Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.864
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

RESUMO

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Raízes de Plantas , Panax , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 793, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646777

RESUMO

A large body of literature has shown that ginseng had a role in diabetes mellitus management. Ginsenosides are the main active components of ginseng. But what ginsenosides can manage in diabetic are not systematic. The targets of these ginsenosides are still incomplete. Our aim was to identify which ginsenosides can manage diabetes mellitus through network pharmacology and molecular docking. To identify the targets of these ginsenosides. In this work, we retrieved and screened ginsenosides and corresponding diabetes mellitus targets across multiple databases. PPI networks of the genes were constructed using STRING, and the core targets were screened out through topological analysis. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were performed by using the R language. Finally, molecular docking was performed after bioinformatics analysis for verification. Our research results showed that 28 ginsenosides in ginseng might be against diabetes mellitus by modulating related proteins such as VEGFA, Caspase 3, and TNF-α. Among the 28 ginsenosides, 20(R)-Protopanaxatriol, 20(R)-Protopanaxadiol, and Ginsenoside Rg1 might play a significant role. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that the management of diabetes mellitus by ginsenosides may be related to the positive regulation of reactive oxygen metabolic processes, associated with the insulin signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway. Molecular docking results and molecular dynamics simulation showed that most ginsenosides could stably bind to the core target, mainly hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic bond. This study suggests the management of ginseng on diabetes mellitus. We believe that our results can contribute to the systematic study of the mechanism of ginsenosides for the management of diabetes mellitus. At the same time, it can provide a theoretical basis for subsequent studies on the management of ginsenosides in diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Farmacologia em Rede , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677964

RESUMO

The unique and tailorable physicochemical features of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) synthesized from green sources make them attractive for use in cancer treatment. Hydroponic-cultured ginseng-root-synthesized ZnO-NPs (HGRCm-ZnO NPs) were coated with O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) polymer, which stabilized and enhanced the biological efficacy of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The flower-shaped nanoparticles were crystalline in nature with a particle size of 28 nm. To evaluate if these NPs had anti-lung cancer activity, analysis was performed on a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549). HGRCm-ZnO nanoparticles showed less toxicity to normal keratinocytes (HaCaTs), at concentrations up to 20 µg/mL, than A549 cancer cells. Additionally, these NPs showed dose-dependent colony formation and cell migration inhibition ability, which makes them more promising for lung cancer treatment. Additionally, Hoechst and propidium iodide dye staining also confirmed that the NP formulation had apoptotic activity in cancer cells. Further, to evaluate the mechanism of cancer cell death via checking the gene expression, HGRCm ZnO NPs upregulated the BAX and Caspase 3 and 9 expression levels but downregulated Bcl-2 expression, indicating that the nanoformulation induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, these preliminary results suggest that HGRCm ZnO NPs can be a potential candidate for future lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias , Panax , Óxido de Zinco , Humanos , Óxido de Zinco/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Regulação para Baixo , Hidroponia , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Panax/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Difração de Raios X , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
4.
Pharm Biol ; 61(1): 316-323, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695132

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae) is a tonic herb used in ancient Asia. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antifatigue effect of P. ginseng on chronic fatigue rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, model and EEP (ethanol extraction of P. ginseng roots) (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) groups (n = 8). The rats were subcutaneously handled with loaded swimming once daily for 26 days, except for the control group. The animals were intragastrically treated with EEP from the 15th day. On day 30, serum, liver and muscles were collected, and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway was evaluated. RESULTS: The swimming times to exhaust of the rats with EEP were significantly longer than that without it. EEP spared the amount of muscle glycogen, hepatic glycogen and blood sugar under the chronic state. In addition, EEP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased serum triglycerides (1.24 ± 0.17, 1.29 ± 0.04 and 1.20 ± 0.21 vs. 1.58 ± 0.13 mmol/L) and total cholesterol (1.64 ± 0.36, 1.70 ± 0.15 and 1.41 ± 0.19 vs. 2.22 ± 0.19 mmol/L) compared to the model group. Regarding the regulation of energy, EEP had a positive impact on promoting ATPase activities and relative protein expression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that EEP effectively relieved chronic fatigue, providing evidence that P. ginseng could be a potential dietary supplement to accelerate recovery from fatigue.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Panax , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
5.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 796-809, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607268

RESUMO

Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs) have shown gut microbiota-related antitumor effects. However, the relation between their structures and antitumor functions remains unknown. Here, crude polysaccharide (GP-c) and its fractions neutral polysaccharide (GP-n) and pectin (GP-a) were prepared for structure characterization and anti-B16F10 melanoma effect evaluation, and their influence on gut microbiota diversities and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were also analyzed. Spearman correlations among the altered gut microbiota, SCFAs, and antitumor effects were conducted to elucidate the structure-function relationships. It was shown that the structures of GP-c, GP-n, and GP-a varied in monosaccharide composition and molecular weight distribution. GP-n and GP-c showed anti-melanoma effects, whereas GP-a promoted its growth slightly. GP-n and GP-c restored SCFAs levels such as acetic acid and butyric acid; moreover, it improved the gut microbiota ecosystem by upregulating the abundance of Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium. However, the restoration effect of GP-a was weak, or even worse. In addition, these two bacteria were negatively correlated with the tumor weight and related with the altered SCFAs. In conclusion, GP-n is essential for the anti-melanoma effects of GP, and the potential mechanisms might be related with its specific regulation of Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium abundance, and tumor-associated SCFAs levels. The outcomes highlighted here enable a deeper insight into the structure-function relationship of GP and propose new opinions on its antitumor effect.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Melanoma , Panax , Camundongos , Animais , Panax/química , Ecossistema , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Firmicutes
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(3): 1735-1747, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36632992

RESUMO

The use of diversified ginseng extracts in health-promoting foods is difficult to differentiate, as they share bioactive ginsenosides among different Panax species (e.g., P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, P. notoginseng, and P. japonicus) and different parts (e.g., root, leaf, and flower). This work was designed to develop a pseudo-targeted metabolomics approach to discover ginsenoside markers facilitating the precise authentication of ginseng and its use in compound formulation products (CFPs). Versatile mass spectrometry experiments on the QTrap mass spectrometer achieved classified characterization of the neutral, malonyl, and oleanolic acid-type ginsenosides, with 567 components characterized. A pseudo-targeted metabolomics approach by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of 262 ion pairs could assist to establish key identification points for 12 ginseng species. The simultaneous detection of 14 markers enabled the identification of ginseng from 15 ginseng-containing CFPs. The pseudo-targeted metabolomics strategy enabled better performance in differentiating among multiple ginseng, compared with the full-scan high-resolution mass spectrometry approach.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Ginsenosídeos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Panax/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 288-299, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652850

RESUMO

Wild ginseng is thought to be superior in its medicinal quality to cultivated ginseng, potentially owing to the differences in active components. This study was designed accordingly to assess the differences in secondary metabolite components and their synthesis in wild and cultivated ginseng by using quantitative proteomics combined with secondary metabolomics approaches. A total of 72 secondary metabolites were found to be differentially abundant, of which dominant abundant in wild ginseng primarily included triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) and phytosterols. Ginsenoside diversity was increased in wild ginseng, particularly with respect to rare ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Rk1, F1, Rg5, Rh1, PPT, Rh2, and CK enriched in wild ginseng were validated by HPLC. In addition to ginsenosides, stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol were accumulated in wild ginseng. 102 differentially expressed proteins between wild and cultivated ginseng were identified using iTRAQ labeling technique. Among them, 25 were related to secondary metabolism, mainly involved in sesquiterpene and triterpene biosynthesis, which was consistent with metabolomics results. Consistently, the activity levels of HMGR, FDPS, SS, SE, DS, CYP450, GT and CAS, which are key enzymes related to ginsenoside and phytosterol biosynthesis, were confirmed to be elevated in wild ginseng.The biosynthesis of ginsenosides and phytosterols in wild ginseng is higher than that in cultivated ginseng, which may be related to natural growth without artificial domestication. To some extent, this study explained the accumulation of pharmacodynamic components and overall quality of ginseng, which could provide reference for the germplasm improvement and planting of ginseng.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Fitosteróis , Triterpenos , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Proteômica , Metabolômica
8.
Analyst ; 148(3): 525-531, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601715

RESUMO

Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius have different medicinal properties and market values; however, they can be difficult to distinguish from one another based on physical appearances alone. Therefore, a molecular test that can be performed in commercial settings is needed to overcome this difficulty. A locus that contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site to differentiate between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius has been selected. An isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) has been developed for use in a microfluidic chip; this NAAT method, which is based on lesion-induced DNA amplification (LIDA), amplifies the extracted plant genomic samples and enhances the detection of specific SNPs. This NAAT method was used to authenticate five ginseng root samples which indicated that two of the five samples appear to be mislabeled. These authentication results were consistent with those obtained from next generation sequencing (NGS) although this molecular test is more affordable and faster than NGS.


Assuntos
Panax , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Panax/genética , Microfluídica , DNA de Plantas/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675101

RESUMO

Sepsis leads to multi-organ failure due to aggressive systemic inflammation, which is one of the main causes of death clinically. This study aimed to evaluate whether ginseng sprout extracts (GSE) can rescue sepsis and explore its underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6J male mice (n = 15/group) were pre-administered with GSE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o) for 5 days, and a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 30 mg/kg, i.p) was administered to construct a sepsis model. Additionally, RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS with/without GSE/its main components (Rd and Re) to explain the mechanisms corresponding to the animal-derived effects. LPS injection led to the death of all mice within 38 h, while GSE pretreatment delayed the time to death. GSE pretreatment also notably ameliorated LPS-induced systemic inflammation such as histological destruction in both the lung and liver, along with reductions in inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß, in both tissues and serum. Additionally, GSE markedly diminished the drastic secretion of nitric oxide (NO) by suppressing the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in both tissues. Similar changes in TNF-α, IL-1ß, NO, iNOS, and COX2 were observed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and protein expression data and nuclear translocation assays suggested GSE could modulate LPS-binding protein (LBP), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and NF-κB. Ginsenoside Rd could be a major active component in GSE that produces the anti-sepsis effects. Our data support that ginseng sprouts could be used as an herbal resource to reduce the risk of sepsis. The corresponding mechanisms may involve TLR4/NF-κB signaling and a potentially active component.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Panax , Extratos Vegetais , Sepse , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/genética , Sepse/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Plântula
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 30, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is a traditional herb that is immensely valuable both for human health and medicine and for medicinal plant research. The homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor gene family indispensable in the regulation of plant growth and development and plant response to environmental stresses. RESULTS: We identified 117 HD-Zip transcripts from the transcriptome of ginseng cv. Damaya that is widely grown in Jilin, China where approximately 60% of the world's ginseng is produced. These transcripts were positioned to 64 loci in the ginseng genome and the ginseng HD-Zip genes were designated as PgHDZ genes. Identification of 82 and 83 PgHDZ genes from the ginseng acc. IR826 and cv. ChP genomes, respectively, indicated that the PgHDZ gene family consists of approximately 80 PgHDZ genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene family originated after Angiosperm split from Gymnosperm and before Dicots split from Monocots. The gene family was classified into four subfamilies and has dramatically diverged not only in gene structure and functionality but also in expression characteristics. Nevertheless, co-expression network analysis showed that the activities of the genes in the family remain significantly correlated, suggesting their functional correlation. Five hub PgHDZ genes were identified that might have central functions in ginseng biological processes and four of them were shown to be actively involved in plant response to environmental pH stress in ginseng. CONCLUSIONS: The PgHDZ gene family was identified from ginseng and analyzed systematically. Five potential hub genes were identified and four of them were shown to be involved in ginseng response to environmental pH stress. The results provide new insights into the characteristics, diversity, evolution, and functionality of the PgHDZ gene family in ginseng and lay a foundation for comprehensive research of the gene family in plants.


Assuntos
Panax , Proteínas de Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Família Multigênica
11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 415(5): 887-897, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571591

RESUMO

Characterization of structural isomers of bioactive molecules is important for recognizing their functions, but it has been challenging due to their highly similar structures. As the main bioactive constituents of Panax ginseng, ginsenosides have different structural isomers attributed to the aglycone structure and glycosylation sites as well as stereochemistry of sugar groups attached. This work demonstrated a simple and robust in situ methylation reaction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using ambient ionization source of direct analysis in real time (DART) to characterize saponin structural isomers. The DART ion source provides favorable conditions to methylate hydroxyl groups of ginsenoside instantaneously with TMAH, and it can ionize the methylated products at the same time. Methylated ginsenoside stereoisomers even with subtle structure differences generated very different mass signals from full-scan MS and tandem MS. High-resolution mass spectrometry aided the assignment of molecular structures of the various precursor and fragment ions from different ginsenosides, which provided structural information for both the aglycone skeleton and the sugar moieties in ginsenosides. The presented method was successfully used for the identification of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng, and saponin isomers were characterized without the need for chromatographic separation and/or tedious offline sample pretreatment.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Saponinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Metilação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Panax/química , Açúcares
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1688: 463692, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549145

RESUMO

Panax ginseng is a precious and ancient medicinal plant. The completion of its genome sequencing has laid the foundation for the study of proteome and peptidome. However, the high abundance of secondary metabolites in ginseng reduces the identification efficiency of proteins and peptides in mass spectrometry. In this report, strong cation exchange pretreatment was carried out to eliminate the interference of impurities. Based on the charge separation of proteolytic peptides and metabolites, the sensitivity of mass spectrometry detection was greatly improved. After pretreatment, 2322 and 2685 proteins were identified from the root and stem leaf extract. Further, the ginseng peptidome was analyzed based on this optimized strategy, where 970 and 653 endogenous peptides were identified from root and stem leaf extract, respectively. Functional analysis of proteins and endogenous peptides provided valuable information on the biological activities, metabolic processes, and ginsenoside biosynthesis pathways of ginseng.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Panax/química , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Líquida , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Peptídeos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114096, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases mainly include asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, and lung cancer. Given their high prevalence and poor prognosis, the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases are increasingly essential. In particular, the development for the novel strategies of drug treatment has been a hot topic in the research field. Ginsenosides are the major component of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng), a food homology and well-known medicinal herb. In this review, we summarize the current therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of ginsenosides in respiratory diseases. METHODS: The reviewed studies were retrieved via a thorough analysis of numerous articles using electronic search tools including Sci-Finder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. The following keywords were used for the online search: ginsenosides, asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and clinical trials. We summarized the findings and the conclusions from 176 manuscripts on ginsenosides, including research articles and reviews. RESULTS: Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, and CK, which are the most commonly reported ginsenosides for treating of respiratory diseases, and other ginsenosides such as Rh1, Rk1, Rg5, Rd and Re, all primarily reduce pneumonia, fibrosis, and inhibit tumor progression by targeting NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and JNK pathways, thereby ameliorating respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: This review provides novel ideas and important aspects for the future research of ginsenosides for treating respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Asma , Ginsenosídeos , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Influenza Humana , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Panax , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fibrose Pulmonar , Humanos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Ginsenosídeos/química , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 815-824, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538656

RESUMO

To reduce safety issues of ginseng products caused by excessive pesticide levels, this paper systematically elucidates the transfer rules of pesticides during processing by calculating the transfer rates and processing factors (PFs). The common methods of ginseng processing (water extraction, alcohol extraction, concentration, water extraction and alcohol precipitation, vacuum drying, freeze drying, spray drying) and 30 pesticides frequently occurring in ginseng were used as research objects. The results indicate that the pesticide residues in alcohol extract are much higher than those in water extract. During water extraction and alcohol precipitation, 93.2% of pesticides are transferred to the upper ethanol solution. Besides, drying could reduce the total amount but increase the concentration of pesticide residues. Water extraction-concentration-spray drying (PF ranges from 0.01 to 0.36) and alcohol extraction-concentration-vacuum drying (PF ranges from 1.10 to 3.70) are the processing methods with the lowest and highest pesticide processing factors, respectively.


Assuntos
Panax , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Panax/química , Praguicidas/análise
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(1): 963-973, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548634

RESUMO

Ginsenosides, the main bioactive ingredients of the Panax genus, are dammarane or oleanane triterpenoids with glycosylated modifications at C3/C6/C20 hydroxyls or C28 carboxyl, and their diverse glycosylation pattern has attracted great attention. However, the biosynthesis of some important saponins is still unclear. In this study, six UGTs were characterized, two of which were novel. PnUGT71A3 catalyzes not only the C6 hydroxyl glycosylation of protopanaxatriol (PPT) and F1 to form Rh1 and Rg1, respectively, but also the C20 hydroxyl glycosylation of protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type Rg3 to generate Rd. Especially, PnUGT94M1 is UDP-ß-l-rhamnose (UDP-Rha)-dependent, regioselectively catalyzing the C2' hydroxyl rhamnosylation of C6 glucose of the PPT-type ginsenosides Rg1 and Rh1 to generate ginsenosides Re and Rg2, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that His21, Asp120, Ser363, and Pro372 are key residues, and the triple mutant (G344S/G345S/L346T) highly improved the activity toward Rg1 and Rh1. The findings in this study, perfect main ginsenosides biosynthetic pathways in the Panax genus, expand the biocatalyst toolbox for ginsenoside production and show that the PSPG motif is one of the options to modify UGTs to improve their activities.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax notoginseng , Panax , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Glicosilação , Panax/química
16.
Biotechnol Lett ; 45(2): 163-174, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550334

RESUMO

Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a major intestinal bacterial metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside family that can be absorbed in the systemic circulation. CK possesses diverse and important pharmacological properties. The low production and high cost of traditional manufacturing methods based on the extraction and biotransformation of total ginsenosides from ginseng have limited their medical application. However, considerable progress has been made in the area of de novo CK production via microbial cell factories using synthetic biology-based strategies. By introducing key enzymes responsible for CK biosynthesis into microbial cells, CK was produced via a series of in vivo enzymatic reactions that utilize the inherent precursors in microbial cells. After systematic optimization using various metabolic engineering strategies, the yield of CK increased significantly and exceeded the traditional plant extraction-biotransformation method, implying the commercial feasibility of this approach. This review summarizes recent novel advancements in the production of CK using microbial cell factories.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética , Biotransformação , Engenharia Metabólica , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo
17.
J Med Food ; 26(1): 27-35, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576794

RESUMO

The effects of combined administration of red ginseng (RG) extracts and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immunostimulatory activity and tumor metastasis inhibition were investigated in mice. For the immunostimulatory activity, splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, including the production of granzyme B (GrB) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and serum level of cytokine such as IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-17, and IL-21 were assessed. Peyer's patch cells obtained from mice administered with RG+GABA were cultured, and the cytokine level in the culture supernatant and bone marrow (BM) cell proliferation activity were examined. The proliferative activity of splenocytes was significantly higher in the RG-GABA treatment group than in RG or GABA alone (P < .05). In the experimental tumor metastasis model, oral administration of RG+GABA showed a higher antitumor metastatic effect compared to that of RG or GABA alone. Oral administration of RG+GABA significantly augmented NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor cells. In addition, the production of GrB and IFN-γ was stimulated in the culture supernatant of NK cells and YAC-1 cells. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-21 in mice with RG+GABA were significantly higher compared to the corresponding blood levels in mice administered with RG or GABA alone. The RG+GABA group showed significant BM cell proliferation and increased production of IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to that in the monotherapy groups. Therefore, RG may have a synergistic effect with GABA for enhancing the host defense system such as BM proliferation and NK cell activity in a tumor metastasis model.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Panax , Animais , Camundongos , Citocinas , Interferon gama , Células Matadoras Naturais , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
18.
Food Chem ; 407: 134714, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495746

RESUMO

Black ginseng is a novel manufactured ginseng product, and the application of black ginseng products in market is increasing in recent years. Black ginseng is prepared by steaming and fermentation, but not as mature as processing red ginseng. Therefore, complete proposals for preparation techniques are firstly presented. Additionally, there are also abundant chemical components in black ginseng, including ginsenosides, polysaccharides, amino acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, etc. Among them, ginsenosides, polysaccharides and phenolic compounds are the main ingredients, making health benefits of black ginseng stronger than other ginseng products. Therefore, black ginseng as a functional food has come to the market in various forms, such as candies, tea, porridge, soup, etc. The improvement in nutrition, flavor, and safety has exhibited a broad prospect for black ginseng products in food industry. Accordingly, preparation technologies, phytochemistry, health benefits and application of black ginseng are comprehensively evaluated.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos , Panax , Ginsenosídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Panax/química , Aminoácidos , Polissacarídeos/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 303: 116006, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516905

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The properties are the body's response to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The essence of traditional Chinese medicine properties are cold, hot, warm, and cool. In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng is warm and American ginseng is cool, they present two opposite properties. The material basis of property differences and effect mechanism of property degree need further investigation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this work was to screen out the neurochemicals related to warm and cool properties of ginseng and American ginseng, and investigate the distributions of identified neurochemicals in rat brain and the metabolic mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial metabolomics was applied to study the effects of ginseng and American ginseng on the distributions of neurochemicals in rat brain by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI). Based on discriminant coefficients in partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) processing, neurochemicals related to warm and cool properties were classified. In addition, the score contributions of the neurochemicals markers could be used to evaluate the warm and cool property degrees. RESULTS: A total of 25 neurochemicals were imaged and identified in brain section. The distribution regions of main neurochemicals were consistent with in sagittal and coronal sections of brain reported in literature. 17 neurochemicals were classified as warm markers. Meanwhile, 8 neurochemicals were identified as cool markers, correlated with the cool properties of American ginseng. It demonstrated that the score contributions of the 25 neurochemicals markers could be used to evaluate the warm and cool property degrees. Based on the regulatory effects of neurochemicals, the warm markers could promote the body's energy metabolism, improve the function of endocrine system, and enhance the excitability of central nervous system. The cool property markers have reduced excitability of central nervous system, weakened metabolism and stress response ability, thus presented the biological activity of cool and cold. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided a rapid and effective visualization method for the spatial distribution and metabolism of small molecular neurochemicals in rat brain. DESI-MSI was a reference methodology for evaluating the properties of TCM.


Assuntos
Panax , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Ratos , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Panax/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Encéfalo
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 303: 115978, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519753

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer reportedly exhibits various beneficial pharmacological activities. Panax ginseng glycoproteins (PGG) are a class of glycosylated protein components extracted from ginseng and can exert significant activity for improving learning and memory abilities. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of the present study was to investigate the PGG-mediated protective mechanism against neurodegenerative diseases via the Notch signaling pathway using proteomic methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined learning and memory in mice using the Morris water maze and nest-building paradigms. The PGG structure was determined using multi-information fusion based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Accurate glycosylation sites of glycoproteins were identified using the advanced glycosylation analysis software Byonic. Furthermore, connection modes of the oligosaccharide chain were clarified by methylation analysis of sugar residues. The differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between wild-type (WT) and APP/APS1 mice were measured and compared using label-free quantitative proteomics, and related signaling pathways were identified. For validation, we performed a series of in vitro tests, including an assessment of cell viability, apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting. RESULTS: In the Morris water maze and nesting experiments, PGG-treated WT mice exhibited significantly improved learning and memory. The structures of 171 glycoprotein fragments in PGG matched the credible score, and typical structures were identified using LC/MS data analysis. According to the proteomic analysis results, 188 DEPs were detected between the model and administration groups, and two downregulated DEPs were related to the Notch signaling pathway. Based on the in vitro verification tests, PGG significantly inhibited the expression of key proteins in the Notch signaling pathway in microglia. CONCLUSIONS: PGG could prevent the development of neuroinflammation by inhibiting excessive activation of the Notch signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting neuroapoptosis.


Assuntos
Panax , Camundongos , Animais , Panax/química , Proteômica , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Glicoproteínas , Transdução de Sinais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...