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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1429, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feminization and ethnic diversification of HIV infection, has resulted in a call for gender- and culture-specific prevention strategies for at-risk groups including Latinos in the United States. The steadily changing demographic profile of the AIDS epidemic challenges prevention strategies to remain relevant and up-to-date, particularly in populations of women midlife and older where an understanding of risk remains under explored. As the CDC requests country-specific HIV risk profiles for Latino communities in the US, understanding the socio-economic, behavioral and personal risk reasons of HIV risk for older Dominican women is critical for prevention. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions informed by the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP). The three constructs of the TGP: 1) Affective influences/social norms; 2) Gender-specific norms and. 3) Power and Authority guided the thematic analysis and identified themes that described the socio-cultural and contextual reasons that that contribute to perceptions of HIV risk. RESULTS: Sixty Dominican American women ages 57-73 participated in our focus group discussions. Sexual Division of Labour: 1) Economic Dependence; 2) Financial Need and 3) Education and Empowerment. Sexual Division of Power: 4) HIV Risk and 5) Relationship Dynamics. Cathexis: Affective Influences/Social Norms: 6) HIV/AIDS Knowledge and 7) Prevention and Testing. Importantly, participants were concerned about partner fidelity when visiting the Dominican Republic, as the country accounts for the second highest HIV rates in the Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous findings about perceptions of HIV risk and provide additional insight into aging-related aspects of HIV risk for Latino women midlife and older.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692753

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing efforts to address the reproductive health needs of persons living with Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus (HIV), a high unmet need for contraception exists among HIV+ women in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, Ethiopia promotes integration of family planning (FP) services in to HIV chronic care. Yet the contraceptive prevalence rate among clients remains low. The objective of the study was to assess the role of socio-cultural factors on modern family planning use among HIV+ clients attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics in Addis Ababa sub-cities. Methods: The study involved a facility based cross sectional survey. The ten sub cities were initially categorized/stratified into 5 based on direction (East, West, South, North and Central) and from each category one sub city was randomly selected. The total sample size was proportionally allocated to the selected health facilities according to previous monthly average client load per health center. Participants were selected using simple random sampling technique during their routine visit at the health centers. Data were collected through a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were generated and results considered significant at 95% confidence level using STATA version 14.0. Results: Six hundred and thirty-six clients participated in the study. Majority of them were age between 30-39 years. Though majority, 607 (95.4%) participants approved the use of modern FP method, current use rate stood at 39%. Condom was the most (14.5%) commonly used single method. The odds of FP use by participants who disclosed their HIV status were almost twice that of their counterparts (AOR= 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.95). Participants who held discussion with their spouse/partners concerning FP, irrespective of the frequency had an odd of more than four when using FP than their counterparts (AO= 4.35; 95% CI: 2.69, 7.04). Conclusion: This study revealed that 6 out of every 10 HIV+ clients are not currently using FP methods. Disclosure of HIV status as well as open discussion with spouse/partner were positively associated with family planning use. These study findings call for comprehensive and client focus FP education and counseling in line with disclosure of HIV status and dialogue with spouse/partner in order to increase uptake and utilization of FP among clients. Partners have a great influence on the use and choice of FP methods, so their views are paramount.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Reprodutiva , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1336, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived risk of HIV plays an important role in the adoption of protective behaviours and HIV testing. However, few studies have used multiple-item measures to assess this construct. The Perceived Risk of HIV Scale (PRHS) is an 8-item measure that assesses how people think and feel about their risk of HIV infection. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the European Portuguese version of the PRHS, including the ability of this scale to discriminate between individuals from the general population and HIV-uninfected partners from sero-different couples on their perceived risk of HIV infection (known-groups validity). METHODS: This study included 917 individuals from the general population (sample 1) to assess the psychometric properties of the PRHS. To assess the known-groups validity, the sample comprised 445 participants from the general population who were in an intimate relationship (sub-set of sample 1) and 42 HIV-uninfected partners from sero-different couples (sample 2). All participants filled out a set of questionnaires, which included a self-reported questionnaire on sociodemographic information, sexual behaviours, HIV testing and the PRHS. Sample 1 also completed the HIV Knowledge Questionnaire - 18-item version. RESULTS: The original unidimensional structure was reproduced both in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and the PRHS demonstrated good reliability (α = .78; composite reliability = .82). The differential item functioning analyses indicated that the items of the PRHS, in general, did not function differently for men and women or according to HIV testing. Significant associations with sexual risk behaviours and HIV testing provided evidence for criterion validity. The known-groups validity was supported. CONCLUSIONS: The PRHS is a suitable scale in the evaluation of the perceived risk of HIV, and its psychometric characteristics validate its use in the Portuguese population. Furthermore, the present study suggests that interventions improving individuals' HIV risk perceptions may be important since they were associated with different sexual behaviours and the likelihood of HIV testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
4.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(3): 244-253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575340

RESUMO

Unprotected sexual activity increases the risk of pregnancy and HIV and AIDS. More than three decades into the AIDS pandemic, the condom remains the most effective strategy for protecting against the dual risks of pregnancy and HIV and AIDS, but data from national surveys suggest that condom use among young people aged 15-24 is on the decline in South Africa. This study uses qualitative data from 20 in-depth interviews and one focus group to examine the risk behaviours of university students aged 18-24 years old, with particular emphasis on understanding the decline in the use of condoms. It is well documented that South Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV and AIDS in the world, however the findings of this study suggest that even though students were well informed about the perceived risks associated with unsafe sexual behaviours, they continue to engage in risk behaviours including unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and the use of alcohol. Male students were more likely than female students to report risky sexual behaviours. Condom use is occurring but not consistently. The majority of students did not use condoms during their first sexual encounter because of a lack of preparedness. Negative attitudes towards condoms continue to discourage students from using them consistently, especially those provided by the government. In light of this, it is recommended that rigorous efforts are directed towards challenging inaccurate perceptions about, and attitudes towards, condom use to promote consistency.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1254, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation (WHO) advocates early initiation of HIV treatment as a prevention strategy among people living with HIV. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a preventive tool for HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the sexual behaviour of HIV outpatients and assess if it reflects the current preventive strategy for HIV transmission. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among adult (aged at least 18 years) patients with confirmed HIV diagnosis, and aware of their diagnosis, attending HIV outpatient care in Kenya. Data were gathered through self-report (using validated questionnaires) and file extraction. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between sexual risk taking behaviour controlling for gender, HIV clinical stage, HIV treatment status, Tuberculosis (TB) treatment status, and CD4 count. RESULTS: We recruited n = 400 participants (n = 280[70%] female gender). The mean age was 39.4 (SD = 9.9) years. The mean CD4 count was 393.7 (SD = 238.2) and ranged from 2 to 1470 cells/mm3. N = 61 (15.64%) were on TB treatment. The majority (n = 366, 91.5%) were on ART. Just over half (n = 202, 50.5%) reported having a sexual partner. Of these n = 33 (16.1%) reported having unprotected sexual intercourse with a person of unknown HIV status in the previous 3 months. Multivariate analysis showed that participants not on ART (HIV treatment) were more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse compared to those who were on ART (odds ratio .25, 95% CI .09 to .69; P = 0.007). Participants at early stage of HIV infection (stages 1/2) were more likely to report unprotected sexual intercourse compared to participants at advanced HIV infection (stages 3/4) (odds ratio .34, 95% CI .13 to .92; P = 0.035). Males participants were more likely to be involved in sexual risk taking behaviours compared to female participants (odds ratio .36, 95% CI .16 to .82; P = 0.015). TB treatment status, and CD4 count were not significantly associated with sexual risk taking. CONCLUSION: Participants not on ART have more unprotected sexual intercourse than those who are on ART. This calls for the need to scale up coverage and early ART initiation in order to reduce transmission of HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(2): 258-267, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how knowledge and perceptions of condoms and partner communication influence use of condoms in a high HIV prevalence setting and gender-specific differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zambia from 2015 to 2016. The survey included questions on demographics, sexual behavior, contraceptive perceptions, and behaviors. We constructed multivariate regression models using the Theory of Planned Behavior to determine associations between knowledge, perceptions, and perceived control with intended, communicated, and reported use of condoms by gender. RESULTS: The participants were 2388 sexually active urban residents aged 18-24 years. In the sample, 1646 (69%) were female, 841 (35%) married, and 1894 (61%) unemployed. Partner communication was the predictor most associated with use of condoms. Among women, partner communication was associated with over three times higher odds of condom use (odds ratio [OR] 3.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.65-4.65) but being married reduced the odds of condom use by 76% (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.17-0.33). For men, a network of friends that was supportive of the use of contraception was associated with increased odds of 55% for use of condoms (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.10-2.18). CONCLUSION: Public health programs aimed at increasing safer sexual behavior and use of condoms must consider improving gender equity and partner communication, as knowledge of contraceptives and positive perceptions are not enough to ensure their use.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Grupo Associado , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
7.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 848-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414856

RESUMO

Although emotional experience and expression are strongly tied to social contexts, most age-comparative studies have used an individualistic approach. The few dyadic laboratory studies that exist have focused on discussions about conflicts and have suggested that older couples experience and express less negative emotion than younger couples. However, recent studies have emphasized the context dependency of age differences in emotional reactivity. More concretely, in situations such as conversations in which the experience and expression of negative emotion might be beneficial for the relationship because it can initiate support and indicate togetherness, older adults should experience and express similar or even higher levels of negative emotion than younger couples. To test this hypothesis, 37 younger (Mage = 24.33) and 41 older couples (Mage = 70.27) were instructed to talk about an ongoing problem experienced by one member of the couple. The main dependent variables were the intensity of negative emotion as manifested in subjective feelings as well as facial and verbal expressions during the conversation. Additionally, we examined age differences in couples' emphasis on togetherness. In contrast to past work but consistent with our prediction, there were not many age differences in both partners' emotional experience and expression. Moreover, in line with previous studies, older couples perceived and expressed more togetherness during the conversation than younger couples. These findings suggest that age differences in negative emotion may be context dependent and less evident if negative emotion does not harm the relationship and serves potentially adaptive functions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Comunicação , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 557, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male partner involvement has been shown to increase mothers' uptake of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and improve maternal and infant HIV treatment outcomes. Currently, male involvement in PMTCT is measured primarily through men's attendance at HIV testing and counselling which may not be a true reflection of their engagement. This study therefore set out to explore the meaning of male partner involvement and propose a definition and theoretical model of this concept in PMTCT in Uganda. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions and five in-depth interviews were conducted with couples at three public health facilities and community members in the health facility catchment areas in Uganda. The study employed a grounded theory approach underpinned by the pragmatic philosophical paradigm. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, performing three levels of open, axial, and selective coding. RESULTS: Of the 61 participants, 29 (48%) were male and the majority 39 (63.9%) were in long term marital relationships, while about half were self-employed 29 (47.5%). Three themes emerged for the meaning of male involvement in PMTCT (a) HIV treatment support (b) economic support and (c) psychosocial support. HIV treatment support included adherence support, couples' HIV counseling and testing, and clinic attendance during and after pregnancy. Participants expressed that men were engaged in PMTCT when they offered economic support by providing basic needs and finances or when they included their female partners in financial planning for the family. Psychosocial support arose from the female participants who defined male involvement as family support, perceived societal recognition and emotional support. Emotional support also included the absence of harm resulting from women's disclosure of HIV test results to their male partner. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes a new definition for male partner involvement in PMTCT in Uganda. The definition extends beyond men's clinic attendance and HIV testing and counselling. Further research should seek to develop and validate tools to accurately measure male partner involvement as the next step in the development of interventions to improve PMTCT outcomes.


Assuntos
Teoria Fundamentada , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Uganda
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 56-64, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433594

RESUMO

Maternal health can be improved if men give support to their partners. This study determined the socio-demographic and structural predictors of male partner involvement in maternal health in Hohoe, Ghana. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted, collecting data through self-administered questionnaires from a multistage sample of 193 respondents and analysing using Stata version 14 at the 0.05 level. Age groups 31-40 years and 41-51 years were 6 times [AOR=6.28, p=0.04] and 4 times [AOR=4.32 (95%, p=0.08] respectively more likely to get involved in maternal health issues compared to age group 20-30 years. Married men were 63% less likely to be involved in maternal issues compared to single men [AOR=0.37, p=0.08]. Men with tertiary and senior high school levels of education were 9 times [AOR=9.13, p=0.001] and 5 times [AOR=4.52, p=0.01] respectively more likely to be involved in maternal health than men with a basic level of education. Men with a high level of knowledge on maternal health were 4 times more likely to be involved in maternal health than men with a low level of knowledge [AOR=4.14, p=0.002]. Strategies to improve male partner involvement in maternal health should target the younger, the legally married, and male partners with a low level of education.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna , Homens/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1129, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) have a low rate of condom use and a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, little is known about the high-risk sexual behaviors of HIV-positive CFSWs. METHODS: In 2014, 327 CFSWs diagnosed with HIV for 6 months or longer completed a face-to-face questionnaire for a quantitative survey. In addition, 32 HIV-positive CFSWs were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews (18 participated in both, 14 participated in-depth interviews only) to explore reasons for extramarital sexual behaviors and inconsistent condom use. The quantitative data on sexual risk behaviors were analyzed using chi-square tests. Interviews were coded inductively for emerging themes. RESULTS: Among the participants of the quantitative survey, 41.6% (136/327) had sex with regular sexual partners only in the past 6 months, of whom 64.0% (87/136) had consistent condom use; 27.5% (90/327) of the participants had sex with irregular sexual partners in the past 6 months, of which, 46.7% (42/90) had consistent condom use. The qualitative study suggested that HIV positive sero-status, willingness to protect their spouses or regular sexual partners, and lacking a sense of responsibility to protect their commercial and casual sexual partners, influence CFSWs' sexual behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive CFSWs continue to practice unsafe sexual behaviors with regular and irregular partners after HIV diagnosis, but were more willing to protect their regular partners. Future interventions targeting HIV-positive CFSWs should not only be confined to sero-discordant couples, but also need to instill a sense of responsibility to protect the commercial and casual partners and reduce the number of concurrent partners.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS: Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION: Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Agricultura , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 552-560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368722

RESUMO

The development of online dating has created a cultural shift in how emerging adults approach dating. The present study examined retrospective and event-level associations between alcohol, online dating, and sexual hookups among a sample of single, postcollege women. Participants completed baseline and 24 electronic daily diary surveys on alcohol use, sexual behavior, and method for meeting their sexual partners. We examined the influence of alcohol on sexual hookups, and how method of meeting a partner, and location prior to the hookup influenced level of intoxication during a sexual hookup. There was a within-person effect of alcohol on likelihood of engaging in a sexual hookup whereby hookups were more likely on days when women reported higher levels of intoxication relative to their average drinking. Spending time at bar/party prior to a sexual hookup was associated with higher levels of intoxication prior to a sexual hookup relative to being at other locations. Measured in the daily diary surveys, meeting a sexual hookup partner online was associated with lower levels of intoxication during the hookup relative to when meeting at bars/parties, even when including location just prior to the hookup in the model. The baseline retrospective analyses also indicated that meeting a partner online was associated with drinking less frequently before a sexual hookup relative to meeting a partner at a bar/party. Interventions to address alcohol use, method for meeting a partner, and location prior to hookups could be effective in decreasing potential negative consequences of alcohol-related sexual behavior in emerging adult women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6939684, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380434

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence is a major problem worldwide and it is one of the most social issues in Armenia. Empowerment is one of the important factors that helps women to break the cycle of violence by their husband/partner. The aim of this research is to explore the impact of intimate partner violence on empowerment of Armenian women of reproductive age group. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data Armenia Demography and Health Survey Data 2015-16. A total 6116 women were selected from 8749 households at both urban and rural places of Armenia for interview using multistage cluster sampling technique. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 24. Results: The respondents aged between 35 and 49 years are more likely to face violence compared to other age group (p≤0.001). The respondents who have no decision-making power, about 89% of them, are experiencing intimate partner violence, whereas only 11% are facing intimate partner violence among those who have decision-making power (p≤0.001). The logistic regression analysis reveals that age of the respondents, number of children in the households, wealth index, and empowerment status are significantly associated with intimate partner violence. Conclusion: Intimate partner violence has significant impact on the empowerment of women in Armenia. This study revealed that women with no empowerment are more likely to experience intimate partner violence compared to those women who are empowered in Armenian society.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Armênia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Cônjuges/psicologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 992, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the UK. Recent studies suggest that in addition to the genital tract, C. trachomatis is found in the throat and rectum, suggesting the number of infections is under-reported. There is an urgent need to study the impact of extending diagnosis to include extra-genital samples; however, there is a lack of evidence on the acceptability of asking young women to provide these samples. METHOD: A mixed methods single group feasibility study explored the acceptability of combined genital and extra-genital testing in young women aged 16-25 years consecutively attending a sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland. Young women were asked to complete a self- administered anonymous questionnaire whether they would be willing to give self-taken throat and ano-rectal samples. Interviews with women (n = 20) willing to self-sample were conducted before and after self-sampling, and these explored the underlying reasons behind their decision, and feelings about the tests. RESULTS: Of 500 women recruited to the study, 422 (84.4%) women provided sufficient data for analysis. From completed questionnaires, 86.3% of respondents reported willingness to self-sample from the throat. Willingness of ano-rectal self-sampling was lower (59.1%), particularly in women under 20 (< 20 years: 44.4%; ≥20 years, 68.2%). Willingness of ano-rectal self-sampling was higher in women who had more sexual partners in the last 6 months (0 partners, 48.3%, n = 14, 3 or more partners, 67.4%, n = 60) and in those who have previous experience of a positive test for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (positive: 64.5%; negative: 57%). Interviewed women suggested that a lack of knowledge of STIs, embarrassment and lack of confidence in the ability to carry out the sampling were barriers towards acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, self-sampling of throat samples is largely acceptable; however, the acceptability of taking an ano-rectal sample for C. trachomatis testing in young women was lower in younger women. The study suggests further research to investigate the acceptability of extra-genital testing as an addition to routine C. trachomatis testing, and whether this increases detection and prevents infective sequelae for women.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Escócia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4523475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346517

RESUMO

Background: Young people in Sub-Saharan Africa are affected by HIV pandemic to a greater extent than elsewhere. Transactional sex among adolescent school girls with older men commonly called "sugar daddies" is one of the major factors fueling the spread of the infection due to the extended sexual network. Thus, this study aimed to assess the magnitude and factors associated with transactional sex among adolescent girls and "sugar daddies" in relation to HIV/AIDS. Methods: Mixed method cross-sectional study was done among 620 female students in Hawassa town, South Ethiopia, from September 2010 to May 2011. A structured questionnaire and in-depth interview check list were used to collect the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Survey participants were selected randomly from five preparatory schools whereas ten in-depth interview participants were recruited by a snowball sampling technique from the same schools. Data were entered using Epi-Info and analyzed by SPSS. A descriptive statistics followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with transactional sex with "sugar daddy". Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were reported. We used OpenCode software for coding and categorizing the in-depth interviews and quotes that represent the informants opinion were used to support the quantitative findings. Results: A substantial number of female students, 71(11.5%), reported to have had transactional sex with older men. Most of the respondents who dated "sugar daddies" (93%) had multiple sexual partners concurrently and sequentially, and among them, only 22.7% had consistent condom use. Girls who were in older age group [OR (CI) 6.87 (3.48-13.58)], who had lost both parents [OR (CI) 2.99 (1.14-7.84)], had perceived less economic status [OR: 25.41; 95% CI: 7.80-82.76] and engaged in substance abuse [OR (CO) 5.8 (2.1-15.77)] had higher odds of practicing transactional sex with "sugar daddies". In-depth interviewed participants also revealed that they were involved in transactional sex for monetary while having concurrent and subsequent sexual network with their schoolmates and other young partners. Conclusion: Transactional sex among female students was high, and the sexual network they had with the young men put young people in the network at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, HIV prevention programs shall focus on transactional sex among adolescent school girls to halt transmission of HIV among the generation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312312

RESUMO

Introduction: Positive HIV results disclosure plays a significant role in the successful prevention and care of HIV infected patients. It provides significant social and health benefits to the individual and the community. Non-disclosure is one of the contextual factors driving the HIV epidemic in Uganda. Study objectives: to determine the frequency of HIV disclosure, associated factors and disclosure outcomes among HIV positive pregnant women at Mbarara Hospital, southwestern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study using quantitative and qualitative methods among a group of HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic was done and consecutive sampling conducted. Results: The total participant recruitment was 103, of which 88 (85.4%) had disclosed their serostatus with 57% disclosure to their partners. About 80% had disclosed within less than 2 months of testing HIV positive. Reasons for disclosure included their partners having disclosed to them (27.3%), caring partners (27.3%) and encouragement by health workers (25.0%). Following disclosure, 74%) were comforted and 6.8% were verbally abused. Reasons for non-disclosure were fear of abandonment (33.3%), being beaten (33.3%) and loss of financial and emotional support (13.3%). The factors associated with disclosure were age 26-35 years (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.03-15.16), primary education (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.10-11.307) and urban dwelling (OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.27-14.01). Conclusion: Participants disclosed mainly to their partners and were comforted and many of them were encouraged by the health workers. There is need to optimize disclosure merits to enable increased participation in treatment and support programs.


Assuntos
Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 103, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many low-and middle-income countries women with infertility are often in polygynous marriages. From a human and women's rights perspective, the practice of polygyny is commonly understood as harmful. Studies indicate that polygyny aggravates negative life circumstances of women with infertility with respect to their health and social well-being. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore how women with infertility experience polygyny and to understand their decision-making regarding these marriages. METHODS: An explorative qualitative study was conducted among women with infertility in the urban communities of the West Coast region of The Gambia using in-depth interviews (30). Data analysis involved an emergent and partially inductive thematic framework and was carried out using NVivo 11. RESULTS: With the exception of some women with infertility who described positive experiences within polygynous marriages, most women emphasised conflicts that exist within polygynous households and reported financial and emotional difficulties. Thematic analysis identified several strategies of women with infertility to cope with and resist polygynous marriages, including overcoming childlessness, addressing conflict, spending time outside the compound, looking for social support, kanyaleng kafoolu, living separately and initiating divorce. Moreover, the experiences and decision-making power of women with infertility when it comes to polygynous marriages was found to be closely related to their socio-demographic background. CONCLUSION: This work highlights how women with infertility in polygynous marriages are in a precarious situation in urban Gambia. Women utilize a mix of compliance, coping and resistance strategies to navigate the challenges of polygynous marriages in a structurally constraining context.


Assuntos
Relações Extramatrimoniais/ética , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(7): 719-726, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309986

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that the putative human pheromone estratetraenol affects several systems underlying human functioning and appears to activate neural systems that are known to affect sexual behavior. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to estratetraenol affects men's social cognition abilities. In the first experiment, men performed the Interpersonal Perception task while being exposed to estratetraenol and to a control solution. Men performed the task with better accuracy while being exposed to estratetraenol. This improvement was evident especially in the Intimacy category where participants evaluated romantic relationships. In a second experiment, we exposed a different sample of men to estratetraenol and to a control solution while performing a task that implicitly measured their emotional reaction to photos depicting two humans either romantically touching or not, with a control condition of two inanimate objects either touching or not. We found that the participants' emotional reaction to touch was stronger under exposure to estratetraenol. Together, these results suggest that exposure to estratetraenol may trigger a change in men's social cognition, especially in sexually related situations.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Odorantes , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Tato
19.
J Res Health Sci ; 19(2): e00447, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to construct and assay the psychometric properties of a scale in order to recognize sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills of Iranian couples. STUDY DESIGN: a mixed method study. METHODS: This was an exploratory mixed method investigation conducted in two stages from Sep 2017 to Jun 2018 in Isfahan, Iran. First, qualitative methods (individual interviews with 22 couples) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. Second, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed. Reliability was evaluated by composite reliability, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and internal consistency. Moreover, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were carried out to examine construct validity. To evaluate content validity were performed CVI and CVR. RESULTS: An item pool comprising 107 statements related to couple 'sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills were generated in the first stage. In the second stage, item reduction was exerted and the final issue of the questionnaire including 51 items was expanded. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the final version displayed that the scale had good reliability and structure. The results from exploratory factory analysis demonstrated a 9-factor solution for the scale that jointly reported for the 39.5% of the observed variance. The mean scores of the CVI and CVR were 0.92 and 0.90, respectively. Additional analyses indicated acceptable results for composite reliability for the subscale of instrument ranging from 0.78 to 0.95. CONCLUSION: The sexual information, motivation and behavioral skills scale is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used in future studies on Iranian couples.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Motivação , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269703

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) determines infertility as a disease of the reproductive system defined clinically by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Estimates indicate that the problem of infertility in the world is continuing to grow. The aim of the study was to compare approaches to disease in partners of both sexes diagnosed with infertility. The study was conducted among 61 couples treated for infertility using an original questionnaire developed by the authors. The Chi square independence test was used for statistical analysis. Both men and women responded to the diagnosis of infertility with negative emotions. Regardless of sex, sadness and anxiety were the dominant feelings associated with the diagnosis of infertility. Women believed in the success of the treatment to a greater extent than men. Mainly women attempted to talk openly about the problem of infertility, while men were more restrained in this respect. Women accepted the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to a greater extent than men, but men would accept childlessness more often than women.


Assuntos
Infertilidade/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
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