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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115856, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280018

RESUMO

ETNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Annona muricata L. (soursop) is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, cancer, and infections caused by fungi. The therapeutic activity explored by its medicinal use is generally associated with its phytoconstituents, such as acetogenins and alkaloids. However, its potential antifungal bioactivity as well as its mechanism of action remains to be established. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves against multidrug-resistant Candida albicans (ATCC® 10231). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Phytoconstituents were detected by UFLC-QTOF-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined, followed by the determination of the minimum fungicidal concentration. For planktonic cells, the growth curve and cell density were evaluated. Studies to understand the mechanism of action on the cell envelope involved crystal violet permeability, membrane extravasation, sorbitol protection, exogenous ergosterol binding assay, metabolic activity, and cell viability. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed. RESULTS: Our analyses demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect of A. muricata, with the ability to reduce fungal growth by 58% and cell density by 65%. The extract affected both the fungal plasma membrane and cell wall integrity, with significant reduction of the cell viability. Depolarization of the fungal mitochondrial membrane was observed after treatment with A. muricata. Rutin, xi-anomuricine, kaempferol-3O-rutinoside, nornuciferine, xylopine, atherosperminine, caffeic acid, asimilobine, s-norcorydine, loliolide, annohexocin, annomuricin, annopentocin, and sucrose were identified as extract bioactive components. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the A. muricata extract is a source of chemical diversity, which acts as a potential antifungal agent with promising application to the therapy of infections caused by C. albicans.


Assuntos
Annona , Annona/química , Candida albicans , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Parede Celular , Membrana Celular , Verduras
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2555: 125-137, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306083

RESUMO

Sustainable use of natural products is one of the key challenges for the future. An increasing focus is on marine organic matter, mostly algae. New biotechnological tools for processing high amounts of micro- and macroalgae are necessary for efficient industrial degradation of marine matter. Secreted glycosyl hydrolases can be enriched and tested on the specific algae cell wall polymers of all algae groups (Rhodophyta; Phaeophyceae; Chlorophyta/Charophyta). Metagenomic analyses established new possibilities to screen algae-associated microbiomes for novel degrading enzymes in combination with sequence-based function prediction.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Rodófitas , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Rodófitas/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Parede Celular
3.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 134: 103-111, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396168

RESUMO

Brown algae are complex multicellular eukaryotes whose cells possess a cell wall, which is an important structure that regulates cell size and shape. Alginate and fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) are two carbohydrate types that have major roles in influencing the mechanical properties of the cell wall (i.e. increasing or decreasing wall stiffness), which in turn regulate cell expansion, division, adhesion, and other processes; however, how brown algal cell wall structure regulates its mechanical properties, and how this relationship influences cellular growth and organismal development, is not well-understood. This chapter is focused on reviewing what we currently know about how the roles of alginates and FCSPs in brown algal developmental processes, as well as how they influence the structural and mechanical properties of cell walls. Additionally, we discuss how brown algal mutants may be leveraged to learn more about the underlying mechanisms that regulate cell wall structure, mechanics, and developmental processes, and finally we propose questions to guide future research with the use of emerging technologies.


Assuntos
Feófitas , Feófitas/genética , Feófitas/química , Feófitas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células
4.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 134: 59-68, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430142

RESUMO

Plant terrestrialization was a critical event for our planet. For the study of plant evolution, charophytes have received a great deal of attention because of their phylogenetic position. Among charophytes, the class Zygnematophyceae is the closest lineage to land plants. During sexual reproduction, they show isogamous conjugation by immotile gametes, which is characteristic of zygnematophycean algae. Here, we introduce the genera Mougeotia, Penium, and Closterium, which are representative model organisms of Zygnematophyceae in terms of chloroplast photorelocation movement, the cell wall, and sexual reproduction, respectively.


Assuntos
Plantas , Reprodução , Filogenia , Parede Celular , Biologia , Evolução Biológica
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130186, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265381

RESUMO

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are macromolecules with environment beneficial properties. Currently, numerous studies focus on the absorption of heavy metals by EPS, but less attention has been paid to the effects of EPS on the plants. This study explored the effects of EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum LPC-1 on the structure and function of cell walls in rice seedling roots under cadmium (Cd) stress. The results showed that EPS could regulate the remodeling process of the cell walls of rice roots. EPS affects the synthesis efficiency and the content of the substances that made up the cell wall, and thus plays an essential role in limiting the uptake and transport of Cd in rice root. Furthermore, EPS could induce plant resistance to heavy metals by regulating the lignin biosynthesis pathway in rice roots. Finally, the cell wall remodeling induced by EPS likely contributes to plant stress responses by activating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Oryza/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120247, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372480

RESUMO

This study investigated the interaction among Kluyveromyces marxianus G-Y4 (G-Y4), Lacticaseibacillus paracasei GL1 (GL1) and Lactobacillus helveticus SNA12 (SNA12) that isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Additionally, the effects of G-Y4 on the growth and biofilm formation of GL1 and SNA12 were determined. The results indicated that G-Y4 promoted the growth of GL1 and SNA12 and improved their biofilm-forming ability. Furthermore, the dead cells of G-Y4 were found that could enhance bacterial biofilm formation, and the cell wall polysaccharide (CWPS) produced by G-Y4 was performed to be key substances that promote the formation of bacterial biofilms. Moreover, the structure of soluble cell wall polysaccharides (SCWP) and insoluble cell wall polysaccharide (NCWP) of G-Y4 were studied to determine their contribution to biofilm formation. Results showed that G-Y4-SCWP was α-mannan with the main chain of a →6)-α-d-Manp-(1→ unit and the branch structure of →2)-α-d-Manp-(1. At the same time, G-Y4-NCWP was a glucan rich in ß-(1→3), ß-(1→2), or ß-(1→4) linkages.


Assuntos
Kefir , Kefir/microbiologia , Tibet , Leveduras , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Parede Celular , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120276, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372496

RESUMO

Improving the redispersion and recycling of dried cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) without compromising their nanoscopic dimensions and inherent mechanical properties are essential for their large-scale applications. Herein, mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-ß-d-glucan (MLG) was studied as a rehydration medium for the redispersion and recycling of dried CNFs, benefiting from the intrinsic affinity of MLG to both cellulose and water molecules as inspired from plant cell wall. MLG from barley with a lower molar ratio of cellotriosyl to cellotetraosyl units was found homogeneously coated on CNFs, facilitating rehydration of the network of individualized CNFs. The addition of barley MLG did not impair the mechanical properties of the CNF/MLG composites as compared to neat CNFs nanopaper. With the addition of 10 wt% barley MLG, dry CNF/MLG composite film was successfully redispersed in water and recycled with well-maintained mechanical properties, while lichenan from Icelandic moss, cationic starch, and xyloglucan could not help the redispersion of dried CNFs.


Assuntos
Celulose , Hordeum , Parede Celular , Água , Hidratação
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 243-259, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152257

RESUMO

Autofluorescence of plant tissues can be used as a label-free method to detect a range of phenolic-based cell wall components including lignin, suberin, and ferulate using widefield or confocal fluorescence microscopy. Likewise, fluorescently labeled antibodies can be used to localize specific carbohydrate molecules including arabinoxylan, ß-1,4 galactan, glucomannan, glucuronoxylan, pectins, and xyloglucan. When combined, these two methods allow detailed study of topochemistry in different plant tissues for phenotyping of mutant varieties and plant biology studies. This article describes the protocols for fluorescent detection and imaging of molecules in plant cell walls using autofluorescence and immunofluorescence.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Lignina , Parede Celular/química , Galactanos , Lignina/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Pectinas/análise
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 261-268, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152258

RESUMO

In some specific vascular plant tissues, lignin can impregnate the entire cell wall to make it more rigid and hydrophobic. Different techniques have been developed in the past years to make possible the quantification of this polyphenolic polymer at the organ or tissue level, but difficulties of access to the cellular level remain. Here we describe an approach based on ratiometric emission measurements using safranin-O and the development of a macro adapted for the FIJI software, which makes it possible to quantify lignin in three different layers of the cell wall on images captured on a fluorescent confocal microscope.


Assuntos
Lignina , Fenazinas , Parede Celular/química , Corantes/análise , Lignina/química , Fenazinas/análise , Coloração e Rotulagem
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 269-279, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152259

RESUMO

The plant cell wall comprises various types of macromolecules whose abundance and spatial distribution change dynamically and are crucial for plant architecture. High-resolution live cell imaging of plant cell wall components is, therefore, a powerful tool for plant cell biology and plant developmental biology. To acquire suitable data, the experimental setup for staining and imaging of non-fixed samples must be straightforward and avoid creating stress-induced artifacts. We present a detailed sample preparation and live image acquisition protocol for fluorescence visualization of cell wall components using commercially available probes and stains.


Assuntos
Celulose , Pectinas , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 402: 134227, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155290

RESUMO

In this study, we compared the incidence of postharvest disease and the storage potential of blueberry fruit treated with thymol (inoculated with Aspergillus niger) with those in the control fruit during storage for 42 d at 2 °C. Treatment with 10-30 mg/L thymol was found to be more effective than treatment with higher thymol concentrations of 40-50 mg/L in terms of controlling Aspergillus niger-induced decay. In the thymol-treated blueberry fruit peel, the activities of the disease resistance-related enzymes were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, the 20 mg/L thymol-treated blueberry fruit retained the highest firmness, total soluble solids content, and acceptability score, and it also maintained an unimpaired cell wall structure of pericarp quality. Thus, low-dose thymol-treatment could be a suitable biocontrol agent for controlling postharvest disease and prolonging the storage life of blueberry fruit.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Frutas/química , Timol/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Parede Celular
12.
Food Chem ; 403: 134378, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36166923

RESUMO

Rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) is one of the pectin family member abundant in plant cell walls. Process of RG-I extraction from cell walls, either as a one-step or several-stage process, conditions the structure and properties of obtained polysaccharides. In this paper, we provide comprehensive overview of the factors related to the source and extraction techniques that determine the yield and chemical composition of pectin belonging to RG-I. The role of the source material, solvent, pH, temperature, time and additional factors related to applied techniques, such as microwaves, ultrasounds, high and low pressure or enzymatic treatments are discussed.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Pectinas , Pectinas/química , Parede Celular/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Micro-Ondas
13.
Food Chem ; 403: 134326, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183460

RESUMO

Yeast cell walls (CWs) may adsorb red wine polyphenols with a significant impact on wine quality. This adsorption is mainly attributed to physicochemical interactions with mannoproteins. However, the mannoprotein structural features that promote polyphenol adsorption are not clearly established yet. The impact of mannosylphosphorylation and mannan backbone branching on polyphenol adsorption by yeast was studied through adsorption isotherms with Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 wild-type and mnn4 and mnn2 mutants (EUROSCARF). Polymeric and oligomeric tannins and derived pigments were preferentially adsorbed by the yeasts and their corresponding CWs. Mannoprotein N-glycosyl phosphorylation appeared as the key groupments involved in polyphenol adsorption by CWs. When dealing with whole yeasts, behaviors were different, due to the coupled phenomena of polyphenol adsorption at cell wall level and their diffusion inside the yeast cytoplasm. The key role of phosphorylation observed in this work is of interest in the modulation of wine color and astringency by yeasts.


Assuntos
Vinho , Vinho/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Polifenóis/análise , Fosforilação , Parede Celular/química , Leveduras , Fermentação
14.
Food Chem ; 399: 133997, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037687

RESUMO

The effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on softening, cell wall components and cell wall metabolic genes in okras after harvest was studied. The results showed that HRW treatment could maintain fruit firmness and delay softening, thereby prolonging shelf life in okras during storage. The treated okras displayed significantly lower levels water- and chelate-soluble pectins while higher contents of Na2CO3-soluble pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The cell wall biosynthesis was maintained by HRW treatment via up-regulating genes involved in biosynthesis of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose at the beginning of storage. On the contrary, the treatment could inhibit the cell wall disassembly due to the down-regulation of numerous cell wall degradative genes including AePME, AeGAL and AeCX at the end of storage. Taken together, our results suggested that HRW treatment delayed softening and extended shelf life in postharvest okras through modifying cell wall biosynthesis and disassembly at different times of storage.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Frutas , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
15.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 64(1): 73-86, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845845

RESUMO

Wood is produced by the accumulation of secondary xylem via proliferation and differentiation of the cambium cells in woody plants. Identifying the regulators involved in this process remains a challenging task. In this study, we isolated PagSAG101a, the homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana SAG101, from a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) clone 84K and investigated its role in secondary xylem development. PagSAG101a was expressed predominantly in lignified stems and localized in the nucleus. Compared with non-transgenic 84K plants, transgenic plants overexpressing PagSAG101a displayed increased plant height, internode number, stem diameter, xylem width, and secondary cell wall thickness, while opposite phenotypes were observed for PagSAG101a knock-out plants. Transcriptome analyses revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched for those controlling cambium cell division activity and subsequent secondary cell wall deposition during xylem formation. In addition, the tandem CCCH zinc finger protein PagC3H17, which positively regulates secondary xylem width and secondary wall thickening in poplar, could bind to the promoter of PagSAG101a and mediate the regulation of xylem differentiation. Our results support that PagSAG101a, downstream of PagC3H17, functions in wood development.


Assuntos
Populus , Câmbio/genética , Câmbio/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Madeira/genética , Xilema/genética
16.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1228, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369270

RESUMO

Bacterial cell division is a complex, dynamic process that requires multiple protein components to orchestrate its progression. Many division proteins are highly conserved across bacterial species alluding to a common, basic mechanism. Central to division is a transmembrane trimeric complex involving DivIB, DivIC and FtsL in Gram-positives. Here, we show a distinct, essential role for DivIC in division and survival of Staphylococcus aureus. DivIC spatially regulates peptidoglycan synthesis, and consequently cell wall architecture, by influencing the recruitment to the division septum of the major peptidoglycan synthetases PBP2 and FtsW. Both the function of DivIC and its recruitment to the division site depend on its extracellular domain, which interacts with the cell wall via binding to wall teichoic acids. DivIC facilitates the spatial and temporal coordination of peptidoglycan synthesis with the developing architecture of the septum during cell division. A better understanding of the cell division mechanisms in S. aureus and other pathogenic microorganisms can provide possibilities for the development of new, more effective treatments for bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Peptidoglicano , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Parede Celular/metabolismo
17.
Methods Enzymol ; 677: 357-383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410955

RESUMO

The complex structure of biological assemblies is crucial for function yet challenging to discern given the chemical similarities between constituent components. Hard X-ray techniques, for example, rely on small density differences between domains that lead to modest scattering intensities. Resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSoXS) uses X-rays below 2keV to access absorption edges of low-Z elements. In this way, RSoXS can enhance scattering contrast between domains of different chemical compositions or bonding motifs, thus providing structural information about specific chemical motifs. RSoXS is emerging as a technique applicable for biological systems, having been used to characterize protein structure in solution and polysaccharide organization in plant cell walls. Sample environment instrumentation, however, is challenging in the current state of the art, particularly with liquid samples. This chapter contains a brief introduction to RSoXS and current beamline capabilities, and provides methods to prepare, store, and mount biological samples for RSoXS characterization. Furthermore, key details during RSoXS and X-ray absorption data acquisition are highlighted and some future opportunities in RSoXS instrumentation for biological systems are discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Síncrotrons , Raios X , Proteínas/química , Parede Celular
18.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(11)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318669

RESUMO

Bacterial efflux pumps exhibit functional interplay that can translate to additive or multiplicative effects on resistance to antimicrobial compounds. In diderm bacteria, two different efflux pump structural types - single-component inner membrane efflux pumps and cell envelope-spanning multicomponent systems - cooperatively export antimicrobials with cytoplasmic targets from the cell. Harnessing our recently developed efflux platform, which is built upon an extensively efflux-deficient strain of Escherichia coli, here we explore interplay amongst a panel of diverse E. coli efflux pumps. Specifically, we assessed the effect of simultaneously expressing two efflux pump-encoding genes on drug resistance, including single-component inner membrane efflux pumps (MdfA, MdtK and EmrE), tripartite complexes (AcrAB, AcrAD, MdtEF and AcrEF), and the acquired TetA(C) tetracycline resistance pump. Overall, the expression of two efflux pump-encoding genes from the same structural type did not enhance resistance levels regardless of the antimicrobial compound or efflux pump under investigation. In contrast, a combination of the tripartite efflux systems with single-component pumps sharing common substrates provided multiplicative increases to antimicrobial resistance levels. In some instances, resistance was increased beyond the product of resistance provided by the two pumps individually. In summary, the developed efflux platform enables the isolation of efflux pump function, facilitating the identification of interactions between efflux pumps.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Escherichia coli , Membrana Celular , Parede Celular , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antiporters
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361997

RESUMO

Secondary cell wall thickening plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. Diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an excellent model for studying fruit development, but its molecular control of secondary wall thickening is largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that Arabidopsis NAC secondary wall thickening promoting factor1 (AtNST1) and related proteins are master regulators of xylem fiber cell differentiation in multiple plant species. In this study, a NST1-like gene, FvNST1b, was isolated and characterized from strawberry. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the FvNST1b protein contains a highly conserved NAC domain, and it belongs to the same family as AtNST1. Overexpression of FvNST1b in wild-type Arabidopsis caused extreme dwarfism, induced ectopic thickening of secondary walls in various tissues, and upregulated the expression of genes related to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, transient overexpression of FvNST1b in wild-type Fragaria vesca fruit produced cells resembling tracheary elements. These results suggest that FvNST1b positively regulates secondary cell wall formation as orthologous genes from other species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Fragaria , Fragaria/genética , Fragaria/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362232

RESUMO

Aluminized acidic soil can damage Eucalyptus roots and limit tree growth, hindering the productivity of Eucalyptus plantations. At present, the negative impacts of elevated aluminum (Al) on the cell morphology and cell wall properties of Eucalyptus root tip are still unclear. In order to investigate the responses of two different tolerant clones, Eucalyptus urophylla (G4) and Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla (G9), to Al toxicity, seedling roots were treated hydroponically with an Al solution, and the polysaccharide content in the root tip cell wall and the characteristics of programmed cell death were studied. The results show that the distribution of Al was similar in both clones, although G9 was found to be more tolerant to Al toxicity than G4. The Al3+ uptake of pectin in root tip cell walls was significantly higher in G4 than in G9. The root tip in G4 was obviously damaged, enlarged, thickened, and shorter; the root crown cells were cracked and fluffy; and the cell elongation area was squeezed. The lower cell wall polysaccharide content and PME activity may result in fewer carboxylic groups in the root tip cell wall to serve as Al-binding sites, which may explain the stronger Al resistance of G9 than G4. The uptake of nitrogen and potassium in G4 was significantly reduced after aluminum application and was lower than in G9. Al-resistant Eucalyptus clones may have synergistic pleiotropic effects in resisting high aluminum-low phosphorus stress, and maintaining higher nitrogen and potassium levels in roots may be an important mechanism for effectively alleviating Al toxicity.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Eucalyptus , Alumínio/metabolismo , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Células Clonais , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
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