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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e00992023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747758

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the association between the school context and the occurrence of multiple partners among adolescents, considering individual variables (age, gender, Bolsa Família, LGB, early sexual initiation and use of alcohol or drugs in the last sex). Cross-sectional study with multilevel analysis carried out in 2018 with adolescent students from Olinda, Brazil. The variable (multiple partners) was collected based on the 'Youth Risk Behavior Survey' questionnaire. School context variables were time in school (regular school vs. full/semi-full school) and the Social Vulnerability Index of the school district. Of 2,500 participants, 1,044 were analyzed for being sexually active and most had two or more partners (63.89%). Regular school students were more likely (OR 1.47, CI 1.10-1.97) to have multiple sexual partners compared to those in full-day schools/half-day schools. However, no association was found in relation to the SVI of the schools' neighborhoods (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). More time spent at school was associated with fewer chances of multiple sexual partners, while studying in schools located in highly vulnerable neighborhoods was not associated with the occurrence of multiple sexual partners among adolescents.


O estudo investiga a associação entre o contexto escolar e a ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros entre adolescentes, considerando as variáveis individuais. Estudo transversal com análise multinível, realizado no período de fevereiro a junho de 2018 com estudantes de 14 a 19 anos. A variável desfecho (múltiplos parceiros sexuais) foi coletada com base no questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). As variáveis do contexto escolar foram tempo na escola (escola regular vs escola integral/semi-integral) e índice de vulnerabilidade social (IVS) do bairro onde a escola está localizada. De 2.500 participantes, 1.044 foram analisados por serem sexualmente ativos. A maioria dos adolescentes (63,89%) teve dois ou mais parceiros. Estudantes de escola regular (mínimo de 4h diárias) tiveram mais chances (OR 1.47, IC 1.10-1.97) de terem múltiplos parceiros sexuais quando comparados àqueles de escola integral/semi-integral (mínimo de 7h diárias). Porém, não houve associação em relação ao IVS dos bairros das escolas (OR 1.18, IC 0.82-1.70). Maior tempo na escola esteve associado a menor chance de múltiplos parceiros sexuais, enquanto estudar em escolas localizadas em bairro de alta vulnerabilidade não esteve associado à ocorrência de múltiplos parceiros sexuais entre adolescentes.


Assuntos
Análise Multinível , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e15552022, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747777

RESUMO

The conceptions, values, and experiences of students from public and private high schools in two Brazilian state capitals, Vitória-ES and Campo Grande-MS, were analyzed regarding digital control and monitoring between intimate partners and the unauthorized exposure of intimate material on the Internet. Data from eight focus groups with 77 adolescents were submitted to thematic analysis, complemented by a questionnaire answered by a sample of 530 students. Most students affirmed that they do not tolerate the control/monitoring and unauthorized exposure of intimate materials but recognized that such activity is routine. They point out jealousy, insecurity, and "curiosity" as their main reasons. They detail the various dynamics of unauthorized exposure of intimate material and see it as a severe invasion of privacy and a breach of trust between partners. Their accounts suggest that such practices are gender violence. They also reveal that each platform has its cultural appropriation and that platforms used by the family, such as Facebook, cause more significant damage to the victim's reputation.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Humanos , Brasil , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Internet , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Privacidade , Violência de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Ciúme , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e12162023, 2024 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747774

RESUMO

Gestational syphilis (GS) in adolescents is a challenge for Brazilian public health, with high incidence rates. Testing, diagnosis and treatment of sexual partners is essential to interrupt the chain of transmission, but since 2017 it is no longer a criterion for the proper treatment of pregnant women. We sought to analyze and synthesize the knowledge produced about the health care of sexual partners of adolescents with GS in Brazil. We carried out a systematic review in the BVS, SciELO and PubMed databases, selecting articles that addressed GS and/or congenital syphilis (CS) in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years and that included information about sexual partners. Forty-one articles were comprehensively analyzed using the WebQDA software and classified into two categories: a) Approach to sexual partners during prenatal care, and b) The role of sexual partners in the transmission cycle of GS and CS. The studies show that the partner's approach is deficient, with a lack of data on the sociodemographic profile and information on testing and treatment. In the context of Primary Health Care, there are no studies that address factors inherent to the context of vulnerability of sexual partners in relation to coping with syphilis.


A sífilis gestacional (SG) em adolescentes é um desafio para a saúde pública brasileira, com elevadas taxas de incidência. A testagem, diagnóstico e tratamento dos parceiros sexuais é indispensável para interromper a cadeia de transmissão, mas desde 2017 deixou de ser critério para o tratamento adequado da gestante. Buscamos analisar e sintetizar o conhecimento produzido sobre a atenção à saúde de parceiros sexuais de adolescentes com SG no Brasil. Realizamos uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados BVS, SciELO e PubMed, selecionando artigos que abordavam SG e/ou sífilis congênita (SC) em adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos e que incluíam informações sobre os parceiros sexuais. Quarenta e um artigos foram analisados compreensivamente com auxílio do software WebQDA e classificados em duas categorias: (a) Abordagem dos parceiros sexuais no pré-natal, e (b) Papel dos parceiros sexuais no ciclo de transmissão da SG e da SC. Os estudos evidenciam que a abordagem do parceiro é deficitária, com ausência de dados sobre o perfil sociodemográfico e informações sobre testagem e tratamento. No âmbito da atenção primária à saúde não se encontram estudos que abordem fatores inerentes ao contexto de vulnerabilidade dos parceiros sexuais em relação ao enfrentamento da sífilis.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis Congênita , Sífilis , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Gravidez , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/transmissão , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
4.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1330282, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737858

RESUMO

Introduction: Low-level HIV epidemic settings like Singapore face the challenge of reaching men at-risk who have less contact with programmes. We investigated patterns of meeting platform use by men seeking male sexual partners (MSM) as potential marker of risk to differentiate sub-groups for interventions. Methods: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was applied to a survey sample of MSM recruited from bars/clubs, saunas and a smartphone application, using purposive sampling. The best-fit LCA model which identified homogeneous sub-groups with similar patterns of meeting platform was factored in multivariable regression to identify associations with risk behaviors on the pathway to HIV infection. Results: Overall 1,141 MSM were recruited from bars/clubs (n = 426), saunas (n = 531), and online (n = 184). Five patterns emerged, reflecting salient platform use characteristics: Sauna-centric (SC; n = 413), App-centric (AC; n = 276), Multiple-platforms (MP; n = 123), Platform-inactive (PI; n = 257), and "Do not hook up" (DNH; n = 72) classes. Men in the SC and MP classes had high probabilities of using saunas to meet partners; SC were older and less likely to have disclosed their sexual orientation. The MP class had high probabilities of connecting across all platforms in addition to saunas and more likely to have disclosed their sexual orientation, than the PI class. Men in the SC and MP classes had twice the odds of reporting multiple sex partners (aORSC = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.33.2; aORMP = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.14.6). Single/non-partnered MSM and those using alcohol/drugs during sex had 1.7 (95%CI: 1.22.5) and 3.2 (95%CI: 2.05.1) the odds respectively, of reporting multiple sex partners. The SC and MP classes had higher odds of engaging in group sex while MSM using alcohol/drugs during sex had twice the odds of reporting group sex. Alcohol/drugs and group sex were independently associated with condomless sex (as was lower education). Group sex, alcohol/drugs during sex, disclosure of sexual orientation or being Singaporean/permanent resident were associated with recent testing for HIV. Discussion: The five distinct risk profiles identified can help tailor differentiated HIV interventions-combined with field knowledge and other prevention-to expand HIV self-testing, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and other services (e.g., Mpox vaccination) to sub-groups at risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Análise de Classes Latentes , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Singapura/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS Genet ; 20(5): e1011268, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701081

RESUMO

Age at first sexual intercourse (AFS) and lifetime number of sexual partners (NSP) may influence the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma (UL) through their associations with hormonal concentrations and uterine infections. Leveraging summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies conducted in European ancestry for each trait (NAFS = 214,547; NNSP = 370,711; NUL = 302,979), we observed a significant negative genomic correlation for UL with AFS (rg = -0.11, P = 7.83×10-4), but not with NSP (rg = 0.01, P = 0.62). Four specific genomic regions were identified as contributing significant local genetic correlations to AFS and UL, including one genomic region further identified for NSP and UL. Partitioning SNP-heritability with cell-type-specific annotations, a close clustering of UL with both AFS and NSP was identified in immune and blood-related components. Cross-trait meta-analysis revealed 15 loci shared between AFS/NSP and UL, including 7 novel SNPs. Univariable two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis suggested no evidence for a causal association between genetically predicted AFS/NSP and risk of UL, nor vice versa. Multivariable MR adjusting for age at menarche or/and age at natural menopause revealed a significant causal effect of genetically predicted higher AFS on a lower risk of UL. Such effect attenuated to null when age at first birth was further included. Utilizing participant-level data from the UK Biobank, one-sample MR based on genetic risk scores yielded consistent null findings among both pre-menopausal and post-menopausal females. From a genetic perspective, our study demonstrates an intrinsic link underlying sexual factors (AFS and NSP) and UL, highlighting shared biological mechanisms rather than direct causal effects. Future studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved in the shared genetic influences and their potential impact on UL development.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leiomioma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Uterinas , Humanos , Leiomioma/genética , Feminino , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Coito , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0299034, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of female genital mutilation is associated with harmful social norms promoting violence against girls and women. Various studies have been conducted to examine the prevalence of female genital mutilation and its associated factors. However, there has been limited studies conducted to assess the association between female genital mutilation and markers of women's autonomy, such as their ability to negotiate for safer sex. In this study, we examined the association between female genital mutilation and women's ability to negotiate for safer sex in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We pooled data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted from 2010 to 2020. Data from a sample of 50,337 currently married and cohabiting women from eleven sub-Saharan African countries were included in the study. A multilevel binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between female genital mutilation and women's ability to refuse sex and ask their partners to use condom. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to present the findings of the logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Female genital mutilation was performed on 56.1% of women included in our study. The highest and lowest prevalence of female genital mutilation were found among women from Guinea (96.3%) and Togo (6.9%), respectively. We found that women who had undergone female genital mutilation were less likely to refuse sex from their partners (aOR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86, 0.96) and ask their partners to use condoms (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.78, 0.86) compared to those who had not undergone female genital mutilation. CONCLUSION: Female genital mutilation hinders women's ability to negotiate for safer sex. It is necessary to implement health education and promotion interventions (e.g., decision making skills) that assist women who have experienced female genital mutilation to negotiate for safer sex. These interventions are crucial to enhance sexual health outcomes for these women. Further, strict enforcement of policies and laws aimed at eradicating the practice of female genital mutilation are encouraged to help contribute to the improvement of women's reproductive health.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Sexo Seguro , Humanos , Feminino , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Negociação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 570, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV partner notification services can help people living with HIV (PLHIV) to identify, locate, and inform their sexual and injecting partners who are exposed to HIV and refer them for proper and timely counseling and testing. To what extent these services were used by PLHIV and what are the related barriers and facilitators in southeast Iran are not known. So, this study aimed to explore HIV notification and its barriers and facilitators among PLHIV in Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, the number of 23 participants were recruited from November 2022 to February 2023 including PLHIV (N = 12), sexual partners of PLHIV (N = 5), and staff members (N = 6) of a Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Kerman located in the southeast of Iran. Our data collection included purposive sampling to increase variation. The content analysis was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman approach. The analysis yielded 221 (out of 322) related codes related to HIV notification, its barriers, and its facilitators. These codes were further categorized into one main category with three categories and nine sub-categories. RESULTS: The main category was HIV notification approaches, HIV notification barriers, and facilitators. HIV notification approaches were notification through clear, and direct conversation, notification through gradual preparation and reassurance, notification due to being with PLHIV, notification through suspicious talking of the physician, and notification due to the behavior of others. Also, the barriers were classified into individual, social, and environmental, and healthcare system barriers and the facilitators were at PLHIV, healthcare staff, and community levels. Stigma was a barrier mentioned by most participants. Also, the main facilitator of HIV notification was social support, especially from the family side. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the multidimensionality of HIV notification emphasizing the importance of tailored support and education to enhance the notification process for PLHIV and their networks. Also, our results show that despite all the efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination in recent years, stigma still exists as a main obstacle to disclosing HIV status and other barriers are the product of stigma. It seems that all programs should be directed towards destigmatization.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Masculino , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Adulto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Aconselhamento
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8086, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582916

RESUMO

In this research, we developed and validated a measure of couple-based reported behavior interactions (RBI). Specifically, Study 1 was designed to describe the development of the scale and to examine its reliability; Study 2 (N = 222), was designed to examine factors that could differentiate men and women. Additionally, we tested if women's behaviors could predict their partner's behavior. Results from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a three-factor structure for couples' RBI which were labelled: Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (SAI) (Factor 1), Fulfilling Obligations and Duties of the Partner (FOD) (Factor 2) and Openness in the Relationship (OR) (Factor 3). In linear regression analyses, there was a significant difference between men and women in the second factor, which represents behaviors associated with fulfilling the responsibilities of a partner. On the other hand, neither the SAI factor nor the OR factor showed any distinct gender differences. The SPSS PROCESS analysis revealed that women's Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (Factor 1), and Openness in the Relationship (Factor 3) significantly predicted their male partner's behaviors. The relationship duration significantly moderated the association between women's and men's behaviors for both factors. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of romantic behavioral interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Regressão
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299069, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626011

RESUMO

Reproductive coercion and abuse is a hidden and poorly recognised form of violence against women. It refers broadly to behaviours that interfere with or undermine a person's reproductive autonomy, specifically to promote or prevent pregnancy. Reproductive coercion and abuse can involve physical, sexual, financial or psychological abuse in order to achieve these aims, and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women. As an emerging field of scholarship, conceptual understanding of reproductive coercion and abuse is still in its infancy; however, it is often described as being linked to coercive control. In this article, we seek to highlight the complexity of this relationship through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 victim/survivors in Australia recruited from the community, focusing on their perceptions of the perpetrator's motivations. We developed four themes from our analysis: 1) His needs came first; 2) The illusion of a perfect father; 3) Creating a weapon of control; and 4) My body was his. Perceived perpetrator motivations ranged from entitlement and self-interest to a deep desire for domination and entrapment. Pregnancy preventing behaviour was more likely to be linked with entitlement and self-interest, whereas pregnancy promoting behaviour tended to be described by participants in relationships where there was a broader pattern of ongoing control and entrapment. Thus, we suggest that coercive control is a motivating factor for some, but not all men who perpetrate reproductive coercion and abuse. A greater understanding perpetrator motivations may be important for practitioners, particularly those working in sexual and reproductive health services, since it could be relevant to women's level of risk for coercive controlling behaviour or more extreme forms of physical or sexual violence.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Coerção , Motivação , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301817, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The characteristics of men who have sex with men (either exclusively or with both men and women; MSM) who engaged in casual sex among Chinese male university students have not been compared with the characteristics of men who have sex with only women (MSW). This information is important for tailoring targeted behavioral interventions to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission in this subgroup of MSM. METHODS: Data were derived from a large cross-sectional electronic questionnaire survey conducted at 13 universities in Zhejiang Province, China, in 2018. Bivariate analyses were used to compare demographic, HIV-related psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics between MSM and MSW students who engaged in casual sex during the previous year. Proportion differences between the two groups and their 95% confidence intervals were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 583 sexually active male students who engaged in casual sex during the previous year, 128 and 455 were MSM and MSW, respectively. Compared with MSW students, larger proportions of MSM students reported knowing that male-to-male sexual behavior was the main mode of HIV transmission among Chinese students (62.5% vs. 45.5%), consenting to commercial sex (67.2% vs. 53.4%), wanting to know the HIV serostatus of partners before casual sex (65.8% vs. 51.3%), feeling at risk of HIV infection (40.5% vs. 11.8%), high condom-decision scale scores (55.3% vs. 42.6%), engaging in sex with ≥ 5 casual sex partners (44.6% vs. 25.9%), searching for casual partners online (89.2% vs. 51.3%), consuming alcohol before casual sex (64.8% vs. 45.0%), engaging in sex with regular partners (83.1% vs. 67.0%), engaging in commercial sex (54.2% vs. 26.4%), and visiting a clinic for voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) (16.4% vs. 8.4%). However, compared with MSW students, smaller proportions of MSM students reported knowing that consistent condom use could prevent HIV transmission (80.5% vs. 95.2%) and that VCT should be actively sought after risky sexual behavior (78.9% vs. 93.8%), using condoms sometimes/often (26.4% vs. 44.3%), and consistently using condoms (28.9% vs. 40.1%) while engaging in sex with casual partners. CONCLUSIONS: MSM students who engaged in casual sex were at a greater risk of HIV/STI transmission, compared with MSW students. Comprehensive interventions to address the risks of unprotected male-to-male sex, searching for casual sex partners online, and non-use of HIV testing services are needed to reduce the burden of HIV/STI transmission among this subgroup of MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Trabalho Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Universidades , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Preservativos
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8717, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622142

RESUMO

Work shows that sexually-diverse individuals face high rates of early life adversity and in turn increased engagement in behavioral outcomes traditionally associated with adversity, such as sexual risk taking. Recent theoretical work suggests that these associations may be attributable to heightened sexual reward sensitivity among adversity-exposed women. We aimed to test these claims using a combination of self-report and EEG measures to test the relationship between early adversity, sexual reward sensitivity (both self-reported and EEG measured) and sexual risk taking in a sexually diverse sample of cis-gender women (N = 208) (Mage = 27.17, SD = 6.36). Results showed that childhood SES predicted self-reported sexual reward sensitivity which in turn predicted numbers of male and female sexual partners. In contrast we found that perceived childhood unpredictability predicted neurobiological sexual reward sensitivity as measured by EEG which in turn predicted male sexual partner number. The results presented here provide support for the notion that heightened sexual reward sensitivity may be a pathway through which early life adversity augments future sexual behavior, and underscores the importance of including greater attention to the dynamics of pleasure and reward in sexual health promotion.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Autorrelato , Identidade de Gênero , Recompensa
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626014

RESUMO

AIMS: The study aims to examine the correlation between intimate partner violence [IPV] and quality of life [HRQoL] of mothers during COVID-19 era. METHOD: This study is a cross-sectional correlational study. The inclusion criteria was Jordanian women with at least 18 years old, who read and write in Arabic language and able to participate. The collection of data was done through a self-reported questionnaire distributed and completely filled with 300 married Jordanian women using social media. This study was conducted between the months of October and December 2020. The participants signed consent after being informed of their rights to exit at any point during the study and the study methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among women was 28.3. The mean of quality of life is 86.0 [SD = 13.1) and the mean of violence is 11.9 [SD = 3.01). There was a significant negative relationship between violence and quality of life (r2 = .224, p = .001). This means as the violence increases, the quality-of-life decreases. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is an association between IPV and HRQoL among married people. Providing an education program and vital resources for women with the goal of preventing COVID-19 violence and assisting Jordanians become very essential.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(16): e37618, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640330

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the association between different types of intimate partner violence against women and nonattendance at the Growth and Development Control Program (CRED or well-child visits) of their children under 5 years of age. This was an analytical cross-sectional study that comprised a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) of Peru, 2019. Data from 19,647 mothers (aged 15-49 years) and their children under 5 years were analyzed. The independent variables were the types of intimate partner violence = emotional, physical, and sexual. The outcome variable was nonattendance at CRED in the last 6 months. The mean maternal age was 30.47 ±â€…6.66 years; 66.1% of children were between 25 and 60 months of age; the prevalence of nonattendance at CRED was 29.9%. A relationship was found between partner violence against the mother and nonattendance at CRED. Specifically, there was a higher probability of nonattendance in the children of women who experienced partner violence (sexual = aPR = 1.25 [95% CI = 1.07-1.44]; physical = aPR = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.26]; emotional = aPR = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.03-1.21]). This study showed an association indicating that children born to mothers experiencing intimate partner violence exhibit an elevated likelihood of nonattendance at CRED when compared to children of mothers not subjected to such violence. Therefore, emphasizing the promotion and monitoring of child development, especially for those with a history of maternal violence, should be a primary priority, particularly in primary care.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Violência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 306, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV partner counselling and testing in antenatal care (ANC) is a crucial strategy to raise the number of males who know their HIV status. However, in many settings like Tanzania, male involvement in antenatal care remains low, and there is a definite need for innovative strategies to increase male partner involvement. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of mobile phone intervention increase male partner ANC attendance for HIV testing in Moshi municipal, Tanzania. METHODS: Between April and July 2022, we enrolled pregnant women presenting to a first ANC visit at Majengo and St. Joseph reproductive health facilities without their male partners. Eligible pregnant women were randomly assigned to invitation of their male partners either via phone calls, text messages from clinic staff and verbal invites from pregnant partners (intervention arm) or verbal invites only from the pregnant partners (control arm). Neither healthcare provider nor participant were blinded. The primary outcome was the proportion of male partners who attended ANC with their pregnant partners during a follow-up period of two consecutive visits. The secondary outcome measure was HIV testing among male partners following the invitation. Participants were analyzed as originally assigned (intention to treat). RESULTS: A total of 350 pregnant women presenting to ANC for the first time were enrolled, with 175 women enrolled in each arm. The efficacy of male attendance with their pregnant women following the invitations was 83.4% (147/175) in the intervention arm and 46.3% (81/175) in the control arm. Overall, the results suggest a positive and statistically significant average treatment effect among men who received mobile phone intervention on ANC attendance. For the secondary outcome, the percent of male partners who accepted HIV counselling and testing was 99.3% (146/147) in the intervention arm and 93.8% (76/81) in the control arm. Married men were having higher odds of ANC attendance compared with single men (aOR:6.40(3.26-12.56), Males with multigravida women were having lower odds of ANC attendance compared with primigravida women (aOR:0.17(0.09-0.33). CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that supplementing verbal invitations with mobile phone calls and text messages from clinic staff can significantly increase male partner ANC attendance and HIV testing. This combined approach is recommended in improving ANC attendance and HIV testing of male partners who do not accompany their pregnant partners to antenatal clinics in the first visits. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR202209769991162.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por HIV , Teste de HIV , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Teste de HIV/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Tanzânia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
16.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(5): 1713-1730, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589744

RESUMO

A recent review of cultural and academic discourse presented evidence that some people experience attraction to two (or more) people in a preexisting relationship. This phenomenon, symbiosexuality, is understudied in the field of sexuality. Lack of recognition and validation for this attraction, including in the polyamorous community, may be negatively impacting those who experience symbiosexual attraction. I conducted an integrated mixed-methods analysis of secondary data from the 2023 The Pleasure Study to learn more about symbiosexual attraction. Findings from this study support the hypothesis that people experience symbiosexual attraction, which they describe as an attraction to the energy, multidimensionality, and power shared between people in relationships. Further, findings from this study indicate that a diverse group of people experience symbiosexual attraction and, while unanticipated, symbiosexual attraction can be a strong, frequent, and/or pervasive experience. These findings push the boundaries of the concepts of desire and sexual orientation in sexuality studies and challenge the ongoing invisibility and invalidation of and stigma and discrimination against such attractions, within both the polyamorous community and our broader mononormative culture.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Sexualidade/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38635546

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) face multiple barriers to accessing healthcare services, which can interact, creating complex needs that often impact health behaviours, leading to increased vulnerability to HIV. We aimed to identify distinct AYA subgroups based on patterns of barriers to HIV testing services and assess the association between these barrier patterns and sexual behaviour, socio-demographics, and HIV status. METHODS: Data were from Nigeria's AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS, 2018) and included 18,612 sexually active AYA aged 15-24 years who had never been tested for HIV and reported barriers to accessing HIV testing services. A Latent class analysis (LCA) model was built from 12 self-reported barrier types to identify distinct subgroups of AYA based on barrier patterns. Latent class regressions (LCR) were conducted to compare the socio-demographics, sexual behaviour, and HIV status across identified AYA subgroups. Sex behaviour characteristics include intergenerational sex, transactional sex, multiple sex partners, condom use, and knowledge of partner's HIV status. RESULTS: Our LCA model identified four distinct AYA subgroups termed 'low-risk perception' (n = 7,361; 39.5%), 'consent and proximity' (n = 5,163; 27.74%), 'testing site' (n = 4,996; 26.84%), and 'cost and logistics' (n = 1,092; 5.87%). Compared to adolescents and young adults (AYA) in the low-risk perception class, those in the consent and proximity class were more likely to report engaging in intergenerational sex (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35), transactional sex (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.23-1.84), and have multiple sex partners (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.39-2.20), while being less likely to report condom use (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99). AYA in the testing site class were more likely to report intergenerational sex (aOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.39) and transactional sex (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.26-1.85). AYA in the cost and logistics class were more likely to engage in transactional sex (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.58-2.84) and less likely to report condom use (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98). There was no significant relationship between barrier subgroup membership and HIV status. However, being female, aged 15-24 years, married or cohabiting, residing in the Southsouth zone, and of Christian religion increased the likelihood of being HIV infected. CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of barriers to HIV testing are linked with differences in sexual behaviour and sociodemographic profiles among AYA, with the latter driving differences in HIV status. Findings can improve combination healthcare packages aimed at simultaneously addressing multiple barriers and determinants of vulnerability to HIV among AYA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Teste de HIV
18.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241246465, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641959

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is globally endemic and a gross violation of human rights, in addition to abuse of intimacy by some men against their female intimate partners. Based on literature review, attitudinal, socio-demographic, and experiential attributes of 15 to 49 year old ever partnered women in the heterosexual relationships were identified. This study used the anonymized 2020-21Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) data to compute the IPV prevalence and its correlates, in addition to computing the changes in IPV prevalence at the urban, rural, and at the national levels using data from the 2014 CDHS. Identified attitudinal, socio-demographic, and experiential attributes were used in the bivariate and multivariable analysis. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used for computing the bivariate and multivariate associations with IPV; additionally, trend analysis was done to compute changes in IPV prevalence between the 2 surveys. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 20.70%, while the most common subtype was emotional IPV at 18.70%. Ten out of 12 correlates studied were found to be statistically significantly associated with IPV in the bivariate analysis. These were added in the multivariable model and 7 were found to be statistically significantly associated with IPV. Which included educational attainment of women and their intimate partners, number of living children, women's IPV acceptance, male partner's alcohol use, knowledge of physical beating of mother by one's father, and controlling behavior exercised by partner. During the intervening period between the 2 CDHSs, IPV and its subtypes were decreased in both urban and rural areas, as well as nationally. IPV decrease between the 2 DHSs and lower IPV rates in 2021-22 augur well for the health and human rights of Cambodian women. However, the ultimate target of eliminating IPV against women, will require measures that ensure economic and gender empowerment, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Camboja/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
19.
Behav Ther ; 55(3): 443-456, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670660

RESUMO

Using a couple-centered approach, the current study seeks to understand (a) the specific ways in which help-seeking couples vary in how their relationship satisfaction changes over time, (b) whether there are important differences in relationship characteristics at the beginning of the interventions, and (c) whether couples with distinct relationship characteristics benefit equally from effective online relationship programs. Mixed-gender low-income couples (Ncouple = 659) seeking help for their relationship were randomly assigned to one of two online relationship programs (n = 432) or the wait-list control group (n = 227). Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify (a) trajectory profiles with both partners' relationship satisfaction assessed at baseline, during, and postprogram, and at 2- and 4-month follow-ups; and (b) baseline couple profiles with indicators of baseline communication, commitment, emotional support, and sexual satisfaction reported by both partners. Four unique satisfaction trajectories were identified: women-small-men-medium improvement (39%), men-only decline (25%), large improvement (19%), and women-only improvement (17%). Five unique baseline couple profiles were identified: conflictual passionate (30%), companionate (22%), men-committed languishing (22%), satisfied (16%), and languishing (10%). Compared to control couples, intervention couples' odds of following the large improvement trajectory increased and their odds of following the men-only decline trajectory decreased; the odds of following the other two intermediate trajectories did not differ by intervention status. Moreover, couples with more distressed baseline profiles were more likely to follow trajectories characterized by greater satisfaction gains regardless of their intervention status. However, program effects did not differ based on baseline couple profiles, suggesting that a universal approach may be sufficient for delivering online relationship programs to improve relationship satisfaction in this population.


Assuntos
Terapia de Casal , Satisfação Pessoal , Pobreza , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pobreza/psicologia , Terapia de Casal/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Cônjuges/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116846, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581814

RESUMO

Women engaged in sex work (WESW) are at heightened risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) compared to women in the general population. This study examines the impact of an economic empowerment intervention on IPV among WESW in Southern Uganda. We used data from 542 WESW in Southern Uganda recruited from 19 HIV hotspots between June 2019 and March 2020. Eligible participants were 18+ years old, engaged in sex work-defined as vaginal or anal sexual intercourse in exchange for money, alcohol, or other goods, reported at least one episode of unprotected sexual intercourse in the past 30 days with a paying, casual, or regular sexual partner (spouse, main partner). We analyzed data collected at baseline, 6, and 12months of follow up. To examine the impact of the intervention on IPV, separate mixed-effects logistic regression models were run for each type of IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) as experienced by participants in the last 90 days. Results show that the intervention was efficacious in reducing emotional and physical IPV as evidenced by a statistically significant intervention main effect for emotional IPV, χ2(1) = 5.96, p = 0.015, and a significant intervention-by-time interaction effect for physical IPV, χ2(2) = 13.19, p < 0.001. To qualify the intervention impact on physical IPV, pairwise comparisons showed that participants who received the intervention had significantly lower levels of physical IPV compared to those in the control group at six months (contrasts = -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.02), p = 0.011). The intervention, time, and intervention-by-time main effects for sexual IPV were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest economic empowerment interventions as viable strategies for reducing emotional IPV among WESW. However, it is also essential to understand the role of interventions in addressing other forms of IPV especially for key populations at high risk of violence, HIV, and STI. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03583541.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Profissionais do Sexo , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
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