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1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 941-946, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484258

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to examine the demographic characteristics, HIV related knowledge and behavior, correlates of bisexual behavior and status of HIV infection among men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) in Shandong province. Methods: According to the requirements from "National HIV/AIDS sentinel surveillance program" , a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services among MSM in nine sentinel surveillance sites from April to July in 2018. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests on both HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results: A total of 3 474 participants were included in this study. Related information on these participants would include: average age as (31.66±9.01) years; 35.06% (1 218) married or cohabiting with a woman, 50.52% (1 755) had college or higher education, 80.11% (2 783) self-identified as gays and 14.22% (494) self-identified as bisexual men,16.87% (586) ever having sex with woman in the past 6 months, 10.51% (365) ever using drugs. HIV and syphilis prevalence rates were 2.99% (104/3 474) and 2.76%(96/3 474). Through multivariable logistic models, MSMW were more likely to be ≥35 years of age, local residents, self-identified as heterosexual/bisexual/uncertain, ever having commercial sex with man but less likely to consistently use condoms in the past 6 months, less using internet/dating software to find male sex partners and less using drugs. There was no significant differences noticed in the following areas: number of sexual partners in the last week, condom use in the last six months with commercial sex partners, with HIV or syphilis infection and self-reported history of STD in the past year between MSMO and MSMW (P>0.05). HIV-infected MSM were more likely to have the following features, ≥45 years of age, non-local residents, finding male sex partners from the bothhouses, park/toilets or from the internet/dating software, also less likely to consistently use condoms in the past 6 months, using drugs or with syphilis infection. Conclusions: High prevalence of bisexual behavior as well as higher risk of HIV infection were noticed among MSM in Shandong province. It is important to strengthen related surveillance and effective intervention programs for MSM with different characteristics in Shandong province.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497185

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2015, in Dire Dawa administration city, adult HIV prevalence was 3.26 with 9,523 HIV positive population, & 251 annual AIDS deaths. Female sex workers are one of the high-risk groups for contracting HIV. Therefore, this study has assessed the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and condom utilization pattern among female sex workers' in Diredawa city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15-June 25, 2016, in Dire Dawa among 156 female sex workers using convenient sampling method. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a pretested questionnaire. Training was provided to the data collectors and supervisors. Close supervision was done and double data entry was performed. Then the data were checked for completeness, consistency and entered into Epi Info v3.1 and analyzed using SPSS v20. The descriptive statistical analysis was used to compute frequency, mean, mode and proportion of the findings of this study. The results were presented using tables, charts, graphs, and texts. Results: Among the 156 female sex workers (FSWs), 99 (63.5%) had been working on commercial sex for more than one year, 92 (59%) were usually street-based, and 80 (51.3%) had partners between 2-3 per night. Only, 17 (10.9%) respondents mentioned three and above ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention methods. Less than two-thirds (64.1%) of FSWs used a condom with all partners. One hundred thirty-eight (88.5%) of participants were engaged in unsafe sexual practice at least once since their engagement in sex work. Majority of FSWs (85.3%)) believed that their occupation is hazardous and 145 (92.9%) reported that they were unhappy being a commercial sex worker. Regarding risk perception, 79 (50.64%) and 37 (23.7%) of respondents perceived their chances of contracting HIV/STIs to be high and moderate respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge about HIV/STIs and magnitude of condom utilization were good. However, a high number of unsafe sex and unsatisfactory risk perception attitudes were observed. Thus, a collaborative effort is needed to create awareness regarding risk perception attitude and increase the level of their practice towards the prevention of unsafe sex.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Transfusion ; 59(8): 2584-2592, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1016740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men in Brazil are deferred from donation for 1 year since their last sexual contact. Legal proceedings in front of the Brazilian Supreme Court could compel blood collection agencies to discontinue use of sexual orientation questions. METHODS: Data from male participants in a completed HIV risk factor case-control study were used to evaluate whether it is possible to differentiate donors at lower and higher risk for HIV using two analytical approaches: latent class and random forest analyses. RESULTS: Male blood donors were divided into three distinct risk profile classes. Class 1 includes donors who are heterosexual (96.4%), are HIV negative (88.7%), have a main partner (99.4%), and practice unprotected sex (77.8%). Class 2 Includes donors who are men who have sex with men /bisexuals' (100.0%), are HIV positive (97.4%), and were not aware of their sexual partners' HIV status (80.3%). Class 3 includes donors who are heterosexual (84.1%), practice unprotected vaginal/anal heterosexual sex (66.8% vs. 40.9%), and were both HIV positive and HIV negative (49.5% vs. 50.5%). We also found that asking donors about their partner(s)' HIV serostatus could replace asking about donors' sexual orientation and types of partners with relatively minor shifts in sensitivity (0.76 vs. 0.58), specificity (0.89 vs. 0.94), and positive predictive value (0.85 vs. 0.88). CONCLUSION: Sexual orientation questions on the donor questionnaire could be replaced without great loss in the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Social and sexual behaviors of donors and their partners are proxies for HIV risk and can help to develop modified questions that will need controlled trials to be validated


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Doadores de Sangue , Parceiros Sexuais , HIV , Sexo sem Proteção
5.
BMJ ; 366: l4915, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455630

RESUMO

The studyA Rodger, V Cambiano, T Bruun, et al. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. Lancet 2019;393:2428-38.This project was funded by the NIHR Research for Patient Benefit Programme (project number PB-PG-1013-32069).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000785/antiretroviral-treatment-can-reduce-the-risk-of-hiv-transmission-between-male-partners-to-zero.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 79, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448041

RESUMO

Introduction: Family planning is a high impact strategy to reduce maternal mortality and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This study aims to describe contraceptive practices of HIV-infected women followed upon an ambulatory basis at the Treichville University Hospital. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive multicenter survey of people living with HIV in the ambulatory care units of the Treichville University Hospital from 1 April to 30 June 2016. During this period, all HIV positive patients of childbearing age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Pneumophtisiology Department, the Department of Dermatovenereology and the Department of internal medicine were invited to complete a standardized questionnaire on the sociodemographic, medical characteristics and the contraceptive practices. Results: In total, 283 women agreed to participate in the study, their median age was 36 years with an average parity of 1.7. Patients were nulliparous in only 22.3% of cases and lived with a partner in 54.8% of cases. They had no child with the current partner in 68.2% of cases. The partner was informed about their HIV status in 51.6% of cases. They were under antiretroviral treatment in 92.9% of cases with a median mean CD4 of 382 cells/mL. The majority of patients (62.9%) declared that they were using a modern contraceptive method. They mainly used progestin injectable (45.5%) and contraceptive implant (32.6%). The practice of dual protection was reported by only 17.4% of them. Secondary and higher education (OR=2.23 [1,35-3,69], p=0.01), multiparity (OR=1.84 [1,11-3,06], p=0.002) and revelation of HIV positive status to the partner (OR=1.86 [1,14-3,03], p<0.01) were factors significantly associated with the use of contraception. Conclusion: Based on our experience, contraceptive practices in women infected with HIV are generally discouraging. It is essential to develop strategies to improve the integration of family planning into the management of HIV-infected women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa do Marfim , Estudos Transversais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4782, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and its association with overweight and obesity among adolescent students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in public schools with adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We used the questionnaire Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The body mass index percentiles were calculated by means of table from the Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases. Possible associations were assessed using the χ2 test and binary logistic regression model. The odds ratio and 95%CI were calculated. RESULTS: We evaluated 1,169 students, and 33.9% reported having had sexual intercourse. Of those, 33% did not use a condom during their last intercourse, and 32.7% had had four or more sexual partners thus far. Regarding nutritional status, 15.3% were overweight or obese. In relation to the non-use of condoms, we observed only an association with the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.28-0.88). The number of lifetime sexual partners was associated with males (OR: 9.17; 95%CI: 4.16-20.22), sexual debut age at 13 years or less (OR: 2.51; 95%CI: 1.23-5.13) and drinking alcohol or using drugs before the last intercourse (OR: 6.16; 95%CI: 2.14-17.73). CONCLUSION: Risky sexual behavior rates were high and no association was found between risky sexual behaviors and overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312312

RESUMO

Introduction: Positive HIV results disclosure plays a significant role in the successful prevention and care of HIV infected patients. It provides significant social and health benefits to the individual and the community. Non-disclosure is one of the contextual factors driving the HIV epidemic in Uganda. Study objectives: to determine the frequency of HIV disclosure, associated factors and disclosure outcomes among HIV positive pregnant women at Mbarara Hospital, southwestern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative methods among a group of HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic was done and consecutive sampling conducted. Results: The total participant recruitment was 103, of which 88 (85.4%) had disclosed their serostatus with 57% disclosure to their partners. About 80% had disclosed within less than 2 months of testing HIV positive. Reasons for disclosure included their partners having disclosed to them (27.3%), caring partners (27.3%) and encouragement by health workers (25.0%). Following disclosure, 74%) were comforted and 6.8% were verbally abused. Reasons for non-disclosure were fear of abandonment (33.3%), being beaten (33.3%) and loss of financial and emotional support (13.3%). The factors associated with disclosure were age 26-35 years (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.03-15.16), primary education (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.10-11.307) and urban dwelling (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.27-14.01). Conclusion: Participants disclosed mainly to their partners and were comforted and many of them were encouraged by the health workers. There is need to optimize disclosure merits to enable increased participation in treatment and support programs.


Assuntos
Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 795-799, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357801

RESUMO

Objective: To know condom use negotiation with clients and regular sex partners and condom use in female sex workers (FSWs), and provide reference for the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS intervention for FSWs. Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted in Jianshui county and Mengzi county in Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefecture. A total of 476 FSWs aged 16 years and above were recruited from entertainment venues, and the information about their demographic characteristics, condom use negotiation and condom use were collected by using questionnaires. Logistic regression model was used to analyze related factors of condom use after negotiation between FSWs and clients unwilling use condom. Results: A total of 852 FSWs who aged (24.29±8.44) years old participated in the survey. In past month, 499 FSWs had negotiation for condom use with unwilling clients (58.6%, 499/852), after negotiation, 441 FSWs (88.4%, 441/499) had consistent condom use in each sex with the clients. In the past one month, 99 FSWs had negotiation for unwilling use condom with regular sex partners (14.4%, 99/687), after negotiation, 54 FSWs (54.5%, 54/99) had consistent condom use in each sex with regular sex partners. Among the FSWs, 266 (53.3%, 266/499) reported that they could say "It is a mandatory requirement" to persuade clients who were unwilling to use condom. 97(19.4%, 97/499) reported that they could say "There is risk for infection" to persuade clients who were unwilling to use condoms. 115 (23.1%,115/499) reported that they could say "It is a mandatory requirement" and "there is risk for infection" to persuade their unwilling clients to use condoms. 21 (4.2%, 21/499) reported that they used other strategies. 22 (4.4%, 22/499) felt that it was difficult to persuade clients to use condoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with FSWs who felt difficult in persuading clients to use condoms, FSWs who felt moderate difficulty were more likely to have consistent condom use after negotiation (OR=4.00, 95%CI: 1.55-10.32) and FSWs who felt easy in persuading clients to use condoms were also more likely to have consistent condom use (OR=30.17, 95%CI: 3.22-282.44). Compared with FSWs used other strategies to persuade their clients to use condoms, FSWs who said it was a mandatory requirement were more likely to have consistent condom use after negotiation (OR=4.44, 95%CI: 1.41-14.01) and FSWs who said it was a mandatory requirement and there was risk for infection were also more likely to have consistent condom use (OR=5.52, 95%CI: 1.55-19.73). Conclusions: Negotiation for condom use increased the rate of condom use in FSWs in sex with clients who were unwilling to use condom. The negotiation strategy of "It is a mandatory requirement" would promote condom use in FSWs in sex with clients who were unwilling to use condom. Besides, the negotiation strategy of saying "there is risk for infection" had additional effects.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Negociação , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 992, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the UK. Recent studies suggest that in addition to the genital tract, C. trachomatis is found in the throat and rectum, suggesting the number of infections is under-reported. There is an urgent need to study the impact of extending diagnosis to include extra-genital samples; however, there is a lack of evidence on the acceptability of asking young women to provide these samples. METHOD: A mixed methods single group feasibility study explored the acceptability of combined genital and extra-genital testing in young women aged 16-25 years consecutively attending a sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland. Young women were asked to complete a self- administered anonymous questionnaire whether they would be willing to give self-taken throat and ano-rectal samples. Interviews with women (n = 20) willing to self-sample were conducted before and after self-sampling, and these explored the underlying reasons behind their decision, and feelings about the tests. RESULTS: Of 500 women recruited to the study, 422 (84.4%) women provided sufficient data for analysis. From completed questionnaires, 86.3% of respondents reported willingness to self-sample from the throat. Willingness of ano-rectal self-sampling was lower (59.1%), particularly in women under 20 (< 20 years: 44.4%; ≥20 years, 68.2%). Willingness of ano-rectal self-sampling was higher in women who had more sexual partners in the last 6 months (0 partners, 48.3%, n = 14, 3 or more partners, 67.4%, n = 60) and in those who have previous experience of a positive test for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (positive: 64.5%; negative: 57%). Interviewed women suggested that a lack of knowledge of STIs, embarrassment and lack of confidence in the ability to carry out the sampling were barriers towards acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, self-sampling of throat samples is largely acceptable; however, the acceptability of taking an ano-rectal sample for C. trachomatis testing in young women was lower in younger women. The study suggests further research to investigate the acceptability of extra-genital testing as an addition to routine C. trachomatis testing, and whether this increases detection and prevents infective sequelae for women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Escócia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(2): 130-137, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282303

RESUMO

The incidence of HIV infection is increasing among adolescents in Zimbabwe. This rise in incidence is partly due to risky sexual behaviours yet there are no published research studies on sexual behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents in Zimbabwe. Hence, this study, which examined the sexual behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents. This study utilised a cross-sectional design with a conveniently selected sample of 341 HIV-positive adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The study revealed that approximately 37 (11%) of the adolescents had engaged in sexual intercourse, and approximately 14 (60%) of these did not use condoms. Approximately 11 (30%) of the sexually active adolescents had multiple sexual partners, and only 9 (24.3%) of them had disclosed their HIV serostatus to their partners before sexual intercourse. A bivariate analysis revealed factors that were associated with being sexually activity. Examples of these include age (OR = 1.56, p < 0.001) and being treated by a psychiatrist (OR = 47.9, p < 0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out, revealing factors that were independently associated with being sexually active. Examples of these include age (AOR = 1.91, p < 0.01) and exposure to erotic television programmes (AOR = 3.9, p < 0.04). The results of the study indicate that the sexual risk behaviours of HIV-positive adolescents contributes to the increase in incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe. The development and rolling out of a health education programme will help health care workers to address this concern.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 1, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182986

RESUMO

Introduction: In Africa, sex life after menopause remains an under-explored topic due to the fact that it is a taboo. This study aims to evaluate the quality of couple's sex life during menopause. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 320 postmenopausal women. The inclusion criteria were natural menopause. Patients who had experienced early or iatrogenic menopause were excluded. Investigation form was divided into 4 sections: social and cultural characteristics, clinical data, psycho-sexual data and therapeutic data. Comparison of proportions and chi-squared test with a significance threshold of less than 0.05 were used. Results: The average age of women was 60 years; the average age of onset of menopause was 48 years and the age of the menopause was 11.3 years. All woman suffered from climacteric syndrome. Hot flushes occured in 85.9% of women, vaginal dryness in 62.8% and urinary disorders in 52.5%. Only married women reported having sex with their partner (62.1%). Women had sex occasionally in 68.9% of cases, while 18.1% of women reported no sexual activity. Decreased sexual activity was due to partner's erectile dysfunction (62% of couples) and the lack of sexual desire (83.5% of women). Lack of sexual appetite and orgasm were also reported in 92% and 100% of cases. However, 93.5% of married women thought their life was bearable. Conclusion: Marital status, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and partner's erectile dysfunction have a significant impact on sexuality of menopausal women in Senegal.


Assuntos
Pós-Menopausa , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dispareunia/epidemiologia , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Senegal , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças Vaginais/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 494, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) use geosocial networking apps (Apps) to seek partners. However, the relationship of app use with HIV risk is unknown. Further, the risks of some sexually transmitted infection (STIs), including Mycoplasma genitalium, have seldom been studied among MSM. METHODS: MSM were enrolled at a community-based HIV testing site in Shenyang, China. After completing a questionnaire survey, we collected rectal swabs and venous blood specimens. We then simultaneously tested for ten STIs (Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Neisseria gonorrhea [NG], Ureaplasma urealyticum [Uu], Ureaplasma parvum species [Up1, Up3, Up6, Up14), Mycoplasma hominis [Mh], Mycoplasma genitalium [Mg], and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) using multiple PCR. We also performed blood tests for HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis C antibody (HCV-Ab), Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), and Hepatitis A-IgM (HAV-IgM), etc. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-three MSM participated in this study, of which 51.4% reported seeking partners through apps in the past year. The prevalence of HIV was 19.7%, Syphilis 12.0%, HAV 1.1%, rectal Mg 15.3% and Mh 7.1%. Multivariable logistic regression showed that HIV infection was independently correlated with app-using behavior (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] = 2.6), Mg infection (aOR = 3.2), Mh infection (aOR = 4.1) and Syphilis infection (aOR = 3.1) (each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: App use, Mg, Mh and Syphilis infection were correlated with higher HIV Risk in MSM. Geosocial networking apps should be utilized for HIV interventions targeting MSM. There is a need for more expansive STIs screening, particularly for Mg, Mh and Syphilis in MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , HIV , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/classificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 528, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adherence in Ethiopia have had inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis therefore aims to estimate the pooled effect of disclosure on adherence to ART among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: We performed a systematic search for articles reporting on peer-reviewed, quantitative, English-language observational studies of reporting the association between self sero-status disclosure and good ART adherence in adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia during published from 2010 to 2015. We searched four electronic databases: PubMed/Medline, the World Health Organization's Hinari portal (which includes the SCOPUS, African Index Medicus, and African Journals Online databases) for studies from December 1, 2017 to January 30, 2018. We also searched university repositories and conference abstracts for unpublished studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for the pooled effect of adherence using a random effects model in Stata version 14 and assessed publication bias using the Egger's test for funnel plot asymmetry. RESULTS: Our search returned in 179 studies, of which seven (3.9%), were eligible and included in the final meta-analysis. The seven included studies were conducted from 2010 to 2015. Our analysis found that disclosure had a significant effect on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV. Patients who disclosed were 1.64 times more likely to have good adherence to ART compared with those who did not (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.42). The small number of studies eligible for review and differences in study definitions of adherence and disclosure were the main limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: This review found a statistically significant positive effect of disclosure status on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV in Ethiopia. This suggests that Ethiopia's national treatment and prevention programs should redouble efforts to encourage self-disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS. Encouraging supportive social environments for disclosure, and promoting partner notification and partner disclosure support initiatives might be particularly helpful in this regard.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrevelação , Adulto , Etiópia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais , Apoio Social
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 792, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV disproportionately infects women in many regions. Zimbabwe is one of the countries, most heavily affected. Unequal gender power relations between men and women can increase women's vulnerability to HIV. The aim of this paper was to determine the relationship between gender power and HIV sero-status among postpartum women in Zimbabwe. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2042 women aged 15-49 years, attending postnatal-care at six public primary health care clinics in low-income urban communities of Harare in 2011. Women were asked about relationship power factors using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included adapted WHO multi-country study items, which measure partner violence perpetrated against women. HIV status data were based on rapid HIV diagnostic tests done during earlier antenatal visits. The analysis was restricted to women with known HIV test results (n = 1951). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the predictors of HIV and relationship power factors. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 15.3% (n = 299/1951). Three quarters of the women (76.9%, n = 1438/1871) reported some level of relationship control in their current/most recent intimate relationship. HIV positive women reported higher levels of control by the male partner in their intimate relationships. In adjusted models, the study found a significant association between relationship-control by the male partner and women's HIV status (AOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22), and the decision-making dimensions of relationship power. Although there were indications of high male partner control in participants' intimate relationships, some women still had agency, as they were able to make independent decisions to fall pregnant. These women were less likely to be HIV positive (AOR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-1.00). Having a partner who ever refused use of a family planning method was associated with increased odds of having a positive HIV status among the postpartum women (AOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.20-2.90). CONCLUSION: Unequal gender power relations continue to be a risk factor for heterosexual transmission of HIV. This suggests that prevention efforts have not successfully resulted in gender equality. HIV prevention interventions should address gender power dynamics to help curb the disproportionate HIV burden among women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Poder (Psicologia) , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 722, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China has increased yearly. This study aimed to explore the association between the characteristics of social communication and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among MSM and the implications for prevention and control of HIV among MSM in China using an egocentric network framework. METHODS: The data were collected in Guangzhou between November 2016 and May 2017 through standardized face-to-face interviews. The participants were recruited among MSM who received voluntary counselling and testing services (VCT) provided by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We used the framework of the egocentric network analysis, the odd ratios of CAI were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: In total, 1073 MSM who nominated 2667 sexual partners were sampled. MSM who were approximately 30 years old and chose sexual partners of different age category were more likely to engage in CAI. Participants with high level education who were in partnerships with individuals with lower education levels had a higher risk of CAI. Participants who reported having a strong relationship with their sexual partners(AOR = 1.31) were associated with a higher probability of experiencing CAI during sex; while having sexual partners who were unmarried (OR = 0.56), and participants who reported meeting sexual partners online (AOR = 0.74) or, having sex with an occasional partner (AOR = 0.44)were less likely to engage in CAI. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the strength of sexual dyadic relational ties and different social communication mixing patterns across ages, educational categories, and marital status were associated with CAI.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190034, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038615

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify the factors associated with condom use in the last sexual intercourse. METHODS: A population-based survey with young people aged 15-24, in the city of São Paulo, which collected sociodemographic data referring to knowledge about sex and sexual behavior. RESULTS: Among 821 sexually active young people interviewed in the last year, condom use in their last sexual intercourse was positively associated with: 1) not being married; 2) use of condom at sexual onset; and 3) receiving free condoms; additionally, among men: 4) casual partners in the previous year; and 5) partner of the same sex; and, amongwomen: 6) sexual onset after the age of 15. Having been tested for HIV was a negative association among women. Condoms are widely acknowledged, and there is a pattern of use for the first and last sexual intercourse. Access to free condoms is an important factor for use, and people use condoms according to standards that configure risk management. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy of primary prevention with the use of condoms is not yet exhausted. Based on this study, the city of São Paulo takes prevention as a public policy and allocates large condoms dispensers in 26 urban bus terminals, where 6million people circulate daily. In 2016, 75,546,720 free condoms were distributed, 30% in bus terminals alone.


Assuntos
Coito , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069000

RESUMO

Introduction: To assess the prevalence and causes of premarital sex and condom use among trainee healthcare workers in selected healthcare institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria; and to proffer solution to challenges identified. Methods: We used a mixed study approach with qualitative and quantitative components. Informed consent was obtained from participants and data collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Epi info® was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 362 respondents (309 unmarried) from four healthcare training institutions participated in the study. Among unmarried respondents, 141 (45.8%) were sexually active. Premarital sex was more common among Pentecostals and sexual activity increased with age (r=0.78; p <0.05). Premarital sexual activity was more common among males and trainee nurses (p <0.005). Although knowledge of condom use was high, actual use was poor (20.1%), with lowest rates among females, Catholics and age-group 30-35 years. Breakages, high failure rates and reduced sexual satisfaction were cited as major factors responsible for poor use. Use of non-specific terms such as "casual sex" and "casual or regular sex partners" hindered consistent, correct condom use. Conclusion: There is a significant gap between knowledge of and actual use of condoms, despite high premarital sexual activity amongst healthcare workers. Furthermore, non-specific terminologies hinders appropriate condom usage. We propose the term: Committed Spousal Partner (CSP) defined as "a sexual partner who commits to fidelity (one sexual partner per time) and whose current HIV status is known through medical testing and is properly documented" in place of all non-specific terminology.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terminologia como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 382, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection is the main cause of genital ulcer disease and increases the risk of HIV acquisition. Little information is available regards the epidemiological characteristics of HSV-2 among general population in China. The aim of this study was to explore seroprevalence and associated factors of HSV-2 and provide information for design of HSV-2 control strategy in Shandong, China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 8074 persons, 18-49 years of age, were selected using multi-stage probability sampling to represent the general population of Shandong in 2016. Demographic data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Other variables were obtained by self-administered questionnaire surveys. Blood was collected for HSV-2 IgG detection with ELISA. RESULTS: A total of 7256 sexually-active participants were included in the analysis. The weighted seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-5.3) in females, which was significant higher than that in males (2.7%; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2) (P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of HSV-2 was higher in individuals from eastern region (6.4%; 95% CI, 5.9-6.9) and urban areas (4.3%; 95% CI, 2.6-6.0) of Shandong than those from other regions (P < 0.01). Associated factors for HSV-2 infection among men were being urban residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.88), having two or more sex partners in the past year (AOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.90-5.43) and having commercial sex (AOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00-2.26). Among females, being divorced or widowed (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.08-2.97), having a tattoo (AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.07-7.84), and being dissatisfied with the sex activity quality (AOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.24-3.63) was associated with HSV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a relatively low burden of HSV-2 in Shandong province, China compared with the seroprevalence reported in many other provinces and countries. HSV-2 control programs in Shandong should focus on eastern, urban and female residents, and pay more attention to individuals with identified associated factors.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 314-322, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181701

RESUMO

Este estudio busca construir y validar la Escala de Comunicación autopercibida en la relación de pareja (CARP) con el fin de ofrecer un instrumento sencillo y útil. Participaron 620 personas que mantenían una relación de pareja. Para estudiar la estructura factorial de la escala se dividió aleatoriamente la muestra en dos submuestras, realizándose una validación cruzada mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). Asimismo, para comprobar que el modelo se mantenía estable al tener en cuenta la variable sexo, se repitió el análisis factorial confirmatorio con las submuestras de mujeres y de hombres y se aplicó un AFC Multigrupo para comprobar la invarianza factorial en función de esta variable. Se ha obtenido una escala de 8 ítems constituida por dos factores que explican el 46.6% de la varianza y que presenta una buena fiabilidad (alfa = .75), comprobándose la invarianza estricta en función del sexo. Esta escala puede ser útil en el campo de la detección, prevención e intervención en situaciones de conflicto entre la pareja


This study aims to design and validate the Scale of Self-perceived Communication in the Couple Relationship (SCCR) in order to provide a straightforward and useful instrument. 620 persons who were in a couple relationship took part in this study. The sample was divided randomly into two subsamples to study the factor structure of the scale, carrying out a cross-validation by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Also, and to verify that the model remained stable taking account of the variable gender, the confirmatory factor analysis was repeated with the women and men subsamples, and a multigroup CFA was carried out to check the factor invariance according to this variable An 8-items scale was obtained, made up with two factors explaining 46.6% of the variance who also reported a good reliability (alfa = .75), testing the strict invariance according to the gender. This scale might be useful in the field of detection, prevention and intervention of conflict situations in the couple relationship


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Autoimagem , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Autorrelato , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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