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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3543-3554, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468650

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the risk of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) by developing an index that considers sex partner networks. The index variables were age, ethnicity/skin color, schooling, relationship type, condom use in receptive and insertive relationships, self-perception of the possibility of HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and rapid HIV testing results. We used data from a cross-sectional MSM egocentric network survey conducted in Rio de Janeiro between 2014 and 2015. The initial research volunteer is called ego, each partner is called alter, and each pair of people in a relationship is called the dyad. Multiple logistic regression was used to define the coefficients of the equations for the elaboration of the indices. The index ranged from 0 to 1; the closer to 1, the higher the risk of HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 13.9% among egos. The mean egos index with an HIV-reactive test was 57% higher than non-reactive, and the same profile was observed in the index values of dyads. The index allowed the incorporation of network data through the dyads and contributed to the identification of individuals with a higher likelihood of acquiring HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444249

RESUMO

Most cancers are related to lifestyle and environmental risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, and environment (occupational exposures). A growing interest in the association between sexual activity (SA) and the development of different types of tumors in both men and women has been recorded in recent years. The aim of the present systematic review is to describe and critically discuss the current evidence regarding the association between SA and male genital cancers (prostatic, penile, and testicular), and to analyze the different theories and biological mechanisms reported in the literature. A comprehensive bibliographic search in the MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was performed in July 2021. Papers in the English language without chronological restrictions were selected. Retrospective and prospective primary clinical studies, in addition to previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses, were included. A total of 19 studies, including 953,704 patients were selected. Case reports, conference abstracts, and editorial comments were excluded. Men with more than 20 sexual partners in their lifetime, and those reporting more than 21 ejaculations per month, reported a decreased risk of overall and less aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). About 40% of penile cancers (PCs) were HPV-associated, with HPV 16 being the dominant genotype. Data regarding the risk of HPV in circumcised patients are conflicting, although circumcision appears to have a protective role against PC. Viral infections and epididymo-orchitis are among the main sex-related risk factors studied for testicular cancer (TC); however, data in the literature are limited. Testicular trauma can allow the identification of pre-existing TC. SA is closely associated with the development of PC through high-risk HPV transmission; in this context, phimosis appears to be a favoring factor. Sexual behaviors appear to play a significant role in PCa pathogenesis, probably through inflammatory mechanisms; however, protective sexual habits have also been described. A direct correlation between SA and TC has not yet been proven, although infections remain the most studied sex-related factor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Testiculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Neoplasias Testiculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/etiologia
3.
AIDS Behav ; 25(9): 2767-2778, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389891

RESUMO

Between 2010 and 2015, Eswatini conducted mass media health behavior campaigns (HBCs) designed to avert new HIV infections. Using longitudinal data from the nationally representative Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey of 2011, we describe the impact of exposure to HBCs on selected HIV risk behaviors and HIV incidence among sexually active, HIV-negative adults (n = 11,232). Exposure to partner reduction HBCs was significantly associated with reporting fewer (i.e., 1 versus 2, or 2 versus ≥ 3) sexual partners in the prior 6 months at baseline among women (aOR = 3.02; 95% CI 1.38, 6.62); and at both baseline and at 6-months follow-up for men (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI 1.49, 3.44; aOR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.26-3.00], respectively). Despite these reported partner reductions, there was no association between HBC exposure and prospectively observed HIV seroconversions (n = 121). This analysis strengthens the evidence that HIV prevention at the population level requires integrated strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Essuatíni , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
4.
J Sex Med ; 18(9): 1532-1544, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Appearance dissatisfaction is a sensitive issue and has been tied to depression, dissatisfaction in romantic relationships, and reduced sexual satisfaction. AIM: This study sought to examine associations between appearance satisfaction and specific sexual problems and related distress, testing also the moderating role of relationship satisfaction. METHODS: A large web-sample of Norwegians in romantic relationships (N = 2,903) completed a one-time survey. OUTCOMES: Participants reported on their experience of five different sexual problems and associated level of distress. RESULTS: We found that appearance satisfaction was associated with reporting fewer sexual problems, and specifically, with a smaller likelihood of experiencing problems with lack of enjoyment, lack of excitement, and lack of climax. Furthermore, appearance satisfaction was unrelated to overall sexual problem-related distress, but was associated with feeling less distress about lack of excitement and lack of climax. Relationship satisfaction did not serve as a moderator of the associations. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: These findings suggest the importance of attending to appearance satisfaction when working with clients with multiple sexual problems, particularly those related to excitement and enjoyment. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Strengths of the study include a large sample of partnered adults and assessment of specific sexual problems and associated distress. A limitation is that outcomes were assessed using single items, rather than multi-item scales. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of examining the presence of sexual problems and associated distress separately, and to consider appearance satisfaction as a predictor of sexual functioning. Øverup CS, Strizzi JM, Cipric A, et al. Appearance Satisfaction as a Predictor of Specific Sexual Problems and Associated Distress. J Sex Med 2021;18:1532-1544.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Humanos , Noruega , Orgasmo , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(3): 320-328, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is no population-based study on prevalence rates for all forms of intimate partner violence experienced by people with different types of disabilities in New Zealand. This study compares the reported lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence (physical, sexual, psychological, controlling behaviors, and economic abuse) for people with different types of disabilities with that reported by those without disabilities and tests whether there is a gender difference. METHODS: From March 2017 to March 2019, a total of 2,888 women and men aged ≥16 years participated in a cross-sectional study in New Zealand using a cluster random sampling method. Face-to-face interviews were used for data collection. The WHO Multi-country Study questionnaire was employed as the data collection tool. Logistic regression was conducted, and AORs were reported. RESULTS: Those with any disability reported significantly higher rates of most forms of intimate partner violence than those without disabilities, among both genders, including physical intimate partner violence (AOR=1.80, 95% CI=1.32, 2.47 for women, AOR=2.44, 95% CI=1.72, 3.45 for men) and psychological and economic abuse. Women with disabilities were more likely to report experiences of sexual intimate partner violence than men (range =13.5-17.1% vs 4.0%-21.2% in men). Men with intellectual disability were more likely to report physical intimate partner violence than women with intellectual disability (60.5% in men and 36.0% in women). CONCLUSIONS: People with disabilities report experiencing a significantly high lifetime prevalence of intimate partner violence compared with people without disabilities. The results warrant policy and practice changes to identify early signs of abuse and intervene accordingly and warrant an investment in targeted violence prevention programs.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444038

RESUMO

This study describes the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) injection, their main correlates, and the prevalence of specific AAS injection risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM), an area insufficiently addressed in scientific research. Participants were HIV-negative MSM attending four HIV/STI diagnosis services: two clinics and two community programmes in Madrid and Barcelona. Participants answered an online self-administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted lifetime prevalence and prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated by different factors and using Poisson regression models with robust variance. Of the 3510 participants, 6.1% (95% CI: 5.3-6.9) had injected AAS before and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.9-4.2) had done so in the last 12 months. In the multivariate analysis, AAS injection was independently associated with being over 40 years old (aPR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.0-6.5) and being born in Latin America (aPR = 2.5; 95% CI:1.9-3.4), and was less strongly associated (aPRs of around two) with having been recruited into STI clinics, having ever been paid for sex before, injected drugs, used drugs for sex, having been diagnosed with an STI before, and having been diagnosed with HIV at the recruitment consultation. Only three participants, 1.4%, of those who had injected AAS before had shared AAS or equipment for preparation or injecting before. Conclusions: In contrast to drugs, AAS injecting behaviours do not play a relevant, direct role in the transmission of blood-borne infections among MSM. However, AAS injectors have a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviours. These findings should be confirmed using new studies that employ other sampling procedures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congêneres da Testosterona
7.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(7): E580-581, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351270

RESUMO

This acrylic painting considers intimacy and its ethical demands during our personal and professional encounters with one another, drawing on Pablo Picasso's 1907 Head of the Medical Student.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Estudantes de Medicina , Ética Médica , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1506, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use is a public health challenge among young people in informal settlements. Though rarely examined, psychoactive substance use is linked to sexual expectancies and inhibitions, and consequently high-risk sexual behaviours. This study examined the association between sexual expectancies and inhibitions, and high-risk sexual behaviours among young psychoactive substance users (PSUs) in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 744 young PSUs from informal settlements in Kampala. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit respondents. A 'modified' Poisson regression model was used for inferential statistics. Data were analysed using the Stata 14 software. RESULTS: Of the 744 study participants, 45.6% believed that psychoactive substance use improves sexual performance; 43.3% believed that psychoactive substances make sex more pleasurable, and 53.3% believed that psychoactive substances give courage or confidence to approach a partner for sex. The belief that psychoactive substance use improves sexual performance (PR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30), increases the likelihood of engaging in sex (PR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40) or gives courage or confidence to approach a sexual partner (PR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39) were associated with having sex while under the influence of psychoactive substances. The belief that a psychoactive substance user under the influence of psychoactive substances is more likely to engage in sex (PR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.15-1.90), and likely to find it difficult to refuse sex (PR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06-1.55) were positively associated with engaging in multiple sexual partnerships. The belief that one easily forgets to use a condom when under the influence of psychoactive substances was positively associated with inconsistent condom use (PR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09-1.45). CONCLUSION: Psychoactive substance use expectancies associated with high-risk sexual behaviours included the belief that psychoactive substances improve sexual performance and improve confidence in approaching a sexual partner. Psychoactive substance use inhibitions associated with high-risk sexual behaviours included an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual intercourse, difficulties in refusing to engage in sexual intercourse, and forgetting to use condoms while intoxicated. Interventions targeting a reduction in high-risk sexual behaviour should integrate the impact of psychoactive substance use on sexual behaviour.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 286, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with health and socioeconomic consequences and is endemic in Namibia. Studies assessing risk factors for IPV often use logistic and Poisson regression without geographical location information and spatial effects. We used a Bayesian spatial semi-parametric regression model to determine the risk factors for IPV in Namibia; assess the non-linear effects of age difference between partners and determine spatial effects in the different regions on IPV prevalence. METHODS: We used the couples' dataset of the 2013-2014 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) obtained on request from Measure DHS. The DHS domestic violence module included 2226 women. We generated a binary variable measuring IPV from the questions "ever experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence?" Covariates included respondent's educational level, age, couples' age difference, place of residence and partner's educational level. All estimation was done with the full Bayesian approach using R version 3.5.2 implementing the R2BayesX package. RESULTS: IPV country prevalence was 33.3% (95% CI = 30.1-36.5%); Kavango had the highest [50.6% (95% CI = 41.2-60.1%)] and Oshana the lowest [11.5% (95% CI = 3.2-19.9%)] regional prevalence. IPV prevalence was highest among teenagers [60.8% (95% CI = 36.9-84.7%)]). The spatial semi-parametric model used for adjusted results controlled for regional spatial effects, respondent's age, age difference, respondent's years of education, residence, wealth, and education levels. Women with higher education were 50% less likely to experience IPV [aOR: 0.46, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87]. For non-linear effects, the risk of IPV was high for women ≥ 5 years older or ≥ 25 years younger than their partners. Younger and older women had higher risks of IPV than those between 25 and 45 years. For spatial variation of IPV prevalence, northern regions had low spatial effects while western regions had very high spatial effects. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IPV among Namibia women was high especially among teenagers, with higher educational levels being protective. The risk of IPV was lower in rural than urban areas and higher with wide partner age differences. Interventions and policies for IPV prevention in Namibia are needed for couples with wide age differences as well as for younger women, women with lower educational attainment and in urban and western regions.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 283: 114029, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242890

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal support can promote positive outcomes among people living with HIV. In order to develop an acceptable psychoeducational couples-based intervention aimed at strengthening the relationship context and improving HIV outcomes before and after pregnancy, we conducted qualitative interviews with pregnant women living with HIV and their male partners. METHODS: We interviewed a convenience clinic-based sample of pregnant women living with HIV (n = 30) and male partners (n = 18) in Lusaka, Zambia. Interviews included pile sorting relationship topics in order of perceived priority. Interviews also focused on family health concerns. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, transcribed, and thematically analyzed. Pile sorting data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: All female participants were living with HIV; 61% of the male partners interviewed were additionally living with HIV. The most prioritized relationship topic among both genders was communication between couples. Honesty and respect were important relationship topics but prioritized differently based on gender. Female participants considered emotional and instrumental support from male partners critical for their physical and mental health; men did not prioritize support. Intimate partner violence was discussed often by both genders. Family health priorities included good nutrition during pregnancy, preventing infant HIV infection, safe infant feeding, sexual health, and men's alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: A major contribution of this study is a better understanding of the dyad-level factors pregnant women living with HIV and their male partners perceive to be the most important for a healthy, well-functioning relationship. This study additionally identified gaps in antenatal health education and the specific family health issues most prioritized by pregnant women living with HIV and their male partners. The findings of this study will inform the development of an acceptable couples-based intervention with greater likelihood of efficacy in strengthening the relationship context and promoting family health during and after pregnancies that are affected by HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Parceiros Sexuais , Apoio Social , Zâmbia
13.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 161, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently known as the genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD), Dyspareunia is considered a negative factor affecting a couple's sexual health. This paper analyzes pain in Dyspareunia cases and determines protective factors causing lower levels of sexual distress among patients. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2017, the cluster quota sampling technique was adopted to randomly select 590 Iranian married women aged 18-70 years from 30 health centers. The research tools included demographic data, a sexual distress scale, and Binik's GPPPD questionnaire. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of self-report Dyspareunia, confirmed moderate Dyspareunia, and confirmed severe Dyspareunia (based on Binik's proposed criteria) were 33 %, 25.8 %, and 10.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, 32 (34 %) out of 94 women who experienced severe pain based on Binik's criteria reported no sexual distress. Compared to women with distress, they also had more positive body images, higher self-confidence, higher levels of sexual satisfaction, and more intimacy in their relationships (P = 0.000). In contrast, 8.5 % of the participants reported significant sexual distress even without confirmed Dyspareunia. CONCLUSIONS: Improving intrapersonal characteristics such as self-confidence and body image as well as interpersonal factors such as sexual satisfaction and intimacy with a spouse can effectively treat Dyspareunia by alleviating sexual distress. The partner's role in female pain and distress management would be more critical than previously thought.


Assuntos
Dispareunia , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Dispareunia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206787

RESUMO

Emotional dysregulation is a construct that has drawn substantial attention as a transdiagnostic contributing factor to the loss of health. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a term used to describe physical, psychological, or sexual assault of a spouse or sexual partner. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of emotional dysregulation among women with different types of IPV revictimization and post-traumatic stress. The cross-sectional survey included 120 women attended by the Integrated Monitoring System of Gender Violence of Madrid, Spain, due to a gender violence complaint. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (DSM 5 criteria), emotional dysregulation (Emotional Processing Scale (EPS)), childhood trauma, and type of revictimization were evaluated. Cluster analysis found three profiles of emotional regulation: Emotionally Regulated, Avoidance/Non-Impoverished, and Emotional Overwhelm. The results showed that the Emotional Overwhelm group was characterized by a general dysregulation of emotional experiences and a greater intensity of post-traumatic stress symptoms. In addition, women who have suffered several episodes of IPV by different partners showed a differential pattern of emotional regulation than the rest of the victims that entailed greater psychopathology. Findings confirm that emotional dysregulation is a critical pathway to the decrease of health among IPV victims.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Regulação Emocional , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281116

RESUMO

Emerging adulthood is identified as a time of identity exploration, during which emerging adults (EAs) may engage in sexual exploration and risky behaviors, potentially resulting in the contraction of a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Many EAs, do not disclose their status to partners or those who can provide social support, like parents. Nor do they often get tested. This may be due to the changing status of stigma surrounding STIs. This study examines traditional measures of the stigma/shame of STI diagnoses, treatment, and testing, and their relevance alongside both increased opportunities for casual sex and not only heightened education surrounding STIs, but also heightened prevalence of STIs in the U.S. Results show EAs perceived that if their community found out they got tested, they would likely be treated differently. They also felt they would be uncomfortable disclosing an STI to parents as well as to sexual partners. However, disclosing to a monogamous partner yielded less felt shame and stigma by EAs. Lastly, stigma/shame was associated with STI communication, as well as with overall perception of STI knowledge, and getting tested. Further explanation of the results and possible implications of this study are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vergonha , Estigma Social , Estudantes
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1955): 20211115, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284630

RESUMO

A wide range of literature connects sex ratio and mating behaviours in non-human animals. However, research examining sex ratio and human mating is limited in scope. Prior work has examined the relationship between sex ratio and desire for short-term, uncommitted mating as well as outcomes such as marriage and divorce rates. Less empirical attention has been directed towards the relationship between sex ratio and mate preferences, despite the importance of mate preferences in the human mating literature. To address this gap, we examined sex ratio's relationship to the variation in preferences for attractiveness, resources, kindness, intelligence and health in a long-term mate across 45 countries (n = 14 487). We predicted that mate preferences would vary according to relative power of choice on the mating market, with increased power derived from having relatively few competitors and numerous potential mates. We found that each sex tended to report more demanding preferences for attractiveness and resources where the opposite sex was abundant, compared to where the opposite sex was scarce. This pattern dovetails with those found for mating strategies in humans and mate preferences across species, highlighting the importance of sex ratio for understanding variation in human mate preferences.


Assuntos
Caracteres Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Reprodução , Parceiros Sexuais
17.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 439-443, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227875

RESUMO

The hyperperception model was used to derive hypotheses concerning the processes by which people experience romantic jealousy because of their observation of their romantic partners on social network sites. The main focus was on the receiver component of the model that specifies that when observation of others' interactions is constrained to social media, those interactions appear more intimate than when the dyad is also observable offline. A survey (N = 322) was conducted to test this component of the model and determine if the model can predict additional phenomena such as possession signals and staying home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were generally consistent with the hypotheses and the utility of the hyperperception model for understanding the effects of observing romantic partners' interactions on social media. The data also reveal the importance of interpersonal processes in obeying social distancing guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ciúme , Distanciamento Físico , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Mídias Sociais
18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 457-463, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264771

RESUMO

There is a growing research interest in cyber dating abuse (CDA). CDA includes abusive online behavior toward a current or former intimate partner, such as aggression, control, harassment, and humiliation. Despite the potential overlap and reciprocal relationship of CDA and intimate partner violence, there remains considerable paucity in research exploring predictors of this abusive online behavior. In the current study, we adopt the General Aggression Model framework and explore the role of gender, hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths to predict perpetration of CDA. Participants (N = 415, 51 percent women; Mage = 32.68 years) were recruited via social media advertisements and completed an anonymous, confidential online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised the Conformity to Masculine Roles Norms Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale, and a modified Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths were all significant positive predictors of perpetrating CDA. As gender was a significant predictor until the inclusion of these variables, a multiple mediation analysis was performed, indicating that both hegemonic masculinity and sexual aggression myths fully mediated the relationship between gender and perpetrating CDA. These results add to the growing body of research exploring how CDA emerges as a behavior and highlight possible implications for management and intervention.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Individualidade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculinidade , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Corte/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264772

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Ciúme , Casamento/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Interação Social , Mídias Sociais
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299690

RESUMO

Insecure attachment has been found to be a risk factor for perpetrating physical intimate partner violence (IPV). However, this association is likely exacerbated by additional factors, such as conflicting insecure attachment in one's partner and difficulties with overall emotion regulation and impulse control. The present study aimed to examine the associations between insecure attachment and physical IPV perpetration in male and female partners, as well as to examine whether these associations are exacerbated by involvement with a partner with opposing attachment needs and overall emotion dysregulation and impulsivity. Additionally, this study examined whether partners' emotion dysregulation interacted to predict IPV. Two hundred eight heterosexual couples primarily recruited from a Hispanic-serving university completed questionnaires on attachment, emotion dysregulation, and one's own and one's partner's perpetration. Results revealed that attachment anxiety, impulsivity, and an interaction effect between attachment avoidance and partner's attachment anxiety were associated with self-reported, but not partner-reported, male perpetration. For females, attachment anxiety was associated with female IPV (self-reported and partner-reported), and impulsivity was associated with self-reported female IPV. Overall, results underscore how relationships between known risk factors and IPV perpetration may differ depending on if IPV perpetration is measured using self-reported or partner-reported data. Additional results and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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