Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.903
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18735, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent studies, afatinib, a second-generation inhibitor, showed superior outcomes, when compared to the first-generation of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib and gefitinib, in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who receive TKIs with a significant initial efficacy, inevitably experience an acquired resistance (AR) within 9 to 13 months. Traditional Korean medicine may have synergistic effects when combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The purpose of this trial is to assess whether afatinib plus HAD-B1 improves disease control rates (DCRs) compared with afatinib alone and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HAD-B1 for finding the proper dose. METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, therapeutic, exploratory clinical trial. This trial is designed to determine whether HAD-B1 combined with afatinib results in better DCRs with less toxicity than afatinib alone. A total of 66 NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations will be randomly assigned to treatment group 1 (afatinib 40 mg/day plus HAD-B1 972 mg), treatment group 2 (afatinib 40 mg/day plus HAD-B1 1944 mg) and a control group (afatinib 40 mg/day). Afatinib combined with HAD-B1 or with a placebo will be administered to the participants for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint is a comparison of the DCRs among groups. Secondary endpoints are comparisons of the complete response (CR) and the partial response (PR) to the treatment, the stability of the disease (SD), progression free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP), and tumor marker (CEA, NSE) and WBC differential count (LMR, NLR) and natural killer cell activity and quality of life (QOL) among groups. DISCUSSION: The results from this clinical trial will provide evidence of efficacy and safety of HAD-B1 in EGFR positive and locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients who need afatinib therapy.


Assuntos
Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Boswellia , Cordyceps , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Receptores ErbB , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Panax , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(6): 267-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793463

RESUMO

Ginsenoside profile of Panax ginseng is changing with season and cultivated soil. Yet, dose-response relationship of main ginsenosides on metabolic measures has not been documented in vivo. Here, we examined glucose and insulin responses after an oral glucose challenge (0.5 g/kg body weight) at various doses (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg of body weight) under acute and chronic Rb1 and Rg1 supplemented conditions. The results show that Rb1 (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg body weight) increased, whereas Rg1 (0.01 mg/kg body weight) decreased postprandial glucose levels compared with the Vehicle group (P < 0.05). This contrasting effect reduced as dose increased. Both Rb1 and Rg1 decreased the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase activity (P < 0.05) together with decreases in glycogen content in red gastrocnemius muscle and body temperature at low doses (P < 0.05), compared with the Vehicle group. These differences also diminished as dosage increases. For reliable ginseng research, dose standardization on Rg1 and Rb1 is essential based on their opposing action and peculiar dose-response relationship. Both major ginsenosides may influence dynamics of mitochondria turnover and alter muscle metabolism.


Assuntos
Panax , Animais , Ginsenosídeos , Glucose , Ratos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3861-3868, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872716

RESUMO

Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty could be used to clear heat,invigorate Qi,and promote fluid production. The indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction include infectious diseases,such as lung infection,influenza,encephalitis,enteric typhoid and hospital infection; thermoplegia; acute cerebrovascular disease,diabetes mellitus,severe hyperosmolarity,hypernatremia,intractable hypotension,shock and other internal diseases; sweating,irritation,thirst,want to drink several liters of water,dry mouth,dry tongue,and big pulse. This prescription has been widely used to treat acute and severe cases in the cardiovascular intensive care ward. The prescription can be used to treat exogenous and internal injury diseases,which are characterized by excessive heat,fluid injury,thirst for water,dry mouth,dry tongue and other symptoms; refractory hypotension and hypovolemic shock that need large dose of supplemental fluid to maintain blood pressure and may also belong to the extension of the Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction formula syndrome; severe hyperosmolarity and hypernatremia needing nasal feeding with large quantities of sterile water or cool boiled water that may also belong to the extension of the Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction formula syndrome; the four major symptoms,namely severe heat,excessive perspiration,great thirst,and large-bounding pulse,are actually the indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction,rather than Baihu Decoction. Severe irritability should also be added into the indications of Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction; severe heat refers to pathogenesis,rather than a symptom.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Panax/química , Cuidados Críticos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Medicina Integrativa , Fitoterapia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(18): 3917-3923, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872725

RESUMO

Dengzhan Shengmai Capsules( DZSMC),a well-known traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) formula,is comprised of the main drug of Erigeron breviscapus,and supplemented with Panax ginseng,Ophiopogon japonicus and Schisandra chinensis,with functions of supplementing Qi and nourishing Yin,promoting blood circulation and strengthening brain. DZSMC is the only Chinese patent drug with A-level evidence-based medicine in secondary prevention for stroke and ranks first among TCMs for neurological treatment. Modern studies indicate that the chemical constituents of DZSMC mainly include flavonoids,phenolic acids,lignans,saponins and so on. Pharmacological experimental studies have shown that DZSMC has such pharmacological effects as anti-oxidation,anti-inflammatory and anti-myocardial ischemia. DZSMC is mainly used in the convalescent care of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases,and is often used in combination with various conventional therapeutic drugs to exert clinical efficacy through brain protection,neuroprotection,etc.,and improve clinical symptoms in patients. In this review,according to domestic and international related literature combined with research results obtained by our project,the research advances in the chemical constituents,pharmacological effects and clinical application of DZSMC have been systematically reviewed and summarized,providing reference and support for further study and secondary development of the formula.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Erigeron/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ophiopogon , Panax , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Schisandra
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4596-4604, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872653

RESUMO

Ginsenoside F1 is a rare ginsenoside in medicinal plants such as Panax ginseng,P. notogingseng and P. quinquefolius. It has strong pharmacological activities of anti-tumor,anti-oxidation and anti-aging. In order to directly produce ginsenoside F1 by using inexpensive raw materials such as glucose,we integrated the codon-optimized P.ginseng dammarenediol-Ⅱ synthase(Syn Pg DDS),P.ginseng protopanaxadiol synthase(Syn Pg PPDS),P. ginseng protopanaxatriol synthase(Syn Pg PPTS) genes and Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase(At CPR1) gene into triterpene chassis strain BY-T3. The transformant BY-PPT can produce protopanaxatriol. Then we integrated the Sacchromyces cerevisiae phosphoglucomutase 1(PGM1),phosphoglucomutase 2(PGM2) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 1(UGP1) genes into chassis strain BY-PPT. The UDP-glucose supply module increased UDP-glucose production by 8. 65 times and eventually reached to 44. 30 mg·L-1 while confirmed in the transformant BY-PPT-GM. Next,we integrated the UDPglucosyltransferase Pg3-29 gene which can catalyze protopanaxatriol to produce ginsenoside F1 into chassis strain BY-PPT-GM. The transformant BY-F1 produced a small amount of ginsenoside F1 which was measured as 0. 5 mg·L-1. After the fermentation process was optimized,the titer of ginsenoside F1 could be increased by 900 times to 450. 5 mg·L-1. The high-efficiency UDP-glucose supply module in this study can provide reference for the construction of cell factories for production of saponin,and provide an important basis for further obtaining high-yield ginsenoside yeast cells.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Panax , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Glucose , Uridina Difosfato Glucose
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4090-4094, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872681

RESUMO

The dried roots of Panax ginseng are used as medicines. In this paper,multi-time satellite sensing image data are used for image registration by radiometric correction,atmospheric pressure correction,the data of different years were compared. The multiscale segmentation of the sensing image was successively carried out by using object-oriented method. Combining with the characteristics of the sensing image participated in the field survey,the objective was to understand the speckles of the environmental parameters distribution map of Changbai county in 2017 and 2018. The parameter area of Changbai county was calculated by using GIS spatial analysis tools. The union,erase and intersect tools of " analysis to OLS" overlay in " Arc Toolbox" were used to analyze the parametric area of Changbai county from 2017 to 2018. The results showed that the parameter area of Changbai county in 2017 was 27 400 mu( 1 mu≈667 m2),and the parameter area in 2018 was 13 900 mu. The parameter area of the new park in Changbai County in 2018 was 12 500 mu,and the harvested area in 2017 was 27 000 mu. Through the analysis and study of the regional change of the park participating in the training area,it has significance for guiding the park participating in the actual production planning and layout in Changbai county in the next step.


Assuntos
Panax , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Jardins
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding the efficacy and safety resulting from the potential interactions of herbs with Western medications due to the use of both herbs and Western medicine by the general public. Information obtained from the web must be critically evaluated prior to its use in making decisions. DESCRIPTION: This study aimed to construct an herb-drug interaction (HDI) website (https://drug-herb-interaction.netlify.com) with a critically reviewed database. Node.js was used to store the database by running JavaScript. Vue.js is a front-end framework used for web interface development. A total of 135 sets of information related to the interactions of ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai with Western medicine from the literature identified in Medline were collected, followed by critical reviews to prepare nineteen items of information for each HDI monograph. A total of 80 sets of validated HDIs met all criteria and were further assessed at the individual reliability level (likely, possible, and unevaluable) and labeled with the "interaction" item. This query system of the website can be operated in both the Chinese and English languages to obtain all monographs on HDIs in the database, including bilingual interaction data. The database of HDI monographs can be updated by simply uploading a new version of the information Excel file. The designed "smart search" module, in addition to the "single search", is convenient for requesting multiple searches. Among the "likely" interactions (n = 26), 50% show negative HDIs. Ten of these can increase the effect of the Western drug, and the others (n = 3) imply that the HDI can be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides a website platform and 80 sets of validated bilingual HDIs involving ginseng, ginkgo and dong quai in an online database. A search of HDI monographs related to these three herbs can be performed with this bilingual, easy-to-use query website, which is feasible for professionals and the general public. The identified reliability level for each HDI may assist readers' decisions regarding whether taking Western medications concomitant with one of three herbal medicinal foods is safe or whether caution is required due to potentially serious outcomes.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Multilinguismo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Competência Cultural , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ginkgo biloba , Humanos , Internet , Panax , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(29): 7817-7829, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729585

RESUMO

Despite Panax quinquefolius L. serving as a crucial source for food additives, healthcare products, and herbal medicines, unawareness of the metabolome differences among three parts (root, PQR; stem leaf, PQL; flower bud, PQF) seriously restricts its quality control. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-Orbitrap-MS) was fully utilized to comprehensively identify and compare the ginsenoside compositions among PQR, PQL, and PQF. Metabolite profiling and characterization were performed by coupling reversed-phase UHPLC (a CSH C18 column) and improved untargeted data-dependent MS2 acquisition in the negative mode. A novel vehicle, "Ginsenoside Sieve," was proposed by developing fixed tolerance (± 10 mDa), discrete mass defect filtering (MDF) based on the m/z features of 499 known ginsenosides, which assisted in the screening of 71 (from 3453 ions), 89 (from 6842), and 84 (from 7369) target precursor masses for PQR, PQL, and PQF, respectively. The newly established data-dependent acquisition (DDA) approach exhibited 14% improvement in characterization of targeted components (using a PQL sample), and comparable performance in identifying the unknown, compared with conventional DDA. We could characterize 347 saponins (147 from PQR, 173 from PQL, and 195 from PQF), and 157 thereof not ever-isolated from the Panax genus. These potentially new saponins have 63 unknown masses. Subsequent untargeted metabolomics analysis unveiled 20 marker saponins, among which m-Rb1, Rb1, Ro, m-Rb2, and m-Rb1 isomer are the most important diagnostic for differentiating the three parts. Conclusively, the established improved DDA represents a potent ginsenoside characterization strategy, and the results obtained in this work would benefit better quality control of P. quinquefolius. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flores/química , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Caules de Planta/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Metabolômica , Plantas Medicinais/química
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapy drug for malignant tumors. The clinical application of DOX is limited due to its dosage relative cardiotoxicity. Oxidative damage and cardiac inflammation appear to be involved in DOX-related cardiotoxicity. Shenmai injection (SMI), which mainly consists of Panax ginsengC.A.Mey.and Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl, is widely used for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and viral myocarditis in China. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Shenmai injection on doxorubicin-induced acute cardiac injury via the regulation of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Male ICR mice were randomly divided into seven groups: control, DOX (10 mg/kg), SMI (5 g/kg), DOX with pretreatment with SMI (0.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg or 5 g/kg) and DOX with post-treatment with SMI (5 g/kg). Forty-eight hours after the last DOX administration, all mice were anesthetized for ultrasound echocardiography. Then, serum was collected for biochemical and inflammatory cytokine detection, and heart tissue was collected for histological and Western blot detection. RESULTS: A cumulative dose of DOX (10 mg/kg) induced acute cardiotoxicity in mice manifested by altered echocardiographic outcome, and increased tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1, interferon-γ, and serum AST and LDH levels, as well as cardiac cytoplasmic vacuolation and myofibrillar disarrangement. DOX also caused the increase in the expression of IKK-α and iNOS and produced a large amount of NO, resulting in the accumulation of nitrotyrosine in the heart tissue. Pretreatment with SMI elicited a dose-dependent cardioprotective effect in DOX-dosed mice as evidenced by the normalization of serum inflammatory mediators, as well as improve dcardiac function and myofibril disarrangement. CONCLUSIONS: SMI could recover inflammatory cytokine levels and suppress the expression of IKK-α and iNOS in vivo, which was increased by DOX. Overall, there was evidence that SMI could ameliorate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting inflammation and recovering heart dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/toxicidade , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ophiopogon/química , Panax/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(25): 2334-2347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648643

RESUMO

The dried root of ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer or Panax quinquefolius L.) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to manage cancer symptoms and chemotherapy side effects in Asia. The anti-cancer efficacy of ginseng is attributed mainly to the presence of saponins, which are commonly known as ginsenosides. Ginsenosides were first identified as key active ingredients in Panax ginseng and subsequently found in Panax quinquefolius, both of the same genus. To review the recent advances on anti-cancer effects of ginsenosides against breast cancer, we conducted a literature study of scientific articles published from 2010 through 2018 to date by searching the major databases including Pubmed, SciFinder, Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar, and CNKI. A total of 50 articles authored in either English or Chinese related to the anti-breast cancer activity of ginsenosides have been reviewed, and the in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on ginsenosides are summarized. This review focuses on how ginsenosides exert their anti-breast cancer activities through various mechanisms of action such as modulation of cell growth, modulation of the cell cycle, modulation of cell death, inhibition of angiogenesis, inhibition of metastasis, inhibition of multidrug resistance, and cancer immunemodulation. In summary, recent advances in the evaluation of ginsenosides as therapeutic agents against breast cancer support further pre-clinical and clinical studies to treat primary and metastatic breast tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Panax/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104370, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629872

RESUMO

Ginseng is an ancient herb, belonging to Asian traditional medicine, that has been considered as a restorative to enhance vitality for centuries. It has been demonstrated that the antioxidant action of ginseng may be mediated through activation of different cellular signaling pathways involving the heme oxygenase (HO) system. Several compounds derived from ginseng have been studied for their potential role in brain, heart and liver protection, and the Nrf2 pathway seems to be the most affected by these natural molecules to exert this effect. Ginseng is also popularly used in cancer patients therapy for the demonstrated capability to defend tissues from chemotherapy-induced damage. Reported results suggest that the effect of ginseng is primarily associated with ROS scavenging, mainly exerted through the activation of Nrf2 pathway, and the consequent induction of HO-1 levels. This review aims to discuss the connection between the antioxidant properties of ginseng and the activation of the HO system, as well as to outline novel therapeutic applications of this medicinal plant to human health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/fisiologia , Panax/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Cell Prolif ; 52(6): e12696, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Panax ginseng, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine with multiple pharmacological activities, plays a crucial role in modulating mood disorders. Several recent studies have identified an underlying role of Panax ginseng in the prevention and treatment of depression. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this review, we summarized the recent progress of antidepressant effects and underlying mechanisms of Panax ginseng and its representative herbal formulae. RESULTS: The molecular and cellular mechanisms of Panax ginseng and its herbal formulae include modulating monoamine neurotransmitter system, upregulating the expression of neurotrophic factors, regulating the function of HPA axis, and anti-inflammatory action. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this review may provide theoretical bases and clinical applications for the treatment of depression by Panax ginseng and its representative herbal formulae.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Panax , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Panax/metabolismo
13.
Plant Sci ; 288: 110224, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521213

RESUMO

Patatin-liked phospholipase A (pPLAs) are major lipid acyl hydrolases that participate in various biological functions in plant growth and development. Previously, a ginseng-derived pPLAIII homolog was reported to reduce lignin content in Arabidopsis. This led us to evaluate its possible usefulness as a biomass source in wood plant. Herein, we report that there are six members in the pPLAIII gene family in poplar. Overexpression of pPLAIIIß derived from ginseng resulted in a reduced plant height with radially expanded stem growth in hybrid poplars. Compared with the wild type (WT), the chlorophyll content was increased in the overexpression poplar lines, whereas the leaf size was smaller. The secondary cell wall structure in overexpression lines was also altered, exhibiting reduced lignification in the xylem. Two transcription factors, MYB92 and MYB152, which control lignin biosynthesis, were downregulated in the overexpression lines. The middle xylem of the overexpression line showed heavy thickening, making it thicker than the other xylem parts and the WT xylem, which rather could have been contributed by the presence of more cellulose in the selected surface area. Taken together, the results suggest that PgpPLAIIIß plays a role not only in cell elongation patterns, but also in determining the secondary cell wall composition.


Assuntos
Lignina/metabolismo , Panax/genética , Fosfolipases A/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Populus/genética , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lignina/genética , Panax/química , Fosfolipases A/química , Fosfolipases A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alinhamento de Sequência , Madeira/genética , Xilema/genética , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 35(9): 1590-1606, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559742

RESUMO

Panax ginseng is a traditional Chinese medicine with significant pharmaceutical effects and wide application. Through orientational modification and transformation of ginsenoside glycosyl, rare ginsenosides with high antitumor activities can be generated. Traditional chemical methods cannot be applied in clinic. because of extremely complex preparation technologies and very high cost Transformations using microorganisms and their enzymatic systems provide the most feasible methods for solving the main problems. At present, the key problems in enzymatic synthesis of ginsenosides include low specific enzyme activities, identity of enzymes involved in the enzymatic synthesis, and their catalytic mechanisms, as well as nonsystematic studies on structural bioinformatics; specificity of enzymatic hydrolysis for saponin glycosyl has been rarely studied. Many reviews have been reported on glycosidase molecular recognition, immobilization, and biotransformation in ionic liquids (ILs), whereas ginsenoside transformation and application have not been systematically studied. To evaluate theoretical and applied studies on ginsenoside-oriented biotransformation, by reviewing the latest developments in related fields and evaluating the widely applied biocatalytic strategy, this review aims to evaluate the ginsenoside-oriented transformation method with improved product specificity, increased biocatalytic efficiency, and industrial application prospect based on the designed transformations of enzyme and solvent engineering of ILs. Therefore, useful theoretical and experimental evidence can be obtained for the development of ginsenoside anticancer drugs, large-scale preparation, and clinical applications in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Panax , Ginsenosídeos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Saponinas
15.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104343, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472181

RESUMO

A variety of methods have been used to examine genetic differences in P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius. They have shown genetic differences within populations of P. ginseng (within and between elite cultivars, landraces and wild accessions), within populations of P. quinquefolius (within and between wild and cultivated accessions) and between P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius as well as other Panax species. Some examples of their applications have been to show that some elite cultivars are not uniform, there are possible founder effects in certain populations, there has been the spread of cultivated types into wild populations, relative diversity differs between different populations and identification of the source and purity of commercial samples. More work in the use of molecular markers for ginseng are needed, however, particularly the use of Next Generation Sequencing. Potential applications are the use of sequence analysis for genetic selection, breeding to develop new cultivars and providing traceability from field to consumer. Research on molecular markers in ginseng has lagged compared to other crops probably because of less of an emphasis on breeding for cultivar development and relatively small areas of production. The many potential benefits for ginseng production have yet to be realized.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Panax/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação INDEL , Isoenzimas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Panax/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Poliploidia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(5): 871-883, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407196

RESUMO

Ginseng has been traditionally used as an herbal nutritional supplement in Asian countries, including Korea, China, Japan, and Vietnam for several millennia. Most studies have focused on the role of ginseng on anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Recently, modulator activities of ginseng on the immune responses during pathogenic bacterial and viral infections and beneficial effects of ginseng in infectious diseases have been elucidated. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed the potential of ginseng extracts and ginsenosides Rg1, Rg3, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Re, Rd, Rh2 for treatment of several infectious diseases. The molecular mechanisms of these effects mainly involve inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-10), apoptotic pathway (bcl-2, bcl-xL), PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPKs pathway, JAK2/STAT5, NF-κB pathway, and the inflammasome. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the effects of ginseng in the immune responses during the infections and its bioactivities on the prevention of infectious diseases as well as its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of ginseng as an anti-bacterial and anti-viral medication and vaccine adjuvant will be discussed as well.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Panax/química , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426477

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Ro (Ro), a major saponin derived and isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, exerts multiple biological activities. However, the anti-tumour efficacy of Ro remains unclear because of its poor in vitro effects. In this study, we confirmed that Ro has no anti-tumour activity in vitro. We explored the anti-tumour activity of Ro in vivo in B16F10 tumour-bearing mice. The results revealed that Ro considerably suppressed tumour growth with no significant side effects on immune organs and body weight. Zingibroside R1, chikusetsusaponin IVa, and calenduloside E, three metabolites of Ro, were detected in the plasma of Ro-treated tumour-bearing mice and showed excellent anti-tumour effects as well as anti-angiogenic activity. The results suggest that the metabolites play important roles in the anti-tumour efficacy of Ro in vivo. Additionally, the haemolysis test demonstrated that Ro has good biocompatibility. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that Ro markedly suppresses the tumour growth of B16F10-transplanted tumours in vivo, and its anti-tumour effects are based on the biological activity of its metabolites. The anti-tumour efficacy of these metabolites is due, at least in part, to its anti-angiogenic activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacocinética , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanócitos/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacocinética , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
19.
Planta Med ; 85(14-15): 1168-1176, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434113

RESUMO

Panax ginseng has been widely and effectively used as medicine for thousands of years. However, only limited studies have been conducted to date on ginseng miRNAs. In the present study, we collected 3 ginseng samples from the Changbai Mountain in China. Small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Sequencing analyses identified 3798 miRNAs, including 298 known miRNAs and 3500 potentially novel miRNAs. The miR166, miR159, and miR396 families were among the most highly expressed miRNAs in all libraries. The results of miRNA expression analyses were validated by qRT-PCR. Target gene prediction through computational and pathway annotation analyses revealed that the primary pathways were related to plant development, including metabolic processes and single-organism processes. It has been reported that plant miRNAs might be one of the hidden bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. Based on the combined use of RNAhybrid, Miranda, and TargetScan software, a total of 50,992 potential human genes were predicted as the putative targets of 2868 miRNAs. Interestingly, the enriched KEGG pathways were associated with some human diseases, especially cancer, immune system diseases, and neurological disorders, and this could support the clinical use of ginseng. However, the human targets of ginseng miRNAs should be confirmed by further experimental validation. Our results provided valuable insight into ginseng miRNAs and the putative roles of these miRNAs.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Panax/genética , Software , Biblioteca Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , RNA de Plantas/genética
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1361-1368, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434170

RESUMO

Codium fragile is an edible seaweed in Asian countries that has been used as a thrombolytic, anticoagulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory agent. Ginseng has also been known to maintain immune homeostasis and to regulate the immune system via enhancing resistance to diseases and microorganisms. In this study, anionic macromolecules extracted from C. fragile (CFAM) were orally administered with red ginseng extract (100 mg/kg body weight) to cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed male BALB/c mice to investigate the immune-enhancing cooperative effect of Codium fragile and red ginseng. Our results showed that supplementing CFAM with red ginseng extract significantly increased spleen index, T- and B-cell proliferation, NK cell activity, and splenic lymphocyte immuneassociated gene expression compared to those with red ginseng alone, even though a high concentration of CFAM with red ginseng decreased immune biomarkers. These results suggest that CFAM can be used as a co-stimulant to enhance health and immunity in immunosuppressed conditions.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Ânions/isolamento & purificação , Ânions/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressão , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Substâncias Macromoleculares/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Baço/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA