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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597316

RESUMO

Functional support-the availability of material aid, emotional support, or companionship-promotes general well-being. For men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV, having a person who supports you associates with viral suppression. This study examines the association between supportive partnerships and HIV viral suppression among middle-aged and aging MSM living with HIV. A total of 423 middle-aged and aging MSM (mean age, 58.2 years) from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study provided self-reported data about their partnerships. Separate Poisson regression models assessed how partnership type, support, strain, and duration from April 2017 were associated with repeated viral load measurements up to April 2019. Of the follow-up visits (N = 1289), 90.0% of participants were virally suppressed. Most participants reported being non-Hispanic White (61.0%) and college-educated (83.4%). Participants were asked about their primary partnerships (i.e., "someone they are committed to above anyone else") and secondary partnerships (i.e., those who can also be intimate or supportive but not necessarily romantic or sexual). The participants reported: no partnerships (45.2%), only primary partnerships (31.0%), only secondary partnerships (11.1%), or both primary and secondary partnerships (12.8%). Primary and secondary partnerships had mean (SD) durations of 15.9 (11.3) and 25.2 (16.5) years, respectively. Participants reporting both primary and secondary partnerships (compared with no partnership) showed significantly higher odds of being virally suppressed (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08; p = 0.043). Albeit not statistically significant, primary-only (aPR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97-1.06; p = 0.547) or secondary-only (aPR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.98-1.08; p = 0.224) partnership types were positively associated with viral suppression. Partner support and strain were not associated with viral suppression in any partnership group. Being older and non-Hispanic Black were positively and negatively associated with viral suppression, respectively. Encouraging partnerships should be considered one of clinicians' many tools to help middle-aged and aging MSM achieve long-term viral suppression.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Infecções por HIV , Carga Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473746

RESUMO

This paper examines the scope and characteristics of male-to-female intimate partner violence in southern rural Chiapas, Mexico, and its association with depression and anxiety symptoms, highlighting the role of partner controlling behaviors. Participants were selected by random sampling. One-hundred and forty-one women >15 years participated in the study. Data was obtained through an adapted version of the National Survey of the Dynamics of Household Relationships (ENDIREH) intimate partner violence scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression symptoms and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety symptoms. Quantitative results indicated a 66.4% lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual IPV among ever-partnered women 15 years or older (95% CI: 57.5-74.5%). Forty percent (95% CI: 32.0-49.7%) of them reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with high partner control (HC-IPV), and 25.8% (95% CI: 18.5-34.3%) reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with low or moderate partner control (MC-IPV). Lifetime experience of HC-IPV was significantly associated with moderate-severe depression symptoms (RR = 5.8) and suicidality (RR = 2.08). While partner alcohol abuse was associated with a 3.06 times higher risk of lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV, 30.9% of women mentioned that their partners were never drunk when violence occurred. Interestingly, high partner alcohol abuse was more frequent among women who reported HC-IPV compared to MC-IPV. Implications for global mental health practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , População Rural , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587182

RESUMO

This paper uses data from a community cross-sectional survey to examine the factors that are associated with justification of physical violence against women. Results indicate that respondents who were married at the time of the survey were less likely (OR = 0.29; CI = 0.17-0.52) to agree that it is justified for a man to physically assault his partner that their counterparts who were single. The likelihood to justify physical violence was less likely to happen among respondents with primary education (OR = 0.49; CI = 0.39-0.62), secondary education (OR = 0.40; CI = 0.31-0.53) and vocation or tertiary education (OR = 0.28; CI = 0.19-0.41) than among respondents with no education. Protestants were less likely (OR = 0.77; CI = 0.64-0.94) to justify physical violence than the Catholics. Respondents who were not formally employed were more likely (OR = 1.66; CI = 1.32-2.08) to justify physical violence than their counterparts who were in formal employment in the last three months preceding the survey. Respondents who agreed that it is okay for a man to control his partner's movements (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.04-1.55), it is okay for a man to have sex with his wife anytime (OR = 2.28; CI = 1.87-2.78), alcohol is the main reason for violence against women (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.33-2.10), men need sex more than women (OR = 1.57; CI = 1.23-1.99) and women know where to obtain support in case of violence (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.00-2.02) were more likely to justify physical violence than respondents who disagreed. The likelihood to justify physical violence was less among respondents who agreed that: violence is not the only way to deal with disagreements (OR = 0.54; CI = 0.33-0.86), it is possible for men to stop violence (OR = 0.62; CI = 0.47-0.82) and it is acceptable for a woman to ask her partner to use a condom (OR = 0.61; CI = 0.51-0.73) than their counterparts who disagreed. There is need to increase investment in social norms change programmes in order to strengthen contestation of tolerance of physical violence among men and women in Uganda.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1251-1258, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426668

RESUMO

Human same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) is heritable, confers no immediately obvious direct reproductive or survival benefit and can divert mating effort from reproductive opportunities. This presents a Darwinian paradox: why has SSB been maintained despite apparent selection against it? We show that genetic effects associated with SSB may, in individuals who only engage in opposite-sex sexual behaviour (OSB individuals), confer a mating advantage. Using results from a recent genome-wide association study of SSB and a new genome-wide association study on number of opposite-sex sexual partners in 358,426 individuals, we show that, among OSB individuals, genetic effects associated with SSB are associated with having more opposite-sex sexual partners. Computer simulations suggest that such a mating advantage for alleles associated with SSB could help explain how it has been evolutionarily maintained. Caveats include the cultural specificity of our UK and US samples, the societal regulation of sexual behaviour in these populations, the difficulty of measuring mating success and the fact that measured variants capture a minority of the total genetic variation in the traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407140

RESUMO

The correct communication of the severity of violence is essential in the context of legal trials, custody cases, support of victims, etc., for providing fair treatment. A narrator that communicates their experiences of interpersonal violence may rate the seriousness of the incident differently than a rater reading the narrator's text, suggesting that there exist perceptual differences (PD) in severity ratings between the narrator and the rater. We propose that these perceptual differences may depend on whether the narrative is based on physical or psychological violence, and on gender differences. Physical violence may be evaluated as more serious by the receiver of the narrative than by the narrator (Calibration PD), whereas the seriousness of psychological violence may be difficult to convey, leading to a discrepancy in the seriousness ratings between the narrator and the rater (Accuracy PD). In addition, gender stereotypes may influence the seriousness rating (Gender PD), resulting in violence against women being perceived as more serious than the same violence against men. These perceptual differences were investigated in 3 phases using a new experimental procedure. In Phase 1, 113 narrators provided descriptions and seriousness ratings of self-experienced physical and psychological violence in relationships. In Phase 2, 340 independent raters rated the seriousness of 10 randomly selected narrations from Phase 1. In Phase 3, the genders in the narrations were changed to the opposite gender, and seriousness ratings were collected from 340 different raters. Our results confirmed the hypothesized perceptual differences. Violence to male victims was considerably more likely to be seen as severe when the raters were misled to believe the victim was a woman. We propose that these data provide practical guidelines for how to deal with misinformation in the communication of violence. The data also show that mean values and the confidence of such severity ratings need to be adjusted for several factors, such as whether it is self-experienced or communicated, the type of violence, and the gender of the victims and raters.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358249

RESUMO

It remains unclear how the seemingly ubiquitous use of the internet impacts user's offline personal relationships, particularly those that are romantic or sexual. Therefore, we conducted a national online survey to better understand the associations among internet use, sexual behavior, and adjustment called the Sexual Behaviors, Internet Use, and Psychological Adjustment Survey (SIPS). Here, we report patterns of sexual behavior in a sample of adults (N = 1987; ages 18-70) in the United States to establish its representativeness and consistency with similar recent surveys. We found age- and sex-related trends in oral, vaginal, and anal sex in terms of prevalence, frequency, number of partners, and age of initiation consistent with prior studies. We also detected differences in sexual behaviors based on relationship status and sexual orientation, but small and relatively few significant differences across racial and ethnic groups. The results confirm and expand upon trends identified in prior national surveys of sexual behavior, establishing the representativeness of the SIPS sample for use in future research examining the links among sexual behaviors and romantic relationships, internet use, and adjustment.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Emocional , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/classificação , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 457-463, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264771

RESUMO

There is a growing research interest in cyber dating abuse (CDA). CDA includes abusive online behavior toward a current or former intimate partner, such as aggression, control, harassment, and humiliation. Despite the potential overlap and reciprocal relationship of CDA and intimate partner violence, there remains considerable paucity in research exploring predictors of this abusive online behavior. In the current study, we adopt the General Aggression Model framework and explore the role of gender, hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths to predict perpetration of CDA. Participants (N = 415, 51 percent women; Mage = 32.68 years) were recruited via social media advertisements and completed an anonymous, confidential online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised the Conformity to Masculine Roles Norms Inventory, the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression Scale, and a modified Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that hegemonic masculinity, vulnerable narcissism, and sexual aggression myths were all significant positive predictors of perpetrating CDA. As gender was a significant predictor until the inclusion of these variables, a multiple mediation analysis was performed, indicating that both hegemonic masculinity and sexual aggression myths fully mediated the relationship between gender and perpetrating CDA. These results add to the growing body of research exploring how CDA emerges as a behavior and highlight possible implications for management and intervention.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Individualidade , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculinidade , Narcisismo , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Corte/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 444-449, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264772

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unique threats to romantic relationships as couples were issued to stay at home by a mandatory order, limiting social interactions with others. Although technology allows for social interactions, the privacy of interactions through technology may be compromised. Electronic intrusion (EI) occurs when individuals covertly gain access of their partner's mobile device to go through content (e.g., text messages, private messages on social media sites), and previous study indicates serious consequences of EI, including increased rates of intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and heavy episodic drinking. This study examines jealousy, relationship uncertainty (RU), and EI in a sample of American adults. We hypothesized that jealousy would be related to greater acts of EI, and that this association will be mediated by RU. Data were collected from 754 Qualtrics Panels participants (50 percent male) with an average age of 41.7 years. Most participants (85.7 percent) were married. Results supported hypotheses, demonstrating that jealousy was associated with more EI, and this was due to uncertainty about the relationship's future. This study illuminates a need to study cyberdating abuse (CDA) in older and married populations. Future research should consider the effects of other relationship-specific emotions and cognitions on EI and further develop strategies aimed at reducing risks for CDA in romantic relationships.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Ciúme , Casamento/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Interação Social , Mídias Sociais
9.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 439-443, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227875

RESUMO

The hyperperception model was used to derive hypotheses concerning the processes by which people experience romantic jealousy because of their observation of their romantic partners on social network sites. The main focus was on the receiver component of the model that specifies that when observation of others' interactions is constrained to social media, those interactions appear more intimate than when the dyad is also observable offline. A survey (N = 322) was conducted to test this component of the model and determine if the model can predict additional phenomena such as possession signals and staying home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data were generally consistent with the hypotheses and the utility of the hyperperception model for understanding the effects of observing romantic partners' interactions on social media. The data also reveal the importance of interpersonal processes in obeying social distancing guidelines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ciúme , Distanciamento Físico , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Mídias Sociais
10.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 545-556, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197138

RESUMO

Erikson's psychosocial stage model posits that identity formation is a key developmental task for adolescents, and that successfully resolving the identity versus role confusion crisis at this time of life has important impacts on psychosocial development through adulthood. However, little empirical work has tested the consequences of early-life identity development for progression through the subsequent psychosocial stages in Erikson's model. The purpose of the present study was to test whether identity resolution measured during emerging adulthood predicted later developmental trajectories of intimacy, generativity, and integrity across adulthood. We used data from four cohorts of participants in the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study (RALS; N = 1,224), with up to five assessments spanning the twenties through the sixties. Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for intimacy, generativity, and integrity, and to test the association between emerging adulthood identity resolution and growth parameters for each psychosocial outcome. Findings suggested that individuals with higher emerging adulthood identity resolution also experienced high levels of intimacy, generativity, and integrity in emerging adulthood, and these levels remained consistently high across adulthood. In contrast, those with lower identity resolution in emerging adulthood experienced lower initial levels of intimacy, generativity, and integrity, but faster growth over time. As a result, these trajectories appeared to nearly converge by the time participants were in their sixties, suggesting that one's emerging adulthood identity has less importance over time, and that individuals who struggled more with identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood are able to make up for it later in life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Individualidade , Longevidade , Autoimagem , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Virtudes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283867

RESUMO

Droughts are associated with several societal ills, especially in developing economies that rely on rainfed agriculture. Recently, researchers have begun to examine the effect of droughts on the risk of Intimate-Partner Violence (IPV), but so far this work has led to inconclusive results. For example, two large recent studies analyzed comparable data from multiple sub-Saharan African countries and drew opposite conclusions. We attempt to resolve this apparent paradox by replicating previous analyses with the largest data set yet assembled to study drought and IPV. Integrating the methods of previous studies and taking particular care to control for spatial autocorrelation, we find little association between drought and most forms of IPV, although we do find evidence of associations between drought and women's partners exhibiting controlling behaviors. Moreover, we do not find significant heterogeneous effects based on wealth, employment, household drinking water sources, or urban-rural locality.


Assuntos
Secas/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emprego/tendências , Características da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280225

RESUMO

Supportive communicative experiences within close relationships, such as dyadic support, have a protective effect on individuals' health and emotional well-being. However, little is known about how partners interact in determining their own and others' health or the mechanisms through which dyadic support influences physical health. We addressed those gaps by studying 1088 romantic couples from three consecutive years (T1, T2, T3; Swiss Household Panel). The study applied a data analysis strategy called Actor Partner Interdependence Model extended Mediation, which allows for mediation processes while considering the interdependence, or non-independence, of data coming from partners. Results showed that dyadic support was positively associated with perceived health over two years through the mediation of optimistic attitudes and depressive mood, both for person and partner effects. The present study demonstrates the interplay between the dyadic process and personality dispositions in maintaining good health.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 473-479, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061657

RESUMO

Back burners are people with whom one communicates to potentially establish a future romantic or sexual relationship, and these relationships are common among college students. Using a sample of noncollege adults currently in committed relationships (N = 246) obtained via Amazon's MTurk, this study examines how a prior relationship role with a desired back burner (i.e., whether a back burner was an ex-partner or not) affects digital communication and sexual activity with back burners, and participants' negative affect. Sequential mediation analysis revealed that when the most-desired back burner was also an ex-partner (vs. not), participants digitally communicated more, increased communication was positively related to sexual activity with that back burner, and sexual activity was associated with negative affect in the participant. Even in the absence of sexual activity, both increased digital communication and simply having an ex-partner as one's most-desired back burner were associated with negative affect. Limitations and implications for staying in touch with ex-partners are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 480-487, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076532

RESUMO

Whether mobile phones benefit or sabotage close relationships has been a persistent subject of debate in media and communication studies. Because previous studies have demonstrated contrasting findings, further studies on this topic are required. Based on media richness theory and social penetration theory, this study investigated the direct and indirect associations between mobile communication and relationship quality (i.e., depth, support, and conflict) in romantic relationships. A survey of 1,000 university students in China revealed that relationship depth was positively predicted by mobile phone calls and negatively predicted by mobile short messages. Mobile WeChat had dialectical effects, as it reinforced relationship depth and support, but increased conflict. Regarding indirect effects, communication quality online positively mediated the effects of mobile phone calls on relationship quality and negatively mediated the effects of mobile short messages and Weibo on relationship quality. Moreover, passionate love attitudes (PLAs) and gender negatively moderated the effects of mobile phone calls on relationship depth, indicating that females and individuals who had stronger PLAs had lower relationship quality when they used mobile phone calls to interact with their romantic partners. The moderating effects of PLA were extended to the indirect relationship between phone calls and relationship quality through communication quality. Overall, this study developed a typology to examine mobile relational communication by integrating the quantity (i.e., mobile use frequencies) and quality of mobile communication, as well as personal attitudes in close relationships.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Amor , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , China , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 464-472, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152851

RESUMO

When a relationship ends, former partners must make decisions about their online, often public, connections and history, which involve a complex disentangling process. We examined post-breakup behaviors including monitoring, interacting, deleting posts/photos, deleting the former partner, deleting the partner's family/friends, stopping social media (SM) use, and keeping digital possessions. Participants (N = 256) who had experienced a breakup within the last year completed an online survey. Approximately 38 percent reported experiencing distress over the breakup sometimes or more often. Utilizing latent profile analysis, we identified four latent classes (or profiles) of breakup SM behaviors; we also examined associations between the class and breakup emotional distress. Most participants were clean breakers (61.3 percent), who did zero to very little monitoring, interacting, or deleting and were unlikely to delete their ex-partner, stop use, or keep digital possessions. Wistful reminiscers (12.9 percent) were similar to clean breakers in terms of engaging in very little of any deleting behaviors, stopping use, or keeping digital possessions; however, they engaged in frequent amounts of monitoring their ex-partner as well as interacting with their ex-partner and their ex-partner's family/friends. Ritual cleansers (15.6 percent) were similar to clean breakers in terms of engaging in very little to no monitoring and interacting; however, they engaged in deleting their SM history, their ex-partner's family/friends, and their ex-partner. Impulsives (10.2 percent) engaged in high amounts of all the SM behaviors. In terms of emotional distress, impulsives showed the highest levels of distress, followed by wistful reminiscers, ritual cleansers, and then clean breakers.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Angústia Psicológica , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Emoções , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 450-456, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171960

RESUMO

This study examines digitally enabled mate poaching on Ashley Madison, an online dating platform for extradyadic affairs. To explore mate poaching as a potential explanation for what drives users of Ashley Madison to transition their online relationships to offline encounters, we conducted a multinational survey of 1,676 users (88.5 percent male, Mage = 50.98). Participants provided open-ended data about their mate poaching objectives, which ranged from short-term sexual encounters to long-term sexual and emotional affairs and new exclusive relationships. Structural equation modeling showed that participants' attitudes toward online infidelity predicted whether they would consider meeting someone from the website in person. Mate poaching intentions also mediated the effect of attitudes toward online infidelity on the likelihood of meeting another user face to face in the future. The results extend evolutionary theories of mate poaching to the digital dating environment and demonstrate the value of these perspectives for explaining relationship initiation practices on infidelity websites.


Assuntos
Relações Extramatrimoniais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096760

RESUMO

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 593, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) within the context of concurrent sexual relationship are prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) who have regular male sex partners and it aggravates the risk of HIV infection among this community. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intimate relationship characteristics on UAI among MSM couples at the dyadic level. METHODS: Two hundred four MSM couples were recruited from a HIV testing clinic from April 2017 to April 2018 in Guangzhou, China. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied for dyadic analysis. Each MSM couple was divided into the insertive role and the receptive role according to their regular anal sex role. In this context, actor effect is the impact of an MSM's intimate relationship characteristics on his own UAI, and partner effect is the impact of his partner's intimate relationship characteristics on his UAI. RESULTS: Of the 408 participants, 58.82% had UAI with regular male sex partner (UAI-RP) and 8.09% had concurrent UAI. Intimate relationship characteristics were associated with concurrent UAI, but not associated with UAI-RP. For the receptive role, his relationship investment exerted significant actor and partner effects on concurrent UAI (AOR actor = 1.31, P < 0.001; AOR partner = 1.17, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, receptive role's violence experience within relationship exerted significant actor effects on his own concurrent UAI (AOR actor = 6.43, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Relationship investment and violence experience influenced concurrent UAI among MSM couples and it varied in different sex roles. Additional assistance on empowerment, relationship therapy and sexual agreement is urgently needed to reduce their high possibility on engagement of HIV-related risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto , China , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) refers to a violation of women's reproductive rights as it impacts on their sexual and reproductive health autonomy. AIM: In this study, we aimed at assessing the pattern of IPV and the socio-cultural determinants and predictors of partner violence in a rural community setting where the bulk of the abuse prevails. SETTING: This study was conducted in a rural community in Southern Nigeria. METHODS: This study employed a mixed method comprising seven focus group discussions (FGDs) and quantitative components. The cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 209 ever married or cohabited females in 2018 using the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country survey questionnaire adapted to the study objectives. Data analysis was conducted by using IBM SPSS v21.0. The level of significance was set at p 0.05. RESULTS: The overall IPV prevalence was 79.4%. The prevalence of partner's controlling behaviour, emotional IPV, physical IPV and sexual IPV was 62.6%, 55.98%, 49.3% and 2.6%, respectively. Membership of an interest group was protective against IPV (OR = 0.430, 95% CI = 0.193-0.957) whilst the belief that a good wife obeys her partner even if she disagrees (OR = 9.201, 95% CI = 1.299-65.194) and the belief that it is the wife's obligation to have sex with the husband even if she doesn't feel like (OR = 2.356, 95% CI = 1.049-5.288) were risk factors. CONCLUSION: The burden of IPV in the studied rural community is enormous. There should be public enlightenment to desensitise people regarding the erroneous views that encourage partner violence. We encourage women to become a part of social groups that can enhance their education and empowerment.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/etnologia , População Rural , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Am J Nurs ; 121(7): 32-43, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117132

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Despite extensive research, the etiology behind postpartum depression (PPD) remains a mystery. Experts have theorized about various potential risk factors, including hormonal fluctuations, genetics, prior history of depression, low socioeconomic status, adolescent pregnancy, and certain personality traits. This article provides foundational information about PPD, reviewing the risk factors for and the consequences of this mood disorder. Postpartum blues and postpartum psychosis are briefly discussed for context, although they differ from PPD. Screening and treatment options are explained, and nursing implications for practice are presented.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/educação , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil/métodos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
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