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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e15552022, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747777

RESUMO

The conceptions, values, and experiences of students from public and private high schools in two Brazilian state capitals, Vitória-ES and Campo Grande-MS, were analyzed regarding digital control and monitoring between intimate partners and the unauthorized exposure of intimate material on the Internet. Data from eight focus groups with 77 adolescents were submitted to thematic analysis, complemented by a questionnaire answered by a sample of 530 students. Most students affirmed that they do not tolerate the control/monitoring and unauthorized exposure of intimate materials but recognized that such activity is routine. They point out jealousy, insecurity, and "curiosity" as their main reasons. They detail the various dynamics of unauthorized exposure of intimate material and see it as a severe invasion of privacy and a breach of trust between partners. Their accounts suggest that such practices are gender violence. They also reveal that each platform has its cultural appropriation and that platforms used by the family, such as Facebook, cause more significant damage to the victim's reputation.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes , Humanos , Brasil , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Internet , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Privacidade , Violência de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Ciúme , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 570, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV partner notification services can help people living with HIV (PLHIV) to identify, locate, and inform their sexual and injecting partners who are exposed to HIV and refer them for proper and timely counseling and testing. To what extent these services were used by PLHIV and what are the related barriers and facilitators in southeast Iran are not known. So, this study aimed to explore HIV notification and its barriers and facilitators among PLHIV in Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, the number of 23 participants were recruited from November 2022 to February 2023 including PLHIV (N = 12), sexual partners of PLHIV (N = 5), and staff members (N = 6) of a Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Kerman located in the southeast of Iran. Our data collection included purposive sampling to increase variation. The content analysis was conducted using the Graneheim and Lundman approach. The analysis yielded 221 (out of 322) related codes related to HIV notification, its barriers, and its facilitators. These codes were further categorized into one main category with three categories and nine sub-categories. RESULTS: The main category was HIV notification approaches, HIV notification barriers, and facilitators. HIV notification approaches were notification through clear, and direct conversation, notification through gradual preparation and reassurance, notification due to being with PLHIV, notification through suspicious talking of the physician, and notification due to the behavior of others. Also, the barriers were classified into individual, social, and environmental, and healthcare system barriers and the facilitators were at PLHIV, healthcare staff, and community levels. Stigma was a barrier mentioned by most participants. Also, the main facilitator of HIV notification was social support, especially from the family side. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlighted the multidimensionality of HIV notification emphasizing the importance of tailored support and education to enhance the notification process for PLHIV and their networks. Also, our results show that despite all the efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination in recent years, stigma still exists as a main obstacle to disclosing HIV status and other barriers are the product of stigma. It seems that all programs should be directed towards destigmatization.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Masculino , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Feminino , Adulto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Aconselhamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(16): e37618, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640330

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the association between different types of intimate partner violence against women and nonattendance at the Growth and Development Control Program (CRED or well-child visits) of their children under 5 years of age. This was an analytical cross-sectional study that comprised a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) of Peru, 2019. Data from 19,647 mothers (aged 15-49 years) and their children under 5 years were analyzed. The independent variables were the types of intimate partner violence = emotional, physical, and sexual. The outcome variable was nonattendance at CRED in the last 6 months. The mean maternal age was 30.47 ±â€…6.66 years; 66.1% of children were between 25 and 60 months of age; the prevalence of nonattendance at CRED was 29.9%. A relationship was found between partner violence against the mother and nonattendance at CRED. Specifically, there was a higher probability of nonattendance in the children of women who experienced partner violence (sexual = aPR = 1.25 [95% CI = 1.07-1.44]; physical = aPR = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.26]; emotional = aPR = 1.12 [95% CI = 1.03-1.21]). This study showed an association indicating that children born to mothers experiencing intimate partner violence exhibit an elevated likelihood of nonattendance at CRED when compared to children of mothers not subjected to such violence. Therefore, emphasizing the promotion and monitoring of child development, especially for those with a history of maternal violence, should be a primary priority, particularly in primary care.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Violência , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
4.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(4): 155-167, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656217

RESUMO

Doxycycline postexposure prophylaxis (doxy-PEP) reduces sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). In a clinical trial of doxy-PEP, we sought to assess acceptability, impact, and meaning of doxy-PEP use among MSM/TGW. We conducted semistructured, in-depth 1:1 interviews with MSM and TGW enrolled in the intervention arm of the Doxy-PEP study. We queried motivations for and meaning of use, attitudes, beliefs, adherence, effect on sexual behaviors, and partner, community, and structural factors related to use. We coded interview transcripts into content areas, followed by thematic analysis. We interviewed 44 participants (median age 38), 2% were TGW, 17% Black, 61% White, 30% Hispanic, and 45% persons with HIV. We identified three overarching themes. First, participants found doxy-PEP acceptable, and believed it was effective based on their history of STIs, easy to adhere to, and acceptable to sex partners. Second, doxy-PEP benefited their quality of life and mental health, offering "peace of mind" by reducing their anxiety about acquisition or unwitting transmission of STIs. Participants reported feeling more "in control" of preventing STIs, and positive about supporting their personal, partner, and community health. Third, impact on sexual behavior was variable, with most reporting no change or a brief initial change. Participants in a multi-site clinical trial of doxycycline for STI prevention perceived it to be efficacious, and that it provided quality-of-life benefits, including reduced anxiety and sense of control over sexual health. Doxy-PEP had limited impact on sexual behavior. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03980223.


Assuntos
Doxiciclina , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
5.
Womens Health Nurs ; 30(1): 41-55, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650326

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This review explored the status of publications on intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in contemporary China. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases were searched using the terms "IPV," "pregnant woman," "Chinese," and synonyms in English, along with related keywords for Chinese publications. All literature pertaining to IPV during pregnancy, conducted in China, and published between 1987 and September 2023 was included. RESULTS: A total of 37 articles from 30 studies were selected. The prevalence of IPV during pregnancy ranged from 2.5% to 31.3%, with psychological violence being the most common form. Frequently identified risk factors included unintended pregnancy, poor family economic conditions, male partners engaging in health risk behaviors, poor employment status of women or their partners, low education levels among women, physical or mental health issues, strained couple relationships, and in-law conflicts. IPV during pregnancy primarily led to mental health problems for the victims and could result in adverse obstetric outcomes, as well as negative effects on the temperament and development of the offspring. Victims in China demonstrated a low willingness to seek help from professionals. Furthermore, relevant research in mainland China is scarce, with a limited number of studies and non-standardized research methodologies. CONCLUSION: Future research should investigate IPV in pregnancy from various perspectives, identify factors unique to IPV during pregnancy, and focus on high-risk groups. Considering the conditions in China, there is a pressing need to increase public awareness of IPV and to investigate interventions aimed at addressing this issue.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Gestantes , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Masculino , Adulto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
6.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241246465, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641959

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is globally endemic and a gross violation of human rights, in addition to abuse of intimacy by some men against their female intimate partners. Based on literature review, attitudinal, socio-demographic, and experiential attributes of 15 to 49 year old ever partnered women in the heterosexual relationships were identified. This study used the anonymized 2020-21Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) data to compute the IPV prevalence and its correlates, in addition to computing the changes in IPV prevalence at the urban, rural, and at the national levels using data from the 2014 CDHS. Identified attitudinal, socio-demographic, and experiential attributes were used in the bivariate and multivariable analysis. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were used for computing the bivariate and multivariate associations with IPV; additionally, trend analysis was done to compute changes in IPV prevalence between the 2 surveys. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was 20.70%, while the most common subtype was emotional IPV at 18.70%. Ten out of 12 correlates studied were found to be statistically significantly associated with IPV in the bivariate analysis. These were added in the multivariable model and 7 were found to be statistically significantly associated with IPV. Which included educational attainment of women and their intimate partners, number of living children, women's IPV acceptance, male partner's alcohol use, knowledge of physical beating of mother by one's father, and controlling behavior exercised by partner. During the intervening period between the 2 CDHSs, IPV and its subtypes were decreased in both urban and rural areas, as well as nationally. IPV decrease between the 2 DHSs and lower IPV rates in 2021-22 augur well for the health and human rights of Cambodian women. However, the ultimate target of eliminating IPV against women, will require measures that ensure economic and gender empowerment, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Camboja/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
7.
Behav Ther ; 55(3): 443-456, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670660

RESUMO

Using a couple-centered approach, the current study seeks to understand (a) the specific ways in which help-seeking couples vary in how their relationship satisfaction changes over time, (b) whether there are important differences in relationship characteristics at the beginning of the interventions, and (c) whether couples with distinct relationship characteristics benefit equally from effective online relationship programs. Mixed-gender low-income couples (Ncouple = 659) seeking help for their relationship were randomly assigned to one of two online relationship programs (n = 432) or the wait-list control group (n = 227). Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify (a) trajectory profiles with both partners' relationship satisfaction assessed at baseline, during, and postprogram, and at 2- and 4-month follow-ups; and (b) baseline couple profiles with indicators of baseline communication, commitment, emotional support, and sexual satisfaction reported by both partners. Four unique satisfaction trajectories were identified: women-small-men-medium improvement (39%), men-only decline (25%), large improvement (19%), and women-only improvement (17%). Five unique baseline couple profiles were identified: conflictual passionate (30%), companionate (22%), men-committed languishing (22%), satisfied (16%), and languishing (10%). Compared to control couples, intervention couples' odds of following the large improvement trajectory increased and their odds of following the men-only decline trajectory decreased; the odds of following the other two intermediate trajectories did not differ by intervention status. Moreover, couples with more distressed baseline profiles were more likely to follow trajectories characterized by greater satisfaction gains regardless of their intervention status. However, program effects did not differ based on baseline couple profiles, suggesting that a universal approach may be sufficient for delivering online relationship programs to improve relationship satisfaction in this population.


Assuntos
Terapia de Casal , Satisfação Pessoal , Pobreza , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pobreza/psicologia , Terapia de Casal/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Cônjuges/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(17): e37574, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669417

RESUMO

Visual stimuli play key roles in influencing men sexual behavior. However, few studies have explored the sexual behavior of blind men. To provide more information about blind men for the study of andrology by surveying the characteristics of their current sexual behavior. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study design was performed. The questionnaire contained questions regarding demographic characteristics of participants, access to sexual knowledge, perception of the sexual partners' beauty, and sexual arousal. Blind men were interviewed face-to-face by the trained investigator. Complete questionnaires were collected from 54 participants, with an average age of 40.57 ±â€…9.80 years old. Eye diseases were the most frequent cause of blindness. In terms of sexual orientation, all participants were heterosexual. Notably, 90.7% of the participants reported to have had a sexual experience. Among those who had engaged in sexual behavior, 93.6% experienced sexual pleasure and 69.4% had a normal erectile function. Overall, 16.7% of the participants received sex education. The participants obtained sexual knowledge mainly through sounds from mobile phones, peer-to-peer communication, sounds of television and radio. Voice was the most frequent perception of the sexual partners' beauty, followed by figure, skin, and body fragrance. In terms of stimuli of sexual arousal, tactile sensation and auditory sensation in that order were the most frequent stimuli of sexual arousal. Stimuli of sexual arousal in blind men are mainly mediated by sound and touch. Blind men understand their sexual partners' beauty through auditory, tactile, and olfactory sensations. Blind men in Ganzhou lack formal and systematic sex education.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Excitação Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Sexual/métodos
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 348: 116846, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581814

RESUMO

Women engaged in sex work (WESW) are at heightened risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) compared to women in the general population. This study examines the impact of an economic empowerment intervention on IPV among WESW in Southern Uganda. We used data from 542 WESW in Southern Uganda recruited from 19 HIV hotspots between June 2019 and March 2020. Eligible participants were 18+ years old, engaged in sex work-defined as vaginal or anal sexual intercourse in exchange for money, alcohol, or other goods, reported at least one episode of unprotected sexual intercourse in the past 30 days with a paying, casual, or regular sexual partner (spouse, main partner). We analyzed data collected at baseline, 6, and 12months of follow up. To examine the impact of the intervention on IPV, separate mixed-effects logistic regression models were run for each type of IPV (physical, emotional, and sexual) as experienced by participants in the last 90 days. Results show that the intervention was efficacious in reducing emotional and physical IPV as evidenced by a statistically significant intervention main effect for emotional IPV, χ2(1) = 5.96, p = 0.015, and a significant intervention-by-time interaction effect for physical IPV, χ2(2) = 13.19, p < 0.001. To qualify the intervention impact on physical IPV, pairwise comparisons showed that participants who received the intervention had significantly lower levels of physical IPV compared to those in the control group at six months (contrasts = -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.02), p = 0.011). The intervention, time, and intervention-by-time main effects for sexual IPV were not statistically significant. Our findings suggest economic empowerment interventions as viable strategies for reducing emotional IPV among WESW. However, it is also essential to understand the role of interventions in addressing other forms of IPV especially for key populations at high risk of violence, HIV, and STI. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03583541.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Profissionais do Sexo , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda , Adulto , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Trabalho Sexual/psicologia , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 259, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against adult and adolescent women by a current or former male partner. It is a major public health problem globally. This study determined the prevalence, patterns and predictors of IPV amongst female undergraduates in Abia State. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January - February 2022 amongst 306 female undergraduates in Abia State. A mixed method of an online structured questionnaire created on Google forms & onsite self-administered questionnaire were deployed for data collection. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using IBM SPSS Version 26.0. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 306 respondents participated in the survey. The overall prevalence of IPV amongst female undergraduates was 51.2% (95% CI: 44.8-57.6%). Emotional abuse was the most common form of abuse 78.9%, followed by Physical abuse 42.0% and Sexual abuse 30.8%. Predictors of IPV reported include female earning/receiving more than their partner monthly (aOR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20-4.41); male (partner) alcohol consumption (aOR = 5.17; 95% CI: 2.46-10.88), being a smoker of cigarette/marijuana (aOR = 11.01; 95% CI: 1.26-96.25) and having witnessed domestic violence as a child (aOR = 3.55; 95% CI: I.56-8.07). Adverse effects such as unwanted pregnancies (12%), miscarriages (10%), eating/sleeping disorders (21%) and bruises (23%) amongst others were noted in some of the victims. CONCLUSION: Over half of all female undergraduates in Abia State have experienced IPV with emotional abuse being the commonest. Some Individual and relationship factors were identified as predictors of IPV. We recommend intensifying primary prevention campaigns against risk factors identified like smoking and alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estudantes , Humanos , Feminino , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Masculino , Abuso Emocional/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Emocional/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299069, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626011

RESUMO

Reproductive coercion and abuse is a hidden and poorly recognised form of violence against women. It refers broadly to behaviours that interfere with or undermine a person's reproductive autonomy, specifically to promote or prevent pregnancy. Reproductive coercion and abuse can involve physical, sexual, financial or psychological abuse in order to achieve these aims, and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women. As an emerging field of scholarship, conceptual understanding of reproductive coercion and abuse is still in its infancy; however, it is often described as being linked to coercive control. In this article, we seek to highlight the complexity of this relationship through qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 30 victim/survivors in Australia recruited from the community, focusing on their perceptions of the perpetrator's motivations. We developed four themes from our analysis: 1) His needs came first; 2) The illusion of a perfect father; 3) Creating a weapon of control; and 4) My body was his. Perceived perpetrator motivations ranged from entitlement and self-interest to a deep desire for domination and entrapment. Pregnancy preventing behaviour was more likely to be linked with entitlement and self-interest, whereas pregnancy promoting behaviour tended to be described by participants in relationships where there was a broader pattern of ongoing control and entrapment. Thus, we suggest that coercive control is a motivating factor for some, but not all men who perpetrate reproductive coercion and abuse. A greater understanding perpetrator motivations may be important for practitioners, particularly those working in sexual and reproductive health services, since it could be relevant to women's level of risk for coercive controlling behaviour or more extreme forms of physical or sexual violence.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Coerção , Motivação , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia
12.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 36(2): 113-128, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648178

RESUMO

HIV-related stigma is a primary barrier to seeking HIV care. Online social media interventions utilizing peer-led approaches provide an opportunity to revolutionize HIV health behavior change. Secondary analysis of the UCLA HOPE Study (6 waves) was done to examine the effectiveness of an online peer-led intervention in reducing HIV-related internalized stigma (IS), association between IS and sexual risk behaviors (SRB), and associated costs for changing the likelihood of HIV testing. Among 897 participants, an inverse relationship between IS (Discomfort with people with HIV, Stereotypes, Moral Judgment) and SRB (Number of Sexual Partners, Sexual Encounters) factors was identified over time (p < .05). Engagement in stigma conversations increased participant likelihood to request HIV tests (B = 0.02, Wald = 8.10, p = .004) when made in group versus one-on-one contact. Innovative technology has potential to improve HIV-care efforts through expanded reach to at-risk populations, improved communication maintenance, ease of accessibility, and user anonymity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Sexual , Mídias Sociais , Estigma Social , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Teste de HIV/métodos , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e075957, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Armed conflicts and intimate partner violence (IPV) impose a burden on individual and societal well-being. Given the history of armed conflict in Afghanistan and the high prevalence of IPV, this study aims to examine the influence of armed conflicts on IPV among Afghan women. METHODS: Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (N=10 414 women aged 15-49). Armed conflict severity was measured using the conflict index issued by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, IPV was measured by three types of violence, including emotional, physical and sexual violence. All analyses were conducted by using STATA V.15.1. RESULTS: Over 52% of women experienced at least one type of IPV, with 33.01%, 49.07%, and 8.99% experiencing emotional, physical, and sexual violence, respectively. The regression results show that armed conflicts were significantly and positively associated with the experience of all types of IPV. In addition, the association between armed conflicts and the experience of emotional IPV was positively moderated by women's attitudes towards IPV. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that women living in high-conflict regions were more prone to experience IPV, particularly women with positive attitudes towards IPV. Promoting progressive gender roles, women's empowerment, awareness of IPV and inclusion of women in conflict resolution will help deal with the issue of IPV.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Afeganistão , Estudos Transversais , Violência , Conflitos Armados , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8086, 2024 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582916

RESUMO

In this research, we developed and validated a measure of couple-based reported behavior interactions (RBI). Specifically, Study 1 was designed to describe the development of the scale and to examine its reliability; Study 2 (N = 222), was designed to examine factors that could differentiate men and women. Additionally, we tested if women's behaviors could predict their partner's behavior. Results from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a three-factor structure for couples' RBI which were labelled: Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (SAI) (Factor 1), Fulfilling Obligations and Duties of the Partner (FOD) (Factor 2) and Openness in the Relationship (OR) (Factor 3). In linear regression analyses, there was a significant difference between men and women in the second factor, which represents behaviors associated with fulfilling the responsibilities of a partner. On the other hand, neither the SAI factor nor the OR factor showed any distinct gender differences. The SPSS PROCESS analysis revealed that women's Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (Factor 1), and Openness in the Relationship (Factor 3) significantly predicted their male partner's behaviors. The relationship duration significantly moderated the association between women's and men's behaviors for both factors. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of romantic behavioral interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Análise de Regressão
15.
J Sex Marital Ther ; 50(4): 527-541, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567544

RESUMO

This study examines dyadic data from 299 married and 242 cohabiting Black heterosexual couples in the United States (an understudied cross-section of the population) and assesses individual (actor) effects as well as couple (partner) effects of sexual sanctification and relationship satisfaction. Higher levels of sexual sanctification were associated with higher levels of relationship satisfaction for women and men in the actor effects, but no significant associations were found in the partner effects for couples. Additionally, initial findings suggest that sexual sanctification may act as a relational protective factor for Black married and cohabiting couples. Implications for further research as well as practical applications for clergy, therapists, and practitioners working with Black heterosexual couples in sexual relationships are also discussed.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Heterossexualidade , Satisfação Pessoal , Parceiros Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Adulto , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cônjuges/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia
16.
Health Soc Work ; 49(2): 115-123, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569530

RESUMO

Women's autonomy in decision making has important sexual and reproductive health implications. This study uses a nationwide analysis in Nepal to examine women's autonomy, attitude toward intimate partner violence (IPV) behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge in the execution of HIV protective behaviors such as having one sexual partner or getting an HIV test to prevent HIV transmission. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the nationally represented Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (2016-2021) dataset. The sample included 9,904 women ages 15 to 49 who self-identified as ever married. Factor analysis for women's autonomy, attitude toward IPV behaviors, and HIV-related knowledge were conducted based on social dominance theory. Structural equation modeling was conducted, and the results indicated that higher autonomy decreased the risk of HIV infection through having one sexual partner. Factors related to multiple sex partners included unemployment, religious affiliation, and age. Similarly, higher autonomy, HIV-related knowledge, having a formal job, and urban residence increased women's likelihood of taking an HIV test. Women's higher education, greater wealth, religious affiliation, and youth also correlate with HIV testing. Future HIV prevention interventions should include strategies that support women's social and economic empowerment and enhance women's ability to make informed choices about their health and risks.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(4): 1403-1414, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448691

RESUMO

Surrogate partner therapy is a type of treatment in which the surrogate partner (SP) works in a triadic setting with a sex therapist and a patient. At the same time, the SP acts as an intimate surrogate partner to the patient. The SP treatment includes a range of therapeutic experiences such as relaxation, intimate communication, sensual and sexual contact, and training for the acquisition of social skills. In the current study, we ask what and how SPs experience, understand, and construct boundaries in their work. We used Winnicott's therapeutic conceptualization of psychotherapy as a mode of playing and Goffman's dramaturgical role theory as the theoretical framework for our exploration. Applying a phenomenological and empathic approach, we analyzed 13 in-depth interviews with Israeli SP. It appears that SP's transitions from one performance to another are dramatic, in that their role requires the involvement of sexual and emotional helping relations with their patients. Moreover, SPs are obliged to have secrecy at all levels and in various relationships in their lives. We uncovered various complexities that SPs experience, such as a lack of clarity about their role, which creates challenges for building their professional and personal identity and affects their family and social relationships.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Psicoterapia , Comunicação
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 186, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global social issue and increasingly asks for the attention of policymakers. IPV is one of the main factors that affect the health of pregnant women and their infants during pregnancy and after childbirth; it will not only cause direct harm to women themselves but also reduce women's exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) behavior and pose a threat to newborn health. Existing facts on the association between IPV and EBF in the Pakistani context are negligible and incomplete to an enduring measure of IPV practice. To this effect, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between EBF and IPV practiced during the prenatal period and post-delivery. METHODS: The statistics study has drawn from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2018. A total of 1191 breastfeeding females aged 15-49 with children under 6 months were selected for the present study. T-test or chi-square test of Univariate test of hypothesis; Logistic regression model was utilized to explore the potential impact of IPV on female exclusive breastfeeding from three dimensions of physical, sexual and psychological violence, to provide data support for the Pakistani government to formulate policies to promote female EBF. All investigations have been performed in STATA software 16.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) at 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Among the 1191 participants, 43.6% (520 / 1191) of the females were EBF, while the rates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV were 47.44%, 30.23%, and 51.72%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that females who have experienced physical IPV were 32% less likely to be exclusively breastfed (aOR = 0.68; 95% CI; 0.490, 0.980; P < 0.05), the chances of EBF were reduced by 22% in women who experienced IPV (aOR = 0.78; 95 CI; 0.55, 1.00; P < 0.05), females who experienced emotional IPV were 31% less probable to exclusively breastfed (aOR = 0.69; 95% CI; 0.47, 0.92; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study determines the adverse effects of sexual and psychological violence on EBF practices in women. Policymakers in Pakistan should actively implement assistance programs to reduce IPV, emphasize monitoring women's experiences of IPV before and after giving birth, and encourage women to break the "culture of silence" when they experience IPV to maximize their access to assistance.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Paquistão , Gestantes , Demografia , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298681, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. The objectives of this study were to analyze the prevalence and correlates of IPV perpetrated by men against women from the recent nationally representative Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2017-18, and to analyze levels and trends of IPV perpetrated by current/former husbands from PDHS conducted in 2012-13, in the four provinces and the capital city. METHODS: Association of having ever experienced IPV, defined as either emotional, physical and/or sexual violence, by ever married women aged 15-49, with 12 explanatory socio-demographic, attitudinal, and experiences were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of having ever experienced IPV was 33.48% (95% CI: 30.76-36.32). In the final multivariable model, number of living children, having knowledge of parental physical IPV, husband's use of alcohol, and marital control were statistically significantly associated with IPV. Proportions and trend analysis of emotional and physical IPV between the PDHS 2017-18 and PDHS 2012-13, showed that in general, rural areas of provinces reported higher prevalence of emotional and physical IPV, compared with urban areas, and in general, emotional, and physical IPV prevalence declined from PDHS2012-13 to PDHS2017-18. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of having experienced physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence in Pakistan was lower than the prevalence for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region. However, IPV burden at the provincial urban-rural residency status underscore the need for location specific strategies to effectively address IPV in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Prevalência , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Casamento , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298413, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512911

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence from South Asia and internationally that intimate partner violence (IPV) is strongly associated with self-harm, however its association with suicide and self-harm has not been extensively examined, nor has this relationship been explored at a national level. Using national datasets, area-level variation in IPV, suicide and self-harm in Sri Lanka were examined. In addition, the association between individual level exposure to past-year IPV and non-fatal self-harm by any household member were explored in a series of multi-level logistic regression models, adjusting for age. Similar patterns in the distribution of suicide and IPV were found, with higher rates evident in post-conflict districts, specifically Batticaloa, Kilinochchi, and Mullaitivu. Experience of past year IPV and its various forms were strongly associated with household-level self-harm in the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.83 95% CI 2.27-6.46). A similar magnitude was found for physical/sexual abuse (AOR 5.17 95% CI 2.95-9.05) and psychological abuse (AOR 4.64 95% CI 2.50-7.00). A dose-response association was also evident for frequency of abuse, with an increasing risk of household-level self-harm for women reporting abuse 'less often' (AOR 2.95 95% CI 1.46-5.92), and abuse experienced 'daily, weekly, or monthly' (AOR 4.83 95% CI 2.59-9.00), compared to no abuse. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence on the relationship between IPV and suicidal behaviour in South Asia. Addressing IPV and its various forms should be a priority for suicide prevention in Sri Lanka, alongside trauma-informed approaches in post-conflict settings.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sexual , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
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