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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263502, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses stand in an unknown situation while facing continuous news feeds. Social media is a ubiquitous tool to gain and share reliable knowledge and experiences regarding COVID-19. The article aims to explore how nurses use social media in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A scoping review inspired by Arksey and O'Mally was conducted by searches in Medline, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete and Web of Sciences. Empirical research studies investigating nurses' use of social media in relation to COVID-19 were included. Exclusion criteria were: Literature reviews, articles in languages other than English, articles about E-health, and articles investigating healthcare professionals without specification of nurses included. Articles, published in January-November 2020, were included and analysed through a thematic analysis. The PRISMA-ScR checklist was used. RESULTS: Most of the eleven included studies were cross-sectional surveys, conducted in developing countries, and had neither social media nor nurses as their main focus of interest. Three themes were identified: 'Social media as a knowledge node', 'Social media functioned as profession-promoting channels' and 'Social media as a disciplinary tool'. Nurses used social media as channels to gain and share information about COVID-19, and to support each other by highlighting the need for training and changes in delivery of care and redeployment. Further, social media functioned as profession-promoting channels partly sharing heroic self-representations and acknowledgment of frontline persons in the pandemic, partly by displaying critical working conditions. Finally, nurses used social media to educate people to perform the 'right 'COVID-19' behaviours in society. CONCLUSION: This review provided snapshots of nurses' uses of social media from various regions in the world, but revealed a need for studies from further countries and continents. The study calls for further multi-methodological and in depth qualitative research, including theoretically framed studies, with a specific focus on the uses of social media among nurses during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Apoio Social/psicologia
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001103

RESUMO

Racism and discrimination are the root of many pediatric health inequities and are well described in the literature. Despite the pervasiveness of pediatric health inequities, we have failed to adequately educate and prepare general pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists to address them. Deficiencies within education across the entire continuum and in our health care systems as a whole contribute to health inequities in unacceptable ways. To address these deficiencies, the field of pediatrics, along with other specialties, has been on a journey toward a more competency-based approach to education and assessment, and the framework created for the future is built on entrustable professional activities (EPAs). Competency-based medical education is one approach to addressing the deficiencies within graduate medical education and across the continuum by allowing educators to focus on the desired equitable patient outcomes and then develop an approach to teaching and assessing the tasks, knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to achieve the goal of optimal, equitable patient care. To that end, we describe the development and content of a revised EPA entitled: Use of Population Health Strategies and Quality Improvement Methods to Promote Health and Address Racism, Discrimination, and Other Contributors to Inequities Among Pediatric Populations. We also highlight the ways in which this EPA can be used to inform curricula, assessments, professional development, organizational systems, and culture change.


Assuntos
Pediatria/métodos , Papel Profissional , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/tendências , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(11): 546-553, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify what guides nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Change occurred when the Magnet Recognition Program® no longer required a nursing theory. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study to identify the process used to implement nursing theory-guided practice and the relationship to professional practice recognition. Deidentified quantitative data were collected from 36 chief nursing officers (CNOs). Seventeen CNOs participated in the qualitative interview. RESULTS: Thirteen CNOs were from a Magnet®-designated facility. Ten CNOs were on the Magnet journey, and 2 had no intent to seek Magnet recognition. Two CNOs were from a Pathway to Excellence®-designated facility. One CNO was on the Pathway to Excellence journey. The majority of respondents who were Magnet® recognized who participated in the survey used Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Themes were identified that share the benefits and strategies to integrate nursing-guided theory into nursing processes, structures, and outcomes. CONCLUSION: Findings will benefit CNOs as they make decisions related to pursuing Magnet status recognition.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Teoria de Enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMJ ; 374: n1493, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380627

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally. While pharmacological advancements have improved the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, non-adherence to prescribed treatment remains a significant barrier to improved patient outcomes. A variety of strategies to improve medication adherence have been tested in clinical trials, and include the following categories: improving patient education, implementing medication reminders, testing cognitive behavioral interventions, reducing medication costs, utilizing healthcare team members, and streamlining medication dosing regimens. In this review, we describe specific trials within each of these categories and highlight the impact of each on medication adherence. We also examine ongoing trials and future lines of inquiry for improving medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Polimedicação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Sistemas de Alerta/instrumentação
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398894

RESUMO

Studies focused on comprehensive assessment of self-perceived competency of community pharmacists to manage minor ailments are scanty despite that self-perceived competency is a valid determinant of task performance. The objectives of the study were to assess community pharmacists' self-perceived competency to manage fourteen common minor ailments in Qatar, and identify its significant predictors. A cross-sectional assessment of 307 community pharmacists was conducted with a pre-tested 20-item questionnaire. Self-perceived competency was assessed with nine elements on a scale of 1-10 (Maximum obtainable score: Each minor ailment = 90; each element = 140). Mann-Whitney U and bivariate logistic regression were used for data analyses. The response rate was 91.9% (282/307). The majority of the respondents were males (68.1%; 192/282), within the age range of 31-40 years (55.3%; 156/282). The minor ailments with the highest median competency score were constipation (76), and cold/catarrh (75) while travel sickness (69), and ringworm (69) had the lowest. The two condition-specific competency elements with the highest median score were recommendation of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines (115), and provision of instructions to guide its use (115). Ability to differentiate minor ailments from other medical conditions had the lowest median competency score (109). The significant predictors self-perceived competency were female gender (OR = 2.39, 95%CI: 1.34-4.25, p = 0.003), and working for chain pharmacies (OR = 2.54, 95%CI: 1.30-4.96, p = 0.006). Overall, Community pharmacists' self-perceived competency was adequate for majority of the common minor ailments, and it was highest for constipation and cold/catarrh, and specifically for the recommendation of OTC medicines and provision of instructions to guide its use. However, diagnostic ability to differentiate minor ailments from other medical conditions with similar features had the lowest median competency score. Female gender and working in chain pharmacies were the significant predictors of self-perceived competency to manage minor ailments.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Competência Mental , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Catar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
AANA J ; 89(4): 325-333, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342570

RESUMO

Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) work in practice models ranging from full scope (independent) to limited scope (dependent). Little is known about the influence of population density on CRNAs' scope of practice (SOP) and job satisfaction in Arizona, an independent practice state. The objectives were to examine relationships between (1) SOP and population density and (2) job satisfaction and SOP. In this descriptive study, an 11-question survey was sent to CRNAs practicing in Arizona. A total of 515 surveys were distributed; 261 responses (50%) were received, and 230 respondents (46%) met inclusion criteria. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to analyze the relationship between SOP and population density and between SOP and job satisfaction. Rank biserial correlation was used to examine association between CRNAs' SOP and geographic location. More than half the participants were male (54%), and 46% were female (age range, 27-75 years; years' experience, 1-50 years). Population density had no association with SOP (P=.074). However, SOP and job satisfaction showed a positive correlation (P<.001). These findings suggest that removal of regulatory barriers to CRNAs' SOP could decrease costs and increase access to care. Autonomy plays a clear role in job satisfaction, which may have implications for recruitment and retention.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/psicologia , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Densidade Demográfica , Papel Profissional/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Âmbito da Prática , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arizona , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(6): e22156, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196411

RESUMO

During the transition from home to childcare, 70 15-month-old infants were videotaped, and their negative emotions were rated. Infants' attachments to mothers were assessed prior to child care entry and to care providers five months later using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Infant heart rate was monitored at home, during adaptation to childcare (mothers present), and during subsequent separations. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was computed from the beat-to-beat measures of heart rate to reflect vagal tone, which is reduced during chronic states of stress, and was collected upon Arrival, during in-group Play, and when in the Group more generally. All infants responded to childcare entry with low RSA levels indicating stress. However, during adaptation with the mother present, RSA was higher for securely attached infants. On the first separation day, 35.3% of the infants fussed and cried extensively. These intense protests predicted later secure attachments to care providers, which adaptively helped to reduce stress, especially in infants who protested extensively, as if summoning their mothers back. Because extensive protest suggests limited regulatory capacities, infants risk overburdening the stress system when left unsupported.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente , Apego ao Objeto , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112795, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086032

RESUMO

Importance: Faculty role modeling is critical to medical students' professional development to provide culturally adept, patient-centered care. However, little is known about students' perceptions of faculty role modeling of respect for diversity. Objective: To examine whether variation exists in medical students' perceptions of faculty role modeling of respect for diversity by student demographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Association of American Medical Colleges' 2016 and 2017 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, which was administered to graduating students at 140 accredited allopathic US medical schools. Data were analyzed from January 1 to November 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Students' perceptions of faculty role modeling of respect for diversity by the independent variables sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the extent to which student-reported perceptions of faculty respect for diversity varied by demographic characteristics, and logistic regression models were sequentially adjusted first for demographic characteristics and then for marital status and financial variables. Results: Of 30 651 students who completed the survey, the final study sample consisted of 28 778 respondents, representing 75.4% of the 38 160 total US medical school graduates in 2016 and 2017. Of the respondents, 14 804 (51.4%) were male participants and 1506 (5.2%) identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB); a total of 11 926 respondents (41.4%) were 26 years or younger. A total of 17 159 respondents (59.6%) identified as White, 5958 (20.7%) as Asian, 1469 (5.1%) as Black/African American, 2431 (8.4%) as Hispanic/Latinx, and 87 (0.3%) as American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander individuals. Overall, 5101 students (17.7%) reported perceiving that faculty showed a lack of respect for diversity. Of those who identified as Black/African American students, 540 (36.8%) reported perceiving a lack of faculty respect for diversity compared with 2468 White students (14.4%), with an OR of perceived lack of respect of 3.24 (95% CI, 2.86-3.66) after adjusting for other demographic characteristics and covariates. American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03-2.92), Asian (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.49-1.75), or Hispanic/Latinx (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.26-1.75) students also had greater odds of perceiving a lack of faculty respect for diversity compared with White students. Female students had greater odds compared with male students (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.25), and students who identified as LGB (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.74-2.22) or unknown sexual orientation (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.29-2.47) had greater odds compared with heterosexual students. Students aged 33 years or older had greater odds of reporting a perceived lack of respect compared with students aged 26 years or younger (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.58-2.08). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, female students, students belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups, and LGB students disproportionately reported perceiving a lack of respect for diversity among faculty, which has important implications for patient care, the learning environment, and the well-being of medical trainees.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(6): 294-300, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented challenges to the health care workforce. Little is known about the effect of the pandemic on new RNs and their preparedness for such a crisis. This study explored the lived experiences of RNs transitioning from students to professionals during the pandemic. METHOD: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 new RNs working in acute care facilities during the Maryland COVID-19 State of Emergency. RESULTS: Three themes were identified to describe the experiences of new nurses transitioning to practice in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: uncertainty, vulnerability, and resilience. CONCLUSION: New nurses need greater support during transition to practice. Initiatives to improve trusting relationships between new nurses and their organizations and support of the development of essential relationships (e.g., peers, frontline management, and educators) could enhance new nurses' resilience and commitment to stay with the organization. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(6):294-300.].


Assuntos
COVID-19/enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
11.
Laryngoscope ; 131(11): 2448-2454, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess patient acceptance of resident involvement in otolaryngologic procedures and to evaluate the impact of a written preoperative educational pamphlet. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: This is a prospective survey study at a large tertiary care academic center. In addition to standard perioperative instructions and informed consent, 87 out of 183 patients received a pamphlet with information on the role of the otolaryngology resident. RESULTS: Greater than 90% of all patients surveyed recognized that resident physicians are directly involved in delivering care at teaching hospitals and may have assisted in their surgical procedure. Ninety percent of patients receiving educational pamphlets were aware residents may have performed portions of their procedure versus 71% in the control group (P = .001). Ninety-seven percent of patients receiving pamphlets wanted to know how much of their procedure was performed by a resident versus 71% of the control group (P < .001), and patients undergoing single-surgeon procedures were less likely to want to know how much was performed by a resident (P < .05). Ninety-six percent in the pamphlet group agreed that residents improved the quality of their care versus 79% of the control group (P = .001). DISCUSSION: Resident surgeons are well received by the large majority of otolaryngology patients. Structured perioperative information regarding surgical training facilitates an honest and open informed consent discussion between the patient and surgeon and helps to establish a solid foundation of trust. CONCLUSION: Implementation of this practice is simple and inexpensive. It should be considered for any clinical practice with a focus on surgical education. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2448-2454, 2021.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Otolaringologia/educação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Cirurgiões/educação , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino/organização & administração , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Otolaringologia/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An expected future increase in older adults will demand changes in health care delivery, making development, implementation and evaluation of new health care models essential. The rationale for political decision-making concerning the implementation and application of interventions in health care should include cost estimations, specifically those involving clinical interventions. To provide such data knowledge of time spent on the intervention is imperative. Time and motion methodology is suitable to quantify health care personnel's time distribution. AIM: To investigate the time distribution for pharmacists conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) implementing a clinical intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The setting was an RCT with a 5-step pharmacist-intervention in collaboration with the interdisciplinary team in a geriatric ward. Two pharmacists were involved in the trial during the observation period. Pharmacist activities, classified as RCT-tasks (intervention or administrative), non-RCT tasks and social/breaks, were recorded applying the Work Observation Method By Activity Timing methodology, enabling recording of predefined work tasks as well as interruptions and multitasking. One observer collected data over eight weeks. RESULTS: In total, 109.1 hours were observed resulting in 110.2 hours total task time, including multitasking. RCT tasks comprised 85.4% of the total observed time, and nearly 60% of the RCT time was spent on intervention tasks. Medication reviews was the most time consuming task, accounting for 32% of the observed time. The clinical pharmacists spent 14% of the intervention time communicating verbally, mainly with patients and healthcare professionals. CONCLUSION: During the RCT, the clinical pharmacists spent about half their time performing the actual intervention. Consequently, costs for providing such a clinical pharmacist service should reflect actual time spent; otherwise, we may risk overestimating theoretical costs.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/métodos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Comportamento Multitarefa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 304, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid spread of COVID-19 forced the public to turn to community pharmacies as the most accessible points of primary healthcare, overloading pharmacy services. The objectives of this research were to detect and describe the changes in work environment of community pharmacists in Vojvodina during the state of emergency due to COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic effects on job related stress were assessed. METHODS: Community pharmacists from Vojvodina completed an online questionnaire on work environment changes related to COVID-19 (cross-sectional study). RESULTS: Out of the 1574 licenced pharmacists in Vojvodina, 392 completed the survey. Workload increase, reported by 90.8% of pharmacists, was caused mostly by higher demand for safety equipment, antiseptics and disinfectants, dietary products and medicines. Most pharmacists (93.1%) considered pharmacy workflow to be more complex than before the pandemic. Clients' behavior was described as less pleasant since the start of the pandemic by 67.6% of the community pharmacists. Many were concerned for their health and the health of their families (68.9%). Community pharmacists rated their stress levels higher if they i) were working in larger chains, ii) experienced clients' behavior as less pleasant or/and iii) were concerned for their/their family health. CONCLUSIONS: Current research pointed out the need for a more robust healthcare system which would allow rapid introduction of new activities and roles for community pharmacists that could possibly decrease job-related stress. Legal steps to improve the work environment in community pharmacies are necessary and urgent in order to fully utilize their skills and knowledge.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Farmácias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sérvia/epidemiologia
15.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(4): 550-564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postdoctoral nurses have an important role in advancing nursing by generating knowledge and building networks in research, practice, and education which requires effective leadership. Therefore, the Leadership Mentoring in Nursing Research programme for postdoctoral nurses was developed. PURPOSE: This study was to evaluate expectations, experiences, and perceived influence of the leadership mentoring programme on leadership and professional development, professional identity, and research productivity of postdoctoral nurses. METHODS: A longitudinal mixed-method study with a concurrent triangulation design was used with data collected through semistructured interviews and online surveys. FINDINGS: The leadership mentoring programme was found to be valuable by the participants who described strengthened leadership and professional development and development of professional identities. Participants showed increased research productivity and many moved to new/higher positions. DISCUSSION: The leadership mentoring programme was found to enhance the leadership and professional development of postdoctoral nurses and support them in their academic careers.


Assuntos
Colaboração Intersetorial , Liderança , Tutoria/organização & administração , Mentores/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Nações Unidas
16.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 964-966, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735125

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic hit the United States in March 2020, there was widespread disruption of clinical medical education: Hospital clerkships were suspended nationwide and students were moved out of the hospital and continued their studies remotely through virtual learning systems. Frustrated by not being able to directly care for patients, medical students across the country formed diverse volunteer initiatives to help frontline clinicians. In this article, the authors describe the essential role of medical students at Weill Cornell Medicine in quickly designing and building a large registry of COVID-19 patients who presented at 3 New York City hospitals. The Cornell COVID-19 Registry, which contains granular clinical information on more than 4,000 patients, informed hospital operations and guided clinical management during the first wave of the pandemic. One month after its creation, the registry led to the first published description of the clinical characteristics of a U.S.-based cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Using their experience as a model, the authors propose that students who cannot participate in their clinical clerkships because of the pandemic can augment their traditional medical education by contributing to COVID-19 research. In the case described in this article, students reviewed the management of COVID-19 patients, followed inpatients throughout their hospitalization (much like students would on clinical rotations), and refined their interpersonal skills through discussions with patients and patients' families during follow-up calls. The authors conclude that medical students who are displaced from their hospital rotations can further their education and provide an invaluable contribution to the fight against COVID-19 by serving as essential frontline researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Papel Profissional , Sistema de Registros , Estudantes de Medicina , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Humanos , Liderança , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia
17.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 88, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ehealth platforms, since the outbreak of COVID-19 more important than ever, can support self-management in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this observational study is to explore the impact of healthcare professional involvement on the adherence of patients to an eHealth platform. We evaluated the usage of an eHealth platform by patients who used the platform individually compared with patients in a blended setting, where healthcare professionals were involved. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, log data from September 2011 until January 2018 were extracted from the eHealth platform Curavista. Patients with COPD who completed at least one Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) were included for analyses (n = 299). In 57% (n = 171) of the patients, the eHealth platform was used in a blended setting, either in hospital (n = 128) or primary care (n = 29). To compare usage of the platform between patients who used the platform independently or with a healthcare professional, we applied propensity score matching and performed adjusted Poisson regression analysis on CCQ-submission rate. RESULTS: Using the eHealth platform in a blended setting was associated with a 3.25 higher CCQ-submission rate compared to patients using the eHealth platform independently. Within the blended setting, the CCQ-submission rate was 1.83 higher in the hospital care group than in the primary care group. CONCLUSION: It is shown that COPD patients used the platform more frequently in a blended care setting compared to patients who used the eHealth platform independently, adjusted for age, sex and disease burden. Blended care seems essential for adherence to eHealth programs in COPD, which in turn may improve self-management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 41(2): 301-315, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whilst the number of independent prescriber (IP) optometrists in the United Kingdom is increasing, there is limited evidence describing the experiences of these individuals. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) provides an evidence-based approach to understand determinants of behaviour. This conceptual framework can enable mapping to the COM-B behaviour change model and the wider Behaviour Change Wheel to develop interventions to optimise behaviour-change and healthcare processes more systematically. The study aimed to use the TDF to identify the factors that influence independent prescribing behaviour, and to map these findings to the COM-B system to elucidate the relevant intervention functions, in order to identify the support required by optometrist prescribers. METHODS: Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews based on the TDF were undertaken with independent prescriber optometrists. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes inductively, which were then deductively mapped to the TDF and linked to the COM-B. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (9 male, 7 female; median age 45 years, range 28-65 years), based in community (n = 10) and hospital (n = 6) settings, were interviewed. Eleven of the TDF domains were found to influence prescribing behaviour. Findings highlighted the need for good communication with patients (TDF domain: Skills, COM-B: Capability); confidence (TDF domain: Beliefs about capabilities, COM-B: Motivation); good networks and relationships with other healthcare professionals, e.g., general practitioners (TDF domain: Social influences, COM-B: Opportunity; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation); the need for appropriate structure for remuneration (TDF domain: Reinforcement, COM-B: Motivation; TDF domain: Social/professional role and identity, COM-B: Motivation) and the provision of professional guidelines (TDF domain: Knowledge, COM-B: Capability; TDF domain: Environmental context and resources, COM-B Opportunity). CONCLUSIONS: Having identified theory-derived influencers on prescribing decisions by optometrists, the findings can be used to develop a structured intervention, such as a support package to help optimise prescribing by optometrists, with the ultimate goal of eye care quality improvement.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Motivação , Optometristas/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Prescrições/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido
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