 4.6 in the Ginseng arm and 3.4 in the Placebo arm (p = ns). Mean comparison showed a tendency to statistical significance only for the single item on interference with general activity (p = 0.06), with better performance for placebo. The mean of the differences between baseline values and 8 weeks values was not significantly different between treatment arms considering the entire questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The present data shows that American ginseng has insufficient evidence to be recommended for Cancer Related Fatigue (CRF) in post treatment HNC survivors.


Assuntos
Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Panax , Adulto , Idoso , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fitoterapia/métodos
14.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1091-1102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668967

RESUMO

Black ginseng (BG), which is ginseng that has been steamed and dried nine times, and its main protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides Rg4, Rg6, Rh4, and Rg2 have been reported to exhibit various forms of biological activity, including antiseptic, antidiabetic, wound-healing, immune-stimulatory, and anti-oxidant activity. The aim of the this study was to examine the effects of [Formula: see text] (a rare protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction; Rg2, Rg4, Rg6, Rh1, and Rh4) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-)2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs). [Formula: see text] was tested to determine its effect on iNOS protein expression and inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-[Formula: see text] in the lung tissue of LPS-treated mice. The results showed that [Formula: see text] induced the expression of HO-1, reduced LPS-activated NF-[Formula: see text]B-luciferase activity, and inhibited iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE2, which contributed to the inhibition of STAT-1 phosphorylation. In particular, [Formula: see text] induced the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus by increasing Nrf2-ARE activity and decreased IL-1[Formula: see text] production in LPS-activated HPAECs. This reduction in iNOS/NO expression due to [Formula: see text] was reversed by siHO-1 RNA transfection. In LPS-treated mice, [Formula: see text] significantly reduced lung tissue iNOS protein levels and TNF-[Formula: see text] levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In conclusion, these findings indicate that [Formula: see text] has a critical anti-inflammatory effect due to its ability to regulate iNOS via the inhibition of p-STAT-1 and NF-[Formula: see text]B, and thus it may be suitable for the treatment of inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Panax/química , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(5): 1141-1157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668974

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is considered as a major factor in aging and exacerbates aging process through a variety of molecular mechanisms. D-galactose, a normal reducing sugar with high dose can cause the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or stimulate free radical production indirectly by the formation of advanced glycation end products in tissues, finally resulting in oxidative stress. 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3), a major and representative component isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer), has been shown to observably have an anti-oxidative effect. We thereby investigated the beneficial effects of 20(R)-Rg3 on D-galactose-induced oxidative stress injury and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that continuous injection of D-galactose with 800[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day for 8 weeks increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). However, such increases were attenuated by the treatment of 20(R)-Rg3 for 4 weeks. Meanwhile, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly inhibited D-galactose-caused oxidative stress in liver and kidney. The anti-oxidants, including catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were elevated in the mice from 20(R)-Rg3-treated group compared with that from D-galactose group. In contrast, a significant decrease in levels of cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1) and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were observed in the 20(R)-Rg3-treated group. These effects were associated with a significant increase of AGEs. More importantly, 20(R)-Rg3 effectively attenuated D-galactose induced apoptosis in liver and kidney via restoring the upstream PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that 20(R)-Rg3 may be a novel and promising anti-oxidative therapeutic agent to prevent aging-related injuries in liver and kidney.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20690, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) should be deeply concerned all over the world. Panax ginseng (ginseng) as traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment and health care for respiratory diseases. However, only one similar systematic review based on common cold has been published in 2011. New studies have occurred and a new systematic evaluation which could describe ARTI is needed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for randomized control trials of ginseng on preventing acute respiratory tract infection in the following 8 databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED (via OVID) and 4 Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wan fang Database). The time is limited from the construction of the library to April 2020. The selection of studies, data extraction and quality of assessment will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The morbidity of ARTI by assessing self-report, caregiver report or clinical confirmation will be considered as the primary outcome. ARTI-related death among children or adults, other adverse events, absenteeism, laboratory-confirmed infection will be regarded as secondary outcome. All reported side effects and adverse events will be included as safety outcomes. Standard meta-analysis will be performed using Rev Man software V5.3. RESULTS: This study will provide a better understanding of the association between P ginseng and ARTI. CONCLUSION: This systematic review may offer stronger evidences for the clinicians to prevent the patients from ARTI and update the former one based on basic diseases and the safety. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020181317.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Metanálise como Assunto , Panax , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(8): 1866-1872, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489071

RESUMO

Mineral nutrient elements are the key factors to maintain the growth and quality of American ginseng. In order to understand the comprehensive effect of different nutrient elements deficiency on American ginseng, 2-year-old American ginsengs were cultivated by Hoagland solution(CK) or 10 different nutrients deficiency solution in sand culture. During the cultivation, the deficient symptom was observed. The plant height, leaf area, biomass, photosynthetic index, root activity, ginsenoside content were measured. The results showed that N, K or Fe deficiency could lead to leaves of American ginseng yellowing. Deficiency N, K, Ca, Mg and B were the main factors that decrease plant height and leaf area. The biomass of plant decreased significantly in all the nutrient deficient treatments(P<0.05)compared with control group, and N, K, Ca or Fe deficiency groups descended over 50%. In the absence of N, K and Fe elements, the P_n, G_s, C_i, T_r and chlorophyll of leaves were decreased mostly. The first three factors decreasing root activity were N, K and Ca deficiency. The effects of nutrient deficiency on saponins of American ginseng were different.Generally, N, P, B, Zn and Cu deficiency resulted the synthesis of saponins decreased significantly(P<0.05). This study contributed to clarify the demand characteristics of American ginseng for different nutrient elements,which is of great significance for the diagnose of nutrient deficiency, the rational fertilizer and the improvement of yield and quality of American ginseng.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Saponinas , Nutrientes , Fotossíntese
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 2050-2056, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495553

RESUMO

In this study, the infection of root arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF of Panax quinquefolium in Shandong province was investigated, and the distribution characteristics and infection regularity of AMF were found out. The AMF of P. quinquefolium roots in different habitats was examined by alkali dissociation-trypickin blue staining method to study the infection rate and infection intensity. The contents of ginsenoside(Rb_1, Re, Rg_1, Rb_2, Rd and Rh_1) in the roots of P. quinquefolium was determined by HPLC. The experimental data were SPSS 17.0 statistical software for One-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that the AMF infection in roots of P. quinquefolium, and there were obvious structures such as hyphae, arbuscular branches and vesicles, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity showed obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity with the growth age and origin of P. quinquefolium. The infection rate of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium from 1 to 3 years increased significantly with the increase of growth years(P<0.05). The infection intensity and infection rate of P. quinquefolium showed a similar change trend, the AMF infection rate and infection intensity reached the highest level in the third year. Cluster analysis showed that the infection rates of roots of P. quinquefolium in similar geographical locations could be clustered together. Correlation analysis showed that the AMF infection rate of P. quinquefolium root was significantly positively correlated with the infection intensity, and the AMF infection rate and infection intensity were significantly positively correlated with the contents of ginsenoside Rg_1, Re and Rb_1. This study explored the distribution characteristics and regularity of AMF in roots of P. quinquefolium under the protected cultivation conditions, and provided basic data for ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium and research and development of biological bacterial fertilizer.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Micorrizas , Panax , Fertilizantes , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525906

RESUMO

The NAC gene family is one of the important plant-specific transcription factor families involved in variety of physiological processes. It has been found in several plant species; however, little is known about the gene family in ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Here we report identification and systematic analysis of this gene family in ginseng. A total of 89 NAC genes, designated PgNAC01 to PgNAC89, are identified. These genes are alternatively spliced into 251 transcripts at fruiting stage of a four-year-old ginseng plant. The genes of this gene family have five conserved motifs and are clustered into 11 subfamilies, all of which are shared with the genes of the NAC gene families identified in the dicot and monocot model plant species, Arabidopsis and rice. This result indicates that the PgNAC gene family is an ancient and evolutionarily inactive gene family. Gene ontology (GO) analysis shows that the functions of the PgNAC gene family have been substantially differentiated; nevertheless, over 86% the PgNAC transcripts remain functionally correlated. Finally, five of the PgNAC genes, PgNAC05-2, PgNAC41-2, PgNAC48, PgNAC56-1, and PgNAC59, are identified to be involved in plant response to cold stress, suggesting that this gene family plays roles in response to cold stress in ginseng. These results, therefore, provide new insights into functional differentiation and evolution of a gene family in plants and gene resources necessary to comprehensively determine the functions of the PgNAC gene family in response to cold and other abiotic stresses in ginseng.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Genes de Plantas , Panax/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Panax/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(6): 446-459, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503736

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (D. officinale) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). A mixture of D. officinale and American ginseng has been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, and monocyte/macrophage functions in mice. Here, the effects of a D. officinale and American ginseng mixture on the structure of gut microbial community in dogs were examined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The data revealed that while the mixture did not change the diversity of gut microbial community significantly, differences among individuals were significantly reduced. Furthermore, the mixture-responsive operational taxonomic units (OTUs) exhibited a phase-dependent expression pattern. Fifty-five OTUs were found to exhibit a mixture-induced expression pattern, among which one third were short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing genera and the others were probiotic genera included Lactobacillus spp., Sutterella, Alistipes, Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Coprococcus, Gordonibacter, Oscillibacter, among others. By contrast, 36% of the OTUs exhibiting a mixture-repressed expression pattern were disease-associated microorganisms, and six genera, namely Actinomyces, Escherichia/Shigella, Fusobacterium, Slackia, Streptococcus and Solobacterium, were associated with cancer. In addition, five genera were closely associated with diabetes, namely Collinsella, Rothia, Howardella, Slackia and Intestinibacter. Our results indicate that this D. officinale and American ginseng mixture may be used as a prebiotic agent to enhance SCFA-producing genera and prevent gut dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax/química , Animais , Cães/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
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